Telecommunications policy by niusheng11

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									    African Development Bank
 Transformation Ready programme
       Education component

                 Initial presentation of
           Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis
      plus initial Opportunities and Challenges

Note: these are preliminary notes based on ongoing
research and should not be taken as final. Input at
 this stage is nevertheless requested and welcome

                    9 May 2011
                                      CONTENTS
   The e-Transformation Ready                                             ANNEXES
    Study
      Specific Objectives of the                         1.    Teacher Professional
       Education Component                                      Development
      Structure of the Study
      Engagement of Stakeholders                         2.    Digital Learning Resources
       in the Study
      Team and contacts
                                                          3.    Affordable Technologies
 Overview of ICTs in Education
 Landscape Analysis Summary
                                                          4.    Education Management
        Core Issues/Findings                                   Information Systems
        Challenges
        Opportunities                                    5.    National Research and
   Summary                                                     Education Networks


 African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
 Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
    The e-Transformation Ready Study
    Objective: raising awareness about the potential of ICT to
     improve and transform different social and economic
     sectors in Africa; and stimulating action.
    The overall study addresses eight aspects:Agriculture;
     Climate Change Adaptation; Education; Financial Services;
     Health; Delivery of Public Services; and Regional and trade
     and integration.

 This report is the first deliverable relating to the Education
  Sector – an outline landscape analysis of the issues
 In addition, it includes initial material for the subsequent
  deliverable on opportunities and challenges
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
              Specific Objectives of the
                Education Component
   To document the context                                To identify opportunities
    for African countries:                                  that that can be
    where and how is ICT                                    exploited by African
    being exploited in                                      countries.
    education?                                             To highlight challenges
   To document best                                        and risks, with initial
    practices that can be                                   recommendations on how
    scaled up, emulated or                                  these can be addressed.
    adopted by African
    countries.


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                   Structure of the Study
   The Education Component is examined through
    five related themes, each of which is either
    critical or has the potential for playing a key
    enabling role:
     Teacher  Professional Development (critical);
     Digital Learning Resources (critical);
     Affordable Technologies (enabling);
     Education Management Information Systems (enabling);
     National Research and Education Networks (enabling).


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
          Engagement of stakeholders
                 in the study
   The methodology of this study recognises the different
    experiences and lessons from the many players, and will
    draw from:
       desk research
       interviews and surveys with practitioners and other stakeholders
       blogs generated by selected experts and other stakeholders, posted
        on the e-transform website (www.etransformafrica.org)
       online comments and inputs to blogs and other material posted on
        the web




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
               Education component:
             team members & contacts
   The following is the make up the ictDA Team that is
    leading the study, and to whom comments can be
    emailed:
      Neil Butcher, neilshel@nba.co.za - Teacher
       Professional Development; & Digital Learning
       Resources
      Claire Sibthorpe, claire@maplecs.org - Affordable
       Technologies
      Lishan Adam, lishan@ictfd.net, Education
       Management Information Systems
      F F Tusubira, tusu@kcl.co.ug, National Research and
       Education Networks
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
            ICTs and education: overview
    The following slides and notes present initial findings from a global
     scan (Africa inclusive) of trends, current practice, opportunities, cases,
     and challenges concerning each of the five themes under which the
     education sector is being addressed.
    They represent a preliminary summary, facilitating input to the
     research team‟s work from the wider stakeholder community.
    Further material in each thematic area can be found in annexes later
     in the presentation.
    As would be expected, there is a strong inter-relationship amongst the
     themes. For example, good digital learning content is generated by
     good teachers; and affordable technologies are required to access it.
    Technology is one of the inputs for the success of ICT in education –
     other ingredients include commitment, capacity, resources and
     effective use.
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
        Core issues/ Findings (1):
    Teacher Professional Development
    Integration of ICT in education requires competence of all
     educational role players –students, teachers, administrators,
     management, and policy makers.
    Teacher competence training needs to be integrated into
     the entire teacher development process, with special
     emphasis on CPD.
    ICT competence should not be seen as a standalone aspect
     of training – it should be integrated into courses where it is
     applied so that learning is motivated by appreciation of
     utility.
    See also Annex 1
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                 Core issues/ Findings (2):
                 Digital Learning Resources
    A balanced mix between digital and printed resources is
     required;
    Content models should create a diversity of competitive
     resources, giving educators and learners choice about what
     best suits their needs;
    Investment in content creation ensures compliance with
     African curricula, or local language demands, motivating
     usage by teachers and learners;
    Online resources stimulate educators to contribute content,
     altering dynamics of content production.
    See also Annex 2
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                    Core issues/Findings (3):
                    Affordable Technologies
    Technology should always be considered in the context of the broader
     trends in ICT in education.
    Among the multiplicity of access devices, mobile phones are currently
     closest to what can be affordable on a mass scale
    There are challenges for sustainability if usage is scaled up
       Low cost computing models - except mobile phones - have been
         considerably dependent on subsidy
       Under mobile phone models - users are expected to pay for their own
         devices, support, maintenance and services
    A mass market for low cost computers might make them a viable
     alternative to mobile phones
    See also Annex 3


    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
     Core issues/findings (4):
Education Management Info Systems
    EMIS meets the information needs in the education sector,
     and requires planning/ identification of data needed for
     decision making
    Also requires identification of goals and objective, analysis
     of existing demand and supply, and development of progress
     indicators
    Data is core to the development of EMIS, and needs to be
     relevant, reliable, timely and multi-source.
    Africa lags far behind Asia and Latin America in the
     deployment and use of EMIS
    See also Annex 4
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
     Core issues (5): National Research
          and Education Networks
    African and Caribbean academics and researchers have been
     intellectually isolated due to the high cost of bandwidth – but the
     situation is changing.
    NRENs are still new on the African continent (10 years old); there
     are no NRENS in more than 50% of the countries.
    NRENs are just being planned in Caribbean countries.
    Mobile phones are a mass access opportunity: the technology
     challenge is in linking NRENs with the mobile platforms.
    There is mutual benefit in NRENs in Africa extending services to
     schools/schoolnets.
    See also Annex 5.

    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
             Challenges (1):
    Teacher Professional Development
    Absence of well thought out strategies for ICT teacher
     professional development
    Lack of experience in identifying suitable models for ICT
     teacher professional development
    Lack of awareness of benefits and impact at the policy
     levels leads to underfunding of ICT teacher professional
     development and lack of incentives for teachers to use
     technology as well as their training;
    Focus on teacher training alone without training of technical
     staff and principals
    See also Annex 1.
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Challenges (2):
                 Digital Learning Resources
    Shortage of skills and incentives for content development,
     especially among the teachers and learners
    Absence of the required technology environment for
     collaborative content development
    Lack of awareness among policy makers about the need to
     make the financial investment required to establish a
     technology and policy environment that promotes
     collaborative content creation based on common
     intellectual capital
    See also Annex 2.


    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                        Challenges (3):
                    Affordable Technologies
    Lack of (or expensive) infrastructure: electricity, connectivity,
     end-user devices, etc.
    Limited competence of potential users in integrating technology
     in the learning process
    Limited global experience and objective assessment of a lot of
     existing and emerging technology
    Lack of reliable information on total cost of ownership and
     realistic sustainability models
    Limited scope for localization of devices compounded by lack of
     consistent technical standards
    High cost of developing special software/ tailored content
    See also Annex 3.
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
         Challenges (4): Education
      Management Information Systems
    Sustainability of largely donor-driven EMIS systems
    Quality and consistency in the collection, organization and
     dissemination of educational
    Integration between diverse data resources and
     interoperability of systems
    Ability of decision makers at all level to turn data to a
     meaningful use
    Capacity to migrate to distributed, decentralized and
     integrated EMIS that support decision making at school,
     district, provincial and national levels
    See also Annex 4
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
          Challenges (5): National
      Research and Education Networks
 Cost of connectivity – has gone down significantly over the
  last two years, but still a challenge;
 Human resource capacity, both technical and managerial;
  Often includes poor understanding of NRENs
 Disabling policy and regulatory environments, including
  monopoly markets – significant improvement since 2008;
 Part-time staff – cannot make time to grow the NRENs;
 Poor resource base – most are not operational and are
  therefore cash-strapped;
 Generally poor campus networks & limited PCs for users.
 See also Annex 5.
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
Opportunities (1) Teacher Professional
      Development (first slide)
   The NEPAD parameters of good practice provide a holistic systemic
    framework of ICT professional development, and provides the
    criteria for effective professional development for various
    education role players.
   The realization that once-off workshop type training does not yield
    effective change in pedagogy is shifting the focus to more
    sustained, lifelong professional development, focusing on pre-
    service as well as continuing teacher professional development.
   The UNECSO ICT Competency Framework supports the lifelong
    approach to ICT professional development, and provides standards
    against which teacher ICT competencies can be measured.
   There are various delivery models that can be recruited, based on
    fit for purpose, context and cost.
Opportunities (1) Teacher Professional
      Development (continued)
   Models like communities of practice, which are cheaper in terms of
    capital outlay, but require time commitment, give teachers
    themselves the opportunity to drive professional development.
    The availability of reputable programmes like Intel Teach, IEARN,
    and Microsoft PiL could lead to cost savings in course development
    if these courses are adopted for teacher training.
   There are good examples of ICT professional development
    strategies, for example, Namibia‟s TECH/NA and the Guyana ICT
    Professional Development Strategy for Teachers, that can be
    drawn on for the development of good ICT professional
    Development Strategies.
   Examples of good practice in ICT teacher professional development
    abound, for example Australia, India, Chile, where lessons can be
    learned.
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
     Opportunities (2) – digital content
                (first slide)
   Review and adjust as appropriate        Ensure that the institution has in
    existing national/institutional          place robust, enforceable IPR,
    policies and staff incentives            copyright, and privacy policies
    schemes to ensure that they              (addressing possible full-time, part-
    encourage teaching staff to invest       time and contract staff as well as
    time in ongoing curriculum design,       students any and all of whom might
    creation of effective teaching and       become involved in a team-based
    learning environments within             curriculum and materials
    courses and programmes, and              development process). As part of
    development of high quality              this policy process, consider the
    teaching and learning materials.         relative merits of creating flexible
                                             copyright policies that
                                             automatically apply open licences
                                             to content unless there are
                                             compelling reasons to retain all-
                                             rights reserved copyright over those
                                             materials.
 Opportunities (2) – digital content
            (continued)
   Invest in ongoing awareness-raising,                   Invest in knowledge management
    capacity-building, and                                  systems and strategies to store,
    networking/sharing activities to                        curate, and share educational
    develop the full range of                               content. Ideally, to ensure cost-
    competences required to facilitate                      effectiveness, this would be done
    more effective use of educational                       as part of a coordinated national
    resources in education delivery.                        strategy or in partnership with
   Adopt and support the use of                            emerging global OER networks and
    content management and authoring                        repositories. This should ideally be
    tools (web content editing tools,                       accompanied by ongoing
    content management systems),                            investments to ensure that teaching
    templates, and toolkits that                            staff have access to the necessary
    facilitate the creation of adaptable,                   ICT infrastructure and connectivity
    inclusively designed educational                        to access the Internet and develop
    resources (also see Appendix Two).                      or adapt educational materials of
                                                            different kinds.


