Chapter 17 by jizhen1947

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									Chapter 17

Forcible Entry
             Introduction
• 2 ½ million homes broken into each year
• Owners install a variety of locking devices to
  protect both homes and businesses
• Forcible entry often one of the first
  operations conducted at a scene to gain entry
• Forcible entry is a combination of knowledge
  and skill
  – Must have knowledge of building construction and
    locking devices



                                                 17.2
Figure 17-1 A typical assortment of forcible entry tools used by
fire departments.




                                                           17.3
         Knowledge
• Working knowledge of locks,
  hardware, doors, and other
  assemblies is essential
• Must be able to ―size up‖ the quickest
  and easiest way to gain access
• Firefighter must know which type of
  tool to use and best method to gain
  access


                                      17.4
                 Skill
• Involves a firefighter’s ability to apply
  knowledge of:
   –   Building construction
   –   Lock assemblies
   –   Tools
   –   Techniques
• Skills developed by repeated practice



                                          17.5
        Experience
• Acquired by three means:
  – Drills and practice
  – Scene of actual fires and emergencies
  – Learning about others’ experiences through
    case studies and reports




                                          17.6
     Forcible Entry Tools
• Selection and right use of the ―right‖
  tool are essential
• Right tool is the quickest and easiest
  way to complete operation
• Many tools have more than one name




                                      17.7
Table 17-1 Forcible Entry Tools




                                  17.8
          Striking Tools
• Used to deliver impact to other tools
• Used for impact delivery to the lock or
  the door itself
   – May force the door or even break it down
• Types of striking tools:
   – Flathead ax
   – Maul/sledge
   – Ram


                                           17.9
Figure 17-3 The group or family of striking tools
includes the maul, small hammer, flathead ax, and
Denver tools.


                                                    17.10
Prying and Spreading Tools
• Used to spread apart a door, move
  objects, or expose locking device
  –   Halligan tool
  –   Claw tool
  –   Kelly tool
  –   Hydraulic spreaders
  –   Miscellaneous prying tools




                                      17.11
Figure 17-7 The group or family of prying tools includes the
Halligan, claw tool, hux bar, Detroit door opener, pry bar, and
hydraulic spreaders.




                                                                  17.12
       Cutting Tools
• Cut away materials and expose
  locking device:
  – Ax
  – Handsaws
  – Bolt cutters
  – Power cutting tools—saws
  – Carbide-tipped blades and metal cutting
    blade
  – Masonry cutting blades
  – Chain saws and reciprocating saws
  – Cutting torch
                                         17.13
Figure 17-10 The group or family of cutting tools includes
axes, saws (both power and manual), and bolt and wire
cutters.




                                                         17.14
        Pulling Tools
• Hook or pike pole most common
• Grouped by type of head and handle
  length
• Used to:
  – Open walls and ceilings
  – Vent windows
  – Pull up roof boards



                                  17.15
Figure 17-15 The most common type of pulling tool is the
hook or pike pole, available in various styles and lengths.




                                                              17.16
        Special Tools
• Number of specialized tools available
  to assist forcible operations:
  – Bam bam or dent puller
  – Duck bill lock breaker
  – K-tool and lock pullers
• Most tools used in combination with
  other tools to accomplish a task



                                    17.17
Safety with Forcible Entry Tools
 • If misused or used for wrong task, forcible
   entry tools will create safety hazards
 • General rules apply to all operations
    – Always wear personal protective equipment
    – Follow manufacturer guidelines
    – Do not attempt to cut material for which a tool was
      not designed
    – Tools must be in proper condition
    – Never use tools alone
    – Tools should be properly stored and easily
      accessible

                                                     17.18
Rotary and Chain Saws
• Remove security gates, barred
  windows, and overhead doors
• These saws present a number of
  hazards
• Firefighters should follow operation
  and safety guidelines




                                         17.19
        Carrying Tools
• Many tools have sharp or pointed ends
  and must be carried safely:
  – Carry ax with blade away from body
  – Pointed and sharp end of prying ax carried
    away from body
  – With striking tools, head carried close to
    the ground and not swung freely




                                           17.20
          Hand Tools
• Constructed of:
  –   Metal
  –   Wood
  –   Fiberglass
  –   Combination of materials
• Tools inspected regularly for:
  – Cracks in the handles
  – Burrs in the metal
  – Loose heads

                                   17.21
  Maintenance of Forcible
        Entry Tools
• General guidelines
  – Cleaned and inspected on regular basis
  – Documentation of tool maintenance is
    important
  – Follow manufacturer guidelines for
    battery-operated tools
• Specific guidelines for:
  – Metal heads and parts
  – Fiberglass handles
  – Wood handles                        17.22
Construction and Forcible Entry
 • Type of construction of many different
   features of buildings must be
   recognized and understood
 • Thorough knowledge leads to
   successful forcible entry operations




                                       17.23
      Door Construction
• Manufactured in many styles
• Door assembly:
   – Door, frame or jamb
   – Mounting hardware
   – Locking device mounted in a jamb, which is
     rabbeted
• Rabbeted jamb milled into the casing that the
  door closes against to form a seal
• Stopped jamb has molding nailed or attached
  to the casing
   – Can be removed allowing access to lock assembly

                                                  17.24
Figure 17-21 Doors are manufactured in a variety of styles
and materials.
                                                     17.25
Figure 17-22 The parts of a door assembly.




