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					                                     The Diffusive
                                     Monitor
                         July 2001
                          Issue 12
                                     By way of                                   Copies of the newsletter may be
                                                                                 obtained by registering at
                                     Introduction                                richard.h.iacs.brown@hsl.gov.uk (see
                                                                                 page 15)
                                     Welcome to the twelfth edition of The
                                     Diffusive Monitor, which is a free
Inside this Issue                    publication of the Health and Safety        Current News
                                     Executive CAR Committee (Committee
                                     on Analytical Requirements), Working        CEN Air Quality Standards
        By way of Introduction
1                                    Group 5. This working group is
                                     concerned with workplace and
                                     environmental applications of diffusive
                                                                                 Two new European Directives on Air
                                                                                 Quality have been promulgated
        Current News.                sampling for assessing air quality.         recently, namely a Chemical Agents
1                                    The newsletter was started in May 1988
                                                                                 Directive (98/24/EC) [1] and an
                                                                                 Ambient Air Directive (96/62/EC) [2].
                                     as a consequence of the Diffusive           The first concerns the workplace and
        Analyst Diffusive Sampler
2                                    Sampling Symposium held in
                                     Luxembourg the previous year and is
                                     published approximately once a year. It
                                                                                 the second outdoor air, but both require
                                                                                 an assessment of air quality and both
                                                                                 imply a requirement for actual
        Experimental workplace       contains articles on diffusive monitoring
5       uptake rates for butyl
        acrylate and
                                     techniques and applications, and is a
                                     useful source of information on
                                                                                 measurement. If measurement results
                                                                                 are to be comparable across Europe,
                                                                                 there is also a requirement for
        cyclohexanone                European and international                  standardisation of such measurements,
                                     standardisation in this area and of         either as defined reference methods or
        Diffusive Uptake Rates –
6       PerkinElmer
                                     sampling rate data. Contributions are
                                     mostly from members of the Working
                                     Group, which has an international
                                                                                 as method performance requirements.
                                                                                 The task of standardisation in the field
                                                                                 of measurement is ultimately the
        Diffusive Uptake Rates –     membership.                                 responsibility of the European
9       Draeger, 3M, SKC and
        Radiello                     Contributions to the newsletter are not
                                                                                 Commission, but it usually devolves
                                                                                 this responsibility to Scientific Expert
                                     intended to be exclusively from             Groups, reporting to the Commission, or
                                     HSE/CAR/WG 5, and any reader is             to Technical Committees of CEN, the
                                     welcome to submit a contribution for        Comité Européen de Normalisation.
                                     consideration. The only limitations are     The development of standard
                                     that contributions should concentrate on    measurement procedures, ideally
                                     diffusive sampling applications and         meeting the CEN performance criteria,
                                     should not be too obviously                 is also the responsibility of ISO, the
                                     commercial.                                 International Organisation for
Ordering Diffusive Monitor…. p. 15
                                                                                 Standardisation.
Conferences.…………….. page 16          The newsletter has a world circulation
                                     of some 200 people, all of whom have        Ambient Air Standards
Health and Safety Executive          specifically requested the publication,
Committee on Analytical              so you wish to contribute articles can be   The task of developing appropriate
Requirements                         assured of a wide and receptive             standards for ambient air quality
Working Group 5                      audience. Articles are not peer-            measurements within the European
                                     reviewed, but are subject to the Editor’s   Community has been carried forward by
                                     discretion.


1                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 2001

Working Groups of CEN Technical            prepared for Final Vote and should be         [1] Council Directive 98/24/EC on the protection
Committee TC 264.                          publicly available in the autumn.             of the health and safety of workers from the risks
                                                                                         related to chemical agents at work (1998).
                                                                                         [2] Council Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air
In addition to the ‘framework’ Directive   In addition, CEN/TC 264/WG 13 has a           quality assessment and management (1996).
on Ambient Air Quality Assessment and      specific remit to develop the reference       [3] Ambient Air Quality - Diffusive samplers for
Management [2], several associated         method(s) for benzene, in the context of      the determination of concentrations of gases and
                                                                                         vapours - Requirements and test methods. Part 1:
Daughter Directives have been              the Directive on benzene and carbon           General requirements (prEN 13528-1).
promulgated or are under development.      monoxide [5]. The working group has           [4] Ambient Air Quality - Diffusive samplers for
These Directives prescribe performance     decided to work on five standards [6-         the determination of concentrations of gases and
requirements as Data Quality Objectives    10], two of which are using diffusive         vapours - Requirements and test methods. Part 2:
                                                                                         Specific requirements and test methods (prEN
(DQOs), including accuracy and             sampling principles.                          13528-2).
precision, minimum data capture and                                                      [5] Council Directive 2000/69/EC relating to limit
minimum time coverage. DQOs are set        There is also a Daughter Directive on         values for benzene and carbon monoxide in
at different levels for different          sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and         ambient air (2000).
                                                                                         [6] Ambient Air Quality - Reference method for
pollutants and also for different          oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter        the determination of benzene in ambient air. Part
assessment methods: mandatory              and lead in ambient air [11]. Of these,       1: Pumped sampling/ thermal desorption method
measurement, indicative measurement,       sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide (and        (WG 13 draft).
modelling or objective estimation.         potentially) oxides of nitrogen are           [7] Ambient Air Quality - Reference method for
                                                                                         the determination of benzene in ambient air.
Usually, a ‘reference’ method is           amenable to diffusive monitoring, as          Part 2: Pumped sampling/ solvent desorption
prescribed, but other methods, which       well as CO from the above Directive,          method (WG 13 draft).
meet the DQOs, may be used.                and WG11 is considering developing            [8] Ambient Air Quality - Reference method for
                                           specific standards on these compounds.        the determination of benzene in ambient air.
                                                                                         Part 3: Automated gas chromatographic
The primary task of CEN TC 264 is to       Ozone is also of interest in connection       techniques (WG 13 draft).
evaluate and recommend reference           with the Commission Proposal on ozone         [9] Ambient Air Quality - Reference method for
methods where these are not already        (1999) and ammonia is of interest in          the determination of benzene in ambient air.
prescribed in Directives. However, in      connection with the Commission                Part 4: Diffusive sampling/ thermal desorption
                                                                                         method (WG 13 draft).
the specific case of diffusive samplers,   Proposal on national emission ceilings        [10] Ambient Air Quality - Reference method for
which are likely to be used for            for certain atmospheric pollutants            the determination of benzene in ambient air.
indicative measurement, performance        (1999).                                       Part 5: Diffusive sampling/ solvent desorption
requirements standards [3,4] have been                                                   method (WG 13 draft).
                                                                                         [11] Council Directive 99/30/EC relating to limit
developed by CEN/TC 264/WG 11.                                                           values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and
These draft standards are now being                                                      oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in
                                                                                         ambient air (1999).




                                                                   24.02.1999), and offers a low cost monitoring alternative to
Internal Consistence of the new                                    fixed instruments.

“Analyst” Diffusive Sampler: A                                     The suitability of this device for the determination of
                                                                   aromatic volatile hydrocarbons (BTEX) in ambient air and
long term field test.                                              in indoor environments has been investigated in laboratory
                                                                   and field trials at several different sites and within different
                                                                   concentration ranges [1]. Validation has been performed
G. Bertoni, R. Tappa and I. Allegrini                              using standardised procedures and using active sampling as
                                                                   the independent method.
Istituto sull'Inquinamento Atmosferico del C.N.R. A.d.R. di
Roma -C.P. 10 00016 Monterotondo Stazione (RM) - Italy             The main advantages of the "Analyst" sampler are:
                                                                   - the compactness of the structure and inertness of the
Introduction                                                       materials used (glass, stainless steel and Teflon);
                                                                   - the in situ extraction, which is performed by injecting the
Recently a new diffusive sampler, "Analyst", has been              solvent through the rubber-Teflon septum positioned in the
developed by the Italian National Research Council (CNR)           stopper;
[1]. It has been developed in response to the EU Council           - the constancy of its uptake rate with changing air velocity
Directive 97/42/EC on ambient air and the Council Directive        (above 10 cm/sec), which allows both indoor and outdoor
2000/69/EC relating to limit values for benzene in ambient         usage [1]. This result is obtained by combining a suitable
air. (Official Journal of the European Communities No. C53,        optimised opening to the diffusive path ratio with a fine wire
                                                                   mesh shield, applied to the mouth of the sampler. The shield



   2                  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                             The Diffusive Monitor

prevents "eddy diffusion" [3] effects when high air velocities
are reached;                                                                  Figure 1: Structure of the Analyst sampler: 1 = glass
- a large amount (400 mg, corresponding to a 4 mm                             cylinder (20 mm I.D. x 20 mm diffusive path length); 2 =
thickness) of adsorbing bed, consisting of a high capacity                    retaining stainless steel (SS) ring; 3 = viewing SS ring; 4 =
granular active charcoal. This assures a constant sink,                       SS net; 5 = adsorbent bed; 6 = hook; 7 = removable
allowing an almost invariable sampling rate for long-time                     aluminium and SS mesh shield (air barrier).
exposures, of at least three months.
                                                                              To evaluate the upper limit of the internal consistence of the
Field experiments had suggested that the "Analyst" had an                     "Analyst" diffusive sampler, a 12 months field test was
upper sampling limit much higher than the three months                        planned as follows:
minimum. For this reason a very long (indoor) field                           An indoor site; a shop at ground level in a street of Rome
experiment was conducted, in order to evaluate this                           (Italy) where dense automobile traffic occurs, was chosen
sampling limit as the limit of the "internal consistence".                    for the experiment. The site had been previously
This is defined as a situation where the total mass of a given                characterised as to its benzene concentration which was
pollutant, determined over several shorter consecutive                        found to be higher than 20 µg m-3, as a mean value over
periods, equals the mass determined from a single long-                       eleven months [1]. Twelve samplers were arranged at a
period exposure.                                                              distance of about 20cm from each other and 1m away from
                                                                              the walls. Two of them were removed and analysed after
Experimental                                                                  two months. These samplers were substituted with two new
                                                                              samplers for the following two months period and so on, up
The structure of the "Analyst" diffusive sampler is shown in                  to the twelfth sampling month. The remaining ten samplers
Figure 1.                                                                     were taken off and analysed, two at a time, every two
                                                                              months, starting from the fourth sampling month.
                                                                              Quantitative determinations were performed by solvent
                                                                              extraction and GC/FID. Chlorobenzene was added to the
                                                                              extraction solvent as an internal standard.

