Mammals by cuiliqing


									Ohio Mammals

 Natural Resources
• Taxidea taxus
Badgers go largely unnoticed
    in Ohio because of their
     secretive and nocturnal
     nature. Like their close
  relative, the striped skunk,
 badgers have a white stripe
  that extends back over the
   head from the nose. They
  have white fur around their
      eyes and black cheek
   patches, or “badges,” for
 which they are named. The
 rest of the body is a shaggy
mix of silvery gray, black, and
            buff colors
     and the feet are black.
                   Badger Cont…
• Habitat: Open plains, farmlands and the edges of woods
• Adult Weight:12 - 24 lbs Adult Body Length: 24 inches
• Breeding Period: Late summer, early autumn with delayed
  implantation occurring until February.
• Litters Per Year: 1 Litter Size:1 – 5
• Foods: Rodents, ground squirrels, rabbits, reptiles, insects, and
  worms. They will eat rattlesnakes, with no affects from the venom,
  unless bitten on the nose.
• Range:
Big Brown Bat
               Big Brown Bat Cont…
              The big brown bat is wide spread over most of Ohio.
                               Habitat and Habits
  During the warm months of the year, big brown bats feed over a variety of
  habitats, including water, fields, forest openings, and urban and suburban
areas. They use two primary types of habitats: hibernation sites used during
   the winter (e.g., caves, mines) and roosting sites for reproduction (e.g.,
                buildings and under bridges) during the summer.
As with the little brown bat, the big brown bat’s name is highly descriptive. Its
fur is uniformly medium to dark brown on the upper parts, with slightly paler
 under parts. The fur is relatively long and silky in appearance, compared to
       other Ohio bats. The ears and wing membranes are dark brown.
              Big Brown Bat…
• Reproduction and Care of the Young
  Breeding takes place during the late summer and early
  fall during a behavioral phenomenon known as
  “swarming.” At this time, large numbers of bats visit and
  congregate in a succession of caves just prior to
  hibernation. Although sperm is transferred to the female
  during copulation that occurs in the fall, ovulation and
  fertilization of the egg are delayed until the females
  arouse from hibernation the following spring. During the
  summer, females form maternity colonies, mostly in
  man-made structures, especially barns. At this time, big
  brown bats avoid some of the higher roost temperatures
  tolerated by little brown bats, and will abandon any area
  that gets over 95º F.
                                  Hoary Bat
    • Lasiurus cinereus
    Wide spread across the United States
   Hoary bats are large, dark-colored and
  heavily furred bats. The tip of their hair is
   white, giving the bat a frosted, or hoary
 Hoary bats spend the summer days hidden
in the foliage of trees. Much like the red bat,
    they choose a leafy site open beneath
   them, and usually 10-15 feet above the
  ground. Because hoary bats are solitary
   roosting bats and keep themselves well
     hidden, this species is usually never
           encountered by humans.
             Hoary Bat Cont…
• Hoary bats feed on moths,
  beetles, and mosquitoes. Hoary
  bats mate in the fall and like
  most bats do not become
  pregnant until early spring.
• Parturition dates range from
  May to July; mother bats give
  birth to an average of two pups
  a summer. The mother leaves
  the young ones on a leaf or
  branch as she forages for
  insects in the evening.
  Occasionally, if there is a
  disturbance, she will move the
  pups from one tree to another.
Black Bear
Ursus americanus
                 Black Bear Cont…
Habitat:       Hardwood forests with occasional open areas (meadows).
               125 - 600 lbs.
Adult Body
               2 to 3 feet
Birth Period: mid-January - February
Litters Per
               1 every other year
Litter Size:   1 - 3, usually 2
            up to 30 years
               Omnivore - eating berries, acorns, beechnuts, wild cherries,
               grass, herbs, insects, carrion, and fish.
 • Castor canadensis
  Beavers are well adapted to life in
  the water. Their webbed feet,
  waterproof fur, clear “third-eyelids,”
  and flattened, rudder-like tail
  enable them to be excellent
  swimmers. Their huge front teeth
  help them to cut through hard
  woods like maple and oak. These
  teeth grow throughout the animal's
  lifetime and are necessary for
                          Beaver Cont…
Habitat:        Ponds, lakes, or slow moving streams bordered by stands of small trees.
Adult Weight: 30 - 70 lbs.; 35 - 40 lbs. average
Adult Body
                25 - 30 inches with 9 - 10 inch tail
                January - February
Litters Per
Litter Size:    1 - 8, average 4
    Expectanc 9 - 11 years
                Bark and twigs from trees such as aspen, poplar, maple, and cottonwood.
                   Also aquatic and marsh plants
• Lynx rufus
• Light gray, yellowish
  brown, buff
• brown and reddish brown
  on the upper parts
• fur in the middle is darker
  than the fur on the sides
• inside legs are whitish
  colors with dark spots or
       •Native to Ohio
   • one of seven cat species
    found in North America
 •Rarely seen in Ohio as they
   were extirpated from the
          state in 1850
• 20 bobcats were reported in
       • Solitary animal
          Eastern Chipmunk
     Tamias striatus
• Deciduous forest and
  brushy areas, shallow
  burrows in the ground
  that they dig by
  carrying away their
  dirt in their cheek
           Eastern Chipmunk
• Reddish-brown with
  five black stripes on
  their backs, stripes
  are separated by
  brown, white or gray
• Canis latrans

