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                         1. THE POLISH EDUCATION SYSTEM

Kindergarten
Sending a child to kindergarten is not compulsory yet in Poland. However, it offers a very
useful preparation for school, especially for six-year-olds. That is why most parents want to
send their children to kindergarten at least for that one preparatory year. However, some
parents cannot do it because they are not able to pay the fee. Plans are being made to make
kindergarten compulsory for six-year-olds.


Schools
Most Polish children go to public schools, which are run by local governments and are free.
There are also some private schools. After finishing post-elementary school, which is a kind
of comprehensive school, students choose a secondary school. It can either be a grammar or a
technical school. Another possibility is to go for two or three years to a vocational (trade)
school and then for another two or three years to a technical school. In this version, the period
of study in a secondary school lasts 5 years altogether (2+3 or 3+2).

Age                                  Grade
              Kindergarten           (class)
  6
  7                                     1
                Integrated
  8             education
                                        2
  9                                     3
 10              Primary                4
                  school                           9 years
 11                                     5          of compulsory
 12                                     6          education
 13                                     1
 14      Post-elementary school         2
 15                                     3          
  16                                    1
              Secondary                        Vocational (trade) school
 17                                     2
                 school
 18                                     3
                                                    Technical school
19,20 (only in technical schools)      4,5




                                         College of Further Education



          Higher education:
 University, Polytechnic Academy etc.
                                                 2



The core curriculum
It is a document, which describes the aims of the educational activity of schools, as well as the
basic content of each school subject and the anticipated students’ achievements. Teaching the
subject matters and practising the skills, which are included in the core curriculum, is an
obligation for each school, irrespective of which programmes of study they will choose. (It
is the teacher’s responsibility to choose a subjects’ programme of study, after having
considered various factors.)

Moreover, beginning from class four of primary school, teachers should include in their
educational activity the contents of the cross-curricular paths. Because of their specific
topics, they are fulfilled in different school subjects, and one of their objectives is to integrate
the educational process at every stage of education. In primary school as cross-curricular
paths such topics are introduced and taught:
    1. living healthy lifestyles
    2. being environmentally friendly
    3. being an efficient reader and a conscious and responsible user of media
    4. being a member of society, which includes:
             family life
             regional education – cultural heritage in the region
             patriotic and civic education

Standards of education and exams
Out of the core curriculum, standards of education have been developed. They describe the
knowledge and the students’ skills, which they should acquire, after finishing each stage of
education.

Since the 2001 / 2002 school year, obligatory, external examinations assessing students’
school achievements have been held for six-formers in primary school and for students
finishing post-elementary school. Students in primary school have to write an
interdisciplinary test of competence, which assesses the level of their skills in:
    1. reading
    2. writing
    3. reasoning
    4. using information
    5. applying knowledge into practice.
The examination in post-elementary school consists of two parts: humanities and maths-and-
sciences.

Matura exam
Another examination is held at the end of secondary school. This is also called “the
maturation exam” and has a long-standing tradition in Poland. At the moment it is still an
internal school examination, but it is soon going to be changed. After it becomes an external
examination, the entry examinations for Universities and other institutions of higher education
will probably be abolished.


Higher education
Courses usually last for five years. Most institutions of higher education are state-run,
although more and more private higher schools are appearing. But even at state universities
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and polytechnics not all the courses are free. Students attending evening or weekend courses
(which are mostly for working people), have to pay their course fees. Good students on full-
time courses win scholarships, which help them to cover their expenditures (food and
accommodation, transport etc.). It is also possible for students to receive loans, which they
have to pay back when they start work, but they are not very popular among the students.



                                2. THE CURRICULUM
                         IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN ZĄBROWO


A) OUR AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The most important objective of educational activity in our and every school in Poland is
creating a caring environment for the fullest possible development of children. School
education means a harmonious fulfilment of the teaching and educational tasks and
development of skills and abilities. That educational activity is determined by:
     school set of programmes of study, which take into account the educational
        dimension, embracing the entire school from a didactic point of view,
     school programme of socialisation, which describes all the subject matters and social
        training in their entirety and is fulfilled by all the teachers,
     preventive programme adjusted to students’ needs, their background and social
        environment, describing all the subject matters and preventive actions directed to
        students, teachers and parents.
All those documents constitute a coherent entirety. Their preparation and fulfilment is a duty
both for the whole school and for every teacher.