                                                                              Results and Discussion

                                                                              In Table 1, individual and averaged values of the absolute
                                                                              quantities determined in this test for benzene, toluene,
                                                                              ethylbenzene, m+p-xylenes and o-xylene are presented.




Table 1: Absolute amounts (µg) of volatile aromatic compounds collected with the "Analyst" diffusive sampler in consecutive two
months and in multi-months periods at a shop site in a canyon street of Rome during an annual experiment. The terms upper and
lower in the table indicate the maximum and the minimum values obtained among a pair of samplers.

                       two months sampling periods          sum of two months periods                    multi-months periods
              July -   Sep - Nov - Jan – Mar- May - July - July - July - July - July -         July -   July - July - July - July -
compound      Aug      Oct   Dec 99 Feb 00 Apr     June Oct   Dec 99 Feb 00 Apr     Jun        Oct.     Dec 99 Feb 00 Apr     Jun
benzene
      upper   15.9     19.5   17.7   22.7   14.4   11.3   35.4   53.1   75.8     90.2   101    32.6     51.5   79.9   69.6    69.3
      lower   13.6     18.5   15.7   20.1   13.0   9.7    32.1   47.8   67.9     80.9   90.6   31.7     50.0   68.5   67.3    67.6
      mean    14.7     19.0   16.7   21.4   13.7   10.5   33.7   50.4   71.9     85.6   96     32.2     51     74.2   68.5    68.4
toluene
      upper   39.3     72.4   61.5   67.4   63.5   30.7   112    173    241      304    335    119      181    242    296     273
      lower   37.8     71.5   60.6   63.0   55.7   28.4   109    170    233      289    317    115      180    241    289     258
      mean    38.6     72     61.1   65.2   59.7   29.5   111    172    237      297    326    117      180    242    291     265
Ethylbenz
      Upper   5.1      7.5    5.7    5.8    5.0    3.2    12.6   18.3   24.0     29.1   32.3   13.3     18.9   20.4   24.3    28.4
      Lower   4.2      7.2    7.7    5.5    4.5    3.1    11.4   17.0   22.5     27.1   30.2   11.9     16.9   20.4   23.3    27.9
      Mean    4.6      7.3    5.7    5.6    4.8    3.2    12     17.7   23.3     28.1   31.2   12.6     18     20.4   23.8    28.1
m+p-xylene
      Upper   11.8     20.8   14.9   15.8   12.9   8.9    32.6   47.5   63.3     76.2   85.1   32.7     50.3   60.9   74.7    76.8
      Lower   11.7     20.2   14.9   14.8   12.2   7.2    31.9   46.8   61.6     73.8   81.0   34.3     49.6   60.3   70.6    74.7
      Mean    11.8     20.5   14.9   15.3   12.5   8.1    32.3   47.2   62.5     75     83.1   33.5     50.0   60.6   72.6    75.7


  3                      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 2001

                                                         two months sampling periods          sum of two months periods                                                                                                                       multi-months periods
                                              July -     Sep - Nov - Jan – Mar- May - July - July - July - July - July -                                                                                                         July -      July - July - July - July -
compound                                      Aug        Oct   Dec 99 Feb 00 Apr     June Oct   Dec 99 Feb 00 Apr     Jun                                                                                                        Oct.        Dec 99 Feb 00 Apr     Jun
o-xylene
      upper                                   5.1        8.6           7.4        7.0          5.8                        4.2         13.7                       21.2                        28.1       33.9         38.1        14.9        21.5       28.6   29.5   35.0
      lower                                   4.6        8.3           6.9        6.9          5.6                        3.7         12.9                       19.8                        26.7       32.3         36          13.1        19.4       22.6   28.5   34.2
      mean                                    4.9        8.5           7.2        6.9          5.7                        3.9         13.3                       20.5                        27.4       33.1         37          14          20         25.6   29     34.6

Figure 2 shows the relation between the average amounts determined in the multi-months exposures and the sums of the average
amounts determined in the corresponding two months exposures, for the five above mentioned compounds.

                                                               BENZENE                                                                                                                                           TOLUENE
                                   100                                                                                                                                  350
       multi-months periods (µg)




                                                                                                                                         multi-months periods (µg)
       quantities sampled in the




                                                                                                                                         quantities sampled in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               10 months
                                              y = 1.0164x                                                                                                                                        y = 1.0094x
                                                                        8 months                                                                                        300
                                    80        R2 = 0.9938                                12 months                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                 R = 0.9914
                                                                                                                                                                        250                                                                 12 months
                                    60                                             10 months                                                                            200                                                 8 months

                                                                   6 months
                                    40                                                                                                                                  150                                         6 months

                                                       4 months                                                                                                         100
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 months
                                    20
                                                                                                                                                                               50
                                     0                                                                                                                                               0
                                         0          20        40         60         80     100                                                                                           0       100       200      300        400
                                           sum of the quantities sampled in the                                                                                                            sum of the quantities sampled in the
                                         corresponding two-months periods (µg)                                                                                                            corresponding two-months periods (µg)


                                                         ETHYLBENZENE
                                                                                                                                                                                                               m+p-XYLENES
                                   35
  multi-months periods (µg)




                                                                                                                                                                                      90
  quantities sampled in the




                                             y = 0.9022x                                  12 months
                                                                                                                                                         multi-months periods (µg)




                                   30
                                                                                                                                                         quantities sampled in the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               12 months
                                                                                                                                                                                      80         y = 0.9625x
                                             R2 = 0.9257
                                   25                                                                                                                                                 70         R2 = 0.9615
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           10 months
                                                                                          10 months                                                                                   60
                                   20
                                                                                    8 months                                                                                          50                                         8 months
                                   15                                    6 months
                                                                                                                                                                                      40                                  6 months

                                   10                      4 months                                                                                                                   30
                                                                                                                                                                                                               4 months
                                    5                                                                                                                                                 20
                                                                                                                                                                                      10
                                    0
                                                                                                                                                                                       0
                                         0      5        10       15         20     25     30             35                                                                                 0      20     40       60     80       100
                                               sum of the quantities sampled in the                                                                                                            sum of the quantities sampled in the
                                             corresponding two-months periods (µg)                                                                                                            corresponding two-months periods (µg)

                                                                                                                                                                                         O-XYLENE
                                                                                                                                 40
                                                                                                     multi-months periods (µg)
                                                                                                     quantities sampled in the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 months
                                                                                                                                 35                         y = 0.9414x
                                                                                                                                 30                         R2 = 0.9616
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 months
                                                                                                                                 25
                                                                                                                                                                                                               8 months
                                                                                                                                 20
                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 months
                                                                                                                                 15
                                                                                                                                                                                     4 months
                                                                                                                                 10
                                                                                                                                  5
                                                                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                                   0         10          20        30        40
                                                                                                                                 sum of the quantities sampled in the corresponding
                                                                                                                                              two months periods (µg)


Figure 2: Correlation between amounts collected in two months exposures and those collected in multiple periods for volatile
aromatic compounds. Overprinted factors and functions in the figure only relate to the straight part of the functions.

From the showed correlation lines we can deduce a very high degree of internal consistence of this device. The slope of the
correlation lines is practically = 1 (within the standard error) over the linear sampling period. This period (upper sampling limit)
is: 6-8 months for benzene, 8-10 months for toluene and at least one year for higher homologues. This means that for at least 6


     4                                                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                       The Diffusive Monitor
months, under the experimental conditions (i.e. indoor air,                 The sampler chosen was that manufactured by PerkinElmer
about 200 µg/m3 of total VOCs, on average), the                             Instruments. Tubes were packed with either Tenax TA or
accumulation of the sampled VOCs in the adsorbing bed                       Chromosorb 106 and conditioned at 250C. Tubes were used
does not cause a noticeable variation in the specific retention             in either the pumped mode and the diffusive mode: in the
capacity of the individual aromatic compounds. Thus the                     latter case, the diffusive head without membrane was used.
uptake rate remains constant over a period of at least 6
months.                                                                     Atmospheres containing butyl acrylate, cyclohexanone and
                                                                            toluene (as an “internal standard” for uptake rate) were
Conclusions                                                                 generated dynamically (MDHS 3 [3]) at concentration levels
                                                                            within the range 0.1 to 2.0 times the anticipated new
From these results, the following considerations may be                     exposure limits and at 50% relative humidity. In addition,
made:                                                                       some experiments were conducted at humidities of 80%RH
- the investigated diffusive sampler is a reliable tool for                 (1 x OEL) or 20%RH (2 x OEL). In each case, the delivered
long-term determinations in indoor air and by implication                   atmosphere was checked using the pumped sampler result.
also in outdoor air;                                                        Diffusive samplers were exposed in replicates of six. The
- a constant uptake rate is observed for at least 6 months                  exposure times were 0.5 hrs (two runs), 2 hrs and 8 hrs.
with benzene, at least 8 months with toluene and at least 12
months with xylene. Benzene and toluene could be                            In addition, a stability test was conducted over a storage
monitored for the longer periods if an appropriate reduced                  period of 14 days at ambient temperature using only butyl
sampling rate were applied.                                                 acrylate and toluene. The storage characteristics of
- such measurements would be very valuable in the context                   cyclohexanone are already known [2].
of the EU Directives, which specify an averaging period of
one year for benzene.                                                       Results and Discussion

