3.-Class-2---Health-Science-Core-Chapter-7-and-11

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					               McFatter Technical Center
               Emergency Medical Technician - Basic




                              Health Science Core
                                     Chapter 7 and 11




McFatter Technical Center                               Revised: August 2007
                                    Chapter 7
                             The Safe Workplace
                                      and
                            Lifting/Moving Patients




McFatter Technical Center                             Revised: August 2007
                            Proper Body Mechanics


   • Body Mechanics - Efficient
     and safe use of the body
     during activity
      – Prevent injury
      – Correct problems
        related to posture and
        lifting
      – Most common injury for
        loss of time from the job
        is back injury
McFatter Technical Center                           Revised: August 2007
                            Anatomy of the Back


     • Important to maintain proper
       alignment so the weight is
       evenly distributed throughout the
       vertebrae and discs
     • 33 total vertebrae
     • Discs are cartilage that absorb
       shock to the spine
     • Several muscles support the
       spine and need to be kept
       strong and flexible
McFatter Technical Center                         Revised: August 2007
                            Back tips


      1. Maintain broad base
         support with your
         feet
      2. Always bend your
         knees, keep back
         straight, and use leg
         muscles to lift
      3. Keep the load close
         to your body

McFatter Technical Center               Revised: August 2007
                            Back tips


      4. Use body weight to
         push and pull an
         object
      5. Do not twist and
         turn. Try to turn
         your entire body
      6. Test the weight
         before attempting to
         lift it.

McFatter Technical Center               Revised: August 2007
                            Needle Sticks



             Reduce needle sticks:

     • Sharp objects must always
       be disposed in a puncture
       resistant container after
       use
     • Utilize needles that lock
       the needle in the hub


McFatter Technical Center                   Revised: August 2007
                            Patient Moving


      • Should get assistance with
        moving
      • Tell the patient what will happen
      • Prepare equipment that you are
        moving the patient to:
         – Gurney
         – Stretcher
         – Wheelchair
         – Backboard
         – Stair chair
McFatter Technical Center                    Revised: August 2007
                            Patient moving


      • Utilize slide board when available
      • Lock equipment in place
         – Ex. Gurney wheels
         – Ex. Wheelchair wheels
      • Provide a count for everyone to begin assisting
        with the move
      • Patient should be instructed on how to position
        limbs.
         – Ex. Arms crossed
McFatter Technical Center                         Revised: August 2007
                            Patient Moving


      • If side rails are on the equipment, make sure
        they are always placed up
      • Moving stretchers into the up position, make
        sure the legs lock
      • Moving stretchers out of rescue unit, make sure
        the carriage legs drop and lock before moving
        the upper wheels off of the rescue floor
      • Moving stretchers on uneven terrain, support at
        the head and foot of the stretcher or use 4
        rescuers on each corner.
McFatter Technical Center                        Revised: August 2007
                            Patient Moving
                              Power lift

     1. Get as close to the object as you can.
     2. Spread your legs shoulder width apart.
     3. Bend your knees and squat down.
     4. Lock your back into an upright position and
        tighten abdominal muscles.
     5. When lifting with other students, one
        person should be coordinating the lift.
     6. Lift up by using your legs.
     7. Keeping your back locked upright position
        while completing the lifting motion.

McFatter Technical Center                             Revised: August 2007
                            Lifting Guidelines


      • Must communicate the plan with
        everyone on the team before
        lifting the patient
      • Estimate weight of patient before
        lifting and make sure you can
        safely lift this weight
      • Patients over 250lbs should be
        lifted with 4 or more rescuers
      • Know the weight limitations of
        your equipment

McFatter Technical Center                        Revised: August 2007
                            Lifting Patients Down Stairs


      • Secure patient to stair chair,
        backboard, or other suitable
        equipment
      • Rescuers take their places
        around the patient
      • Additional rescuer provides
        spotting on the stairs, opens
        doors, and assists as
        needed

McFatter Technical Center                                  Revised: August 2007
                            Emergency Moves


         Moving a patient before
           initial assessment and
          care are provided when
          there is some potential
              danger. Example:
      • Fire
      • Explosion
      • Hazardous material
        incident
McFatter Technical Center                     Revised: August 2007
                            Non-urgent Moves


            Scene and patient is
             stable. The rescue
            crew can plan how to
              move the patient.




McFatter Technical Center                      Revised: August 2007
                            Moving Geriatrics



       Rescuers should apply
          additional care to
          geriatric patients

     • Brittle bones
     • Rigidity and spinal
       curvatures
     • Fear of hospitals


McFatter Technical Center                       Revised: August 2007
                            Patients who Smoke


      • Never allow to smoke near
        oxygen equipment
         – Make cause explosion
      • Never allow to smoke in bed
        because they could fall asleep
      • Keep lighters and matches
        away from children or confused
        patients


McFatter Technical Center                        Revised: August 2007
                       Hazardous Work Environments

  • Personal safety is number
    one
  • Utilize proper forms of
    protection
  • Alert supervisors and other
    workers of possible hazards
    in work area
  • Remove from use any
    equipment that is hazardous
    and send to appropriate
    person for repair
McFatter Technical Center                            Revised: August 2007
                            Electrical Shock Prevention


      • Do not use any equipment until you have been
        properly instructed
      • Inspect electrical cord (do not use if damaged or
        frayed)
      • Do not use equipment cords that have the one of
        the three prongs removed
      • Do not use damaged or malfunctioning
        equipment
      • Avoid using electrical equipment on wet surfaces
McFatter Technical Center                                 Revised: August 2007
                            Chemical Injury Prevention