General objectives of education:
    acquiring speaking, writing and reading skills, at a level enabling students to express
      themselves correctly and freely,
    learning the concepts being taught and gaining knowledge at a level enabling students
      at least to continue studies at the next stage of education,
    understanding of subject matters being taught, developing the ability of analytic and
      synthetic thinking, as well as the ability of noticing the cause and effect, functional,
      spatial and time relationships and dependencies,
    developing the ability of better understanding of the world, people and themselves,
    getting to know the rules of personal development and those of social life
    getting to know the national cultural heritage in the perspective of European culture.

The school and the teachers are obliged to create conditions for acquisition of such skills and
abilities:
     planning, organising and self-assessment by students of their own learning,
     effective communication skills in a variety of situations, presentation of student’s own
        point of view and regarding other people’s opinions,
     effective cooperation and collaboration in a team or group of people,
     solving problems creatively,
     searching, sorting out and using information from different sources,
     applying acquired knowledge into practice and creating necessary experiences and
        habits,
                                              4

    developing personal interests,
    acquiring techniques and methods of negotiation in solving problems.

Regarding values and attitudes, the school wants the students to:
    prepare themselves for recognition of moral values, their selection and ranking, and
      for constant self-improvement,
    cultivate a readiness for discussion, the ability of listening to others and understanding
      their views,
    have the awareness of the practical utility of different school subjects as well as the
      entire education at every stage,
    develop in themselves intellectual and emotional powers directed to searching for
      truth, good and beauty in the world,
    pursue by themselves goodness in its personal and social dimensions,
    search, find out and pursue, through honest work, their life goals and values important
      in finding their own place in the world,
    learn respect for the common good and prepare themselves for family and social life.



                                     THE MODEL
                            OF A PRIMARY SCHOOL-LEAVER


                                        TOLERANT
                                                                   PUNCTUAL

          ACTIVE                                                       UPRIGHT

   OPEN-MINDED                                                         RESPONSIBLE

        CRITICAL
                                                                       JUDICIOUS

  SHOWING INTEREST
IN THE WORLD AND IN                                                   CULTIVATED
   THEMSELVES




    Active. They like doing sports and being physically active. They willingly try to
     express themselves artistically - sing, play instruments, draw and paint according to
     their abilities, and have their own tastes both as creators and recipients of art.
                                               5

    Critical. They can select and sort out the information gained as well as evaluate its
     usefulness for a particular aim.
    Responsible. They try to foresee the results of their actions, use their previous
     experiences and are ready to bear the consequences of their deeds. They enjoy their
     successes and accept failures, but if it is possible they seek alternative solutions. When
     acting in a group they are ready to share responsibility.
    Showing interest in the world and in themselves. They willingly gather knowledge,
     using different sources. They are interested in the surrounding world, notice its
     complexity, and analyse the cause and effect relationships and dependencies, which
     exist in it.
    Open-minded. They make the most of their home and school environment and its
     possibilities. They understand, without accepting uncritically, the restrictions of their
     age. They willingly and effectively make new contacts, presenting their own point of
     view and considering others’ opinions. They know that there are different ways of
     communication and without difficulties learn and use modern communication
     technologies. They easily co-operate with other people. In a group they can work
     harmoniously, according to the accepted rules. They are interested in the tasks to
     which they are appointed and can plan their activities.
    Upright. They distinguish between good and bad deeds. In their actions, they show
     good intentions.
    Punctual. They meet deadlines. They have a sense of time and can plan their work.
     They respect the time of their own and others.
    Judicious. They know the dangers and threats to their environment. They try to
     foresee the results of their behaviour. They can make sure that they and their friends
     are safe. They act according to the rules of hygiene.
    Tolerant. They understand that the differences between people are only natural and
     desirable. They try to understand everyone and to see something good in them.
    Cultivated. They can politely and tactfully behave in different life situations. They
     show respect to their seniors and the elderly.

