Common Name Scientific Name Family Typical height Max height
Giant Sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum Cypress 50-85m 93.6m
Coast Redwood Sequoia sempervirens Cypress 90m 115.5m
Tasmanian Mountain-Ash Eucalyptus 70-90m 114.3m (past, biggest reliable measurement; q
Messmate Stringybark Eucalyptus 45-90m
Rainbow Eucalyptus/Mindanaodeglupta Eucalyptus 50-70m
Alpine Ash/Woolybutt Eucalyptus 87.9m
Karri Eucalyptus diversicolor Eucalyptus 90m
Blue Gum Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus 30-55m 90.7m
Manna Gum Eucalyptus viminalis Eucalyptus 50m 87.9m
Red Tingle Eucalyptus jacksonii Eucalyptus 60m
Western RedcedarThuja plicata Cypress 50-60m
Coast Douglas-Fir Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir 60-75m 100.3m
Sitka Spruce Picea sitchensis Spruce 50-70m 96m (probably bigger in the past)
Alerce/Fitzroya Fitzroya cupressoides Cypress 40-60m
Klinki Araucaria hunsteinii Araucariaceae50-80m 90m
Sugar Pine Pinus lambertiana Pine 40-60m 81m
California Incense Cedar Cypress 40-60m 69m
Kauri Kauri and Agathis palmersonii are similar giants also called Kauri
Agathis australis (biggest); Agathis robusta40-50m 50m
Sugi Cryptomeria japonica Cypress 70m
Dacrycarpus dacrydioides Podocarpaceae conifer 80.1m
Red Mahogany Khaya anthotheca Mahogany 60m 70m
Ceiba/Kapok/White Silk Cotton Treeet al 60-70m
Malvaceae (hibiscus, cotton, okra)
Almaciga/Dayungon gathis philippinensis Kauri 45-60m 65m
Taiwania cryptomerioides Cypress
Taiwania/Formosan Redwood 80m
Australian Red Cedar Mahogany 20-30m 60m
Baobab Baobab 10-20m
Adansonia (digitata, grandidieri, madagascarensis, etc)
Sacred Fig Figus religiosa Fig 30m
Montezuma Cypress Taxodium mucronatum Cypress 40m 65m
(Port Orford cedar)
Lawson’s Cypress Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Cypress 50-70m
Western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla Pine 50-70m 78m
Coast Grand Fir Abies grandis var grandis Pine 40-70m 80m
Nordmann Fir Pine 60m
Abies nordmanniana (Caucasian variety bigger?) 78m
Jequitiba Lecythidaceae (brazil nut)
Cariniana estrellensis (excelsa) 50m
Noble Fir Abies procera Pine 40-70m 89m
California Red Fir Abies magnifica Pine 40-60m 76m
Deodar Cedar Cedrus deodara Pine 40-50m 60m
European/Sweet/Spanish Chestnut Beech 20-35m
Canary Islands Dragon Tree draco Ruscaceae 12m 20m
Canary Island PinePinus canariensis Pine 30-45m 60m
Standard warning: if you want a shot at reaching these specs, use only wild-type plants. Domesticated cultivars tend
Typical diameter Max diameterNative to Min Zone Rainfall Growth Sun
5-7m 8.85m Sierra Nevadas 6 18-60” 6’/yr Sun, although “white” sequoias
California to Oregon, 8-75km7from the coastto 100” Sun, although “white” redwoods
2-3m 6.5m (present;Tasmania 8
quite possibly bigger in the past) 30” “Fast” Sun
2-3m 6.72m Tasmania 8 20” “Fast” Sun
2.5m 9 “Moderate” “Fast” Sun
New Britain, New Guinea, Ceram, Sulawesi, Mindanao
Tasmania 8 or 9 28” “Fast” Sun
2.7m SW Australia 9 36” “Fast”` Sun to part shade
2.7m Tasmania 8 24” 6’/yr Sun
Tasmania 8 20” 9’/yr Sun
5m Western Australia 9 40”? Sun
3m 6m to northern 60”?