[1] G.Bertoni, R. Tappa and I. Allegrini, Annali di chimica, Vol.90, page   The primary data for the uptake rate determination is
249-263, 2000:                                                              presented in Table 1 below:
[2] M. Harper and C. J. Purnell, Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., Vol. 48, page
214-218, 1987;
[3] D. Underhill, Talanta, Vol. 40, page 785-790, 1993.                     Tenax                                          Toluene
                                                                                                                   0.5 hrs        2 hrs   8 hrs
                                                                            0.1-0.2 LV   (8-10 ppm)    50 %RH   2.12    2.14      2.03    1.74
                                                                            1.5 LV       (60-80 ppm)   50 %RH   1.91    2.01      2.03    1.69
Experimental Workplace                                                      2-3 LV
                                                                            3 LV
                                                                                         (130 ppm)
                                                                                         (160 ppm)
                                                                                                       20% RH
                                                                                                       50 %RH
                                                                                                                2.04
                                                                                                                1.88
                                                                                                                        1.99
                                                                                                                        2.05
                                                                                                                                  1.93
                                                                                                                                  1.72
                                                                                                                                          1.67
                                                                                                                                          1.58

Uptake Rates for Butyl Acrylate                                             3 LV         (130-150
                                                                                         ppm)
                                                                                                       80%RH    1.93    1.69      1.60    1.45


and Cyclohexanone.                                                          Chromosorb 106
                                                                                                                   0.5 hrs
                                                                                                                           Toluene
                                                                                                                                  2 hrs   8 hrs
                                                                            0.1-0.2 LV   (8-10 ppm)    50 %RH   2.20    2.04      1.93    1.99
                                                                            1.5 LV       (60-80 ppm)   50 %RH   2.02    2.30      2.19    2.04
M.D. Wright and N. Plant                                                    2-3 LV       (130 ppm)     20% RH   2.14    2.12      2.21    2.08
                                                                            3 LV         (160 ppm)     50 %RH   2.12    2.01      1.89    1.99
Health and Safety Laboratory, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3                      3 LV         (130-150      80%RH    2.09    1.87      1.82    1.79
                                                                                         ppm)
7HQ
                                                                            Tenax                                       Butyl Acrylate
Introduction                                                                                                       0.5 hrs        2 hrs   8 hrs
                                                                            0.1LV        (1-1.5 ppm)   50 %RH   1.92    2.32      2.28    2.11
                                                                            1 LV         (9-11 ppm)    50 %RH   1.68    2.14      2.30    2.12
Cyclohexanone and n-butyl acrylate are amongst those                        1 LV         (10-12 ppm)   80%RH    2.21    1.99      1.88    1.89
compounds identified by the Health and Safety Executive                     2 LV         (18 ppm)      20% RH   2.28    2.21      2.31    2.26
for a review of their occupational exposure limits (OELs)                   2 LV         (20-22 ppm)   50 %RH   1.97    2.30      2.03    2.12
[1]. As part of the review process, it was appropriate,
                                                                            Chromosorb 106                              Butyl Acrylate
therefore, to determine the diffusive sampling rates with a                                                        0.5 hrs        2 hrs   8 hrs
view to establishing whether a viable measuring procedure                   0.1 LV       (1-1.5 ppm)   50 %RH   2.26    2.29      2.54    2.28
could be made available to support new or changed exposure                  1 LV         (9-11 ppm)    50 %RH   2.04    2.38      2.27    2.30
limits. Such diffusive sampling rates could then be added to                1 LV         (10-12 ppm)   80%RH    2.38    2.02      2.06    2.08
                                                                            2 LV         (18 ppm)      20% RH   2.16    2.17      2.44    2.47
(one of the) HSE recommended methods for the sampling
                                                                            2 LV         (20-22 ppm)   50 %RH   2.16    2.05      2.10    2.32
and analysis of volatile organic vapours – MDHS 80 [2].
                                                                            Tenax                                       Cyclohexanone
Experimental                                                                                                       0.5 hrs        2 hrs   8 hrs
                                                                            0.1LV        (3-4 ppm)     50 %RH   2.22    1.81      1.98    1.78




   5                            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 2001

1 LV          (22-28 ppm)   50 %RH         1.47     1.91         2.04    1.82
1 LV          (25-29 ppm)   80%RH          2.08     2.02         2.04    1.91
2 LV          (44-46 ppm)   20% RH         1.85     2.06         1.81    1.78
2 LV          (48-52 ppm)   50 %RH         1.94     1.68         1.65    1.61   Diffusive Uptake Rates on
Chromosorb 106                                     Cyclohexanone
                                              0.5 hrs        2 hrs      8 hrs
                                                                                PerkinElmer Sorbent Tubes
0.1 LV        (3-4 ppm)     50 %RH         1.97    1.85      1.95       1.97
1 LV          (22-28 ppm)   50 %RH         1.66    2.15      2.12       2.09
1 LV          (25-29 ppm)   80%RH          2.15    2.10      2.24       2.18    NOTE: This list has been compiled from sources available
2 LV          (44-46 ppm)   20% RH         2.16    1.92      1.94       2.07
2 LV          (48-52 ppm)   50 %RH         2.09    1.80      1.85       1.86    to CAR/Working Group 5. It is not complete, and although
                                                                                every care has been taken in its preparation, no guarantee
Diffusive sampling rates are given in units of ng ppm-1 min -                   can be given of its accuracy. Nor does the list imply a
1
 . One data set (1LV, 50%RH, 0.5 hrs) was rejected as an                        preference for this type of sampler.
outlier. Otherwise, within the ranges studied, there was no
apparent influence of concentration, humidity or time of                        Sampling rates are given for the standard PerkinElmer tube
exposure on the observed sampling rates.                                        without membrane, except where noted.

As expected, different rates were observed for toluene, butyl                   Separate lists are given for workplace (approx 8 hours) and
acrylate and cyclohexanone and for the two sorbents. A                          environmental (approx 4 weeks) exposure periods and
comparison of these results with literature values is given in                  exposure concentrations typical of these applications.
Table 2 below:
                                                                                Users of the data are strongly advised to consult the original
Compound Sorbent             Diffusive sampling rate ng ppm-1 min-1
                             This study Literature Ratio Corrected              source material to determine the level of confidence and
                                         value             value*               range of applicability of the values.
Toluene        Tenax         1.86 ± 0.21 1.67 [2]    1.11
               Chromosorb    2.04 ± 0.14 1.94 [2]    1.05
               106
Butyl          Tenax         2.13 ± 0.15                         2.00 ± 0.14    WORKPLACE APPLICATIONS
acrylate
           Chromosorb        2.24 ± 0.15                         2.11 ± 0.14                Compound         Sorbent    Level    Uptake   Source
           106                                                                                                                    Rate
Cyclohexan Tenax             1.89 ± 0.15 1.78 [4]       1.06
one                                                                             Hydrocarbons
           Chromosorb        2.02 ± 0.13 1.96 [4]       1.03                    1,3-butadiene             Mol.sieve     A       1.3       14
           106                                                                                            13X*
*using mean ratio of 1.0625                                                     n-pentane                 Chrom106      A       1.46      15
                                                                                                          Carbopack B   B       1.77      2
                                                                                n-hexane                  Chrom 106     A       1.77      15
The results of the storage trial of butyl acrylate are given in                 cyclohexane               Chrom 106     D       1.60      27
table 3 below:                                                                                            Tenax TA      D       1.32      27
                                                                                benzene                   Tenax TA      A       1.3       16
    Concentration Response relative    Response            % Recovery                                     Porapak Q     A       1.37      16
                  to toluene,          ratio after 14                                                     Tenax GR      B       1.81      17
                  Time zero            days                                                               Chrom 106     B       1.72      4
    0.1 LV        0.62                 0.66                106                  n-heptane                 Chrom 106     A       1.95      15
    1.0 LV        0.64                 0.65                102                                            Tenax TA      A       1.77      15
    2.0 LV        0.66                 0.66                100
                                                                                                          Carbotrap B   B       1.94      2
    1.0 LV, 80%RH 0.63                 0.65                103
                                                                                2-methylhexane            Chrom 106     D       1.79      27
                                                                                                          Tenax TA      D       1.48      27
Conclusions                                                                     3-methylhexane            Chrom 106     D       1.80      27
The uptake rates for cyclohexanone are confirmed and the                                                  Tenax TA      D       1.48      27
rates for butyl acrylate are as in the last column of table 2.                  methylcyclohexane         Chrom 106     D       1.88      27
                                                                                                          Tenax TA      D       1.55      27
Butyl acrylate is stable on storage for at least 2 weeks.
                                                                                toluene                   Tenax TA      B       1.67      4
                                                                                                          Tenax GR      B       2.12      17
[1] Health and Safety Executive. Occupational Exposure Limits 2000. EH
                                                                                                          Chrom 106     B       1.94      4
40/2000. ISBN 0 7176 1730-0.
                                                                                                          Carbopack B   B       2.06      2
[2] Health and Safety Executive. Methods for the Determination of
Hazardous Substances. Volatile Organic Compounds in air. MDHS 80,               2-methylheptane           Chrom 106     D       2.33      27
1995. ISBN 0 7176 0913-8.                                                                                 Tenax TA      D       1.95      27
[3] Health and Safety Executive. Methods for the Determination of               n-octane                  Chrom 106     A       2.13      15
Hazardous Substances. Generation of test atmospheres of organic vapours                                   Tenax TA      A       2.00      15
by the syringe injection technique. MDHS 3, 1990. ISBN 0 11 885632-4.           xylene                    Tenax TA      B       1.82      4
[4] The Diffusive Monitor, 8, 14-15 (1996).                                                               Chrom 106     B       2.10      4