• not native in Ohio, but
  present in whole
  State today
• can make a home
  almost everywhere
                Whitetail Deer
• Odocoileus

• State’s wildlife areas,
  parks and nature
  preserves, backyards
  of rural and suburban
                Whitetail Deer
• Two seasonal coats
•    spring/summer coat is
    reddish tan and short
    with a thin and wiry hair
•    winter coat is more
    grayish or even bluish tan
    with heavy, long guard
    hairs and a thick
    undercoat that provides
                    Gray Fox
• Urocyon
• One of two foxes in Ohio
  and one out of 4 in North
• Gray fox habitat declined
• wooded areas and
  partially open brush land
  with little human
  presence are the habitat
  for gray foxes in Ohio
                                Red Fox
•   Vulpes vulpes
    The red fox is one of two fox species that
    live in Ohio and one of four of them in North
    America. Red foxes are native to Ohio.
•   The red fox has a range of two miles leaving
    home to search for food, unless food is
    scarce. They are nocturnal creatures, but
    often are found hunting in daylight hours.
    They like to eat mice, rats, rabbits,
    groundhogs, birds, fruits, and some grasses.
•   The red fox can be different colors, but it
    gets its name because that’s the basic color.
    The red fox’s undersides, throat area, and
    cheeks are white. Its feet, legs, and outside
    the ears are black.
•   There peak breeding activity is January to
    February. The young are born is February-
    April. The litter size is 5-6 kits. Young leave
    parents in the fall 6-8 months after birth. The
    red fox only has one liter per year.
•   Mustela vison
    The mink was the most common in
    Ohio before the settlement and are in
    every county in Ohio.
•   The mink is almost always found near
    water. They are drawn to areas that are
    wooded or brushy. They eat small
    mammals that are muskrat size, birds,
    frogs, eggs, fish, and crayfish.
•   The mink is a weasel or ferret-like
    animal. It has a long, narrow body, but
    it’s a little larger than a weasel or ferret
    and has a bushy tail. It has small
    rounded ears, short legs, and sharp
    claws. The mink’s coat is normally
    brown, but can look black. The mink
    has a white chest.
•   The peak breeding activity is January
    to March. The young are born in April
    to May. The litter size can be 2-10 but
    the average is 6. The only have one
    litter per year.
                          Eastern Mole
•   Scalopus aquaticus
•   The eastern mole is widespread.
•   The eastern mole can be found in areas with moist, sandy loam soil like
    lawns, fields, golf courses, and so on. They burrow below the surface of the
    ground. They eat worms, insects, and vegetable matter.
•   The eastern mole has tiny eyes and ears. Its palms are turned outward and
    it has broad front feet. It’s fur is a silvery gray color, and their tale is hairless.
•   They only breed once a year. Have a gestation period of six weeks and
    have 4-5 young. They live in a nest in a tunnel system, and leave there
    mother after a month old.
                     Starnose Mole
•   Condylura cristata
•   Live in many places.
•   The star-nosed mole lives in low, wet soil near lakes or streams. They eat
    earthworms and aquatic insects.
•   The star-nosed mole is easily defined by its nose. There nose has 22
    finger-like tentacles that surround it. There bodies are dark brown or black
    and there tail is hairy. The star-nosed moles are very good swimmers.
•   The male and females pair up in the fall. They only have one litter per year.
    They have 3-7 young that are born between April and June. There
    gestation period is about 45 days. The young become independent at 3
    weeks old.
                       House Mouse
•   Mus musculus
    The house mouse lives everywhere.
•   The mouse is normally found in close
    contact with humans. They are
    occasionally found in fields and they
    usually live in buildings. They eat
    some plants, insects, and some meat.
•   They are small, grayish brown and
    have a gray or buffed colored
    stomach. There tail is scaly.
•   The house mouse produces all the
    time normally having several litters a
    year. The have 3-11 babies and their
    gestation period is only 18-21 days.
    The young are with there mothers for
    at least 21 days.
     Meadow Jumping Mouse
• Zapus hudsonius
Meadow Jumping Mouse
   Zapus hudsonius
     Meadow Jumping Mouse
• Location Widespread
• Habitat Lives in a variety of habitats with
  herbaceous cover, but it prefers low, moist
  grasslands. Wooded areas are avoided
• Description Olive-yellow mouse, long tail, large
  hind feet which help to distinguish it from other
• Reproduction April-May, 18-21 day gestation
  period with 4-5 in each litter, females produce 2-
  3 litters per year
       White Footed Mouse
• Peromyscus leucopus
White Footed Mouse