All the educational activities of the school strive for the primary school-leavers being able to
function well in their natural surroundings: at home and at a new school. We want them to
treat learning as a normal, obvious thing but at the same time to be critical about what they
learn.

Ways of attaining the assumed targets:
   providing classes of different types:
               compulsory lessons
               extracurricular classes (developing personal interests and abilities) and
                  sports activities
   celebrating regular and occasional events and festivities.


   B) STAGES OF EDUCATION
      a) Kindergarten – not compulsory
      b) 1st stage – Integrated education (classes 1-3)
      c) 2nd stage – classes 4-6
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a) Kindergarten
Kindergarten in Ząbrowo is attended by children at the age of six and younger: three, four and
five-year-olds. Education in kindergarten, through a selection of methods and teaching
strategies, supports the full emotional, social, physical and mental development of children.
Applying the methods of independent experiences, tasks assigned, and consolidating
exercises, the teacher influences the entire development of the child so that they reach
preschool maturity and are able to start their education in primary school.
The most important form of work is playing. That is why in the play corners there are various
colourful toys and interesting educational aids.
After the classroom activities have finished, children continue playing in the playground,
which is equipped in a modern way.

b) I stage – Integrated education
Education in this stage is a smooth transition from pre-school education to education in the
regular school system. It is of an integrated character (there is no division into particular
school subjects). Educational classes are carried out by a teacher according to his or her plan,
adjusting the time, task sequence and breaks to the activity of pupils. The teacher chooses
independently the program to be realised during three years and employs the appropriate work
methods. Children have the possibility to study a foreign language beginning from the first
class. The children who encounter some difficulties in learning take part in didactic-equalising
classes, in logopedic as well as pedagogic therapy.
The superior aim of the integrated early-school education is to support a child in his or her
comprehensive development (physical, intellectual, esthetical, emotional and mental) so that
they will be prepared (to the best of his or her ability) for living with other people, nature and
oneself.
From the superior aim, the following particular aims are drawn:
1. Shaping communication skills with other people:
     Skills in using the native language both in speaking, writing and reading;
     Skills of mathematical description of reality, the notion of the natural number and its
       aspects as well as fluency in performing all four mathematical operations using
       numbers, making measurements, solving mathematical problems, recognition of
       geometrical figures;
2. Shaping co-operation and coexistence skills with other people:
     Introduction to active participation in wider social circles (family, school, local
       community, nation, Earth);
     Introduction to the discovery of other human being, identification with other people’s
       situations, understanding their reactions;
3.Shaping skills in using different methods of experiencing reality:
    Direct (observation, experience, experiments) and indirect methods (films, books,
     photos, illustrations);
    Development of skills to explore, order and exploit information from various sources;

4. Shaping skills in separation, description and explanation of the connection between the
natural environmental components and the life and activity of a human being:
    Through arousing an interest in nature and the need for direct contact with the
     environment;
    Shaping the skill of exploitation of natural resources without causing its degradation;
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     Arrangement of situations in which a child recognises and accepts oneself, gets know
       their body, discovers his or her mental possibilities (trains the mind), emotions and
       builds a system of enriching values;
5. Shaping skills as an art consumer and future creator:
     Introduction to the national culture heritage as well as that of Europe and the world;
     Preparation for understanding literary works as well as of fine arts and music;
     Arousing an aesthetic responsiveness and encouraging artistic expression;
6. Shaping skills in technical products user and those of a future inventor:
    Making safe use of simple tools and operating some technical equipment;
    Introduction to planning and organising a process, which leads to a new product.

c) 2nd stage – classes 4-6
In this stage, for the first time there is a division into school subjects. A student is no longer
under the tutorship of one teacher; there are as many teachers as school subjects. Each class
has, however, its own tutor – a teacher to whom the students can turn to with all their
problems. One lesson unit in a week is always devoted for a meeting of students with their
tutor.
Here is the listing of school subjects, which are taught at this stage of education:
         Religious studies
         Polish language
         Foreign languages
         History and society
         Mathematics
         Nature
         Information technology
         Music
         Art
         Technology
         Physical education

Characteristics of the school subject curriculum:

RELIGIOUS STUDIES – It appeared as a school subject for the first time in Polish
education in 1990. It was an indubitable effect of the collapse of the totalitarian system, which
ruled Poland since the Second World War. The objective of introducing religious studies into
Polish school was not only purely religious but also an educational and pedagogic one. The
objective of religious studies in Polish school is not only to support other teachers in their
realization of the educational and didactic process. It is first of all due to the timeless
moral values, which are present in every catechesis such as: truth, good, justice, honesty but
also the universal value of the Decalogue, which establishes the behaviour standards
overarching all laws created by man. The moral values which are taught during religious
studies lessons are based on the Old and New Testaments.
        The religious studies classes are taught for two hours in a week. Attendance is not
obligatory. It is up to the parents whether a child is to attend these classes or not. The students
obtain marks in similar way as in other subjects. The grade of religious studies is of no
importance for promotion to a higher class.
In the integrated education among the basic educational objectives count the following:
     Shaping the skill in finding the God’s presence in the surrounding world.
     Shaping the awareness of church community membership.
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    Shaping the skills of participation at celebrations of religious faith (liturgy, year of
       liturgy, Polish tradition of liturgy periods).
At classes 4 - 6 the principal educational objectives are:
    Stimulation of interest in God’s message.
    Opening to the world of values, which are fundamental for all inter human relations.
    Shaping the skills of symbolising, active, conscious and joyful participation in the
       liturgy of the Church.


POLISH LANGUAGE – it is the main school subject. For realization of the curriculum is
forecast about 180 hours, comprising 5 hours in a week in every of the class: IV, V, and VI.
The curriculum of the Polish Language subject contains selected contents of four educational
paths: healthy life style education, reading and media education as well as preparative
education for living within community.
General, more important objectives:
     Preparation for participation in interpersonal communication as an active hearer,
       reader, who expresses himself both in speech and in writing,
     Preparation for conscientious reception of different texts of culture, shaping the role of
       a critical participant of cultural events,
     Encouraging the students to read works of literature, which are representative for
       regional, national and European culture,
     Strengthening the ties with the region and nation, shaping responsibility for them,
     Shaping human attitudes, encouraging for looking for the truth, good and beauty in
       literature, culture and life as well as for creation of such values,

Contents:
     In class four, the students (along with texts, which are closely connected with school,
family and state life) also read and discuss fairy stories and tales from all over the world.
Their attention is drawn to the moral problems described in the literary works and especially
to the contrasts made by such notions as: good and evil, truth and lie, beauty and ugliness etc.
     In class five, throughout reading myths and legends they deepen their interest in Polish
and European culture.
     In class six, the students look for life wisdom contained in plots and morals of fables.
They learn to perceive drawbacks and merits of adventure and classical novels; they look for
analogy and differences between contemporary world and that of science-fiction heroes.
      Next to epic texts, the students acquaint themselves in classes IV-VI with valuable lyrics
and decipher the most important meanings of the poetry language. Moreover, they are
familiarised with selected issues from the theory of literature, which enables them to perform
an analysis of literary works.

Skills:
     The most important skills, which are perfected in classes IV-VI are: reading with
understanding the texts of literature, popular scientific ones and user’s texts, as well as
writing thematic essays according to the set out aim, and correctly with regards to the
linguistics and orthography, making use of different forms of expression. The student who
leaves the elementary school can write; story, description, report, memorandum, summary,
letter and post card, telegram, invitation, notification, advertisement, instruction and recipe.
     Next to teaching the students the knowledge of using different forms of expression, they
acquire during three successive years the notions, terms and practical skills from linguistics.
                                               9

These skills are of subordinate role, such as orthography to the skills of effective and correct
interpersonal communication.

Values and attitudes:
The teacher who provides the contents of the Polish language education:
    Develops in the students:
          - Esthetical sensibility
          - Positive way of looking at the surrounding world
          - Tolerance for people of different races and cultures
          - Respect for his own and other people’s work
          - Creativity
    Stimulates in the children:
          - Cognitive curiosity
          - Openness towards others
          - Willingness to formulate conclusions and opinions
    Strengthens:
          - Confidence in their own strengths
          - Feeling of ties with home, family, class community, region and state
          - Feeling of responsibility for the contents, form and aesthetics of expressions
    Shapes at the students:
          - Empathy
          - Assertiveness
          - Self assessment ability
          - Habits, for instance to be punctual, systematic
          - Team work skills
          - Interest in reading.