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Opportunities (3):
                    Affordable Technologies
 It is not just one type of technology that is being used
 Use of mobile phones in education is new and evolving and
  offers opportunity because mobiles are:
    cheaper and owned by more teachers and learners than
      other devices
    affordable for many without government, private or
      development sector support
 Low cost computing devices are dropping in cost – shared
  used of computing can also significantly reduce costs
 See also Annex 3.


    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
        Opportunities (4): Education
      Management Information Systems
    Advances in content management systems and distributed
     databases
    Improved access to broadband networks at schools, district
     and national levels
    Increased interest in educational data to facilitate decision
     making
    Proliferation of independent systems such as School Record
     Management System, Higher Education Management System
     that use open standard protocols that facilitate easy
     integration
    See also Annex 4
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
         Opportunities (5): National
      Research and Education Networks
    Increased awareness by African governments about the
     development dividend of NRENs, and readiness to support
     them
    Increasing fibre to and within Africa and dropping prices
    Increased development partner support to REN activities in
     Africa
    Internet aware students who demand modern learning
     environment
    The wave of NREN growth in Africa, including regional
     networks
    See also Annex 5.
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                  Summary (1)
 Teacher professional development and digital
  learning resources are recognised as most
  critical in integrating ICTs in learning at all
  levels of education and must be the core
  emphasis in the transformation of learning
  delivery
 Teacher competence also directly relates to the
  other core challenges: development and
  tailoring of content to local curricula and
  sometimes language
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                  Summary (2)
   Educational Management in an ICT-enabled
    environment remains a challenge in Africa due to
    very limited deployment of educational
    management information systems.




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                  Summary (3)
   Access to content,                            Backbone delivery, that should be or
    sharing                                        can be handled by NRENs is still very
                                                   limited because NRENs themselves are
    applications, and                              either under-developed or do not exist
    collaboration                                  in most African countries.
    (content                                      Final access, which needs campus
    development;                                   networks with sufficient computers for
    learning; and                                  students. The overwhelming majority
    research) remain                               of institutions of higher education and
                                                   schools do not have these. This opens
    limited at two                                 up the possibility of mobile access as a
    levels:                                        solution, leading to the related
                                                   challenge of affordable technologies.


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                  Summary (4)
 Technical skills required to assure availability
  of ICT services and systems are very scarce,
  being worst at the primary and secondary
  education levels. Supporting the development
  of NRENs that also reach out to schools is an
  opportunity for addressing this.
 NRENs can provide an important content
  delivery, resources sharing, and collaboration
  platform for educational institutions at all
  levels, but are still generally weak in Africa
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                  Summary (5)
 The five themes addressed in this study all have
  a mutually supportive role that needs to be
  taken into account when planning
  interventions. This demands holistic
  approaches to the challenge.
 There are several cases around the world and
  within Africa, as documented in the Annexes,
  that point to approaches to addressing the
  challenges that have so far been identified

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                                ANNEX 1


                         TEACHER PROFESSIONAL
                             DEVELOPMENT


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                     CONTENTS
 Teacher professional                                   UNESCO Planning
  development                                             Guide
  guidelines (from
                                                         Challenges
  NEPAD)
                                                         Emerging frameworks
 Defining the need
                                                         Selected resources
 Approaches to
  teacher professional
  development
 Case studies – global
 Case studies - Africa
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
 Teacher professional development
     guidelines (from NEPAD)
     All educational role-players – including government
      officials, school principals and management teams,
      administrators, teacher educators, teachers at all
      levels, learners, and community opinion-leaders –
      possess the skills and competence required to use ICT
      effectively in their daily lives. In addition, ongoing
      educational opportunities – formal, non-formal, and
      informal – are made available to, and are used by, all
      of these groups of people to further develop their
      educational ICT competence.


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                            Defining the need
 Professional development of teachers does not
  occur in isolation from broader professional
  development, and needs to be integrated with
  broader professional development plans
 Successful implementation of ICT depends on
  teacher competencies to effectively integrate
  the technologies into their teaching and
  facilitate learner use of these technologies


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
Approaches to teacher professional
          development
   Growing acknowledgement that teacher technical
    mastery of ICT skills is a not a sufficient precondition
    for successful integration of ICT into teaching
   Growing focus on lifelong professional development of
    teachers:
         Pre-service training;
         In-service training;
         Enduring formal and informal pedagogical and technical
          support for teachers.
   There is no single best practice or general recipe for
    success

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                      Case studies - global
Australia Strategy aims to:                                         Chile - Enlaces
   Embed use of ICT as key component in                  At the core of the Enlaces strategy to
    teaching and learning in pre‐service                   successfully integrate technologies to
    teacher education courses;                             improve teaching and learning opportunities
   Support pre‐service teachers to achieve                for children in the public system, lies the
    competence in the effective and                        training and support offered to classroom
    creative/innovative inclusion of                       teachers as well as the national
    technologies in teaching and learning;                 infrastructure that supports these processes.
   Engage teachers with professional                     Three components to the teacher training
    development to enhance and strengthen                  strategy of Enlaces: initial training; follow-
    their ability to integrate the use of ICT into         up technical assistance; and educational
    the classroom and support the rollout of               information technology encounters.
    the Australian Curriculum; and                        ICT professional development initiatives in
   Build leadership capacity in school leaders            Chile have transformed education
    to model and implement digital pedagogy                tremendously.
    and ICT literacy in schools, to support
    transformational practice


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
           Case studies – global/Africa
                     India                                                  Egypt
    India has multiple ICT initiatives in                  Strategic objectives of the professional
     education, some of them driven by                       development programmes on the pre-
     government exclusively, others through                  university track are to meet the prerequisites
     partnerships between government and                     of the national teachers‟ cadre and to ensure
     other partners, some by donor agencies                  that ICT is optimally integrated within
     and some by corporations through their                  institutional activities to guarantee effective
     corporate social investment schemes.                    learning/teaching objectives, efficient
                                                             administration and management, and solid
    Although there seem to be comprehensive                 community commitment.
     and coordinated efforts at ICT deployment              On the higher education track, the goals are
     and teacher training, the country faces                 to empower all stakeholders to efficiently
     several challenges in the adoption of ICT in            utilize e-learning as a fundamental
     education, particularly low literacy rates              educational platform.
     and teacher technophobia. Not all teachers             The third track is concerned with lifelong
     are supportive of technology in education               learning. The major track objective is to
     and therefore do not participate in the                 define e-learning as an implementation
     available training.                                     platform for lifelong learning.


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                        Case studies - Africa
                     Ghana                                                        Kenya
   There does not seem to be a central, scaled up,             In 2005, the Ministry of Education developed the
    Ministry of Education professional development               Kenya Education Sector Support Programme
    initiative in ICT                                            (KESSP), with mainstreaming of ICT into the
   What are available are small scale donor funded              teaching and learning process as one of the priority
    projects dedicated to specific schooling sectors of          areas
    geographic areas                                            In June 2006, the government introduced the
   A recent survey on ICT in teacher training reports           National ICT Strategy for Education and Training,
    that educators at all levels are not trained to use          which is the ICT policy for the education sector.
    ICT for teaching and learning.                              In 2009, the MoE started training secondary
   Further, pre-service teacher training programmes             teachers on an ICT Integration programme that
    provide limited opportunity for their students to            was rolled out from the MoE Headquarters. This
    learn skills necessary to integrate ICT into teaching.       training is planned at district level and the training
   A notable small scale ICT teacher professional               is carried out in Nairobi at the Computer Pride
    development initiative is the Education Quality              training centre premises.
    Improvement Project (EQIP), which was established           In September 2010, training of teachers under the
    in 2005 to promote and facilitate ICT integration            e-learning multimedia laboratory project officially
    into education to enable equitable access to                 started. Teachers at schools where labs have been
    education and enhance its quality.                           installed were advised to use the manuals to train
                                                                 themselves complementary to the training.



