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Romanesque 800 to 1150

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					Romanesq ue (8001150)

Romanesque World

Contemplative vs. Active Life
• Opposition between spiritual and secular world • Contemplative life--represented by monks and the church • Active life--represented by laypeople living in a feudal society • Church and society adhere to strict hierarchy

Secular Hierarchy
• • • • System of feudalism Primogeniture Agricultural economy--tied to the land Serfs, tenant farmer, lord, baron or duke, king

• • • • • • •

Women in Romanesque Society marriages Noblewomen had arranged

Primary duty to bear children Unmarried had to join a nunnery (educated) Peasant women Marriages as economic partnerships Free to choose mates Able to make some decisions about family business • Overall, given more rights • Charlemagne instituted education for both boys and girls • Women could become artisans and

Church Hierarchy
• Centered around the monastery • Rise of monastery in 9th century • Hierarchy--monks, chaplain, parish priests, bishop, archbishop, pope

Historical Events in Early Romanesque
• • • • Charles the Great, aka Charlemagne Frankish king (German) Conquered most of Western Europe Seat of power shifted from Mediterranean to northern Europe-England, France, Germany

Charlemagne
• 800--crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the pope • Power for Charlemagne but also power for the pope • Aachen (Germany) becomes cultural center • Restored Latin as primary literary language • Improved education for boys and girls • Restoration of Greco-Roman learning and

Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, 792805

Monasteries
• Designs drawn up under order of Charlemagne • Monasteries become cultural/learnin g centers

Early Illuminated Manuscripts
• Made by monks at monasteries • Scriptorium • Made under the supervision of Charlemagne

After Charlemagne

• 870--remains of his empire are ruled by grandsons, Charles the Bald (France) and Louis the German (Germany) • Weak rule, came under attack • Normans (from Norway, Vikings) took control of England, Ireland, Italy

Germany
• • • • Otto I, a Saxon king 962--pope crowns him emperor Holy Roman Empire under German rule Germany becomes leading nation of Europe

The Church After Charlemagne
• Although empires collapsing, Church of Rome remains strong • Increased authority of the pope • Calls itself “Catholic” which means universal • Much of the art is made in service to the Church

Abbey at Cluny, begun 910
• French monastery, Benedictine monks • Largest, most powerful monastery, 10th12th c.

monks “should have absolutely not anything; neither a book, nor tablets, nor a pen— nothing at all…it is not allowed to the monks to have their own bodies or wills in their

• Largest church in the Christian world • Like Roman basilica but more elaborate • Vertical emphasis
Barrel vault

3rd Abbey Church at Cluny, 1049

Transept

Early Christian vs. Romanesque

St. Sernin, c. 1080

St. Etienne, c. 1067-1135
Groin vault

St. Sernin, nave, Toulouse, France, c. 1080

St. Etienne, nave, Caen, France, c. 1067-1135

Church Plans

St. Sernin, Toulouse, France, c. 1080

St. Etienne, Caen, France, c. 1067-1135

St. Etienne, Romanesqu e Facade
• Plain • Divided into three sections • Squat • Massive

Tower of London, c. 10781097

Sculpture as Church Decoration
• La Madeleine, Vezelay, France • c. 1120-1132 • Tympanum • Narthex

Manuscript paintings as inspiration for sculpture

La Madeleine, capitals

Romanesque PaintingIlluminated Manuscripts

miniator

rubricator

St. John, the Gospel Book of Abbot Wedricus, 1147

Letter Q, from Evangeliary of Abbey at St. Omer, c. 1000

Hildegard von Bingen

Bayeux Tapestry, c. 10731088

Willliam and Harold

Battle

William’s Feast

Narrative Art


				
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