     6                      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                      The Diffusive Monitor

             Compound              Sorbent   Level    Uptake   Source              Compound             Sorbent   Level    Uptake   Source
                                                        Rate                                                                 Rate
                                Tenax GR     B       2.48      17                                     Tenax GR    B       2.92      17
ethyl benzene                   Tenax TA     B       2.0       4        tetrachloroethene             Chrom 106   B       3.19      4
                                Tenax GR     B       2.43      17                                     Tenax TA    B       2.8       4
                                Chrom 106    B       1.9       4                                      Chrom 102   B       2.6       18
                                Porapak Q    D       2.38      18                                     Tenax GR    B       2.90      25
styrene                         Tenax TA     A       2.0       19       epichlorohydrin               Chrom 106   E       2.45      20
                                Chrom 106    B       2.15      4        allyl chloride                Chrom 106   D       1.75      27
n-nonane                        Chrom 106    A       2.40      15       benzyl chloride               Tenax TA    D       2.72      27
                                Tenax TA     A       2.12      15       perfluorodimethyl cyclobutane Carbotrap   B       15 mL/h   7
n-propylbenzene                 Chrom 106    D       2.45      27       (note)
                                Tenax TA     D       2.28      27       perfluoromethyl-cyclopentane Carbotrap    B       15 mL/h   7
iso-propyl benzene              Chrom 106    D       2.38      27       (note)
                                Tenax TA     D       2.28      27       perfluoromethyl-cyclohexane Carbotrap     B       15 mL/h   7
1,2,3-trimethylbenzene          Chrom 106    D       2.45      27       (note)
                                Tenax TA     D       2.34      27
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene          Chrom 106    D       2.26      27       Esters and Glycol Ethers
                                Tenax TA     D       2.16      27       Methyl acetate               Chrom 106    A       1.74      29
1,3,5-trimethylbenzene          Chrom 106    D       2.33      27       ethyl acetate                Chrom 106    B       1.98      4
                                Tenax TA     D       2.23      27                                    Tenax TA     B       1.65      4
1,3-dimethyl-4-ethylbenzene     Tenax TA     D       2.45      27       n-butyl acetate              Tenax TA     B       1.93      25
1,4-diethylbenzene              Tenax TA     D       2.56      27                                    Chrom 106    A       2.6       29
m-ethyltoluene                  Chrom 106    D       2.43      27                                    Tenax GR     B       1.93      25
                                Tenax TA     D       2.25      27       isobutyl acetate             Chrom 106    D       2.17      27
o-ethyltoluene                  Chrom 106    D       2.57      27                                    Tenax TA     D       1.91      27
                                Tenax TA     D       2.44      27       sec-butyl acetate            Chrom 106    D       2.29      27
p-ethyltoluene                  Chrom 106    D       2.35      27                                    Tenax TA     D       1.90      27
                                Tenax TA     D       2.21      27       tert-butyl acetate           Chrom 106    D       2.26      27
n-decane                        Tenax TA     A       2.3                                             Tenax TA     D       1.79      27
                                Chrom 106    A       2.47      29       vinyl acetate                Chrom 106    D       1.93      27
cumene                          Porapak Q    D       2.5       18       methyl methacrylate          Porapak Q    B       2.0       18
α-pinene                        Tenax TA     D       2.35      27                                    Chrom 106    D       2.14      27
                                Chrom 106    A       2.56      29                                    Tenax TA     D       1.77      27
naphthalene                     Tenax TA     A       2.55      29       methyl acrylate              Chrom 106    D       1.96      27
                                                                                                     Tenax TA     D       1.50      27
Halogenated Hydrocarbons                                                butyl acrylate               Tenax TA     D       2.0       31
methyl chloride                 Spherocarb   B       1.3       18                                    Chrom 106    D       2.11      31
                                (note 4)                                ethylhexyl acrylate          Tenax TA     D       2.99      27
vinyl chloride                  Spherocarb   B       2.0       18       2-methoxyethanol             Porapak Q    A       1.5       21
1,1-dichloro-ethene             Spherocarb   B       2.5       18                                    Chrom 106    A       2.1       29
trichloro trifluoroethane       Chrom102     B       3.5       18       2-ethoxyethanol              Tenax        A       1.8       21
chloro trifluoromethane         Chrom102     B       1.8       18       2-methoxyethyl acetate       Porapak Q    A       2.8       21
dichloro methane                Chrom 106    B       1.56      4                                     Chrom 106    B       2.08      25
                                Chrom102     B       1.56      18                                    Tenax GR     B       1.81      25
1,2-dichloroethane              Chrom102     B       1.9       18                                    Tenax TA     B       1.64      25
                                Chrom 106    B       2.03      25       2-ethoxyethyl acetate        Chrom 106    B       2.25      4
                                Tenax GR     B       1.72      25                                    Tenax TA     B       2.05      4
halothane                       Chrom102     B       3.6       18                                    Tenax GR     B       2.08      25
                                Tenax TA     B       2.59      6        butoxyethanol                Chrom 106    B       2.06      4
enflurane                       Tenax TA     B       2.29      6                                     Tenax TA     B       1.77      4
                                Chrom 106    D       2.80      27       1-methoxy-2-propanol         Chrom 106    B       1.88      4
isoflurane                      Tenax TA     B       2.20      6                                     Tenax TA     B       1.56      4
                                Chrom 106    D       2.51      27                                    Tenax GR     B       1.55      25
bromoethane                     Chrom 106    A       2.55      29       methoxypropyl acetate        Chrom 106    A       2.50      29
bromobenzene                    Chrom 106    D       3.59      27                                    Tenax TA     B       2.21      25
                                Tenax TA     D       3.31      27                                    Tenax GR     B       2.23      25
trichloromethane (chloroform)   Tenax GR     B       1.97      25       1-ethoxy-2-propanol          Chrom 106    B       1.94      25
                                Chrom 102    B       2.35      18                                    Tenax GR     B       1.64      25
                                Chrom 106    B       2.47      25                                    Tenax TA     B       1.65      25
tetrachloromethane (carbon      Tenax GR     B       3.72      17       2-butoxyethyl acetate        Chrom 106    B       2.79      25
tetrachloride)                                                                                       Tenax GR     B       2.19      25
                                Chrom 102    B       2.87      18                                    Tenax TA     B       2.25      25
trichloroethene                 Chrom 106    B       2.64      4        propoxyethanol               Chrom 106    D       1.94      27
                                Chrom 102    B       2.3       18                                    Tenax TA     D       1.65      27
1,1,1-trichloroethane           Chrom 106    B       2.3       29       Dipropylene glycol methyl    Chrom 106    A       2.7       29
                                Chrom 102    B       2.3       18       ether


   7                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 2001

             Compound             Sorbent       Level    Uptake     Source   Compound                         Sorbent        Level    Uptake      Source
                                                          Rate                                                                        Rate
                                                                             Hydrocarbons
Aldehydes and Ketones                                                        benzene                          Chrom 106      B        1.52±.14 30
2-butanone                     Chrom 106       B        1.72        25                                        Chrom 106      B        1.43± .15 28
                               Tenax GR        B        1.37        25                                        Carbograph-    B        2.00± .19 28
                               Tenax TA        B        1.34        25                                        1 (note 3)
                                                                             toluene                          Chrom 106      B        2.09± .13   30
methyl isobutyl ketone (2-     Tenax TA        B        1.71        4                                         Chrom 106      B        1.94± .18   28
methyl-4-pentanone)                                                                                           Carbograph-1   B        2.09± .22   28
                               Tenax GR        B        1.69        25       m-xylene                         Chrom 106      B        2.37± .17   30
                               Chrom 106       B        2.01        4                                         Chrom 106      B        2.22± .24   28
cyclohexanone                  Tenax TA        B        1.78        25, 31                                    Carbograph-1   B        2.16± .11   28
                               Chrom 106       B        1.96        25, 31   o-xylene                         Chrom 106      B        2.59± .26   30
                               Tenax GR        B        1.78        25       ethylbenzene                     Chrom 106      B        2.36± .20   30
2-methylcyclohexanone          Tenax TA        D        2.31        27
3-methylcyclohexanone          Tenax TA        D        2.22        27       ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS - 4 weeks
4-methylcyclohexanone          Tenax TA        D        2.14        27
furfural                       Tenax TA        A        2.5         10                  Compound                 Sorbent      Level    Uptake     Source
hexanal                        Tenax TA        D        1.64        27                                                                  Rate
                               Chrom 106       A        2.06        29
decanal                        Tenax TA        D        2.32        27       Hydrocarbons
                                                                             benzene                          Tenax TA*      B        0.86        24
Alcohols                                                                                                      Tenax GR       B        0.8         1
Ethanol                        Chrom 106       A        1.3         29                                        Chrom 106      B        1.47± .36   30
propan-1-ol                    Chrom 106       D        1.47        27                                        Chrom 106      B        1.32± .28   28
propan-2-ol (isopropanol)      Spherocarb      C        2.0         22                                        Carbograph-    B        1.83± .12   28
                               Chrom 106       A        1.52        29                                        1
n-butanol                      Chrom 106       A        1.74        29       toluene                          Tenax TA       B        1.2         3
                               Tenax           D        1.33        27                                        Chrom 106      B        2.10± .03   28
isobutanol                     Chrom 106       B        1.61        25                                        Chrom 106      B        1.93± .12   30
                               Tenax GR        B        1.26        25                                        Chrom 106      B        1.85± .18   28
                               Tenax TA        B        1.26        25                                        Carbograph-1   B        2.05± .21   28
furfuryl alcohol               Tenax TA        D        2.50        27       xylene                           Tenax TA       B        1.91        3
tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol     Chrom 106       D        2.39        27       m-xylene                         Chrom 106      B        2.26± .12   30
                               Tenax TA        D        1.90        27                                        Chrom 106      B        2.09± .29   28
                                                                                                              Carbograph-1   B        2.04± .26   28
Miscellaneous                                                                o-xylene                         Chrom 106      B        2.41± .18   30
acrylonitrile                  Porapak N       A        1.35        23       ethylbenzene                     Chrom 106      B        2.24± .18   30
                               Chrom 106       D        1.48        27       trimethylbenzene                 Tenax TA       B        2.65        3
acetonitrile                   Porapak N       A        1.0 (2 h)   11       decane                           Tenax TA       B        2.96        3
                               Porapak N       A        0.8 (8 h)   11       undecane                         Tenax TA       B        3.38        3
                               Chrom 106       A        1.48        29
propionitrile                  Porapak N       A        1.4 (2 h)   11
                               Porapak N       A        1.3 (8 h)   11       Notes:
carbon disulphide              Spherocarb      A        2.6         5        units are ng.ppm-1.min-1; most values are for 8 hrs; environmental values are
nitrous oxide (note2)          Mol. Sieve 5A   B        1.25        12       for 2 or 4 weeks.
ethylene oxide                 Spherocarb      B        1.6         13       bold means preferred sorbent
Propylene oxide                Chrom 106       A        1.24        29       italic not recommended because of varying uptake rate.
                                                                             *sampler with membrane
1,4-dioxane                    Spherocarb      C        3.0         22
                                                                             (note) A nickel disk, rather than the conventional stainless steel gauze, was
allyl glycidyl ether           Chrom 106       D        2.40        27
                                                                             used to support the Carbotrap sorbent material during method validation for
                               Tenax TA        D        1.83        27       these perfluorocarbon tracer gases. The uptake rates may not be applicable
butyl glycidyl ether           Chrom 106       D        2.61        27       to samples using conventional steel gauzes.
                               Tenax TA        D        2/36        27       (note 2) rate varies predictably with exposure dose.
tetrahydrofuran                Chrom 106       D        1.64        27       (note 3) equivalent to Carbopack B.
n-methyl pyrrolidone           Tenax TA        C        1.83        27       (note 4) no longer available. Other carbon molecular sieves may be
                               Chrom 106       A        2.41        29       equivalent.
n-vinyl pyrrolidone            Tenax TA        A        2.51        29
                                                                             Levels
                                                                             level A = validation equivalent to CEN level 1A
                                                                             level B = partial validation - see EN 482
                                                                             level C = calculated - ideal value
ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS - 2 weeks                                         level D = calculated from dynamic breakthrough volume
                                                                             level E = calculated from sorption isotherm
Compound                       Sorbent         Level    Uptake      Source
                                                                             Sources/References
                                                        Rate
                                                                             1. Peters, R and Hafkenscheid, Th. The Diffusive Monitor, 7, 8-9 (1995)