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                  UNESCO Planning Guide
According to UNESCO Planning Guide for ICT in Education:
         Technology should be infused into the entire teacher education
          programme. ICT should not be restricted to a single course but should
          permeate all courses in the programme.
         Technology should be introduced in context. Particular ICT applications
          like word processing, databases, spreadsheets and telecommunications
          should not be taught as separate topics but rather dealt with as the need
          arises in all courses of the teacher education programme.
         Students should experience innovative technology-supported learning
          environments in their teacher education programme. Students should see
          their lecturers engaging in technology to present their subjects, for
          example, utilizing PowerPoint or simulations in lectures and
          demonstrations. They should also have the opportunity to use such
          applications in practical classes, seminars and assignments.

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                      Challenges

   ICT teacher professional development is under-funded.
   Lack of incentives affects teachers‟ motivation to use technology
    and use their training.
   Focus on teacher training alone without training of technical staff
    to assist teachers, and principals to provide leadership on ICT
    integration may be ineffective.
   There are several models of ICT teacher professional development
    so careful consideration has to be made to choose the most
    effective one for particular contexts.
   Many countries do not have well thought out strategies for ICT
    teacher professional development, resulting in ad hoc,
    uncoordinated and ineffective professional development.

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                     Emerging frameworks
   Various frameworks have emerged to guide professional
    development of teachers in use of ICT in education, for
    example:
         UNESCO ICT Competence Framework for Teachers
         Teacher Training and Professional Development for NEPAD e-
          Schools Framework
   Such frameworks provide a useful starting point for
    planning professional development strategies at
    national level
   They may lead to a first-level implementation strategy
    along the lines presented in the following slide

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
Initial Teacher Training                    Continuing Professional Development
                                        Introductory Stand-                       Specific Short Courses
  Certificate/Diploma                 Alone Course on Use of                      (Specialized introductory
    Level Education                       ICT in Education                       courses aimed at practising
 (Specialized courses on ICT
                                         (Dedicated, generic in-                   teachers, qualified and
                                                                                                                 Technology
   and on teaching IT as a
 subject, plus ICT focuses in
                                        service courses aimed at
                                           qualified, practising
                                                                                     unqualified, offered
                                                                                    alongside generic CPD
                                                                                                                   Literacy
    other subject-specific                                                                modules:
                                         teachers who have not
           courses)                                                              Teaching IT as a subject
                                        been taught about ICT in
                                          their Initial Training)                ICT maintenance and
                                                                                  support
                                                                                 Introduction to use of key
                                      Stand-Alone Course on                       applications in the
 Bachelor of Education                                                            classroom, etc
                                         ICT integration in
        Level                                                                                                    Knowledge
 (specialized courses on ICT
                                             Education
                                        (Dedicated, generic CPD
   and on teaching IT as a
 subject, plus ICT focuses in          course aimed at qualified,                                                Deepening
    other subject-specific               practising teachers who
           courses)                   have not been taught about
                                       ICT in their Initial Training)



                                                              Specific Short Courses
                                           Menu of specialized CPD courses aimed at qualified,
                                           practising teachers:
                                           ICT Integration for School Principals (both stand-alone              Knowledge
                                           and integrated into current course for principals)
                                           The Role of an ICT Coordinator                                       Deepening
                                           ICT maintenance and support
                                           Incorporation of new courses as demand arises




               Modalities of delivery                                   Incentives
Face-to-face training; online training; mentoring;                      Certificates; Professional recognition
action research; communities of practice; expos and                     Salary increments; Time off for
showcasing; schools of ICT excellence; information                      training
and guides; distance training
                          Selected resources
   UNESCO. (2008). ICT Competency Standards for Teachers Policy Framework. Paris:
    UNESCO.
   Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Teaching teachers for the future.
    Available at: http://www.altc.edu.au/november2010-teaching-teachers-future
   Pelgrum, W.J. and Law, N. (2003). ICT in Education Around the World: Trends,
    Problems and Prospects. UNESCO International Institute for Education Planning:
    Paris
   Light, D., Strother, S. & Polin, D. K. (2009). Emerging changes in ICT-rich learning
    environments: The Intel Teach Essentials course and changing teacher practice in
    India, Turkey, and Chile. Available at: http://cache-
    www.intel.com/cd/00/00/44/06/440682_440682.pdf
   PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2010). Survey of ICTs for Education in India and South
    Asia, Country Studies: India. Available at:
    http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.879.html




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                                ANNEX 2


                                     DIGITAL LEARNING
                                        RESOURCES



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                     CONTENTS
 NEPAD Guidelines                                       Open Educational
 Overview                                                Resources (OER)
 Reasons for investing                                  Government
  in content                                              considerations
 Content development                                    Institutional
  strategies                                              considerations
 Content development                                    Case studies
  agencies                                               Challenges
 Web 2.0 Platforms

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                          NEPAD Guidelines
   NEPAD e-Schools Guidelines for Good Practice
    on Educational Content:
       All  African learners regularly use a wide variety of
         electronic and printed media that supports
         successful completion of their [educational] careers,
         whilst simultaneously developing their ability to
         participate actively in the global information
         society and knowledge economy…. Printed and
         electronic media complement each other both in
         terms of supporting learning and teaching and in
         relation to spending on learning support materials.

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        Overview

 Useful to make a distinction between „ICT
  applications‟ and „educational content‟
 Educational content models should strive to
  create a thriving, diverse, and competitive
  environment where educators and learners
  have a range of resources from which they can
  choose to best suit their specific pedagogical
  objective


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
    Reasons for investing in content
      There are many reasons for investing in content:
 Content currently available online                     There is a lack of content covered in
  often does not cover the specific                       certain subjects, especially where
  requirements of African curricula, so                   curricula need to be updated
  tends to be supplementary in nature;                    regularly;
 Absence of educational content                         If online content resources are good,
  directly linked to curricula is one of                  this can increase the demand for
  the key inhibiters of ICT use by                        access to the Internet;
  teachers and learners;                                 As more educational institutions
 Online content can be greatly                           become connected, the development
  beneficial for rural and poorer                         of online content becomes relatively
  institutions that have inadequate                       more cost-effective; and
  access to traditional resources such as                Online resources can encourage
  printed materials;                                      educators to contribute content,
 Educational content on the broader                      thereby altering the dynamics of
  Internet is currently predominantly in                  content production.
  English;
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
        Content development strategies
          There are many reasons for investing in content:
 Stimulating the publishing and software                            Investing in specialist content
  industries by defining curriculum                                   development projects at national
                                                                      level for priority areas;
  statements and publishing criteria for                             Investing in content development
  approval of educational materials on                                initiatives in targeted content
  national procurement lists;                                         areas;
 Stimulating the digital content industry                           Investing in repositories of open
  by providing educational institutions                               educational resources;
  funding to spend on digital content and                            Sourcing available content to
                                                                      create a free resource repository
  quality assuring products that are eligible                         that maps it against the
  for purchase with these budgets;                                    curriculum; and
 Stimulating the publishing and software                            Encouraging communities of
  industries by shifting the point of                                 practice.
  competition away from the point of sale;

         These strategies are, of course, not mutually exclusive.
    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
      Content development agencies
   Agencies include:
         The private sector, including publishing houses, materials
          development agencies, software developers, and vendors;
         Parastatals (including Institutes of Education);
         NGOs;
         Corporate Social Investment entities;
         National MoE special projects;
         Communities of educators.
   Different circumstances and priority areas may use
    different approaches and so draw on different
    development agencies

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                         Web 2.0 Platforms
   Early web sites provided information to users, premised on assumptions that the
    teacher (or text book) is an expert whose role is to provide information to learners.
   With Web 2.0 platforms, user becomes the source of new information
   This has three implications: first, it levels the playing field so that all users and
    contributors have a potentially equal „voice‟ within the community; second, it
    changes the concept of ownership of intellectual property, with the result that all
    content becomes accessible and usable to continue development of the community,
    rather than being ring-fenced by copyright laws; and, third, it carries the
    implication that the service automatically gets better the more people use it.
   This has much in common with a constructivist approach to education, where
    content is important primarily as a tool to be used by learners to construct their
    own knowledge.
    Two key criteria need to be met to achieve this:
         Internet access;
         Open access to content.




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
 Open Educational Resources (OER)
   OER describes educational resources that are openly
    available for use by educators and students, without an
    accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees
   A broad spectrum of frameworks is emerging to govern
    how OER are licensed for use, some of which simply
    allow copying and others that make provision for users
    to adapt the resources that they use. The best known
    of these are the Creative Commons licences.
   OER is not synonymous with online learning or e-
    learning, and, indeed, many open resources being
    produced currently –while shareable in a digital format
    – are also printable.

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
 Open Educational Resources (OER)
   The transformative educational potential of OER revolves
    around three linked possibilities:
       Increased availability of high quality, relevant learning materials can
        contribute to more productive students and teaching staff. Because OER
        removes restrictions around copying and adapting/contextualizing resources, it
        can reduce the cost of accessing educational materials.
       The principle of allowing adaptation of materials provides one mechanism
        amongst many for constructing roles for students as active participants in
        educational processes, who learn best by doing and creating, not by passively
        reading and absorbing.
       OER has potential to build capacity by providing institutions and teaching staff
        access, at relatively low cost, to the means of production of educational
        materials. This can help to develop their competence in producing such
        materials and carrying out the necessary instructional design to integrate such
        materials into high quality programmes of learning.