Southern Alaska to Montana 4, but reports of as low “Rapid” Can tolerate dense shade
California as 2b
1.5-2m 4.85m British Colombia to the Sierras6 Up to 100” or more Sun fast
Moderate to to part shade, but prefers s
96m (probably bigger in the past) 5m Up to 100” “Rapid”
Kodiak Island to northern CA, always within 80km ofor more Sun to part shade
5 the Pacific
5m Charles Darwin reported 12.6 meters (surely a mistake...)
Andes (Chile, Argentina) 6b 75-150”
3m New Guinea 10 “Fast”
Preferably 65” or more
1.5-2.5m 3.5m Sierras to Oregon 6 40-80” “Rapid” Part shade
3m 3.9m OR, CA, NV 5 As little as 15” Sun to part shade
5m 8.5m New Zealand 9 45-70” “Slow” (at least when young)
4m Japan 5 40-105” Sun
2m? 2m? New Zealand 9 Rainforest Sun to part shade
5m Equatorial Africa Tropical Rainforest Up to 4.5’/yr to full shade
3m? 4m? Central America, South America, West Africa Sun to part shade
1.8-6m the Philipines
Indochina, Malaysia through Tropical Rainforest
3m 4m 8b, but Sun
Taiwan, China, Myanmar, Vietnam reports of survival unprotected in zone 7 for at least 5 ye
1.8-3m 3m Australia 7 30-160” Needs shade while young
Record ~12m after the wet season; shrinks10a dry Optimally 12-20”, but can tolerate years of near-zer
Mainland Africa, Madagascar, Australia Sun
trunk) / 200m 10 20-200”
3m (individual Southern Asia(multi-trunk; 650 total trunks included) Sun to part shade
1-3m 4.5m (possibly 11.42m – El Tule) 8a Sun
Both wet and dry sites, but prefers a riparian enviro
3.5m 4m 3’/yr Sun to partial least
5b, but doesn’t like severe summer heat or atshade 59” by the
Northern California, Southwest Oregon In the wild, at least 49” inland(known to survive in O
2.7m Alaska to California 7a can shade with 15-260”
Initial growth survivetolerant
Prefers 35-100”, butVery for the first few years is slo
2m Mostly Washington and Oregon 4a May exceed 4.5’/yr
Prefers 25-30”, but can tolerate 11-100”
Sun to partial shade
2m Turkey and the Caucus Mountains5a 40-120” Sun to partial shade
Central and but others claim Tropical Brazil
only a few Rainforest photos I’ve come across are ve
One source claims 10.5m, South America, particularly meters at best. The Sun to partial shade
2m 2.7m OR, CA 5a 75-100” Sun to partial shade
2m 3m OR, CA 4b 33-64” Sun to partial shade
3m Western Himalayas 7 or 8 3’/yr can
Prefers 40-100”, butSun tolerate droughts
3m 4a 25-50”?
Record 20.5m, but was a case of multiple sprouts fusing. 4.5m individually.Sun to moderate shade
Morocco, Atlantic islands of similar climate10-20” Up to 10’/yr if treated right
1.5m 2.5m Canary Islands 9a Can tolerate under 8”, or up to many dozens
d-type plants. Domesticated cultivars tend to be smaller (often much smaller). Many factors not listed here, such as summer heat,
Soil Bark Leaves Flowers Fruit Wood
Acidic clay Fibrous, and up to three feet thick. Soft. Light, brittle, extremely decay resistan
Small cones that grow for decades, amassing growth rin
a redwood stump Light, decay
Sun, although “white” redwoods can grow inathe shade when using the energy from 15-32mm long, ovoid cones resistant, fire resistant
Fibrous, up to foot thick
Loam Sheds in ribbons Small, white, and rarely noticed Medium weight, straight grain, strong,
Loam Glossy green red-brown pointed end
Rough, fibrous, stringy, gray to with Nice smell
Rainbow streaks White
Smooth and on the upper White
Acidic sand, clay, or loam whiteBluish green trunk, fibrous gray on the lower trunk.