   8                         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                        The Diffusive Monitor

2. Van den Hoed N., van Asselen O.L.J. A computer model for calculating            27. data calculated by HSL using the empirical relationship between
effective uptake rates of tube-type diffusive air samplers. Ann. occup. Hyg.,      retention volume and uptake rate (see ref 4).
35, 273-285, (1991).                                                               28. Plant, N.T., Wright, M.D. and Brown, R.H. European Diffusive
3. Brown V.M., Crump D.R., Gardiner D. Yu C.W.F. Long term diffusive               Sampling Initiative: Final project report. HSL Internal Report IACS/99/08.
sampling of volatile organic compounds in indoor air. Environmental                29. Brown, R.H. Methods for the determination of hazardous substances –
Technology. 14, 771-777 (1993).                                                    new data for MDHS 72 and 80. The Diffusive Monitor, 10, 12-13 (1998).
4. Wright M.D. Diffusive uptake rates for the Perkin-Elmer tube - BCR air          30. Pfeffer, H.-U., Breuer, L. and Ellermann, K.: Validation of Passive
sampling intercomparisons at Vito (Mol, Belgium) February 1991 - April             Samplers for Measurements of Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air (English
1992. UK Health and Safety Executive Report Ref. IR/L/ IA/93/3.                    Translation), Materialien No. 46. Ed.: Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-
5. Lister, R.C. The determination of atmospheric levels of toluene, n-             Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia State Environment Agency), Essen
hephane, o-xylene and n-decane using the diffusive monitoring technique.           1998, 92 pp (ISSN 0947-5206).
BP Research Centre Report SS 11/87.                                                31. Wright, M.D. and Plant, N. Experimental workplace uptake rates for
6. Gray W.M., O'Sullivan J., Houldsworth H.B., Musgrove, N.T. The use of           butyl acrylate and cyclohexanone. The Diffusive Monitor, 13, 5-6 (2001).
diffusive samplers to monitor occupational exposure to waste anaesthetic
gases. CEC Publ No. 10555EN, Brussels, Luxembourg (1987).                          Note: HSE/HSL Internal Reports may be obtained from the HSE
7. Bloemen H.J., Balwers T.T.N., Verhoeff A.P., van Wijnen J.H., van den           Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield, tel +44 114 289 2345, FAX +44
torn P., Knot E., Ventilation and exchange of air in dwellings. Dutch Public       114 289 2333.
Health Service (GGD) and Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezorndheid en
Milieuhygiene combined report, September 1992.
8. Rosmanith P. Determination of some uptake rates for PerkinElmer ATD
50 diffusive sampling: Diffusive sampling-an alternative approach to
                                                                                   Diffusive Uptake Rates on
workplace air monitoring. CEC Publ. No. 10555E
9. Glover J. H. Thermal desorption in industrial hygiene and environmental         Draeger ORSA-5, 3M 3500/20,
analysis. Spantech House, South Godstone, Surrey, England, Spantech
Publishers, 1991.
10. Patel S. Method validation for atmospheric monitoring - an illustration
                                                                                   SKC 575 and Radiello
with furfural. 1988 Thermal Desorption Symposium, Windsor UK.
11. Wood M. The use of the Perkin-Elmer passive sampler and ATD 50
automatic thermal desorber in the measurement of atmospheric
                                                                                   Diffusive Samplers
concentrations of organic nitriles. Ann. occup. Hyg., 29, 399-413 (1985)
12. Cox P.C., Brown R.H. A personal sampling method for the
determination of nitrous oxide exposure. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 45, 345          NOTE: A list has been compiled from sources available to
(1984).                                                                            CAR/Working Group 5. An earlier list is in MDHS 88 [1].
13. HSE Unpublished data.
14. MDHS 63
15. MDHS 66                                                                        It is not complete, and although every care has been taken in
16. MDHS 50                                                                        its preparation, no guarantee can be given of its accuracy.
17. TNO, Netherlands (contact: Dr T. Hafkenscheid)                                 Nor does the list imply a preference for this type of sampler.
18. ICI pcl, UK (contact: Mr S Bennett)
19. MDHS 43
20. Unwin, J. Determination of diffusive uptake rates for tube-type samplers       Users of the data are strongly advised to consult the original
using sorption isotherms and computer modelling. The Diffusive Monitor,            source material to determine the level of confidence and
6, 6 (1993).
21. BP International, UK (contact: Dr K J Saunders)                                range of applicability of the values. Data on approximately
22. Rank Xerox, UK                                                                 200 compounds have been compiled from the manufacturers'
23. MDHS 55
24. Saunders, K.J. The use of diffusive samplers for measuring benzene at          latest sources available [2-7]. Uptake rates listed as type C
ppb levels in the environment. The Diffusive Monitor, 6, 4-5 (1993).               evaluation were calculated by the manufacturers using
25. data obtained by HSL in the BCR air sampling intercomparisons at Mol,
                                                                                   geometric constants and diffusion coefficients either known
1994/95 (to be published).
26. Cox, P.C. and Brown, R.H. Diffusive sampling and automated analysis            experimentally [8] or estimated from empirical equations
of carbon disulphide in air. Analyticon, 1983.                                     [9-12]. Additional data may be included in later revisions.

Table 1: Diffusive uptake rates (cm3 min -1) on Dräger ORSA-5, 3M 3500/20, SKC 575 and Radiello samplers (manufacturer-
supplied data, except where noted; consult manufacturer for recommended elution solvents and estimated desorption efficiencies).