FOREIGN LANGUAGES – The main target in teaching children foreign languages in the II
education stage is:
      Teaching them efficient communication in simple everyday life situations.
The examples of such situations are following: making acquaintances, shopping, ordering a
meal in a restaurant, making appointments, reading a lesson plan or timetables and discussing
them etc. The students also learn how to write simple texts of a useful character: postcard,
letter, memorandum, invitation, culinary recipe etc; they also get the skill how to fill out the
personal questionnaire forms. Simultaneously with skills of expressing themselves, both in
speech and writing, the ability of listening and reading with understanding different short
texts and conversations is formed.
Intermediate targets in teaching the foreign languages are also:
      Students acquiring the basic knowledge within the scope of the taught language
        and
      Assist the student in acquiring the ability to organise his own studies,
        employment of different techniques and learning strategies, and becoming
        progressively independent in the process of the foreign language study.

The principal method or procedure to achieve the above-mentioned targets and objectives is
the so-called communicative approach. That means that preparation of the students to use
the foreign language for communication purposes (to understand each other) is more
important than achievement of linguistic correctness by inculcating in the students the
                                               10

grammatical rules and rules of language functioning, although it is not excluded. This,
however, is of lesser importance and is meant only as an aid in acquiring the language skills.

The lessons of the foreign languages should shape the following attitudes in students:
     Tolerance and respect for dissimilarities;
     Curiosity for the world and interest in other cultures and traditions;
     Openness.
These lessons also create the possibility of developing co-operation skills within a team, for
instance, through realization of group projects.


HISTORY AND SOCIETY - History and society as the school subject appears in the
second stage of education, in the six-year primary school. The principal cognitive objective of
the program is introduction of a child into the past by means of making a child
acquainted with selected elements of civilisation property of humanity in different
epochs, while the stress being put on the contents of economic, social and culture history as
well as widely understood everyday life. So:
- in class four, the students get acquainted with history from the point of view of domestic
historical sources, relics, historical monuments of student’s own region and characteristic
legends;
- in class five, the students study two epochs: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Students’
attention is focused on achievements of ancient and middle-age civilisations. The curriculum
also contains suggestions to find references to the contemporary times, in order to show the
timelessness of achievements of earlier civilisations.
- class six, continues the hitherto idea of the curriculum with regard to the next epochs:
Modern History and Contemporary History. To a far greater extent than before, however, the
issues and events from the history of the world and Europe are examined. Special stress is put
on issues of national history, events and developments which had a crucial impact on life in
those societies. However, significant time is devoted to everyday life issues, history of culture
and art as well as the economy.

Educational and cognitive targets:
   Making use of the basic notions of chronology, which enable the student to calculate:
      time of events, duration time, putting the events respectively on the chronological
      tape.
   Making use of easily accessible sources (for instance family relics) to reconstruct facts
      of local history
   Making use of illustrations as a source of information
   Making use of maps and atlases
   Execution of a simplified genealogical tree of the students’ own family
   Discerning the elements of the past and tradition in contemporary life
   Acquainting the students with: main epochs of human history and with selected circles
      of ancient civilisations, Middle Ages and Modern Times as well as with the mental
      and material properties of selected civilisations.

Educational objectives
While teaching history, a teacher must bear in mind that the elementary school is an
institution, which first of all supports the family in its task of bringing up a child. In
connection with this, the knowledge so relayed is to be imbued with particular values, which
                                             11

might enable shaping the appropriate life attitudes of pupils. Such an attitude should be
characterised by:
    Respect for principal moral standards.
    Openness and tolerance towards other people’s opinions excluding such, which openly
       violate generally accepted rules.
    Courage to defend own views.
    Willingness and ability for teamwork.
    Ability for correct assessment of own possibilities – perception of own merits (self
       confidence) and drawbacks (willingness for self improvement).
    Respect for the output of ancestors
    Interest in the past and its critical evaluation.
    Respect for the environment and willingness to protect it.



