Body Organization and Structure (PowerPoint)

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					Body Organization and
          Body Organization and

Homeostasis – the ability of your
 body to maintain a stable internal
Your internal environment is always
 changing, so your body has to be
 able to adapt to these changes.
 Every single cell in your body has
 a special job to help maintain
Cells are organized into groups
   called tissues. There are 4 main
   kinds of tissues in your body:
1) Epithelial tissue – covers and
   protects (skin cells)
2) Nervous tissue – sends signals
   through the body (nerves)
3.) Muscle tissue – contracts and
  relaxes to produce movement
4.) Connective tissue – joins,
  supports, protects, insulates,
  nourishes and cushions organs
  (the glue that holds your organs
                             Nervous Tissue - nerve

Epithelial Tissue - (skin)
                        Smooth muscle tissue
Cardiac muscle tissue
Connective tissue
Tissues make up organs. See
 diagram of stomach on page 581

Organs make up organ systems.
 Stomach works with other organs
 to make up the digestive system.

Your body has 12 major organ
 systems. See p. 582-583. List
 all 12.
1. Integumentary    9. Nervous
2. Muscular         10. Digestive
3. Skeletal         11. Lymphatic
4. Cardiovascular   12. Endocrine
5. Circulatory
6. Respiratory
7. Urinary
8. reproductive
        Skeleton System
• Made up of bones, cartilage, and the
  connective tissue that holds bones
Baby is born with over 300 bones.
 Most are soft and flexible. During
 childhood, most bones still have
 growth plates of cartilage. As you
 grow bones fuse together. Average
 adult has 206 bones. Fused skeleton
 happens by age 25.
              Closed plates

                              Open plates
Open plates
Unfused baby skull
Two main parts of the skeleton
1. Axial skeleton – skull, vertebral
   column, ribs, and sternum
2. Appendicular skeleton – arms,
   legs, shoulder, hip bones, wrists,
   ankles, fingers, toes, etc.
Function of the Bones
• Support and protection
• Work with your muscles for
• Store minerals
• Make blood cells (The marrow in
  your bones help make blood cells.)
     Bone Structure
• Several different tissue
  (connective tissue and minerals)
• Minerals are deposited by
  living cells called osteoblasts
• Compact bone – no visible open
  spaces; rigid and dense
• Spongy bone – many open
  spaces; provides most of the
  strength and support for a
                          Osteoblasts – deposit mineral –
                          form bones

Compact and Spongy bone
• Soft tissue in bone is called marrow. Red
  marrow produces red and white blood
  cells. Yellow marrow in central cavity
  stores fat.
• See page 585, figure 2
Bone Marrow
In vertebrates joints are found where two
  or more bones meet. Joints are often
  held together by ligaments. Tendons are
  thick bands of connective tissue that
  attach muscles to bones.
   Kinds of Joints
1. Gliding – allows bones to glide
 over one another (hand,
2. Ball and socket – allows you to
   move in all directions (shoulder)
3. Hinge joint – allows you to flex
   and extend (elbow, knee)
4. Pivot joint – allows you to turn
   your head
5. Immovable joint – bone is fused
   together (skull)
    Skeletal System Injuries and
1. Bones may be fractured or
2. Joints can be dislocated
3. Sprains can occur if ligaments
   are stretced too far
4. Osteoporosis is a disease that
  causes bones to become less
  dense and break easily. Age and
  poor eating habits play a role in
  causing this disease.
5. Arthritis is a disease that
  affects the joints. The joints
  swell or become stiff – very
Major bones
             Muscular System
Perform many functions:
 digesting food, breathing, standing upright
Without muscles, your body would collapse.
Three Kinds of Muscles
1. Smooth – found in digestive tract and
   walls of blood vessels
2. Cardiac – only in your heart
3. Skeletal – attached to your bones for
Muscle action can be voluntary or
When you move, the muscle cells contract
 and get shorter. Tendons connect your
 muscles to bones. Your muscles usually
 work in pairs. The muscle that bends part
 of your body is called a flexor (bicep).
 The muscle that straightens a part of
 your body is called an extensor (triceps).

To make your muscles stronger, you
 have to exercise. Two kinds of
 exercise can increase strength
 and endurance.
Examples of resistance: using
Example of endurance: any aerobic
  exercise like jogging, skating,
  swimming. Aerobic exercise
  mostly increases the strength of
  the heart.
(aerobic – with oxygen)
     Injuries to Muscles
• Strain – muscle or tendon is
  overstretches or torn. Occurs
  when not warmed up or
• Tendonitis – when tendons become
  injured and get inflamed
People that try to make their
 muscles stronger by taking drugs
 called anabolic steroids can cause
 long-term health problems to
 their heart, liver, and kidneys.
 They can also cause high blood
 pressure and taken too early can
 cause bones to stop growing!
Integumentary System
• Made up of skin, hair and nails
• Covers body and helps maintain
• Largest organ in your body!!!
  Covers 2 m2
    Function of Skin
• Protect – keeps H2O in and
  foreign particles out
• Nerve endings – sense of touch
• Regulates temp – sweat glands
  release salty liquid that cools
• Gets rid of wastes – chemical
  wastes removed in sweat
Skin color determined by
 pigment called melanin.
Purpose of melanin is to absorb
 UV light from the sun.
 2 Main layers of skin:
1. Epidermis – top; made of
 several layers; thick as 2
 sheets of paper; thicker on
 palms of hands and soles of
• Most of the cells are dead
• Filled with protein called
  keratin that makes the skin
2. Dermis – thicker layer;
 fibers made of collagen which
 makes skin strong; also allow
 skin to bend without tearing
    Hair and Nails
• Made of living and dead cells
• Only living cells in hair are
  around the base at the hair
• Hair gets color from melanin
• Hair regulates body temp
• Fingers and toes sensitive to
  touch so protected by nails
Skin can repair itself. Some
 damage is serious enough to
 damage the genetic material.
This is called cancer.
• Skin cancer
Acne can result when too much
 oil is secreted from hormones
 and combines with dead skin
 cells and bacteria to clog