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The Impact of Hybrid Technology on Training

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					        The Impact of
        Hybrid Technology
        on Training

                                                   John Cutler & Clynton Reynolds
                                                          Toyota Australia




Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




                                                                                    1
     Worldwide Prius Sales Top 1 Million


      30                                                                                  281K units
                                                                                          281K units
            (×10K units/year)




      20




      10




        0
              '98       '00        '01       '02     '03/-8 '03/9-   '04   '05      '06      '07
                         1st generation                            2nd generation
     Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




The hybrid market is expanding every year globally. Prius especially, as a
front runner, has been steadily increasing its sale volume since launch of the
1st generation model in 1998. Prius sales exceeded one million units in the
first quarter of 2008.
The 11 series Prius was launched in the Australian market in early 2002.
The 20 series Prius was launched in the Australian market in late 2003.
There are currently 12,300 Toyota / 2117 Lexus hybrids in the Australian
market. Currently Lexus have 3 hybrid models available in Australia the
RX400h, GS450h & LS600hl
Honda have the only other commercially available model on sale in Australia
which is the Honda Civic. Civic Hybrid was introduced in 2004 has sold 2,683
units.




                                                                                                       2
       What is Hybrid Technology?

        Two motive power sources -
             internal combustion engine & electric motor

        Benefits of each + compensating for shortcomings -
             Highly efficient driving performance




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




So what is Hybrid Technology?
The standard definition is a vehicle with Two motive power sources.
Currently with Toyota and most manufacturers this is an electric motor and petrol
combustion engine. However there are diesel / electric hybrids and as new
technologies develop we will see more variants such as hydrogen fuel cell
technology and of course more straight electric vehicles.
There are Three types of Hybrid System, Series, Parallel and Series Parallel.




                                                                                    3
       Parallel Hybrid System

       Honda Civic
           Petrol Engine
           main power
           source
           Electric Motor
           supplements
           power as
           needed
           http://world.honda.com/Hybrid/
           http://world.honda.com/Hybrid/




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




The parallel hybrid system uses both an electric motor and an internal
combustion engine to drive the wheels. Its basic components are an electric
motor, an internal combustion engine, a battery, an inverter and a transmission.
With the parallel hybrid system, the motor is powered by the battery to drive the
wheels, and is also used as a generator to recharge the battery. Consequently,
the motor cannot be used to generate electricity while the car is running.
Because the flow of power is in parallel, this system is called a "Parallel Hybrid
System.” used in the Civic Hybrid.




                                                                                     4
       Series Parallel Hybrid System

       Toyota Prius & Lexus

       3 core technologies
           Power Split Device
           Sophisticated Energy
           Management
           Regenerative Brake
           Cooperative Control


       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




With the Series Parallel Hybrid System, it is possible to drive the wheels using
the dual sources of power (electric motors and/petrol engine), as well as to
generate electricity while running on the electric motors.
The system runs the car on power from the electric motors only, or by using both
the petrol engine and the electric motors together, depending on the driving
conditions. Since the generator is integrated into the system, the battery can be
charged while the car is running.
This is the system used by Toyota and Lexus which we term Hybrid Synergy
Drive.




                                                                                    5
       Characteristics of Hybrid Technology
           Idle Stop
           Regenerative Braking
           Motor Assist
           EV Drive




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




“Hybrid technology” mainly has 4 characteristics; 1) Idling stop 2) Regenerative
braking 3) Motor assist 4) EV drive
Fuel Efficiency: How it Works
HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE makes intelligent use of its electric motors and petrol
engine to take advantage of the key attributes of the two power
sources to ensure that the car operates at optimum fuel efficiency.
1. At start-off/low-speeds, HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE runs the car on the electric
motors only, since the petrol engine does not perform efficiently.
2. However, the petrol engine is quite energy efficient for cruising. Power
produced by the petrol engine is used to drive the wheels and also the generator
to provide power to the electric motors or to charge the battery.
3. Under deceleration or braking, HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE uses the car's
kinetic energy to let the wheels turn the electric motors and recover regenerative
energy to recharge the battery.