MATHEMATICS – Thanks to specific forms and methods of a mathematics teacher, this
school subject helps in shaping the reasoning and logic thinking as well as in developing
observation ability and imagination. During classes in this subject, in classes 4-6, the
teacher endeavours that his students should master the following skills:
     Fluent calculations in memory for four mathematical operations;
     Making calculations with rational numbers in writing and using a pocket calculator;
     Solving simple mathematical equations;
     Distinguishing geometrical plane figures and calculate their areas;
     Understanding the notions of: units of length, area and volume;
     Reading out information from diagrams and statistic graphs contained in different
        press publications;
     Correct organisation and planning of work.
Among the most often employed methods while teaching this subject are: practice – exercise
and watch method but special attention deserves the problem method, in which the students
find different ways how to solve given problem. While teaching mathematics in this education
stage, two principles should be observed: illustrative (demonstrative) principle, which
allows the students to make use of all accessible didactic aids (also execution, for instance,
models of geometric solids) and gradation of difficulties principle. Very good forms of
making mathematics lessons more attractive are different games, crosswords, jigsaw puzzles,
logic squares, riddles, graphs etc.
During mathematics lessons the attitudes are shaped, which can be characterised as:
     Methodology, conscientiousness, precision;
     Ability of use and execute the mathematical operations in practical life situations;
     Ability of action planning, predicting solutions, drawing conclusions;
     Skills to co-operate within a team.



NATURE -
The educational objectives of this school subject are:
    Stimulation of interest in the surrounding world, its diversity, opulence and beauty,
    Understanding of relationships existing in the natural environment,
    Acquiring the skills of observation of natural phenomena and describing them,
    Investigating relationships between man and the environment,
                                             12

    Investigating behaviours favourable for the safety of people and nature,
    Developing the feeling of responsibility for environment.

Achievements, which the students should reach within the framework of this subject learning
are following:
     Comprehensive perception of natural reality,
     Observation of natural components of environment and their description,
     Collection and interpretation of the knowledge required for correct description of
        natural phenomena,
     Distinguishing the physiological phenomena of the human body, care for health
        through observance of principles of hygiene and making use of different forms of
        recreation,
     Perception of natural values of the nearest region, knowledge of objects and natural
        areas protected by law, recognition of common species of plants and animals using
        atlases and simple keys,
     Distinguishing the relationships between elements of natural and cultural environment,
     Explanation of physical and astronomical phenomena,
     Observation and identification of different substances and chemical processes in the
        surrounding environment,
     Correct use of available chemical products,
     Distinguishing the impacts of human activity on the natural environment,
     Orientation in the surrounding territory,
     Reading and interpretation of maps, diagrams and tables,
     Finding solutions for simple problems concerning the place of living and the
        surrounding territory,
     Distinguishing the natural and cultural values of the local region,
     Understanding the needs of observing the hygiene principles and safety.

Nature is a subject, which enables to incalculate many values and shaping of attitudes, which
can be characterised by:
    Conducting active and healthy life style,
    Showing an active relationship with living organisms, which the students contact with,
    Economical exploitation of water, energy and other natural resources,
    Undertaking actions in order to protect the surrounding natural environment and
       encouraging other people to protect the environment,
    Active exploration of nature throughout observation and experiments.

Within the framework of the school subject Nature are the so-called education paths of an
educational – didactic character:
   - Living healthy lifestyles
   - Being environmentally friendly
   - Being an efficient reader and a conscious and responsible user of media
   - Education for living in society.

While teaching this subject both verbal, demonstrative and practical methods are used:
  - Active lecture,
  - Work with a handbook,
  - Demonstrations, laboratory experiments, practical classes,
  - Questions and answers,
  - Discussion,
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   -   "Brain storming”,
   -   Methods of creative activities,
   -   Case study,
   -   Role playing,
   -   Drama,
   -   Simulation,
   -   Didactic cards,
   -   Mental maps,
   -   Time lines,
   -   Visualisation,
   -   Group work.


INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
Objectives:
    Preparation for using a computer.
    Purposeful exploitation of different information sources and means of presentation
     thereof.
    Recognition of the influence of the information technology on the life of an individual,
     the nearest surrounding and the society.