      • Acid and alkaline chemicals
        can cause direct skin
        contact burns or inhalation
        injury from fumes


                                                  Acid black lesion

                                          • Never combine acid
                                            chemicals with alkaline
                                            chemicals
                  Alkaline white lesion
McFatter Technical Center                                             Revised: August 2007
                            Chemical Injury Prevention


      • Always wear gloves when
        handling chemicals.
      • Read labels of containers that you
        are using
      • Do not use solutions that are
        missing labels or unreadable
      • Use chemicals in a well-ventilated
        area
      • Exposed to chemicals,
        immediately flush with water

McFatter Technical Center                                Revised: August 2007
                            Material Safety Data Sheet


        Document that identifies
          chemicals used in a
           specific department
          with details regarding
               the chemical

      1. Component data
      2. Fire and Explosion data
      3. Health hazard data

McFatter Technical Center                                Revised: August 2007
                            Material Safety Data Sheet



       • Other information:
         – Employee protection
         – Reactivity data
         – Storage precautions
         – Physical data
         – Environmental
           protection

McFatter Technical Center                                Revised: August 2007
                            Hazard Communication Label




                              Locate outside the building
McFatter Technical Center                                   Revised: August 2007
                             Fire Safety



                   RACE
       •    Rescue patient
       •    Activate the alarm
       •    Contain the fire
       •    Extinguish the fire



McFatter Technical Center                  Revised: August 2007
                            Fire Safety


      • Remain calm and do not
        panic
      • Turn off oxygen
      • Close doors and
        windows to contain and
        slow spread
      • Use fire fighting
        equipment


McFatter Technical Center                 Revised: August 2007
                            Fire Safety




         Extinguishers look at label
              and make sure the
         extinguisher classification is
            appropriate for the fire




McFatter Technical Center                 Revised: August 2007
                               Fire Safety



                 PASS
      •    Pull pin
      •    Aim handle
      •    Squeeze handle
      •    Sweep back and
           forth at the base
           of the fire


McFatter Technical Center                    Revised: August 2007
                          Chapter 11
               Fundamental Patient Care Equipment




McFatter Technical Center                     Revised: August 2007
                            Beds and Gurneys


      • Gurney is a stretcher which is
        used for transporting patients
      • Beds:
         – Stryker frame or circular double
           frame bed – rotating along
           patient axis allowing you to turn
           the patient over without his/her
           assistance.
         – Roto-Rest bed – mattress
           alternated pressure to prevent
           skin breakdown
McFatter Technical Center                      Revised: August 2007
                            Ambulation Equipment


      • Wheelchair – wheel for
        transporting patients
      • Crutches – for orthopedic
        injuries that all the patient
        independent movement
      • Canes – assist patient
        with balance and reduce
        falling
      • Walkers – allow patient to
        move with more support
        than a cane
McFatter Technical Center                          Revised: August 2007
                            Respiratory Devices


              Oxygen deliver devices
      •    Nasal cannula – delivers low
           percentage of oxygen
      •    Oxygen mask – delivers higher
           percentage of oxygen
      •    Nebulizer – delivers fine mist of
           medication
      •    Respirator or ventilator –
           machine that mechanically
           breathes for the patient
McFatter Technical Center                         Revised: August 2007
                            Intravenous Therapy


      • Fluids of sterile water
        mixed with dextrose or
        electrolytes
      • Hospitals use infusion
        pumps to deliver
        intravenous fluids at
        accurate amounts
      • Do not adjust settings or
        turn off the pump

McFatter Technical Center                         Revised: August 2007
                            Excretory Equipment


      • Bedside commode – portable
        toilet usually kept by the
        patient’s bedside
      • Indwelling catheter or folley
        catheter – catheter inserted
        into the urinary bladder
      • Suctioning device – used to
        prevent inhaling solids or
        liquids or keeping them from
        choking on secretions

McFatter Technical Center                         Revised: August 2007
                            Crash Cart


           Contain defibrillator,
            oxygen tank, suction
                  machine,
                medications,
           intravenous solutions,
               advance airway
            equipment, and other
                equipment for
              cardiopulmonary
                   arrest
McFatter Technical Center                Revised: August 2007
                            Patient Care Unit


      • Bed
      • Over-bed light
      • Table
      • Personal storage
      • Call light and intercom
        system that allows the
        patient to contact for
        assistance
      • Television
McFatter Technical Center                       Revised: August 2007
                            Rescue Apparatus


     • Method to transport patient
       to the hospital and carry
       necessary equipment
     • Configurations are personal
       preference. Each agency
       designs the vehicle based
       on needs. Some carry a lot
       of equipment and therefore
       need a bigger vehicle

McFatter Technical Center                      Revised: August 2007
                            Other Transporting
                                 Vehicles


     • Helicopters – used for long
       transports or transports that
       would be delayed by traffic
     • Pumpers – designed to fit a
       stretcher and carry full
       ambulance equipment
     • Fix wing aircraft – used for
       long distance transportation

McFatter Technical Center                        Revised: August 2007
                            Stretcher




McFatter Technical Center               Revised: August 2007
                            References


      •      Pollak, Andrew N. Emergency Care and
             Transportation of the Sick and Injured. 9th ed.
             Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett,
             2005.
      •      Stevens, Kay, and Garber, Debra. Introduction
             to Clinical Allied Healthcare. 2nd ed. Clifton
             Park, New York: Thomson Delmar Learning,
             1996.


McFatter Technical Center                            Revised: August 2007

				
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