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
            Government considerations
   What policies are in place to ensure that a portion of public
    spending in education is invested in ongoing curriculum design,
    creation of effective and accessible teaching and learning
    environments within courses and programmes, for the
    development of high quality teaching and learning materials?
   What intellectual property regimes should govern public
    investments in education programmes and materials?
   How do government officials policies tackle the IPR and copyright
    challenges posed by digitization of content and the variety of open
    licences available to help to deal with these challenges? [Links to
    the point made under affordable technology about proprietary and
    closed standards and formats which limit the use of content across
    devices]
   Are government officials aware of the potential to use OER to
    meet legal and policy commitments to equal access to education?

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
            Institutional considerations
   To what extent do current policies motivate educators to invest at least a
    portion of their time in creation of effective teaching and learning
    environments within courses and programmes, and development, sourcing
    and/or adaptation of high quality teaching and learning materials?
   Does the institution have a defined IPR and copyright policy in place?
   Do institutional policies and practices reward creation of materials more highly
    than adaptation of existing materials? How much is collaboration valued?
   What is an appropriate starting point for initiating a sharing culture and
    encouraging movement towards OER publishing?
   Do curriculum producers understand how to design or adapt educational
    resources so that they can be easily modified, adapted, and reconfigured for a
    variety of delivery mechanisms or learner needs?
   Do staff members understand copyright issues and the different ways in which
    they can harness openly licensed resources?
   Are there compelling reasons why an institution would not want make its
    teaching and learning materials shareable under an open licence?
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                   Case studies
  Several case studies being documented (see separate
                       document):
         ELATE (E-Learning and                                  Rip, Mix and Learn Project
          Teacher Education)                                     TESSA (Teacher Education in
         Mindset Learn                                           Sub-Saharan Africa)
         Siyavula Project                                       SAIDE ACEMaths and Teacher
         OER4Schools Project                                     Education Series
         OER Africa                                             Connect-Ed : Professional
                                                                  Development Learning
         University of Cape Town
                                                                  Environment (PDLE)
          (UCT) Open Content
                                                                 OER Commons
         Kwame Nkrumah University of
          Science and Technology                                 Connexions
          (KNUST)                                                EDNA

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                      Challenges
   A key challenge is to persuade policy-makers and practitioners that
    making openness in content development and sharing work
    productively requires financial investment, time and energy, but
    that these are justified by the wealth of positive outcomes that
    openness can generate. This is because deliberate openness
    acknowledges the following:
         Investment in designing effective educational environments is critically
          important to good education.
         A key to productive systems is to build on common intellectual capital,
          rather than duplicating similar efforts.
         All things being equal, collaboration will improve quality.
         As education is a contextualized practice, it is important to make it easy
          to adapt materials imported from different settings where this is required,
          and this should be encouraged rather than restricted.


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                                ANNEX 3


                      AFFORDABLE TECHNOLOGIES




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                     CONTENTS
   Main sections:                                         Sub-sections:
       Overview                                               Low  cost computing
       Trends                                                  devices
       Case studies                                           Mobile phones
       Opportunities                                          Tablet PCs, eReaders
       Challenges                                              and iPads
       Selected resources




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                       Overview

 This section looks at affordable technologies in
  the educational sector
 It has an emphasis on the opportunities and
  challenges for use of mobile devices and smart
  phones for access to learning materials and
  collaboration platforms




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                      Trends (1)
Generation of           Trends                    Type of learning Access
Technology

PC based innovation     Low-cost computing        one-to-one, class         Single or shared
(early)                 devices (including        room, laboratory and      (offline and online)
                        recycled computers)       collaborative learning

Non-PC based            PDAs, mobile phones,      Ubiquitous learning       Single and personal
innovation              smart phones, 3G                                    (always connected to mobile
(medium)                phones                                              provider/s except PDAs)


New-age devices         Merging PC and            Intuitive, interactive,   Single but can be shared in
(latest)                mobile phones:            touch-screen, peer-       certain contexts – still early
                        iPhone, iPads, tablet     to-peer, collaborative    and evolving (designed to be
                        PCs, eReaders and         work                      social and internet friendly
                        eBooks                                              but can function offline)



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                     Trends (2)
          Low cost computing devices:
   Early 90s: telecentre movement
   Price of computers (monitors included) was around
    1500-2000USD which dropped to USD 1000 in 2000 when
    demand grew
   In 2005 the announcement of a 100USD laptop created
    a wave of redesigning low cost computing devices (even
    though the 100USD laptop was never made possible)
   During this period ambitious projects like Simputer
    failed
                     Trends (3)
           Low cost computing devices:
   Today low cost computers range from 250USD to 500 USD
   Current low cost computing devices model in developing
    countries often required government support/subsidy in
    the form of bulk contracts (e.g. OLPC and Classmate PC)
   Commercial low cost computing models mostly target
    urban professionals (e.g. from Asus, Acer, Samsung)
   Recycling continues to be an option (importing recycled
    computing is now part of the “dumping debate”)
                          Trends (4)
                         Mobile phones:
   Large reach – over 5 billion mobile phone connections in the world
   Popular with youth as well as with illiterate communities
   Relatively cheap (compared to computing devices) but costs still
    high some parts of Africa despite prices beginning to come down
      Price of service remains an issue and in some poorer sub-
        Saharan African countries mobile penetration remains low (see
        RIA Comparative Sector Performance Review 2009/2010)
   Allow people to chat, stay connected with peers and are
    interactive
   Multi-media facilities can be an important tool to provide
    information education to people in developing countries
   They can support learning that is personalized and contextual
    which can make learning more meaningful
                    Trends (5)
                  Mobile phones:
 There are several pilot projects targeting specific
  communities testing the use of mobile phones to
  support educational activities
 Some of the major trends: educational quizzes, multi-
  media content to solve puzzles (math), interactive
  literacy programmes, simple question and answer, text
  and/or audio based short lessons, alerts by
  schools/teachers to students or parents and provision
  of support to teachers
 Can also play a major role in informal education (e.g.
  to provide health education information)
                    Trends (6)
                eReaders and tablet PCs:

 Tablet PCs, eReaders and iPads are innovative/intuitive
  technologies but remain expensive to most developing
  countries
 With the creation of the iPod a new chain of devices
  were born – touch screen; multi-media friendly;
  connectivity presumed to upload content and connect
  to the internet; explosion of interactive, location
  specific and customer centric applications
 These technologies are at the very early stages with
  regard to their use in education
                    Trends (7)
Technology should not be considered in isolation but also
in the context of the broader trends in ICT in education.
Robert Hawkins wrote a useful summary of these in 2010:

 Mobile learning              Redefinition of learning
 Cloud computing
                                spaces
 One-to-one computing
                               Teacher-generated open
                                content
 Ubiquitous learning
                               Smart portfolio assessment
 Gaming
                               Teacher
 Personalized learning
                                managers/mentors
               Case studies – BBC Janala

 Launched in 2009                                       Implemented by BBC
 Objective: To                                           World Service Trust
  increase significantly                                 Platforms: mobile
  the number of people                                    phones, internet,
  able to speak English                                   television and print
  who can contribute                                      media
  to the economic                                        Partnerships with all
  growth of Bangladesh                                    six of Bangladesh‟s
                                                          mobile operators
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
               Case studies – BBC Janala
                          Mobile phone component:
 By dialing “3000”                                      Mobile operators
  users can access                                        agreed to cut the
  English language                                        cost of calls
  audio lessons and                                      Each lesson costs less
  quizzes                                                 than the price of a
 Content is updated                                      cup of tea from a
  weekly                                                  Dhaka tea stall
 Each lesson lasts                                      Over 750,000 calls
  three minutes                                           made after a month
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
               Case studies – BBC Janala
                                 Further information
 http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/whatwedo
  /where/asia/bangladesh/2010/01/100115_bangaldesh
  _janala_project_overview.shtml
 http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/whatwedo
  /where/asia/bangladesh/2009/11/091118_bangladesh
  _janala.shtml
 http://www.mobileactive.org/press-one-english-bbc-
  janala-offers-english-language-courses-over-mobiles
 http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/learning-the-
  queens-english-on-your-mobile-phone
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
        Case studies – Text to Change

 Text to Change (TTC)                                   Operational in Kenya,
  started in Uganda in                                    Uganda, Madagascar,
  2007                                                    Cameroon, Namibia
 Mobile platform uses                                    and Tanzania
  incentive based                                        Use a toll free short
  quizzes - sent via SMS                                  code, which ensures
  - to educate, engage,                                   there is no cost to
  and empower people                                      users
  on health related
  issues
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
        Case studies – Text to Change

   Also collect                                           Report by the
    participants‟ data for                                  Ugandan Aids
    analysis, which helps                                   Information Centre
    them to plan their                                      and TTC notes the
    campaigns more                                          importance of
    effectively                                             multiple forms of
                                                            media in public
                                                            education efforts


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
        Case studies – Text to Change
                                 Further information
 www.texttochange.org
 http://www.mobileactive.org/case-studies/how-text-
  change-and-zain-used-mobile-quizzes-raise-hiv-aids-
  awareness
 http://www.texttochange.com/AIC-TTC%20Arua.pdf
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GD17rb84HR8&fea
  ture=player_embedded
 http://www.texttochange.com/AIC-TTC%20Arua.pdf