                                                                                     6
     Toyota Hybrid Systems - Components

     Nickel Metal Hydride Battery

                                                                   Light Weight
                                                                   Long Life
                                                                   High Input/Output
                                                                   Ratio
                                                                   No External
                                                                   Recharging



     Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




One of the most important components of Hybrid is the battery and the
most common is the Nickel Metal Hydride Battery.
In addition to being light-weight and having a long service life, the high power output
nickel metal hydride battery provides a high input/output to weight ratio (power output in
relation to weight). It does not require recharging from an outside power source, nor does
it require periodical replacement.




                                                                                             7
    Toyota Hybrid Systems - Components

    High Output Electric Motor / Regenerative Braking

                                                                  Synchronous
                                                                  3-Phase A/C
                                                                  Motor/Generator
                                                                  Permanent Rotor
                                                                  Magnets V-Figure
                                                                  Compact &
                                                                  Lightweight


    Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




Toyota & Lexus HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE uses synchronous 3-Phase
A/C motors, which can efficiently produce strong torque up into the high
revolution ranges and provide freedom to control the motors revolutions
and torque.
This system can reuse kinetic energy by using its electric motors to
regenerate electricity in what is called "regenerative braking".
The system coordinates regenerative braking and the braking operation of
the conventional hydraulic brakes so that kinetic energy, which is normally
discarded as friction heat when braking, can be collected for later reuse in
normal driving mode.
Prius 11 utilises a 273.6V HV battery voltage with no boost (THS).
Prius 20 utilises a 201V HV battery with boost up to 500V (THS 11).
Lexus hybrids currently utilise a 288V HV battery with boost up to 650V
(THS11)




                                                                                     8
     Toyota Hybrid Systems - Components

     Power Control Unit

                                                                     Converts AC - DC
                                                                     and DC - AC
                                                                     Boosts Voltage
                                                                     from 201 to 650 V*
                                                                     Steps down DC
                                                                     Voltage to 12 V

                                                                   * Depending on model

     Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE is equipped with a Power Control Unit that consists of an
inverter, a Voltage-Boosting Converter and an AC/DC converter to run the car on electric
motors.
Inverter: An inverter converts DC supplied by the battery to AC to turn the electric motors
and to use in the generator.
Conversely, it converts AC generated by the electric motors and the generator into DC to
recharge the battery.
Voltage-Boosting Converter: The Voltage-Boosting Converter steplessly increases the
normal 201.6 V DC supply voltage to a maximum of 650
V (Highlander) to feed the electric motors and the generator as required. This means
more power can be generated from a small current to bring out high performance from the
high output motors, enhancing overall system efficiency. It also means that the inverter
could be made smaller and lighter.
DC/DC Converter: The DC/DC converter steps down the 201.6 V supply voltage from the
battery to 12 V, to be used by ancillary systems and electronic devices like the ECU.




                                                                                              9
     Toyota Hybrid Systems - Components

     Power Split Device

                                                                   Splits power from
                                                                   petrol engine
                                                                   between the drive
                                                                   train and the
                                                                   generator




     Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




The HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE power splitting device distributes the power produced by
the petrol engine to the drive train and to the generator. To divide the power efficiently, it
uses a planetary gear set.
1. The rotating axle of the planetary carrier is directly connected to the petrol engine and
rotates the perimeter ring gear and the sun gear inside via the pinion gears.
2. The rotating axle of the ring gear is directly connected to the electric motors, and thus
transfers the driving power to the wheels. The axle of the sun gear is directly connected to
the generator and converts the power produced by the petrol engine into electric energy.




                                                                                                 10
    Toyota Hybrid Systems - Components

    ECU – Electronic Control Unit

                                                                  Monitors status of
                                                                  each Hybrid
                                                                  Component
                                                                  Controls each
                                                                  device to maintain
                                                                  optimum efficiency




    Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




HYBRID SYNERGY DRIVE uses the ECU to constantly monitor the
operational status of these devices, and of energy consumption, on a real-
time basis. This enables it to execute quick, precise and comprehensive
management to run the car safely, comfortably and with maximum
efficiency.
- Monitors operational status of each hybrid component (petrol engine,
generator, electric motors, battery) - Monitors braking data received via
car's control network - Monitors instructions (accelerator pedal opening
angle, gear shift position) from the driver - Monitors energy consumption of
driver assisting – operated systems (e.g. air-conditioning, headlamps,
navigation system etc.)
- Controls each device electronically, based on information derived from
monitoring activities listed above, to ensure safe, comfortable and efficient
operation of the car.