Mild slightly streaks
Sandy loam, acid to rainbowneutral White Mahoganny in color
Loam Sheds smooth bark White
Silvery blue and circular (juvenile); deep green sickle (mature leaves). Foliage is a source of
Sandy loam Fragrant, narrow leaves
Sheds, excuding a sweet, edible manna on drooping, willow-like branches pinkPale
Red and lumpy Cream, small 8x10mm
Can can tolerate Scales strips and used for its the stereotypical fractal ground resistant, aromatic, insect-repe
heavy in opposite pairs, like fiber without hurting tree (assuming harvesting restraint) and riv
15-20mm x 4-5mm cones
Moist, acid loam, butbe pulled off in long clay; can tolerate some degree of waterloggedfern Decay (often grows near lakes
Diverse Sweet, fruity, resinous scent One
5-11cm x 2-3cm conesof the world’s dominant timber sp
Thin and scaly, flaking
Green, in small, circular plates 5-11cm 2-3cm High
Diverse; tolerant of poor soil conditionsoffalthough a rare specimen has goldenxfoliage cones strength to weight makes it popu
Poorly drained, peat/sandy soil 6-8mm globular cones, opening to 12mm
Pollen cones up to 20cm long and
Sharp needles, 6-12cm on mature specimens, shorter on young trees. 1cm wide; seed cone
Diverse Yields a sugary sap
Cones, 25-50cm long (max 66), ~1kg
Sun to part shade Soft, moderately
Cones with only 2-3 pairs of scales decay resistant, spicy
Orange-brown to gray-brown sprout green, ground.
Deep, moist soil w/good drainage; prefersthick, dark in peaty2-5in Strong, with beautiful stump wood
Clay, loam, sand; acidic, brown to dark gray; firm. 1-2cm cones Scented, reddish-pink, lightweight, stro
Diverse Sweet, edible, piney “fruit” lightweight; pigment from th
Sun to full shade Pinnate, 3-7 leaflets, each 15-30cm 5-8 cm globose capsule withinsect-resistant,that can be u
treat colds and kill lice.
Smooth and grayish. Bitter; used to Loose inflorescences of small flowers Beautiful, winged seeds tough
Sun to part shade 8”, palm-like; edible, rich in calcium and iron
15cm-long capsules being investigated for several mode
Green and beige areas on the same tree. Used in traditional medicine and containing tiny black seeds attached
Reddish gray, thick, with numerous green, leathery, narrow, in soils
Adult leaves wet, compacted, comes off 4-5cm long
Well drained, deep, fertile soils; does poorly ondark resin blisters;or poor sandylarge, patchy flakes, like a jigsaw puzzle
Soft but durable, with leaves on young
Weeps like a norway spruce, but like a delicate sea-green lace. Needle-like an attractive spic
30-50cm long (adult), to honey-scented, brown rough,Beautiful red reticulate cracksseeds. A
up up to 90cm (juvenile). Edible. with shallow red coloring matter and a
afterwards capsule, 1.8-2.5cm long, w/winged exfoliati
Needs shade while young Dark grey or reddish-brown, smoothSmall,middle age, Darkcream-colored. Contain a after air exposure, spicy-
Smooth, lumpy, fibrous and is idealLarge, elliptical, and known as Africa (fresh, a soup, and as a dry powder
gourd” or distinctive, foul smell
Well drained, sandy soil mixed with compost commonly used as a leaf vegetable in“sour Tree hasin“monkey’s bread”; possibly m
Small, for planting
Light gray and Used for medicinal and livestock forage purposes figs to look like berries
Small can be
Diverse, but prefers porous peeling; extract is cooling and astringent, and laxative usedthatcreate a red dye and which conce
Brown/green and inconspicuous
Tolerant of alkaline, marshy soil, but not standing water
Reddish brown, fibrous to scaly, in vertical strips
Diverse, but moist. Tiny cones. Male cones are deep red.
without too much nitrogen
Very high percent rotting material,Pendulous branchlet tips or salt (preferably rotted wood), in drier conditions; less exacting w
Mildly acidic Soft, not very strong
Sun to partial shade
Sun to partial shade Alternating, simple, oblong, slightly serrated
Very rigid, deeply furrowed. Astringent; used in tanning Traded as a pricey, exotic hardwood.
Acidic Blue-green, needle-like Cones with purpleSoft, notand fissured.
rough, very strong
Smooth, gray, with resin blisters on young trees; old trees reddish-brown,scales hidden by yellowish-green brac
Acidic Blue-green, needle-like Yellow-green cones, occasionally purple
Soft, not fissured.