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
    Case studies – Bridge IT Tanzania
 Launched in 2007                                         Aims to use mobile
 Result of a                                               phone and digital
  partnership that                                          technology to
  includes the Pearson                                      increase quality of
  Foundation, Nokia,                                        teacher instruction
  the IYF and UNDP                                          and pupil
 In Tanzania partners
                                                            achievement in
  also include MoEVT,                                       primary school in
  FAWE and Vodacom                                          math, science, and
  Foundation                                                life skills
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
    Case studies – Bridge IT Tanzania
 Adaptation of                                          Many schools are in
  Philippines BridgeIT                                    rural locations, and
  programme                                               using mobile phones
 Provides access to                                      allows for the on-
  digital video content                                   going dissemination
  via mobile phones                                       of new content
 Teachers use BridgeIT                                  Phones also serve as
  designed lesson plans                                   a link between
  to build on ideas in                                    BridgeIT and teachers
  videos
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
    Case studies – Bridge IT Tanzania
                                     Further information
     http://www.pearsonfoundation.org/education-
      leadership/programs/bridgeit.html#
 http://www.mobileactive.org/case-studies/bridgeit
 http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/checking-in-with-
      bridgeit-in-tanzania-using-mobile-phones-to-support-
      teachers-0
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9lRaZm-9QI
 http://business.un.org/en/documents/276
 https://edutechdebate.org/meducation-
      initiatives/bridgeit-empowering-teachers-with-video-via-
      mobile-phones/
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
            Case studies – Math4Mobile

 Project of the                                         Free mathematics
  University of Haifa                                     applications for Java
 Project examines                                        J2ME capable mobile
  uses of the mobile                                      devices
  phone for teaching                                     5 applications
  and learning maths                                      designed to help
 http://www.math4m                                       students learn
  obile.com/                                              intuitively about
                                                          math concepts

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                      Case studies – BSmrt

 BSmrt (pronounced                                      Has users in more
  "Be Smart") delivers                                    than 40 countries
  learning materials                                     In the first 4 months
  and life services to                                    of 2011, Bsmrt was
  African Youth via                                       visited over 2.2
  MXit‟s mobile instant                                   million times and
  messaging channel                                       served 36 million
 Bsmrt is free to the                                    pages
  end user

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                      Case studies – BSmrt
                                 Further information
   http://wiki.metalab.co.uk/daisy/metalab/g2/1140-
    metalab.html
   http://www.slideshare.net/brianpagan/this-is-bsmrt-
    mobile-educational-service-for-african-youth




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Case studies – M4Lit

   Pilot project created                                Tested whether
    mobile novel and                                      mobile phones could
    published it on a                                     be alternative to
    mobisite and on MXit                                  traditional fictional
    to explore ways of                                    literature forms
    supporting teen                                      Readers invited to
    leisure reading and                                   interact with the
    writing around                                        story as it unfolded
    fictional texts in
    South Africa
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Case studies – M4Lit

   Publication of new                                     From 2009, the m-
    stories happens on                                      novels collectively
    the first of every                                      been read more than
    month, with writing                                     60,000 times, readers
    competitions                                            posted more than
    happening all the                                       40,000 comments and
    time                                                    submitted more than
                                                            10,000 competition
                                                            entries

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Case studies – M4Lit
                                 Further information
 http://www.shuttleworthfoundation.org/projects/m4l
  it/
 http://www.shuttleworthfoundation.org/2010-a-year-
  in-review/
 http://yozaproject.com/
 https://edutechdebate.org/meducation-
  initiatives/yoza-excites-african-teenagers-to-love-
  reading-using-mobile-phones/
 http://edutechdebate.org/literacies-old-and-
  new/deep-thoughts-or-deep-prejudices/
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                 Case studies – M-Ubuntu

 Uses inexpensive,                                      Using recycled smart
  low-threshold mobile                                    phones
  phone technologies                                     Pilot phase (2009-
  to promote literacy in                                  2010) involved 20
  South Africa                                            teachers and 600
 Connecting South                                        learners
  African teachers with                                  http://www.m-
  m- literacy coaches                                     ubuntu.org
  in the United States
  and England
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
       Case studies – SMS for literacy

   SMS-based literacy                                     Girls receive up to six
    program is a joint                                      messages a day on a
    venture between                                         variety of topics
    Mobilink and UNESCO                                     including religion,
    with a local NGO,                                       health and nutrition
    Bunyad as the                                           and expected to
    implementing partner                                    respond



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
       Case studies – SMS for literacy

 Girls provided with a                                  http://pkeducation.o
  low-cost mobile                                         rg/2010/04/03/mobil
  phone and prepaid                                       ink-and-unesco-for-
  connection                                              sms-based-literacy/
 Teachers trained to                                    http://www.mobilink
  teach students how                                      gsm.com/about/PR/2
  to read and write                                       010/UNESCO.php
  using mobile phones


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Case studies - OLPC

   One Laptop Per Child                                   The XO laptops run
    (OLPC) aims to                                          Sugar and Fedora
    provide each child                                      Linux, and have
    with a rugged, low-                                     customized software
    cost, low-power,                                        and content builds
    connected laptop,                                       developed by their
    software tools and                                      national deployment
    content                                                 teams in collaboration
                                                            with OLPC staff

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Case studies – OLPC
                                 Further information
   http://laptop.org/en/
   http://www.olpcnews.com/
   http://wiki.laptop.org/go/The_OLPC_Wiki
   https://edutechdebate.org/olpc-in-south-america/
   https://edutechdebate.org/one-laptop-per-child-
    impact/
   http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/OLPC-peru



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                            Opportunities (1)
                 Low cost computing devices
   Devices are dropping in cost:
      The last decade witnessed ambitious low cost
       computing projects / technologies that promised
       devices starting from 100 USD (e.g. OLPC).
      It has also seen the emergence and increasing
       popularly of lower cost commercial netbooks and
       smaller laptops
      Efforts from governments and research institutions
       in developing countries continue to prioritize low
       cost computing devices
   Shared use of computing can significantly reduce costs
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                            Opportunities (2)
                  Mobile phones:
Use of mobile phones in education is relatively new
and evolving. Mobile phones offer an opportunity
because:
 Mobile phones are cheaper and owned by more
  students and teachers than other devices
 Developing countries (especially Africa and Asia)
  have been early adopters of mobile phones
 They are familiar to learners and teachers (many of
  whom have sufficient capacity to use the devices)

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                            Opportunities (3)
                  Mobile phones:
 Mobile phones are an affordable technology for
  many without government, private or development
  sector support (which many low cost computing
  device programmes have relied on)
 There are examples of how their use is being very
  customized to local needs or groups as well as to
  support mass education



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                            Opportunities (4)
             Tablet PCs, eReaders and iPads:
Current experiments of using TabletsPCs, eReaders and
iPads in education are largely confined to developed
countries due to cost and connectivity. Arguments by
proponents include:
   Touch-interface combined with long battery life provide
    an intuitive experience for learning
   Light, portable and easy to hold or lay flat and pass
    around
   Growing number of free and low cost apps for tablets

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                            Opportunities (5)
         Tablet PCs, eReaders and iPads:
 Portability of large volumes of content (and
  therefore opportunity to distribute a large
  volume of offline content to remote places) is
  an advantage of eReaders
 Electronic texts and multi-media content tends
  to be less expensive than printed versions



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                Challenges (1)
   Infrastructure: electricity,                           Many of the projects are pilots
    connectivity etc.                                       implemented a small scale
   Devices require relevant local                         There are gaps in research in
    content                                                 the use of ICT in education
   Teachers need to be trained                             (much of what is written has
    on how to integrate these                               positive biases and is often
    devices in teaching and                                 written by members of
    learning                                                implementing organizations).
   Much of the technology                                 Costs of access and use - few
    covered in this document is                             studies available on the total
    new and so it‟s impact in                               cost of ownership of different
    education is not fully                                  technologies
    understood (i.e. the                                   Provision and cost of technical
    opportunities and challenges).                          support
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                Challenges (2)
                Low cost computing devices:
   Localization:
      Low cost computing devices still depend on large-
       scale production which limits their ability to be
       customized to local needs.
      Dominance of Latin characters (with exceptions like
       Mandarin and Arabic) and lack of technical standards
       continue to negatively impact on the use of local
       language in software and hardware.
   High-income consumers continue to be the target
    market for manufacturers
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                Challenges (3)
                 Low cost computing devices:
   Large scale deployment of low cost computing devices
    have required government procurement support and
    subsidy
   One-to-one computing in schools and single-user device is
    a challenge in developing countries given the cost (even
    with low cost computing devices) so is likely only
    achievable in the longer term
   Total cost of ownership and ongoing maintenance and
    technical support needs to be considered


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                Challenges (4)
                         Mobile phones:
 Software applications to run on mobile phones are often free
  and less expensive but to develop special software and
  tailored content which customizes the services to target
  users and ensures it is pushed by all mobile providers can be
  expensive
 Provision of services on all mobile operators largely depends
  on support from regulators and a strong business case
 Even with the proliferation of low cost handsets, pricing of
  services remains a constraint on uptake and usage of mobile
  phones (pricing is impacted issues such as level of
  competition, interconnection fees, taxes, etc.)