WORKPLACE APPLICATIONS

                                                                Draeger ORSA-5          3M 3500/20               SKC 575-001               Radiello

 Compound                                                     Level Uptake Notes   Level Uptake Notes       Level Uptake Notes       Level Uptake Notes
                                                                     rate                 rate                     rate                     rate
                                                                                                                                                   (l)
 Hydrocarbons
 1,3-butadiene                                                  B      7.61         A      42.8      (a)
 n-pentane                                                      C      6.32         B      35.3              A      14.9               A       74
 1-pentene                                                      C      6.32         C      35.9              C      16.3
 2-methylpentane                                                C      5.45         B      32.0              C      14.1
 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene                                         C      6.51


   9                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 2001

                                       Draeger ORSA-5           3M 3500/20              SKC 575-001          Radiello

 Compound                             Level Uptake Notes   Level Uptake Notes      Level Uptake Notes   Level Uptake Notes
                                             rate                 rate                    rate                 rate
 n-hexane                              B     5.49           A     32.0              B     14.3           A      66
 n-hexane                                                   A     31.7  (b)         B     14.3  (k)
 n-heptane                             B     4.83           B     28.9              B     13.9  (k)      A     58
 1-heptene                                                  C     29.3              C     13.1
 n-octane                              B     4.62           B     26.6              B     12.7  (k)      A     53
 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane)    B     4.61           C     27.1                                   A     55
 n-nonane                              B     4.32           B     24.6              B      10.6   (k)
 n-decane                              B     4.04           B     23.1              C      10.2          A     43
 n-dodecane                            B     3.53           B     21.5
 n-tridecane                           C     3.35
 n-tetradecane                         C     3.21
 n-pentadecane                         C     3.08
 n-hexadecane                          C     2.96
 cyclopentane                          C     6.46           C      36.2
 cyclopentadiene                       C     7.07           C      39.5
 dicyclopentadiene                     C     4.55           C      23.6             C      11.8
 methylcyclopentane                    C     5.79
 cyclohexane                           B     5.58           B      32.4             B      15.6          A     47
 cyclohexene                           B     5.72           B      32.3             C      15.4
 methylcyclohexane                     C     5.09           B      28.9             B      14.2
 trans-1,2-dimethylcyclohexane         C     4.83           C      25.4             C      12.4
 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene                 C     5.03           B      27.9
 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane       C     3.02
 benzene                               A     6.44           B      35.5             A      16.0          A     80
 toluene                               A     5.72           A      31.4             B      14.5          A     74
 ethylbenzene                          B     5.20           C      27.3             B      12.9
 m-xylene                              B     5.03           B      27.3             B      12.5   (k)    A     61
 o-xylene                              B     5.45           B      27.3             B      11.9   (k)    A     61
 p-xylene                              B     5.04           B      27.3             B      12.8   (k)    A     61
 styrene                               B     5.26           A      28.9             A      13.7   (c)    A     61
 styrene                                                                            A      13.7   (d)
 divinyl benzene                       C     4.73           C      23.3
 vinyltoluene                                               C      25.1             C      12.3   (c)
 a-methylstyrene                       C     4.88           B      25.0             A      12.6   (c)
 a-methylstyrene                                                                    A      12.6   (d)
 iso-propylbenzene (cumene)            C     5.08           B      24.5             B      12.8          A     58
 iso-propenylbenzene                   C     4.88
 2-ethyltoluene                        C     4.78           C      24.5
 3-ethyltoluene                        C     4.80           C      24.6
 4-ethyltoluene                        C     4.79           C      24.5
 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene                C     4.95           C      24.3             C      12.0
 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene                C     4.95           C      24.4             C      12.1
 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene                C     4.95           B      26.3             C      12.1
 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene            C     4.31                                   C      11.1
 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene            C     4.31           C      22.2             C      11.2
 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene            C     4.31                                   C      11.2
 Butylbenzene                          C     4.35
 pentamethylbenzeen                    C     4.01
 para-t-butyltoluene                   C     4.28           B      20.7             B      10.4   (k)
 naphthalene                           C     4.87           C      24.6             C      12.2
 a-pinene                              C     4.26           C      22.8             A      11.4   (d)
 b-pinene                              C     4.26           C      22.7             B      11.4   (d)
 D3-carene                             C     5.20           C      22.0             B      11.4   (d)
 limonene                              C     4.24           C      21.9             C      11.4   (d)

 Halocarbons
 methyl chloride                       C     9.57                  (g)
 methyl bromide                        C     8.22           C      40.9      (a)
 methyl iodide                         C     7.24           C      36.7             C      18.7
 dichloromethane                       B     7.78           A      37.9      (a)    A      14.7   (p)    B     90       (m)
 chlorobromomethane                    C     7.15           B      34.4             C      15.4
 chlorotrifluoromethane                C     6.98
 bromoform                             C     5.75           C      29.2             C      21.2



   10                     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                   The Diffusive Monitor

                                          Draeger ORSA-5           3M 3500/20              SKC 575-001                Radiello

Compound                                 Level Uptake Notes   Level Uptake Notes      Level Uptake Notes         Level Uptake Notes
                                                rate                 rate                    rate                       rate
chloroform                                C     6.66           C     33.5              B     13.0  (k)
carbon tetrachloride                      C     6.21           B     30.2              B     14.1  (k)
carbon tetrabromide                       C     4.88           C     26.6
vinyl chloride                            B     8.29           B     40.8  (a)
vinyl bromide                             C     7.36           C     37.0              C      18.2
bromoethane                               C     6.95           B     36.4              C      18.1
1,2-dibromoethane                         C     6.20           B     29.6              C      14.7
1,1-dichloroethane                        C     6.89           C     33.2
1,2-dichloroethane                        C     6.80           B     33.2              B      14.2     (k)
1,1-dichloroethene (vinylidene            C     6.89           C     35.1              B      12.3     (k)
   chloride)
1,2-dichloroethene                        C     6.83           B      35.2             A      14.8
trichloroethene                           B     6.56           B      31.1             A      14.9                A      65
1,1,1-trichloroethane                     B     5.96           A      30.9             B      14.1     (k)        A      47
1,1,2-trichloroethane                     C     5.94           B      29.7             B      12.5     (k)
tetrachloroethene                         B     5.98           A      28.3             A      12.9                A      65
1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane                 C     5.42           C      28.4             B      11.8     (k)
hexachloroethane                          C     4.56           C      26.4             C      11.5
1-bromobutane                             C     5.92
bromochloromethane                        C     6.86                                                              B      70
halothane                                 B     5.70           C      30.2
halothane                                 A                    B      24.0      (e)
halothane                                                      B      23.1      (f)
enflurane                                 A     5.31           C      28.3             C      13.8     (c)
isoflurane                                A     5.30           C      28.3             C      13.7     (c)
sevoflurane                               B     5.03           C      27.3             C      13.1     (c)
desflurane                                C     5.31           C      30.1             C      14.8     (c)
1,1-dichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane                             B      30.9
   (HCFC 123)
1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC134a)       C     7.45           B      37.1
1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane     C     5.47           C      29.1      (a)    C      14.1
2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane                             B      35.8
   (HCFC 124)
1,1,1,2-tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane                         C      27.5
1,1,2,2-tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane    C     5.11           C      28.2
1,2-dichloropropane (propylene            C     5.73           B      30.6             B      14.3     (k)        A      66
   dichloride)
3-chloropropene (allyl chloride)          C     6.90           C      35.1             C      17.8
1,2,3-trichloropropane                    C     5.16           C      27.4             B      11.9     (k)
cis-1,3-dichloropropene                   C     5.75           C      30.7             C      15.2
2-chloro-1,3-butadiene (chloroprene)      C     6.23           C      32.2
1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane                 C     6.18           C      29.6             C      16.0     (c)
   (epichlorohydrin)
chlorobenzene                             B     5.60           B      29.3             C      14.2
benzyl chloride                           C     5.35           C      27.2             C      12.3
o-dichlorobenzene                         C     5.01           B      27.8             C      12.6
m-dichlorobenzene                         C     4.91           C      26.7             C      12.7
p-dichlorobenzene                         C     5.03           B      27.8             C      12.7
a-chlorotoluene                           C     5.35
o-chlorotoluene                           C     5.00           C      27.3             B      13.0     (k)
o-chlorostyrene                                                C      26.0             A       9.8   ( c,d,k )
1-bromopropane                                                 A      31.7
p-chlorobenzotrifluoride                                                               B      11.8     (k)
trichloromethylbenzene                                                                 B      13.4     (k)

Esters
methyl formate                            C     8.17           C      45.0
ethyl formate                             C     7.32           C      38.8             C      17.7
methyl acetate                            C     7.34           B      37.0
ethyl acetate                             B     6.46           B      34.5             A      13.1                A      64
n-propyl acetate                          C     5.76           B      30.1             C      14.6
iso-propyl acetate                        C     5.78           C      31.7             C      14.1
n-butyl acetate                           B     5.04           C      31.6             A      12.3                A      60


 11                      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 2001

                                                       Draeger ORSA-5           3M 3500/20              SKC 575-001              Radiello

 Compound                                             Level Uptake Notes   Level Uptake Notes      Level Uptake   Notes     Level Uptake Notes
                                                             rate                 rate                    rate                     rate
 iso-butyl acetate                                     C     4.97           B     31.0              C     12.8               A      63
 sec-butyl acetate                                     C     4.98           B     28.6              C     12.9
 t-butyl acetate                                       C     5.01           C     29.4              C     12.9
 n-amyl acetate                                        C     4.58           B     26.0              C     11.8
 iso-amyl acetate                                      C     4.60           C     27.2              C     11.8
 s-amyl acetate                                        C     4.60           C     27.2              C     11.9
 1,3-dimethylbutyl acetate (sec-hexyl acetate)         C     4.36           C     25.5              C     11.1
 ethyl hexyl acetate                                                                                C      9.8
 ethyl propionate                                      C     5.42           C      31.2             C     14.0
 methyl acrylate                                       C     6.17           C      35.8             A     15.7     (c)
 ethyl acrylate                                        C     5.52           C      32.2             B     13.7    ( c,k )
 n-butyl acrylate                                      C     4.69           C      27.3             B     11.7    ( c,k )
 iso-butyl acrylate                                                                                 C     12.1     (c)
 methyl methacrylate                                   C     5.56           C      31.8             B     13.1    ( c,k )    B     68
 ethyl methacrylate                                    C     5.08           C      29.4             C     13.1     (c)
 2-methoxyethyl acetate (methyl cellosolve acetate)    C     5.14           B      29.0             C     13.1               A     64
 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (cellosolve acetate             C     4.57           B      26.6             C     12.0               A     54
 2-(ethoxyethoxy)ethyl acetate                         C     3.89
 1-methoxy-2-propyl acetate (propylene glycol          C     5.26           B      25.2             C      12.2              A     60
 monomethyl ether) acetate)
 2-methoxy-1-propyl acetate                            C     4.67                                   C      12.0
 2-butoxyethyl acetate (butyl cellosolve acetate)      C     4.39           B      24.3             C      10.5              A     41
 2-(butoxyethoxy)ethyl acetate                         C     3.50
 vinyl acetate                                         C     6.20           C      35.8      (i)    A      16.3    (c)
 benzyl acetate                                        C     4.17           C      22.6             C      11.3