                                                                                       11
      Impact of Hybrid Technology on Training
       1.    Product & Safety for Technicians
       2.    Safety for Emergency Services Personnel
       3.    Maintenance Training
       4.    Diagnosis Training




With the introduction of Prius in 2002, our primary focus for technical training has
been two areas the first being -
Product knowledge & Safety for our technical staff
 Product knowledge of Hybrid vehicles follows the conventional training model
that we employ at new vehicle introduction. That is;
Selected Technical and Service staff from all Dealers are required to attend prior
to wholesale release (Enforced with Hybrid)
- Product knowledge training courses for Technicians are designed to ensure that
they understand -
-             Vehicle features and general operation
-             Explanation of each major component covering design,
construction, operation
-             Service and maintenance requirements and procedures, including
pre delivery and systems that require initialization
At this training staff are provided in-dealer training material.




                                                                                       12
       Emergency Services Training

           Training of Emergency Services Personnel
                Fire, Police, SES, Rural Fire, B&P etc
           To review Emergency Responder Guide
           Demonstrate Isolation of HV
           Often attended by personnel responsible
           for the Organisations Training




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




All TMCA regional training centres provide ongoing training to the respective
state and national authorities. This training is provided annually or on an “as
needed” basis for all new Hybrid Models, Toyota & Lexus. These courses are
usually 1 day and focus on the safe handling of the vehicle.




                                                                                  13
       Safety Training – Dealers & ES
           Basic Hybrid Safety & Technical Training prior to being
           allocated vehicles
           Supplied with Hybrid Safety Kit




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




When a Dealer is appointed to sell hybrid vehicles they are provided with safety
kits after successful completion of their technical training.
Technicians are required to practice using the kit during face to face training to
ensure they are fully aware of the kit contents as well as other items required in
the Service Department such as correct fire extinguishers. (CO2)
The Safety equipment required for handling the High Voltage system : Eye
protection, Boric Acid, red litmus paper, tape and gloves -
Two separate types of gloves are necessary, electrical lines-mans gloves for
working on any of the high voltage components, and alkaline resistant synthetic
rubber gloves, for working with any electrolyte spillage.




                                                                                     14
   Procedure to Isolate HV Battery
         Remove the HV battery service
         plug using approved insulated
         rubber gloves



                                                                  Note - cover the
                                                                  service plug
                                                                  socket with tape




    Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




Just as an example both dealers and Emergency Services Personnel
need to know how to isolate the HV Battery by removing the “Service
Plug” …
•Always wear insulated rubber gloves when working on the orange
coloured high voltage components and wiring.
•Place the service plug in your pocket or in the caution cone.
•Cover the exposed plug socket with insulating tape.




                                                                                     15
       Emergency Services Safety ERG

           Emergency Responder
           Guides sent to all
           Emergency Services
           Available from various
           Manufacturers web sites
                https://techinfo.toyota.com
                https://techinfo.honda.com
                https://www.gmstc.com
                http://www.motorcraftservice.com




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




Toyota and all Hybrid Vehicle Manufacturers produce ERG’s ( Emergency
Response Guides) which are distributed to various Emergency Services thorough
Australia & the world via their distributors in each country. The US has the
easiest access via various manufacturers web sites.
The EGR’s contain information on The ERG's cover emergency response
procedures in the following specific areas:
Vehicle Identification, High voltage, Disabling procedures and warnings,
extrication, Roadside assistance.




                                                                                16
Impact of Hybrid Technology on Training
1.   Product & Safety for Technicians
2.   Safety for Emergency Services Personnel
3.   Maintenance Training
4.   Diagnosis Training




                                               17
       Technician Training - Routine Maintenance

            Vehicle Servicing – Hybrid
                 Servicing of the Petrol Engine are same /
                 similar to non Hybrid
                 Toyota /Lexus Hybrid has additional
                 requirement to replace coolant for the Power
                 Control Unit & Motor / Generator
                 No routine maintenance of HV System
                 No isolation of HV required during Routine
                 Servicing


        Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




The impact of hybrid technology on Technicians within TMCA’s Dealer network
has been minimal to date.
Reasons for this are twofold;
•No routine maintenance required on the HV system or mechanisms
•System reliability
The periodic maintenance requirements of Prius follow the conventional 10k / 6
month schedules and involves all the usual check, inspect and replace methods
used on all petrol & diesel powered vehicles.
There is no need to isolate any high voltage systems or any of the HV
components when performing periodic maintenance.
With one exception, the Power Control Unit (HV inverter) and Motor / Generator
unit have a dedicated cooling system. The system design is the same as the
internal combustion engine (liquid to air heat exchange, circulation via pump,
pressurised) and the coolant replacement requirement mirrors the engine (i.e.
160,000km initial change then every 80,000km).




                                                                                 18
       Apprentice Training - Hybrid

           From 2009 Toyota will include introduction
           to hybrid technology into our Cert II training




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




As part of our Apprentice Training from 2009 we are introducing Hybrid
Introduction & Safety to our Cert II curriculum in Vehicle Servicing Module.




                                                                               19
       Toyota Diagnosis Training
       Toyota Australia’s DT Stream Training




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




And as of 2009 we are including Hybrid Training as a component of our Electrical
DT (Diagnosis Training) Stream rather than having it separate. This is due to the
growth in Hybrid Models now and into the future with Hybrid Camry production to
begin at Altona in early 2010.




                                                                                    20
       Technician Training - Diagnosis

           Main focus of Hybrid
           Diagnosis Training
                Diagnosis of electrical
                (potential) problems
                Understanding of
                DTC’s
                Case Studies




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




Toyota have developed a “high tech diagnosis” training program to support Prius
and our Lexus hybrids. The intent is to maintain and enhance knowledge in our
Diagnosis Master Technician group.
These individuals are a select group that are targeted for specific training
programs, not only on hybrid, but all our new technologies.
For hybrid training the focus areas, to date, have been to ensure that they are
familiar with the characteristics associated with hybrid vehicle operation.
Such things as normal operational noise from electric motors that vehicle owners
have, understandably, never experienced before requires explanation from a
competent, knowledgeable Technician.
The DTC Diagnosis Trouble Codes) architecture for our hybrids are unique have
detailed “Operation History Data”. This allows a skilled Technician to analyse the
operation of the vehicle and pinpoint any irregularities that may simply be due to
driver irregularity.
This information is also covered as part of the high tech training program as well
as a number of faults “engineered” into the vehicles as case studies, to allow
participants to hone their skills and system knowledge.
Understanding of DTC's including INF codes (information codes linked to hybrid
system codes) and there relationships.
Toyota/Lexus Repair Manuals follow a very ‘step by step’ problem solving
method based on DTC & INF Codes … one thing we try to teach in DMT courses
through “case Studies” is to use this process as well as how to diagnose when
there is a fault and no trouble codes …



                                                                                     21
       Hybrid Unit Components
                 MG1 Generator Assy




                                                                     MG2 Motor Assy




       Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




The trend on Hybrid Components is moving towards complete replacement of
assembly rather than Overhaul of components.
As an example for the Second Generation Prius released in late 2003 in Australia
the Motor/Generator MG1 & Motor Assy MG2 as illustrated in the Parts EPC can
be purchased separately and the differential & chain drive components replaced
individually. However in the 5 years in the Australian Market we have not sold
any MG1 or MG2 subassemblies and have sold only single digit complete
assemblies.




                                                                                      22
Reliability is proven …
    Toyota Prius taxi has clocked
    up approximately 550,000 km
    Half the fuel and maintenance
    outlay compared to other
    vehicles
    32 Prius taxis operate in
    Cairns, each clocking up
    around 200,000km per year
    2 of these Prius have had new
    batteries due to low voltage in
    some cells one at 500,000km
    the other at 350,000km
Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




                                                              23
Conclusion

    No fundamental differences to training of
    Hybrid vs current vehicle technology
         Addition of Safety Training
    Hybrid Training is integrated into Toyota’s
    diagnosis training
    Understanding Diagnosis Process and
    ability to retrieve and understand DTC’s
    Sound Electrical Understanding …

Toyota Motor Corporation Australia - ATA Conference Nov '08




                                                              24
Thank You



            John Cutler & Clynton Reynolds
                   Toyota Australia




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