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                Challenges (5)
                        Mobile phones:
   Critical element for creating impact lies in the
    provision of customized content and minimal cost
   Text based m-learning excludes text illiterate
    population but the introduction of IVR (audio) and
    requirement of smart phones to use multimedia
    services can be more expensive
   Ensuring compatibility on all phone types and provision
    by all national providers is an issue



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                Challenges (6)
                  Tablet PCs, eReaders and iPads:
   Cost is a key barrier
   Their ruggedness to survive in dusty, tropical environments is
    a challenge
   They are designed to interact and update content through
    the internet – low levels of connectivity, slow bandwidth and
    costs of access are barriers. Offline innovation and
    interactivity needs to be developed
   eBooks and iPads have proprietary and closed standards and
    formats
   Digitizing content, developing new digital content and
    distributing this content to users can be a challenge in terms
    of technology, cost, capacity etc.
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
          Key questions for next phase
 What are the key opportunities for Africa
 What are they key barriers for scaling up
  implementation
 What are the policy, regulatory and other
  obstacles
 What are the critical success factors
 What might be areas for investment by donors
  and others


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                         Selected resources
                                  Low cost computing:
   “Landscape analysis of low-cost computing devices”, Vital Wave
    Consulting, December 2008,
    http://www.vitalwaveconsulting.com/publications/pdf/Landscape
    _Analysis_of_Low-cost_Computing_Devices_Dec08.pdf
   “Disseminating Low-Cost Computing Devices in Schools”,
    http://www.connectaschool.org/itu-html/8
   GeSCI, http://www.gesci.org/
   Appropedia low cost computer guide,
    http://www.appropedia.org/Low_cost_computer_guide
   One Laptop per Child, http://laptop.org/en/
   Inveneo, http://www.inveneo.org/

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                         Selected resources
                                       Mobile phones:
   International Association for Mobile Learning, list of resources,
    http://mlearning.noe-kaleidoscope.org/resources/
   Mobile Active, http://www.mobileactive.org
   “What do we know about using mobile phones in education?”,
    Michael Trucano,
    http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/videos/mobiles-0
   “Mobile 2.0: crossing the border into formal learning?”, John Pettit
    and Agnes Kukulska-Hulme, 2011,
    http://oro.open.ac.uk/22867/1/pettit_chap_lee_book.pdf
   “mLearning: A Platform for Educational Opportunities at the Base
    of the Pyramid”, GSMA, 2011,
    http://www.gsmworld.com/documents/mLearning_Report_Final_D
    ec2010.pdf
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                         Selected resources
                       Tablet PCs, eReaders and iPads:
   Tablet Computers in Education, http://edutechdebate.org/tablet-
    computers-in-education/
   “eReaders : first impressions and a call to arms”, http://fote-
    conference.com/2010/07/23/e-readers-for-e-learning-first-
    impressions-and-a-call-to-arms/




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                                ANNEX 4


                           EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT
                             INFORMATION SYSTEMS




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                     CONTENTS
 Education
  Management
  Information System
 Value chain                                            EMIS challenges
 EMIS planning                                          EMIS opportunities

 EMIS trends                                            Selected resources




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
    Education Management Information
            System: overview
 This section looks at Education Management
  Information System
 It discusses the main drivers of EMIS, the role of
  ICT in the EMIS value chain, experience in EMIS
  and challenges and opportunities




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
             EMIS –
 Management, Information, System
      Educational information
                                         Processes, Procedures and
        service on facilities,                                                    Institutional Culture for
                                        Cooperative agreements for
       institutions, teachers,                                                          effective use
                                          integration and sharing
     students, resource (Data)
  • Collection                         • Integrating from multiple          • Data-driven decision
  • Storage                              sources -payroll,                    making - for management,
  • Integration                          achievement, school                  resource allocation, policy
                                         census),                             formulation and research
  • Processing
                                       • Integration from multiple          • Indicator development,
  • Organization
                                         years,                               projection, statistical
  • Dissemination                                                             analysis, monitoring and
                                       • Integration from multiple
                                         educational layers (student,         evaluation
                                         teacher, or school level,          • A culture for demand for
                                         pre-tertiary, tertiary-non           information, communication
                                         formal)                              and exchange
                                       • Harmonized coding and
                                         standards
                                       • Sharing
                                       • Governance - institutional
                                         home, staffing, training
                                         budgeting
                                       • Accountability



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
            Education Data Challenges:
 Monitoring the goals and objectives of the education
  system (National, EFA, MDG)
 Describing and reporting on the state of the education
  sector
 Understanding the external and internal efficiencies of
  the education sector
 Efficient allocation of resources
 Monitoring and evaluating effectiveness of policies,
  projects and programmes
 Ensuring delivery of quality education


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                            EMIS: value Chain

                                    Identification of
                                       data and                   Technical
        Positioning and                                                                 Dissemination and
                                   Indicators - multi
         Planning EMIS                                         Implementation                Analysis
                                    level, year and,
                                         source

• Positioning EMIS within   • Pre-education             • Hardware               • Internal reporting
  the education system      • Primary education         • Applications and       • Special analysis
• EMIS objective and        • Secondary education         software               • Online dissemination
  goals                     • Tertiary and vocational   • Technical management   • Annual printed
• Resouce planning            education                 • Network management       products
• Role of actors            • Non-formal education      • Data quality           • Monitring and
• Demand an d supply for    • Data defition,              management               evaluation of the
  information                 collection,               • Financing                impact of EMIS
• Indicator development       maintenance,
                              integration and
                              dissemination
             EMIS: Planning issues
                      Key issues:

   Positioning EMIS within the education system
   Identification of EMIS objective and goals
   EMIS Resource planning
   Identification of role of different actors
   Demand and supply for information
   Indicator development
                EMIS : Data Issues
             Relevant, Reliable, Timely, Multiplex :

   Understanding needs, linking data to needs to decision
    makers
   Data quality, data structures, data validation and
    maintenance mechanisms
   Processes that allow for integration and timely availability
    of data when needed for planning purposes
   Multi-level, multi-source, multiple year
EMIS: Data Value Chain
                             EMIS:
                            trends


                                                            Integrated (2005+)
                                                         • Proliferation of independent
                                                          information systems at school,
                                                          municipal, district and
                                                          provincial levels
                                                         •Web –based data manipulation
                             Minimalist (1995+)          •Integration with Geographic
                            •Data collected using         Information system
                             database tools and          •Business intelligence tools for
                             spreadsheets                 trend analysis
                            • Transfer of data by        •Advanced relational database
                             email and ftp                systems
                            •Analysis and integration    •Experiments with wireless and
                             at the center using          PDAs
Fragmented (1985+)           spreadsheets and            • Integration of Web 2.0
•Data gathered manually      statistical tools such as
 by different educational    SPSS, SAS
 establishment
•Individual desktop used
 for analysis
                    EMIS:
           Trends since mid 1980s
   More focus on use of Personal Computers and Windows
    environment
   Fragmented data gathering using desktop
   Excitement about the role of technology in promoting
    educational decision making
   Focus on the description of the education system and
    production of educational statistics
                                     EMIS:
                                 Trend (1990s)
   Intensive and integrated donor and UN agencies
    support to EMIS development (support include
    capacity building)
   Use of integrated software such as ED*ASSIST
   Analysis and integration at the center (MoE) using
    spreadsheets and statistical tools such as SPSS, SAS




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                      ED*ASSIST
   Windows-based software system designed for the
    collection, processing and dissemination of education
    data.
   Supported by the Academic for Educational Development
    with funding from the United States Agency for
    International Development and other such as the World
    Bank.
   Funding supports joint needs assessment, technology,
    training,
   ED*ASSIST was used in a dozen of African countries
    including Djibouti, Liberia, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia.

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                         EMIS Trends: 2000s
   Better understanding of the complexity of EMIS
   More decentralized and scaled-back approach
   Improved connectivity and access to web tools that
    facilitate data gathering and use at school, district,
    provincial and national levels
   Focus on open source software in particular the
    availability of OpenEMIS for developing countries




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                       OpenEMIS
Promoted by UNESCO




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                      EMIS: Current Trends
   Proliferation of independent information systems at
    school, municipal, district and provincial levels
   Web –based data access and manipulation using
    business intelligence tools
   Integration with Geographic Information system




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                     EMIS – current trends
   Increased use of business intelligence tools for trend
    analysis
   Advanced relational database systems
   Experiments with wireless and PDAs
   Integration of Web 2.0




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                         EMIS : case studies
                                 Further information
   Ghana: www.infodev.org/en/Document.502.pdf
   Mozambique: www.infodev.org/en/Document.501.pdf
   Nigeria: www.infodev.org/en/Project.5.htm
    Caribbean:
    http://www.natomagroup.com/storage/publications/
    Caribbean%20pub%20vol1%202-27-09%20screen.pdf
   SADC:
    http://nesis.intoweb.co.za/en/index.php?module=doc
    uments&JAS_DocumentManager_op=viewDocument&J
    AS_Document_id=23
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                     EMIS:
                                  opportunities
   Improved availability of data for decision making at school,
    district, provincial levels
   Significant and increasing demand for better data and
    information
   Improving ICT access at school, district and provincial levels
   Increase ICT use by teachers and principals
   Improved access to broadband networks
   Greater emphasis on data for education sector due to the
    need for monitoring broadening educational goals, global
    commitments such as EFA, MDG and due to decentralization



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                              EMIS:
                       challenges - general
   Donor driven, therefore prone to institutionalization problems
   Overemphasis on technical issues than the organizational and
    capacity issues
   Limited policymakers‟ involvement in design and data use
   Underinvestment in training and professional development in
    particular for data input and use at school, district and
    provincial levels
   Underinvestment in maintenance and upgrading
   Data quality problems
   Data supply was not complemented with effective use


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        EMIS:
                                      challenges
   Human resource constraints in particular in advanced web-
    based content management systems
   Lack of political will and sustained support
   Financial constraints
   Integration of data from multiple sources and multiple years
   Improved connectivity to the Internet and broadband
    networks at schools and district level to input and utilize
    distributed EMIS data.