Smooth, gray, with resin blisters on young trees; old trees orange-red, rough, and very strong
Neutral to alkaline 2.5-5cm (occasionally 7cm) green to blue-green needles Aromatic, used to make incense
Sun to moderate shade Fragrant, cream-colored chestnut. directions when raw, trunk.
Edible Light, hard, strong wood; used in taste
Net-shaped (retiform) pattern with deep fissures running spirally in both Astringent around the sweet floury tradit
Deep, well-drained, acidic. Does poorest in heavy clay. lilac-blue, “Beautiful with an intoxicating fragrance”normal-sized when
No annual rings
Large and heart shaped when young,
8”, or up to many dozens 10-23cm cones, on branches but also remaining pines
Armoatic and among the finest closed
Extremely long, drooping needles, produced not only chestnut-brown, often in tufts on the trun
d here, such as summer heat, humidity, fog, disease, etc may strongly affect both survivability and maximum potential.
Undisputed “largest” trees in the world in terms of sheer mass, but not the girthiest or tallest.
y resistant, fire resistant
The biggest of these giants were all felled in the 1800s and early 1900s, leaving today's largest no more than 90m. A solid com
Fascinating rainbow-striped bark
Supports koala. Can grow on slightly saline sites.
Favorite of koalas.
Grows in similar environment to the Karri. Base buttresses significantly, and forest fires often hollow out the buttress.
stant, aromatic, insect-repellant
A popular Christmas tree. Now, if we could just find a living room with a 330 foot ceiling...
Bark used in basketweaving
Little studied; may grow bigger than the “typical” numbers suggest
g and 1cm wide; seed cones up to 25cm long and 14-16cm broad.
Sweet resin makes a very desirable syrup. Longest pine cones – record holders over two feet in length.
Leaves a pile of bark around its base, up to 2 meters high
National tree of Japan
ightweight; pigment from the soot used for traditional tattoing. Resin used as chewing gum.
Crowded thorns. Maya cosmology had a Ceiba as a “world-tree”, similar to the Norse Yggdrasil.
Heavy resin producer when cut. Classified as vulnerable to extinction.
Largest tree in Asia. Endangered.
Needs shade to grow or else is attacked by cedar tip moths and damaged by direct sunlight. Bothered by a number of pests/d
Edible fruits and leaves; seeds are a thickener and seasoning. One tree was once used as a prison.
Another giant fig, the “Wonderboom tree” (African), forms three giant rings around the “mother tree”, each formed when its bra
El Tule likely the world record-holder in terms of trunk diameter. Next largest confirmed single trunk, 4.5m. 500-1630mm pre
Susceptible to root rot from Phytophtera fungi, although the disease often requires a vector.
Boughs used to catch herring eggs during the spawn
Foliage has an attractive scent; occasionally used as xmas trees. Similarly related Interior Grand Fir (var idahoensis) slower g
Tallest native trees in Europe when found in the Caucus.
Hard to find good information. Reportedly close to extinction. Tallest trees in the amazon. Other species in the genus (such a
Looks almost “fuzzy”. A popular xmas tree.
Sometimes an xmas tree.
Essential oil used as an insect repellant; also antifungal
Several herbal remedies from this tree exist.
While not abnormally tall, the trunk remains thick up to the branches, which don't spread; the tree seems abnormally truncated
One of the most drought-tolerant pines. Only cold tolerant down to -6C to -10C. Fire resistant, with an impressive ability to reg
more than 90m. A solid competitor to the redwoods in terms of height.
w out the buttress.
ed by a number of pests/diseases.
, each formed when its branches curved back into the ground and took root.
k, 4.5m. 500-1630mm precipitation. Trees from the Mexican Highlands are stoutest.
r (var idahoensis) slower growing, shorter (45m), more cold tolerant.
pecies in the genus (such as Cariniana legalis (Rose Jequitiba) ) are also quite large.
eems abnormally truncated, almost like an Ent. Yields a reddish resin thought of as “dragon's blood” in ancient times. Can be invasive in the
an impressive ability to regrow after fire damage. Popular in California.
n ancient times. Can be invasive in the deep south. An excellent shade tree, but only if pruned.