HAZARD AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IN

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					 HAZARD AND SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS IN I.C.U:
          BY: SALIHA HANIF
            CRITICAL CARE
                       102
 INTENSIVE CARE:

“special medical
 facilities,
 services
 &maintaining
 devices to meet
 the needs of
 gravely ill pt.”
WHAT IS SAFETY?????
“the degree to which the risk of intervention
  r reduced for the pt. & health care
  providers”
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS IS
NECESSARY IN ICU:
The intensive care unit (ICU) is one of the most
  challenging hospital environments for patient
  safety, strategies exist to prevent patient
  harm in ICUs.
A Strategic Approach to
Safe & Reliable Care:
1.Hand Washing:
     properly washing of
  and reduce certain types
  of NOSOCHOMIAL
  INFECTION in ICU.
2.Gloves:

 1.Avoid “touch
 contamination”
    Eyes, mouth, nose,
    surfaces

 2.Change gloves between
 patients
3.Gowns:
  1.Have long sleeves

  2.Fit snuggly at the
  wrist
Masks and Respirators:
Barriers and Filtration
1.Surgical masks
   Cotton, paper
   Protect against body fluids
   and large particles

2.Particulate respirators
(N95)
   Fit testing essential
   Protect against small
   droplets and other
   airborne particles
*Boots
.
(non-hospital settings)
                          *Eye Protection
“Critical” Patient Care Objects:
Critical objects enter normally
  sterile tissue or vascular
  system, or through which
  blood flows.
Steam, gas, hydrogen
  peroxide plasma or
  chemical sterilization are
  the methods used for
  sterilization
Critical Objects:
   Surgical instruments
   Cardiac catheters
   Implants
   Endoscopes
   Respiratory therapy equipment
   Anesthesia equipment
   Endocavitary probes
The mean infection rate decreased
 due to five evidence-based
  .
 procedures
 Hand washing

 Using full-barrier precautions during
 the insertion of central venous
 catheters

 Cleaning the skin with chlorhexidine

 Avoiding the femoral site

 Removing unnecessary catheters
What are HAZARDS:
 “ Materials that become harmful or
 incorporate to deal specifically pt. in
 emergency are called HAZARDOUS
 MATERIALS”
Accident hazards
   Slips, trips, and falls on wet floors,
     especially during emergency situations.
   Stabs and cuts from sharp objects,
     especially needle-sticks and cuts by
     blades.
   Injuries to legs and toes caused by falling
     objects, e.g., medical instruments.
   equipment with faulty insulation.
Physical hazards

   Exposure to radiation from x-
    ray and radioisotope
    sources.
Chemical hazards :

  Danger of exposure to anesthetic gases (ethyl
     bromide, ethyl chloride, ethyl ether,
     halothane, nitrous oxide, etc.).
  Skin defatting, irritation, and dermatomes
     because of frequent use of soaps,
     detergents, disinfectants, etc.
  Irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat because
     of exposure to airborne aerosols or contact
     with droplets of washing and cleaning liquids.
Biological hazards:

 Hazard of contracting a communicable disease
   from the patients.
 Infections due to the exposure to blood, body
   fluids or tissue specimens possibly leading to
   blood-borne diseases such as HIV, Hepatitis
   B and Hepatitis C.
        Preventive measures:
   Handle sharp objects with
    extreme care; use special
    safety receptacles to store
    used hypodermic needles
    until disposal. Use safety
    needles
   Install air conditioning with
    effective general ventilation
    in the intensive-care unit to
    reduce heat stress and
    remove odors, gases, and
    vapors.
           Preventive measures:
   Follow established appropriate
    infection control precautions
    assuming blood, body fluids
    and tissue are infectious
   Routinely use barriers (such as
    gloves, eye protection (goggles
    or face shields) and gowns)
    Wash hands and other
    exposed skin surfaces after
    coming into contact with blood
    or body fluids
“THANK U”
.

				
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posted:7/30/2011
language:English
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