Students’ achievements:
    Safe use of a computer
    Knowledge how to create texts, illustrations, calculations and how to save them and
      download
    Using the computer for support of the students’ own study
    Knowledge of threats following incorrect computer use and its software (for instance
      some games)
    Ability to work consistently and creatively within a team.

 Attitudes shaped during information technology lessons:
    Responsibility
    Uprightness
    Prudence
    Honesty
    Openness
    Precision



MUSIC –
Objectives in teaching music:
    Stimulation and development of esthetical responsiveness of the students.
    Providing conditions for development of musical, art and motional imagination.
    Teaching the students basic music skills.
    Learning about the musical culture of one’s own country as well as other nations.
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    Introduction of the students to active participation in culture.
    Developing interest and musical skills in the students.
Contents of teaching:
  1. Individual and in choir singing:
        Maintaining correct posture while singing, paying attention to the dynamics and
         harmfulness of shouting;
       Caring for the culture of the voice, with special stress to diction;
       Emission exercises – developing the scale of voice;
  2. Musical – motional activities:
         Reaction with movement following the change of sound volume and tempo of
          dynamics;
       Singing with motion and gesture
  3. Listening to the music:
       Recognition of the sound of different known instruments in the classics from the
        music literature;
       Interpretation of the classics with respect to means of musical expression:
        determining the tempo, dynamics and mood;
       Listening to the national music as well as that of other nations and regions of the
        world,
  4. Composition of simple accompaniments for songs (percussion instruments)
Forms of musical activities:
    Singing
    Playing instruments
    Music creation
    Movement with the music
    Listening to the music
    Learning of basic music knowledge.
Using diversified forms of work gives every child a possibility to perceive music individually.


ART – It is contained within the block of humanities. The curriculum for this subject in the
classes IV – VI assumes a two-fold form of communing with art throughout:
     Learning the principal theoretic issues and selected knowledge of the art history,
        illustrated with selected available examples;
     Students’ own activities in art.
Issues of technique and form – students’ achievements:
     Within the limits of composition: balanced, symmetric and rhythmic, static and
        dynamic, closed and open compositions;
     Within the limits of colour: colour gamut evaluation, effect connected with colour
        break, relativity of colours and space interaction;
     Knowledge of the basic types of paints and their application
     Knowledge of basic sculpture materials;
     Knowledge of basic graphics techniques: convex and concave, dry and etched (aqua-
        fortis etching);
                                             15

    Ability to use the above learned knowledge in students’ own art creations as well as
     for description of works of art encountered in the nearest surrounding, in museums,
     galleries, albums and in the open space.

History of art - students’ achievements:
    Ability to indicate the components of the classic systematics of arts – architecture,
       sculpture and relief, paintings, graphics, drawing, exemplary fields of artistic
       craftsmanship;
    Orientation in time categories, awareness of changes in arts over the centuries;
    Within the limits of European culture – recognition of styles included in the
       curriculum (Romanesque style, Gothic, Renaissance) based on the works of
       architecture, sculpture and paintings with consideration of the local works of art
       available within the region where the school is localised.

During the arts lesson the teacher:
    Stimulates artistic expression in students,
    Shapes in the children a creative attitude, feeling of value and importance of the
      nearest cultural heritage, ability of assessment of own motherland artistic property
      against European achievements, without any feeling of inferiority,
    Makes the students responsive to the aesthetics of the nearest surrounding, shapes the
      ability of assessment and shaping students’ own appearance as well as the surrounding
      objects.