                                             17.26
           Types of Doors
• Three types of wood doors: panel, flush,
  ledge
• Metal doors are hollow-core or metal clad
• Two main types of glass doors: metal,
  tempered
• Other types of doors:
   –   Sliding doors
   –   Revolving doors
   –   Overhead doors
   –   Residential and commercial garage doors
   –   Roll-down steel doors and gates
                                                 17.27
               Locks
• Locks keep unwanted visitors out of
  a building
• Know types of locks, how they
  operate, and how to disable them
  –   Key in the knob lock
  –   Mortise lock
  –   Rim locks
  –   Tubular locks
  –   Padlocks
  –   Special locks

                                   17.28
Figure 17-33 The parts of a lock device.


                                           17.29
Figure 17-36 Rim locks (from left    Figure 17-37 Tubular dead bolts.
to right): a dead bolt, a vertical
bolt and striker plate, and a
vertical bolt with key cylinder.




                                                             17.30
Additional Security Devices
• Additional security may be simple or
  complex
  – Simple example: broom handle in track of
    sliding door
  – Complex example: additional locks
• Forcible entry team may need to find
  alternative means of entry or use rotary
  saw
• Obtain unwanted locks and use as
  training aids

                                          17.31
              (A)                                      (B)

Figure 17-41 These auxiliary locking devices are usually not
detected by the forcible entry team: (A) floor-mounted stop plate, (B)
door blocker



                                                              17.32
       (C)                                    (D)
Figure 17-41 (cont’d.) (C) steel bar and brackets, and (D)
sliding bolt. Note that the bar and sliding bolt are often
homemade devices.




                                                             17.33
Methods of Forcible Entry
• Three standard methods:
  – Conventional
  – Through-the-lock
  – Power tools
• All forcible entry operations must be
  coordinated with fire attack and
  ventilation
  – Lack of coordination may result in rapid
    fire spread or backdraft

                                           17.34
Conventional Forcible Entry
• Old and reliable method
• Use of leverage, force, and impact
• Primary tools:
  – Halligan tool
  – Flathead ax
• Accomplish one or more of the
  following:
  – Force door away from jamb
  – Break lock, striker, door, and/or frame
  – Force the hinges; breach the wall or door
                                          17.35
Through-the-Lock Forcible Entry
• Involves attacking the locking
  mechanism
• Remove key cylinder and operate lock
  with alternative means
• Used when entry needs to be gained
  with damage kept to a minimum




                                     17.36
Operating Lock Mechanisms
• Manipulate lock by using proper key tool
   – Flat steel key
   – Square key tool
• Lock cylinders fall into two categories
   – Mortise
   – Rim lock
• Correct tool determined by examining
  the cylinder


                                        17.37
Figure 17-46 To operate the lock, look at the back of the
cylinder to determine the right key tool to use.




                                                            17.38
       Lock Variations
• Many locks have a spring-loaded
  shutter
• Rim lock with night latch can only be
  unlocked from inside
• Locks such as key in knob and tubular
  dead bolts are opened in manner
  similar to rim lock



                                    17.39
           Windows
• Many types, architectural styles,
  sizes, and construction
• Windows used as an alternative
  means of entry
• Four construction features of
  windows:
  –   Glazing
  –   Sash
  –   Frame
  –   Security devices

                                      17.40
Figure 17-51 Windows are found in many types,
architectural styles, sizes, and construction.
                                                 17.41
Forcible Entry of Windows
• Each type of window requires a special
  technique to force entry
• Two general reasons to force a
  window:
  – Gain entry
  – Horizontal ventilation




                                     17.42
Figure 17-52 Use a long-handled tool such as a
hook or pike pole to break glass out of a window.

                                                    17.43
              Glazing
• Most common glazing material is glass
• Different types of glass:
  –   Regular or plate glass
  –   Tempered glass
  –   Laminated glass
  –   Wire glass




                                   17.44
      Types of Windows
• Several types of windows:
  –   Double hung/check rail windows
  –   Energy-efficient windows
  –   Casement windows
  –   Awning windows
  –   Jalousie windows
  –   Projected windows
  –   Fixed windows
  –   Bars and gates

                                       17.45
Breaching Walls and Floors
• Emergency situations often dictate that walls
  of structure must be opened
• Two main considerations when breaching
  walls:
   – Type of construction of the building
      • Wood construction with lath and plaster or
        drywall easy to breach
      • Brick and reinforced concrete require more
        effort
   – Tools available
      • Ordinary hand tools are usually sufficient
      • Solid masonry may require specialized tools
                                                  17.46
Figure 17-54 The firefighter uses an ax handle or Halligan
tool to poke through a wall to determine if there are any
obstructions on the other side.


                                                         17.47
Techniques for Breaching Walls
  • Different types of walls present new
    challenges
     – Breaching wood-framed walls
        • Avoid area around doors and corners
     – Breaching masonry walls—block or brick
        • Without power tools only option may be 12-
          pound maul
     – Breaching reinforced concrete walls and floors
        • Most common tool used is the jackhammer
        • May need oxyacetylene torch
     – Breaching metal walls
        • Location of heavy structural members located
          first
                                                    17.48
Techniques for Breaching
        Floors
• Cutting wood floors with a power saw
  – Rotary saw with 12-inch-diameter carbide-
    tipped blade
• Cutting wood floors with an ax
  – Locate floor joists and cut along joist
  – Pull up finish flooring to expose subflooring
  – Make all cuts on subfloor first before
    pulling up


                                            17.49
Figure 17-56 A rectangle, square, or triangle can be
cut, followed by the removal of the finished flooring
and the subflooring.




                                                        17.50
      Tool Assignments
• Necessary tools must be carried in with
  first on-scene and later arriving units
• Tool assignments based on:
  – Occupancy and construction of building
  – Position or task assigned
  – Department standard operating
    procedures (SOPs) or policies




                                         17.51
      Lessons Learned
• Forcible entry is a key tactic
• Must understand tools, equipment, and
  methods
• Teamwork is an essential element
• Forcible entry must be done quickly
• Firefighter must continually size up
  buildings


                                    17.52

								
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