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
              EMIS technical challenges
 How best to develop skills in data use at all levels?
 How to assure truly local EMIS development?
 How to complete the integration of data and data
  systems? (census-personnel-finance-examinations)
 How to capture expenditure and budget data in EMIS?
 How to better integrate GIS?




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                      EMIS:
           key questions for next phase
   What are the key opportunities for African countries to
    move away from minimalist approach to EMIS to more
    integrated tools that rely on web-based distributed
    tools?
   What are they key barriers for scaling up
    implementation?
   What are the infrastructure, policy, regulatory and other
    obstacles?
   What are the critical success factors?
   What might be areas for investment by donors and
    others?
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                EMIS:
                         selected resources
   Cassidy, T. (2005). Education Management Information System
    (EMIS) development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Lessons
    and challenges. Inter-American Development Bank.
    tp://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=741813
   Connal, C. & Sauvageot, C. (2005). NFE-MIS Handbook: Developing
    a Sub- National Non-Formal Education Management System. Paris:
    UNESCO.
    http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001457/145791e.pdf
   Hua, H. & Herstein, J. (2003). EMIS and their implications in
    Educational Management. Paper presented at the Annual
    Conference of Comparative and International Educational Society,
    March 2003, New Orleans, LA.
    http://www.infodev.org/en/Document.188.aspx

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                EMIS:
                         selected resources
 Ministry of Education of Trinidad and Tobago, Draft ICT in Education
  Policy, 2005, www.carib-is.net/ictpolicies/draft-policy-
  information-and-communications-technology-education-trinidad-
  tobago
 Southern African Development Community, EMIS Assessment
  Report, 2008,
  http://nesis.intoweb.co.za/en/index.php?module=documents&JAS
  _DocumentManager_op=viewDocument&JAS_Document_id=23
 Wako, TN. (2003). Education Management Information Systems
  (EMIS): an overview. Harare: NESIS/UNESCO.
  http://www.harare.unesco.org/documents/2005/Educational%20M
  anagem ent%20Information%20Systems.pdf


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                EMIS:
                         selected resources
   Mehta, Arun, DISE II – HMIS - Higher Education Information
    Management System, www.educationforallinindia.com/HEMIS.pd
   World Bank, Survey of ICT Use in Education, Lesotho Country
    Report, www.infodev.org/en/Document.410.pdf
   World Bank, Survey of ICT in Education in the Caribbean: Volume I:
    Regional Trend Analysis,
    http://www.natomagroup.com/storage/publications/Caribbean
    0pub%20vol1%202-27-09%20screen.pdf
   World Bank, Education Management Information Systems, A case of
    Nigeria, www.infodev.org/en/Project.5.htm
   World Bank, Knowledge Maps: ICT in Education, What do we know
    about the effective use of ICTs in developing countries?
    www.infodev.org/en/Document.373.pdf
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                                ANNEX 5


                               NATIONAL RESEARCH AND
                                EDUCATION NETWORKS




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                     CONTENTS
 Overview                                               Selected Resources
 Background                                             Key questions for the
 Issues                                                  Next Phase
 Case Studies – Global                                  Overview of the Next
                                                          Phase
 Case Studies – African
 Opportunities
 Challenges



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                            NRENs: overview
 National Research and Education Networks
  (NRENs), a fact of life in developed economies,
  started emerging in Africa just over 10 years.
 This section discusses the motivation and role of
  NRENs and the value and benefits they bring to
  members and beneficiaries as a basis for
  examining the opportunities they can provide to
  all levels of the education sector in African
  countries

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                               Background (1)
   What are National Research and Education
    Networks (NRENs)?
       NRENS   are networks serving the data communication
        needs of closed user groups, normally addressing
        institutions of higher learning and University level
        research centres
       Have two layers: the infrastructure layer, consisting of
        high speed data networks interconnecting the member
        institutions; and the human layer where content
        sharing and collaboration (in research and education)
        occur.
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                               Background (2)
   Motivation for NRENS – Enable:
       Sharing content (library resources; digital learning
        content; online lectures; etc)
       Sharing applications and resources (expert human
        resource; e-learning platforms; management
        information systems; i-labs; video-conference
        platforms; grid-computing; etc)
       Collaboration in teaching, research, and
        administration
       Advanced applications, and access to high capacity
        on demand that the private sector cannot handle
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                               Background (3)
   Additional Benefits of NRENs:
      Increase purchasing and negotiating power of
       academic and research institutions, including benefits
       of economies of scale;
      Attraction of grants for advanced infrastructure and
       applications, often as development test-beds (a win-
       win for universities and industry);
      Access to private/public funding/grants - NRENs are
       seen as an investment in national development.
      Access to national fibre at very low or no cost


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                               Background (4)
   Growth of NRENs in Africa:
       The  high costs of bandwidth has led to intellectual
        isolation of researchers and academics in Africa that
        NRENs want to remove;
       Developing countries - initial impetus for NRENS has
        been about getting access to cheaper bandwidth;
       NRENs development in Africa started about 10 years
        ago, with Eastern and Southern Africa leading in
        NREN activity, with the mantra “more bandwidth at
        lower cost”


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
               Growth of NRENs in Africa




                          UbuntuNet
                          Alliance (5
                          years old)




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
  Background (5) – Necessary layers
  to enable effective collaboration
       Content Networks (Researchers,
           Libraries, Universities
                Management)
                                                                      Collaborative
        Global REN Infrastructure

           Regional Infrastructure                                    UbuntuNet, etc

    NREN National Infrastructure
                                                                        KENET, etc
            Campus Infrastructure

     Teachers, Researchers, Libraries,
      Classrooms, Labs, Management


African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
        Background (6) – NREN models
    Bottom-up  or Grassroots: initiated, owned, and funded
     by universities and research institutions (with
     government recognition and acceptance), e.g. Internet2
     (USA), TENET (South Africa), RENU (Uganda);
    Top-down (1): initiated and owned by government, e.g.
     EthERNet (Ethiopia);
    Co-operative: initiated and owned by universities but
     with the direct participation of government or vice
     versa, and fully managed by universities with
     government funding support, e.g. SUIN (Sudan),
     RENATER (France);

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        Issues (1)
                        The challenge of connectivity:
     Up  to 2007, African NRENs were challenged by the
      apparent absence of fibre to deliver regional and global
      connectivity at gigabit speeds competitive costs;
     At least five different cable systems have been (or will
      soon be) operationalised;
     Most countries are rolling out extensive national fibre
      networks (private sector was very slow);
     Policy and regulation have permitted increasing
      competition and bringing on the market extensive fibre
      owned by utility companies (power, rail, pipelines).
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
               Fibre to and within Africa
                 (www.ubuntunet.net)




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        Issues (2)
               Exploiting mobile/wireless technology
     Several NRENS have experimented with mobile
      technology (especially wireless Ethernet) to extend
      access. WEIRD is an example.
     Wireless access is accepted as a quick-win and
      relatively affordable approach for mass access in
      African countries, and will be required for creating
      reach to remote higher institutions of learning and
      schools; and also for final access by students
     The technology challenge is in linking this with the
      ubiquitous presence of mobile phones in Africa
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        Issues (3)
                Barriers to Access to m-applications:
    While there is an increasing number of m-applications in
     education, they rely on commercial mobile platforms
     for delivery;
    Two key affordability barriers to mass access at the
     lower education levels: cost of access devices; and
     recurrent cost of access;
    Another barrier to access is lack of technical expertise
     to ensure availability of services



African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        Issues (4)
                       Should NRENs Support Schools?
      In  some developed countries – NRENs have enabled
       access to their networks by schools and colleges (e.g.
       the K20 initiative in the USA; Spain; Denmark).
      Africa - challenge of access for schools means that
       most students who go to university lack the most basic
       internet literacy and cannot therefore fully exploit the
       advanced internet environment being created;
      It is therefore beneficial for NRENs to reach out and
       enable access to such schools so that universities admit
       e-ready students
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        Issues (5)
                        Should NRENs support schools?
    Most NRENs in Africa have weak financial bases and need
     government support and donations of fibre capacity;
    Therefore prudent for NRENs to demonstrate relevance
     to the general challenge of education by reaching out to
     school and making the case for public support;
    Member NRENs of the UbuntuNet Alliance have formally
     adopted a policy of enabling access to schools
    With this strategy, support to NRENs = general support to
     improvement of education