TECHNOLOGY -
The superior aim in teaching the technology in classes IV-VI is to be achieved by the
students through a rudimentary level of general orientation in technology. For realization of
the program contents, 2 hours during a week throughout the education period are planned.
Content of education:
     The student environment from a technical point of view (household installations, town
       urbanisation, rural physical planning);
     Technical documentation (ability to read operation manuals of all electromechanical
       equipment) as well as economic calculations in the field of nutrition in a household;
     Normalisation in technology and everyday life;
     Miscellaneous materials (paper, wood, steel, plastics), their properties and range of
       application;
     Technologies: basic tools and measurement instruments;
     Machines and installations (household appliances and a bicycle); safe, cultural and
       responsible behaviour in a technical environment including safe movement of a
       pedestrian and bicycle rider within road traffic.
Achievements:
     Rational and ethical conduct in the technical environment,
     Ability to assess his or her own habits, interests and technical talents,
     Using information technology,
     Developing their own technical ideas in the form of technical documentation (plans,
       drawings, diagrams) and execution of principal measurements,
     Planning and execution of technical tasks individually and in the form of group work
     Knowledge of how to organise the work place,
                                              16

    Safe (Safety at Work) use of tools and household appliances, exploitation of a bicycle
       and safe bicycle riding on the road (going for an exam to obtain a bicycle driving
       license at the age of ten).
With respect to the technology school subject, the assessment of a student is to be based on an
observation of the student’s work and final grade.


PHYSICAL EDUCATION ( P-E ) –
Objectives in teaching physical education are:
     Harmonious development of the body;
     Comprehensive development of fitness and motional co-ordination;
     Providing the students with a set of motional fitness necessary for participation in
        various forms of motional, recreational and sport activities;
     Teaching the students the knowledge necessary for doing safe physical exercises;
     Shaping healthy life style habits.
During the physical education classes the teacher shapes motoric fitness developing in the
students endurance, speed, strength and dexterity. Much time is required to develop the
motional co-ordination necessary for gymnastics (balance, motional – spacial orientation,
rhythm of motion), team games (handball, football, basketball and volleyball) as well as for
light athletics.

During the P-E lessons, the teachers endeavour to shape in the students the abilities
necessary for good health throughout development of the responsibility for students’ own
safety, developing habits of personal hygiene, correction – compensation exercises, body
strengthening and self-control as well as self-assessment of physical fitness.

Sports classes create occasions for shaping the following attitudes:
    Observance of fair play,
    Co-operation within a team,
    Developing self-confidence in students’ own strengths.



_______________________________
The texts have been developed by the team of teachers from the Local Government Primary
School in w Ząbrowo under the direction of Joanna Marciniak, Anna Podgórska and Urszula
Waszczak-Zielińska.
Translation: Joanna Jensen and Anna Podgórska


BIBLIOGRAPHY:

   1. Autorski program wychowania fizycznego.- Wydawnictwo „Korepetytor”, 1999
   2. Chwostek D., Bogdan K.: Program nauczania języka polskiego w klasach 4-6 szkoły
      podstawowej: „Oglądam świat”.- Poznań, 1999
   3. Furmanek W., Walat W.: Technika w szkole podstawowej: Program nauczania dla
      klas 4-6. – Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Oświatowe FOSZE, 1999
   4. Grabowska B., Lewicka H., Rosłon E.: Program nauczania: Matematyka wokół nas.-
      Warszawa: WSiP, 1999
                                        17

5. Harmer J.: The Practice of English Language Teaching: Longman Group UK Limited,
    1999
6. Informatyka 2000: Program nauczania informatyki dla szkoły podstawowej i
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7. Jednolity program nauczania blokowego dla klas 4-6 szkoły podstawowej.- Warszawa,
    1999
8. Kordon B.: Poradnik dla nauczyciela: Plastyka 4-6. – Warszawa: WSiP, 2002
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    z dn.26.02.2002.- Dz. U. nr 51 poz.458
11. Program bloku „Przyroda” dla klas 4-6 szkoły podstawowej.- „Nowa Era”, 1999
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    podstawowej: II etap edukacyjny.- OUP, 1999
13. Surdyk-Fertsch W., Szeweluk-Wyrwa B., Wojciechowski G.: Człowiek i jego
    cywilizacja: Program autorski z historii i społeczeństwa dla klas 4-6 szkoły
    podstawowej.- Poznań 1999
14. Tomaszewska M., Turowska-Zakrzewicz K.: Program nauczania przedmiotu
    blokowego „Sztuka” w klasach 4-6. – Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo M. Rożak, 1999
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16. Walczak W.: Jak uczyć umiejętności w szkole podstawowej?.- Poznań, 2001

				
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