Peromyscus leucopus
           White Footed Mouse
• Location Widespread
• Habitat Live in variety of habitats, most often found in
  woody or brushy areas; most abundant rodent in mixed
  forests and edges of agricultural fields in the United
  States; build nests anywhere warm and dry, such as
  hollow trees or old bird nests.
• Description Upperparts of mouse are a pale to rich
  reddish-brown; belly and feet are white; tail is usually
  shorter than the entire length of the body.
• Reproduction Produces two to four litters per year;
  March-June; litter of 2-6 after gestation periods of 22-28
• Ondatra zibethicus

Ondatra zibethicus
• Location Ponds, rivers, streams, lakes,
• Habitat Just like beavers, spend majority of day
  sleeping, spend nights in water, build lodges
• Description Large freshwater rodents that look
  very much like a beaver, but are actually related
  to mice and rats; two coats of fur; swimmers of
  up to 3 miles per hour
• Reproduction Gestation period of 22-39 days,
  March-November, up to 35 young a year, born
  hairless but grow fur and gain ability to swim
  within first few weeks of life
          Little Brown Myotis
• Myotis lucifugus

        Little Brown Myotis
• Location Northern Ohio
• Habitat Temperate forests and woodlands
  near fresh water
• Description Body length of 3 1/8" to 3
  3/4", wingspan about 11". Glossy brown
  fur above, paler below. Medium length
• Reproduction Gestation period of 50-60
  days, born May-July
           Virginia Opossum
• Didelphis virginiana