 Alcohols and glycol ethers
 ethanol                                               B     8.91           B      43.7             C      20.9    (c)
 2-chloroethanol (ethylene                             C     6.68           C      33.9
    chlorohydrin)
 n-propanol                                            C     7.44           B      39.7             C      17.6    (c)
 iso-propanol                                          B     7.60           A      39.4             C      17.8    (c)       A     52       (n)
 2-propen-1-ol (allyl alcohol)                         C     7.66           C      40.4             C      18.4    (c)
 n-butanol                                             B     6.46           B      34.3             C      15.5    (c)       A     74
 iso-butanol                                           B     6.08           B      35.9             C      15.6    (c)       A     77
 sec-butanol                                           B     6.73           C      34.8             C      15.6    (c)
 t-butanol                                             C     6.55           C      35.2             C      15.8    (c)
 n-amyl alcohol                                        C     5.38           B      31.2             C      13.9    (c)
 iso-amyl alcohol                                      C     5.46           B      32.3             C      13.9    (c)
 sec-amyl alcohol                                      C     5.44           C      31.2
 hexyl alcohol                                         C     4.60           C      28.5             C      12.6    (c)
 cyclohexyl alcohol                                    C     5.11
 methyl amyl alcohol (methyl isobutyl                  C     4.97           C      29.2             C      12.8    (c)
   carbinol)
 2-ethyl hexanol                                       C     4.38           C      25.2             C      10.9
 iso-octyl alcohol                                     C     4.32           C      25.1             C      11.1
 nonyl alcohol                                         C     3.95           C      23.8             C      10.2
 decyl alcohol                                         C     3.72           C      22.7             C       9.6
 dodecyl alcohol                                                            C      20.8             C       8.7
 2-phenoxyethanol                                      C     4.28
 2-methoxyethanol                                      C     6.34           B      36.3             C      16.1    (c)
 2-ethoxyethanol                                       C     5.91           B      32.4             C      14.4              A     55       (n)
 iso-propoxyethanol                                                         C      29.5
 2-methoxy-1-propanol                                  C     5.59                                   C      14.4    (c)
 1-methoxy-2-propanol (propylene                       B     5.72           B      32.4             C      14.5    (c)       A     55       (n)
    glycol monomethyl ether)
 1-ethoxy-2-propanol                                                                                                         A     68       (n)
 2-butoxyethanol                                       B     4.76           B      28.2             C      12.0    (c)       A     56       (n)
 2,3-epoxy-1-propanol (glycidol)                       C     6.31           C      36.1             C      16.7    (c)
 ethylene glycol                                                            C      37.9             C      17.4    (c)
 ethylene glycol monohexyl ether                                            C      24.3             C      10.5
 dipropylene glycol methyl ether                       C     4.25           C      25.3             C      10.8    (c)
 cyclohexanol                                          C     5.11           B      29.5             C      13.5




   12                    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                         The Diffusive Monitor

                                                  Draeger ORSA-5           3M 3500/20              SKC 575-001              Radiello

Compound                                         Level Uptake Notes   Level Uptake Notes      Level Uptake Notes       Level Uptake Notes
                                                        rate                 rate                    rate                     rate
methyl cyclohexanol                               C     4.64           C     25.3              C     12.5  (c)
benzene-1,3-diol (resorcinol)                                          C     25.8
terpineol                                         C     3.98           C     20.0              C      10.5   (d)
furfuryl alcohol                                  C     5.61           C     30.6
Diacetone alcohol                                 C     5.05           B     28.2              C      12.4    (c)

Ketones
acetone                                           B     7.87           B      40.1      (i)    A      15.2   ( c,q )    A      77      (n,o)
2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone)                  C     6.77           A      36.3      (i)    B      17.1   ( c,k )    A      57
2-pentanone                                       C     5.95           B      33.0             B      15.7    (c)
3-pentanone (diethylketone)                       C     5.74           C      32.7             C      14.8    (c)
4-methylpentan-2-one (methyl isopropyl ketone)    C     5.27           C      32.8             C      14.8    (c)       A      64
2-hexanone                                        C     7.10           B      29.7      (i)    C      13.4    (c)
3-heptanone (ethyl butyl ketone)                  C     4.83           C      28.0             C      12.3    (c)
4-heptanone (dipropyl ketone)                     C     4.84           C      27.8             C      12.3    (c)
5-methyl-2-hexanone                               C     4.92           C      27.8
diisobutyl ketone                                 C     4.24           B      24.6             B      10.3   ( c,k )
2,6-dimethylheptan-4-one                          C     4.24                                   C      10.7    (c)
4-methylpentan-2-one (MIBK)                       B     5.27           B      30.0             B      13.5    (c)
4-methylpentan-3-ene-2-one                        C     5.70           B      31.2             C      13.7
   (mesityl oxide)
methyl n-amyl ketone (2-heptanone)                C     4.82           C      27.9             C      12.2    (c)
methyl isoamyl ketone                                                  C      28.0             C      12.2    (c)
ethyl amyl ketone                                 C     4.40           C      26.4             C      11.4    (c)
   (5-methyl-3-heptanone)
2,4-pentanedione                                  C     5.52           C      31.7
butyrolactone                                                          C      33.7             C      15.8   (c)
cyclohexanone                                     C     6.02           B      28.9             B      15.1   (d)        A      60       (n)
isophorone                                        C     4.51           B      21.7             C      11.3   (c)

Ethers
Diethyl ether                                     C     6.89           C      36.8             C      16.3
diisopropyl ether                                 C     5.12           C      31.2             C      13.2
Dibutyl ether                                     C     4.43
dichloroethyl ether                               C     5.21           C      26.1             C      12.7
1-dichloro-2-difluoroethyl ether                  C     5.23
1,4-dioxane                                       C     6.90           C      34.5             C      16.0    (c)
dimethoxymethane                                  C     6.65           C      37.9             C      17.1
tetrahydrofuran                                   C     7.00           C      37.2             C      17.4    (c)
iso-propyl glycidyl ether                                              C      29.1             C      12.8
butyl glycidyl ether                                                   C       27              C      11.6
phenyl glycidyl ether                             C     4.25           C      22.2             C      11.1
methyl t-butyl ether                              C     5.67           A      30.8             A      13.6              B      65
ethyl t-butyl ether                                                    C      29.9             B      13.1   (k)        B      61
methyl t-amyl ether                                                    C      29.6             B      13.1   (k)
diphenyl ether                                    C     3.93           C      20.3             C      10.4

Miscellaneous
acetonitrile                                      C     8.86           C      48.2             C      22.4    (c)
acrylonitrile                                     C     7.94           A      43.8             A      20.4    (c)       B      75
camphor                                           C     4.10           C      21.4             C      10.8    (c)
carbon disulphide                                 B     7.60           C      42.8
ethylene oxide                                    C     8.96           B      49.3      (h)    A      22.2    (r)
propylene oxide                                   C     7.42           B      37.7      (a)    C      19.9
furfural                                                               C      34.3
N,N-dimethylaniline                                                                            C      12.0
dimethyl formamide                                C     6.89           C      35.5             C      16.4    (c)
dimethyl acetamide                                C     5.60           C      32.0
pyridine                                          C     6.44           C      34.9             C      16.3
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone                            C     5.78           C      28.8
1,1-dichloronitroethane                           C     5.45           C      28.5