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        Issues (6)
                           Opportunity of Schoolnets:
       Schoolnets provide an opportunity for the NREN to
        reach out to schools as beneficiaries;
       Schoolnets have a similar model to NRENs, but reach
        out to lower levels of education;
       Like NRENs, driven in Africa by trying to get access to
        cheaper bandwidth, and, as they develop enabling
        content sharing/collaboration
       In Namibia, Xnet started as a schoolnet and has
        evolved to an NREN
       Schoolnets however generally face major challenges
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                        Issues (7)
                     Challenges faced by Schoolnets:
    Inadequate   operational and technical support as a result
     of limited funding and professional resources;
    Lack of infrastructure and the high cost of internet
     connectivity;
    Lack of access devices (computers, etc);
    Lack of, or very limited capacity to generate content;
    All the above provide opportunity for NRENs to
     meaningfully support the schools sector: backbone
     transport; distribution through higher education
     institutions; creating sustainable virtual schoolnets
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
            NRENs case studies - global
   Internet2 (USA)                                        Success factors
         State networks in the USA                              Provided critical services
          are independent NRENs                                   in a niche market
         Internet2 set up and                                   Private ownership and
          owned by universities to                                rapid decision-making
          provide regional                                       Competitive environment –
          connectivity.                                           two regional RENs in the
         One of two USA “regional”                               USA
          networks – the other is the                            Two annual conferences
          National Lambda Rail.                                   where the content people;
         Top tier regional REN                                   the applications people;
          providing advanced                                      and the network people
          services and applications                               meet, creating a string
                                                                  human network overlay
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
            NRENs case studies - global
   CLARA (South America)                                  Success factors
         South American Regional                                Provide critical services in
          Network                                                 a niche market
         Impetus to start was                                   Impetus from external
          provided by funding from                                funding support
          EUC                                                    Willingness of established
         Bigger established NRENs                                and financially able NRENs
          (Brazil, Argentina) played                              to meet costs above their
          a key role in enabling the                              direct benefits
          weaker ones to participate                             Strong focus on
         Has received a second                                   engineering design
          phase of EUC support,
          moving to a world class
          RREN
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
            NRENs case studies - Africa
   UbuntuNet Alliance                                     Success factors
         Started and owned by NRENs                             Member owned
         Driven initially by the need                           Started off with a Board and CEO
          for more and cheaper BW                                 who were internationally
                                                                  recognised pioneers
         Established an operational                             Focus on creating trust from the
          POP from the start (supported                           start
          by donations)                                          Focus on sustainability with an
         Has gained regional and                                 enforced requirement for
          global recognition, despite its                         payment of member dues
          still limited network                                  Giving value to members even
         Has established a strong                                before connectivity is established
          human network                                          Thin delocalised organisation
                                                                  with outsourced operations
         Main beneficiary of the
                                                                 Mutual support among NRENs and
          €14.8million EU supported                               especially from stronger members
          regional network project                                (TENET, and now KENET)
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                              NRENs:
                       case studies - Africa
   KENET, Kenya                                           Success Factors
         Member owned but also involved                         Started with low operating
          the regulator to support funding;                       overheads (donated staff)
         Universities donated human                             Very strong support from
          resource (CEO and support staff);                       government and the regulator
         Impetus from an initial grant to                       Integrated national ICT policy
          roll out basic connectivity to                          that recognises the roles of
          universities;                                           NRENs
         Has now received major                                 Start-up grant for connectivity
          government support - $20m                              Effective CEOs
          funding for infrastructure;                            Kenya‟s coast with the major
          donation of an STM-4 on TEAMS;                          cable landing point in Mombasa
         Now able to sustain itself;                            Large and competitive client
         Has gone from 5Mbps to 5xSTM-1                          base.
          in 2 year, with price down to
          $300 from $4,000

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                              NRENs:
                       case studies - Africa
   TENET, South Africa                                    Success Factors
         Member owned organisation                              Very effective CEO;
         Received a start grant from the                        A strong education and research
          Andrew Mellon Foundation                                base, including some very well
         Started with an agency model,                           endowed world class universities
          outsourcing all operations – now                       Very vibrant private sector
          into ownership/ operations but                         Ownership by members and rapid
          with a major outsourcing                                decision making structures
         Acquired 10Gbps external                               Low operating overhead
          capacity through members                               Start-up grant
          guarantees
                                                                 Court decision that cleared the
         Cost dropped from $1,200 to $130                        regulatory barriers that would
          per Mbps per month in two years                         have impeded progress
          (and set to drop further)
                                                                 Volume of traffic has given them
         Government has rolled out a                             a strong negotiating position with
          10Gbps NREN backbone                                    the private sector
         Hosting the Google caches in RSA
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                              NRENs:
                       case studies - Africa
   Xnet, Namibia                                          Success Factors
         Started as a schoolnet supported                     Working with the service provider
          by Telecom Namibia, then a                            for concessionary access though
          monopoly provider, to support                         this creates its own challenges;
          social sectors;                                      Strong support from the Ministry
         Has rolled out connectivity to                        of Education
          schools, colleges, and libraries
         Connection largely via dialup or
          microwave link with Telecom
          fibre as the backbone
          (concessionary rates)
         Has experimented a lot with low
          cost connectivity
         The sparse population of Namibia
          is a major challenge
         Has now evolved into an NREN
          that also serves schools
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
          NRENs working with schools:
             case studies - global
   Internet2 and the K20                                  Success factors
    Initiative                                                 Rides on the back of the
       Aimed at community colleges,                            advanced university, state
        schools, universities, libraries                        and Internet2 networks,
        to enable them to benefit                               bringing the advantages to
        from advanced networking                                institutions that would never
                                                                afford them on their own, at
       Has the objective of
                                                                a very small overhead to the
        enhancing teaching and
                                                                advanced networks;
        learning in schools and
        colleges                                               Creates social value for the
                                                                NRENs outside the immediate
       Has been one of the
                                                                their immediate clients
        stimulants of the US UCAN
        initiative that is funded by
        government and spearheaded
        by Internet2
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                              NRENs: challenges

    NRENs in Africa still face many challenges:
          Cost of connectivity – has gone down significantly over the last two
           years, but still a challenge;
          Human resource capacity, both technical and managerial; Includes
           often poor understanding of NRENs
          Disabling policy and regulatory environments, including monopoly
           markets – significant improvement since 2008;
          Part-time staff – cannot make time to grow the NRENs;
          Poor resource base – most are not operational and are therefore
           cash-strapped;
          Generally poor campus networks & limited PCs for users.

    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                      NRENs: opportunities
   Increased awareness by African governments about the
    development dividend of NRENs, and readiness to
    support them;
   Increasing fiber to and within Africa and dropping
    prices;
   Increased development partner support to REN
    activities in Africa;
   Internet aware students who demand modern learning
    environment;
   The wave of NREN growth in Africa, including regional
    networks
African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Selected Resources (1)
    www.ubuntunet.net
    www.kenet.or.ke
    www.tenet.ac.za
    www.xnet.na
    www.internet2.edu
    http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOUTHASIAEXT/Resources/223546-1181699473021/3876782-
     1191373775504/indiainnovationchapter6.pdf
    http://www.terena.org/publications/files/EARNEST-OthersUsers-Report.pdf
    http://www.terena.org/publications/files/EARNEST-OthersUsers-Report.pdf
    http://www.terena.org/publications/files/SERENATE-FINAL.pdf
    http://eden.dei.uc.pt/~edmundo/Conf%20Internacionais/CI091%202006%20ANIPLA%20Angori.pdf
    http://www2.cto.int/COMARCIReport.pdf
    http://wikieducator.org/The_Case_of_SchoolNet_Namibia/Operations/Activities/Connectivity
    http://www.schoolnetafrica.org/fileadmin/resources/School_Networking_Initiatives.pdf
    http://wikieducator.org/The_Case_of_SchoolNet_Namibia/Operations/Activities/Connectivity
    http://www.powershow.com/view/5690-
     ZTdhN/Telecom_Namibia_is_main_provider_for_the_access_network_b_flash_ppt_presentation

    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                       Selected Resources (2)
    Empowering Youth and Connecting Schools: Lessons from the SchoolNet Namibia
     Approach , INASP infobrief 2: School Networking: February 2004
    http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/111/Schoolnet_LLVol.3.pdf
    http://www2.unescobkk.org/elib/publications/111/Schoolnet_LLVol.3.pdf
    http://www.wiche.edu/info/publications/BroadbandForEducation.pdf
     Initiating and Managing SchoolNets: Lessons Learned, UNESCO Bangkok, 2007.
    (ICT Lessons Learned Series Volume III)
    http://www.wiche.edu/info/publications/BroadbandForEducation.pdf
    http://www.internet2.edu/
    http://www.arp.harvard.edu/AfricaHigherEducation/Reports/OpticalFibre.pdf
    Deliverable D.1.2v3 (update): NREN Status and Development Plans. Bogatencov, et al.
     June 2007.
    http://newsletter.licensedwirelessnews.ie/1by71g336hm
    http://www.ericsson.com/ericsson/corpinfo/programs/resource_documents/eclo_nki_p
     aper.pdf

    African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
    Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                    NRENs:
          key questions for next phase
   How can the challenges be turned into opportunities,
    and opportunities exploited to bring about the growth
    of modern sustainable NRENs in Africa?
   How can the success of the UbuntuNet Alliance be
    replicated in the rest of Africa?
   What should NRENs do to position themselves to
    support access, applications, and collaboration for
    schools to mutual benefit?
   How can the missing link between the delivery power
    of NRENs and the ubiquitous mobile platform be
    established?

African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                                   Next phase:
                                    overview
   Deep dive case studies are to be undertaken in Uganda
    and Senegal, along with an overview case study of
    South Africa
   Blogs will be published in each of the five thematic
    areas
   Consultations will be undertaken with experts and
    other stakeholders in each thematic area




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011
                   Invitation to comment
   Please forward comments on this first
    deliverable of the Transformation Ready
    education component to both of the following
    email addresses:
       fftusu@gmail.com
       david.souter@runbox.com




African Development Bank – Transformation Ready programme – Education component
Initial presentation of Chapter 2 – Landscape analysis – 9 May 2011

								
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