              Virginia Opossum
• Location Found in every county in the state, more
  abundant in southern Ohio
• Habitat Ideal habitat is area interspersed with woods,
  wetlands, and farmland; den is usually situated in a
  wooded area near water; will take shelter anywhere it
  can stay dry and safe from predators.
• Description North Americas only marsupial; adult
  opossum is about size of large house cat; coarse,
  grizzled grayish fur; long, scaly tail; long, pointed snout
  that ends in a pink nose.
• Reproduction Offspring stays in pouch for 2-3 months;
  12-13 day gestation period, March-April, 5-25 in litter,
  average is 9; 1-3 litters per year
               River Otter
• Lontra canadensis
           Eastern Pipistrelle
• Pipistrellus subflavus
    Eastern Cotton Tail Rabbit
• Sylvilagus floridanus
• Procyon lotor
               Norway Rat
• Rattus norvegicus
                Least Shrew
• Cryptotis parva
• Very wide spread
  throughout Ohio
• They prefer open, grass-
  covered, or bushy areas.
• They are cinnamon
  colored and a very short
• They breed from March to
            Short Tailed Shrew
• Blarina brevicauda
• Very widespread
  throughout Ohio
• Live in fields, or grassy
  areas near water
• Small with very short tail,
  tiny eyes, ears concealed
  by fur, and grey in color.
• Breed from March to
  September with 2-4 litters
  per year and 5-7 young
              Striped Skunk
• Mephitis mephitis
        Striped Skunk cont.
• They are found in every county in Ohio.
• They occupy many different habitats
  including rural and suburb areas.
• They are black with white in the face and a
  white “V” on the back
• Their colors vary from brown, white, black,
  cream, and occasionally albino.
         Eastern Fox Squirrel
• Sciurus niger
    Eastern Fox Squirrel cont.
• Their primary range is Western Ohio.
• They live in 10 to 20 acres of wooded
• Orange in appearance. It’s body is
  yellowish-gray with reddish-yellow cheeks,
  face, feet, and tail.
• Young are born February to April, and
  June to August with 2 to 5 babies per liter
        Eastern Gray Squirrel
• Sciurus carolinensis
    Eastern Gray Squirrel cont.
• The Eastern Gray Squirrel lives in almost all
  forests in Ohio.
• They live in large expanses of wooded area.
• They are gray in color. It’s belly is more grayish-
  white and a yellow ring around its eyes.
• They breed from December to January and May
  to June with 1 to 2 liters per year
• The young leave in 14 to 15 weeks
     Southern Flying Squirrel
• Glaucomys volans
 Southern Flying Squirrel Cont.
• Most Common squirrel in Ohio, but because it is
  nocturnal, it is rarely seen.
• Prefers to live in woodlands or forests of
  deciduous or mixed deciduous-coniferous trees.
  Nests in hollow trees.
• It is very small, light brown with white belly. Skin
  flap extending from wrist to ankle.
• Breeds twice a year. April-May, and August-
  September. After 40 day gestation period, 2-6
  young are born.
        Eastern Red Squirrel
• Tamiasciurus
   Eastern Red Squirrel Cont.
• Found in coniferous and mixed forests.
  Often near structures.
• Normally yellowish or redish, with white
  belly. Tail is tall and bushy.
• Breed from April-May, and August-
  September. Nest in tree cavities or
  branches. 2-7 young are born after 38 day
  gestation period.
 Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel
• Spermophilus
             Meadow Vole
• Microtus
         Meadow Vole Cont.
• Found in fields, meadows, grassy
  marshes, streams, lakes and swamps.
  They are excellent swimmers.
• Usually dark brown with silvery/dark gray
  belly and bi-colored tail. Has long and soft
• Peak breeding activity: March-November.
  Gestation period of 21 days. Litter size
  varies from 1-9 young.
              Least Weasel
• Mustela nivalis
          Least Weasel Cont.
• Mainly stays in open areas such as meadows
  and marshes or brushy areas and agriculture
• It has a brown coat during the summer months,
  and a white coat during the winter.
  Distinguishing factor is that it has no black tip on
  it’s tail.
• Breeds usually spring to late summer, or any
  other month of the year. 1-5 young, one litter per
            Longtail Weasel
• Mustela frenata
• Marmota monax
           Eastern Woodrat
• Neotoma floridana

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