 13                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 2001

                                                                              B: Partial (EN 838 level 1B, or other tests in which experimental uptake
                                                                              rates were measured over a more limited range than that specified by level
                                                                              1A or 1B, as described in EN 482:1994 );
ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS – 2 WEEKS
                                                                              C: Theoretical or ideal uptake rates calculated from known or estimated
                                                                              diffusion coefficients and a geometric constant characteristic of the
Compound                        Device         Level   Uptake        Source   sampling device.
                                                       Rate
                                                                              References
Hydrocarbons
benzene                         ORSA           B       8.00 ± .67    18       [1] Health and Safety Executive. Methods for the Determination of
toluene                         ORSA           B       7.32 ± .59    18       Hazardous Substances. Volatile organic compounds in air. Laboratory
                                                                              method using diffusive samplers, solvent desorption and gas
m-xylene                        ORSA           B       6.86 ± 1.11   18
                                                                              chromatography. MDHS 88, 1997 ISBN 0-7176-2401-3.1
o-xylene                        ORSA           B       6.25 ± .70    18
                                                                              [2] Pannwitz K-H, Measurement of concentrations of the vapours of
ethylbenzene                    ORSA           B       8.32 ± 2.15   18       organic solvents in work areas - Part I, Dräger Review 56, November 1985,
                                                                              6-29.
                                                                              [3] Pannwitz K-H, Measurement of concentrations of the vapours of
ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS – 4 WEEKS                                          organic solvents in work areas - Part II, Dräger Review 58, December 1986,
                                                                              9-14.
                                                                              [4] Pannwitz K-H, Measurement of concentrations of the vapours of
                                                                              organic solvents in work areas - Part III, Dräger Review 61, September
Compound                        Device         Level   Uptake        Source   1988, 22-25.
                                                       Rate                   [5] 3M Organic Vapour Monitor sampling and analysis guide, September
                                                                              1996.
Hydrocarbons                                                                  [6] SKC Air Sampling Guide, 1997 International Edition.
benzene                         ORSA           B       7.42 ± .48    18       [7] Cocheo V, Boaretto C and Sacco P, High uptake rate radial diffusive
toluene                         ORSA           B       6.73 ± .28    18       sampler suitable for both solvent and thermal desorption, Am Ind Hyg Assoc
                                                                              J, 57, 1996, 897-904.
m-xylene                        ORSA           B       5.89 ± .19    18
                                                                              [8] Lugg G A, Diffusion coefficients of some organic and other vapours in
o-xylene                        ORSA           B       5.35 ± .25    18
                                                                              air, Anal Chem, 40, 1968, 1072-1077.
ethylbenzene                    ORSA           B       6.94 ± 1.04   18       [9] Fuller E N, Schettler P D and Giddings J C, A new method for
                                                                              prediction of binary gas-phase diffusion coefficients, Ind and Eng Chem,
Notes                                                                         58, 1966, 19-27.
                                                                              [10] Pannwitz K-H, Diffusion coefficients, Dräger Review 52, January
a 3M 3520 sampler with back-up section.                                       1984, 1-8.
b MDHS 74 (reference 13).                                                     [11] Feigley C E and Lee B M, Determination of sampling rates for organic
c SKC 575-002 sampler with Anasorb® 747. For the majority of                  vapours based on estimated diffusion coefficients, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 48,
  compounds with an entry for the 575-001 sampler, the Anasorb® 747           1987, 873-876.
  type can also substitute for the 575-001 sampler with the same uptake       [12] Feigley C E and Lee B M, Determination of sampling rates for organic
  rates.                                                                      vapours based on estimated diffusion coefficients, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 49,
d SKC 575-003 sampler with Anasorb® 727.                                      1988, 266-269.
e Re-calculated from data of Mazur et al, 1980 (reference 14).                [13] Health and Safety Executive n-Hexane in air: laboratory method using
f HSE Internal Report, 1985 (reference 15)                                    charcoal diffusive samplers, solvent desorption and gas chromatography.
g 3M OVM not recommended for methanol or methyl chloride                      MDHS 74, HSE Books, 1992: ISBN 0 11 885740 1.
h 3M 3550 ethylene oxide monitor (reference 16)                               [14] Mazur J F, Podolak G E, Esposito C G, Rinehart D S, and Gleen R E,
i Refrigerate and analyse as quickly as possible if sampled under high        Evaluation of a passive dosimeter for collection of 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-
  humidity                                                                    trifluoroethane and 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethylether in
k SKC bi-level validation (reference 17)                                      hospital operating rooms, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 41, 1980, 317-321.
l Uptake rates include allowance for desorption efficiency.                   [15] Wright M D, Evaluation of the 3M type 3500 monitor for the
m 8-hr exposure was at 1/3 of ACGIH limit value.                              determination of halothane in air, HSE Internal Report IR/L/AO/85/14, HSL
n If exposure was prolonged at >60% R.H. add water to standards to            Broad Lane Sheffield S3 7HQ.
  match water content of charcoal desorbate.                                  [16] US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA Manual of
o If not exposed for more than 6-hr at limit value.                           analytical methods: 49 Ethylene Oxide, USDOL/OSHA 1989.
p Valid for samples greater than 4 hours duration. Use 16.0 mL/min if         [17] Harper M and Guild L V, Experience in the use of the NIOSH
  samples are less than 4 hours.                                              diffusive sampler evaluation protocol, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 57, 1996, 1115-
q Valid for samples greater than 4 hours duration. Use 20.3 mL/min if         1123.
  samples are greater than 4 hours.                                           [18] Pfeffer, H.-U., Breuer, L. and Ellermann, K.: Validation of Passive
r SKC 575-005 sampler with treated petroleum charcoal                         Samplers for Measurements of Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air (English
                                                                              Translation), Materialien No. 46. Ed.: Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-
Evaluation levels A-C are designated as follows):                             Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia State Environment Agency), Essen
                                                                              1998, 92 pp (ISSN 0947-5206).
A: Full (EN 838 level 1A or NIOSH protocol or close equivalent);




   14                      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                      The Diffusive Monitor




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15                  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
July 2001




  International Conference                               International Symposium on
  Measuring Air Pollutants by                            Thermal Desorption in
  Diffusive Sampling                                     Occupational, Medicinal and
                                                         Environmental Chemical Analysis
  CORUM Congress Centre, Montpellier, France,
  26 – 28 September 2001                                 University of Alabama at Birmingham School of
                                                         Public Health, Birmingham, AL,
  First Announcement and Call for Papers                 9-10 October, 2001

  Since the successful Luxembourg conference on          The principle objective of this symposium is to
  ‘Diffusive sampling’ in 1986 and the follow-up         bring together researchers and practitioners that use
  conference ‘Clean Air at Work’ in 1991, the role       thermal desorption techniques on a regular basis
  of diffusive sampling in the assessment of             with those that do not, thus encouraging dialogue
  environmental impact of air pollutants has             and a sharing of expertise.
  changed significantly.
  With the development of the EC Air Quality             This symposium is intended to provide input and
  Framework Directive and related CEN                    encouragement to agencies involved in methods
  standardization activities, the use of the diffusive   development, and to foster the harmonization of
  sampling technology in the field of air quality        methods development between different agencies
  assessment has expanded from a novel research          within the USA and between the USA and Europe.
  concept to a widely used and very cost-effective
  tool. Moreover, its field of application has           The Conference is co-sponsored by the University
  expanded from its workplace origins to                 of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health
  encompass ambient air quality, indoor air and,         and the Deep South Center for Occupational Health
  most recently, total exposure assessment. It is also   & Safety, the Centers for Disease Control and
  a versatile technique, finding applications as         Prevention and the National Institute for
  diverse as leak testing or source location and         Occupational Safety & Health.
  cultural heritage and ecosystem protection.
                                                         Further information can be obtained from website:
  The conference will present the state of the art of    http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=34217.
  diffusive sampling practice, review the latest
  developments, and will explore possible                Registration forms can be obtained by contacting
  innovative developments for the future. The            the Deep South Center at dsc@uab.edu or calling
  conference is targeted at air pollution scientists     +1 205.934.7178.
  and technicians already acquainted with the
  technologies, or interested in their further
  implementation.

  The Conference is organized by the Environment
  Institute, Joint Research Centre, Ispra in
  collaboration with ADEME and Air Languedoc
  Roussillon and with the support of the Royal
  Society of Chemistry, the Health & Safety
  Executive and the European Committee for
  Standardization.

  Further Information may be obtained from Joint
  Research Centre -Montpellier Conference-
  Environment Institute, T.P. 050, I – 21020 Ispra
  (VA)
  e-mail: erlap@jrc.it Fax: + 39 0332 789364
  Website: http://www.ei.jrc.it/aq/projects/ERLAP




   16                 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                           The Diffusive Monitor



Monitoring Ambient Air – an
                                                             Airmon ’02
update
                                                             Fourth International Symposium on Modern
Scientific Societies Lecture Theatre, London,
                                                             Principles of Air Monitoring
12-13 December 2001

Atmospheric pollutants in ambient air are the subjects       Quality Hotel Hafjell, Lillehammer, Norway, 3-7
of various European Commission initiatives. The              February 2002
resulting Directives and measurement provides data for
risk assessment of health hazards, burden on natural         The programme of Airmon ’02 has been planned
ecosystems and effects on the natural balance of             with a view to furnishing a comprehensive
atmospheric processes and cycles.                            overview of the latest developments in this
Pollutants of concern range from organic gases, vapours
                                                             important field. Since some of the world’s
and PAHs to acid gases and micro particulates. The           leading authorities in the field will be present, the
concentration and distribution of these pollutants           symposium will be an excellent forum for the
present the analyst with particular problems, not least of   exchange of ideas as well as an opportunity for
which is the trace level to be measured. Confidence in       private informal discussions for all those who are
reported data is therefore more variable and calibration     involved in method development, air sampling,
procedures more critical.                                    exposure assessment, regulatory issues or other
                                                             areas related to air monitoring. The Airmon
The aim of the conference is to create an opportunity to     symposia are intended not only for scientists in
present to both the scientific community and public
authorities the recent developments within Europe on
                                                             academic circles working in the field, but also for
air pollution and to discuss the technical approaches to     environmental and occupational hygiene
effective monitoring particularly using a range of           professionals in industry and officials from
analytical techniques. Papers will be presented that         governmental and regulatory authorities.
cover the monitoring of pollutants and their effects on
air quality in the rural and urban environment.              Further information may be obtained from:
The conference will be of interest to industrial, public     Conference Secretariat
health and environmental chemists who are involved in        Margaretha Karlsson, NIWL, PO Box 7654, S-
air monitoring, environmental and health studies.
                                                             907 13 Umeå, Sweden
The conference is a joint meeting of the Royal Society       Tel +46 90 17 60 66 Fax +46 90 17 61 23
of Chemistry, UK and the Joint Research Centre, Ispra,       e-mail margaretha.karlsson@niwl.se
Italy.
                                                             Yngvar Thomassen, NIOH, PO Box 8149 Dep,
Further information may be obtained from:                    N-0033 Oslo, Norway
                                                             Tel +47 23 19 53 20 Fax +47 23 19 52 06
Meeting and Registration Contact                             e-mail yngvar.thomassen@stami.no
Dr R Narayanaswamy, DIAS, UMIST, PO Box 88,
Manchester M60 1QD.                                          Internet version:
Tel 0161 200 4891/4885, Fax 0161 200 4881/4911               AIRMON ’02 has its own web page
e-mail: AAMGConference@umist.ac.uk                           (http://www.airmon.org/) where you will find
                                                             more details of the symposium and useful links to
                                                             Lillehammer tourist information, Quality Hotel
AAMG Treasurer and Banking Information                       Hafjell, Scandinavian Airlines and the Norwegian
Dr A Braithwaite, Department of Chemistry and                railway system.
Physics, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane,
Nottingham NG11 8NS.                                         Registration, abstract submission and
Tel. 0115 848 3345, Fax 0115 848 6636                        communication with the secretariat can be fully
e-mail: alan.braithwaite@ntu.ac.uk                           electronic.




17                  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

				
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