ART IN 19TH CENTURY

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					ART IN 19TH CENTURY

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ART IN 19TH CENTURY FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON: NEOCLASSICISM (David) LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM: ROMANTICISM (Delacroix) WORKERS MOVEMENT: REALISM (Courbet) INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: NEW ARCHITECTURE (Eiffel) ART AFTER THE PHOTOGRAPHY: IMPRESSIONISM AND POSTIMPRESSIONISM (Monet) (Van Gogh/Cezanne/Gauguin

NEOCLASSICISM
 Subject matter: "history" paintings most important (especially subjects from Greek or Roman history or mythology)  Themes: social, moral, ethical themes or classical or patriotic themes urban themes  Theory of art: didactic: art is to teach  General style: clear, orderly, rational  Composition: figures parallel to picture plane  Space: clearly defined space: box-like or bas relief  Figures: idealized, generalized, statue-like  Color: somber, flat  Application of paint: linear, careful application

DAVID,

"Oath of the Horatii"

DAVID, Napoleon Crossing the
Saint-Bernard

DAVID: Coronation of Napoleon
and Josephine

ROMANTICISM
 Subject matter: various subject matters; if "historical" subjects, the Bible was the source  Themes: sensuous themes or religious themes, interest in nature  Theory of art: art is to move, inspire  General style: dynamic, restless, emotional, moody  Composition: use of diagonal; dynamic  Space: vast, unlimited; ambiguous  Figures: expressive, individualistic  Color: vivid, intense  Application of paint: painterly

David's The Death of Socrates, 1787.

Delacroix's The Death of Sardanapalus, 1827

DELACROIX:Liberty leading

the People

REALISM
 Subject matter: life as it is  Themes: ordinary places and people.  Theory of art: to report and describe reality as accurately and honestly as possible; to denounce the workers class situation.  Space: in the open air  Figures: realistic, individualistic

COURBET: The Stone Breakers

COURBET: Proudhom and his
daughters

NEW ARCHITECTURE
 New materials
 Iron  Concrete

 Buildings:
 Towers  Bridges  Warehouses

JOSEPH PAXTON: Crystal
palace

THOMAS PRITCHARD:
Ironbridge

EIFFEL’S TOWER

BEFORE IMPRESSIONISM
 Subject matter:
 portraits of rich or famous people.  religious themes.  historical themes

• • • •

Style in paintings: realism. Artists painted on commission Lighting in portraits was mostly indoors. Colors and shadows. There were lots of browns and yellows

AFTER IMPRESSIONISM
 Subject matter:
 everyday people doing everyday activities  landscapes  color

• Style in paintings: Impressionism (their impression of the subject) • Artists painted for enjoyment • Lighting was mostly outdoors. • Small brushstrokes of color next to each other that were blended by the viewer's eye

MONET: Impression: Sunrise

MONET: The English Parliament

MONET: Waterlilies

CEZANNE: Le chateâu noir

CEZANNE: Self-portrait

CEZANNE: Apples and oranges

VAN GOGH: Self-portrait

VAN GOGH: His room in
Arles

Comparison of Van Gogh's Early Paintings with those after being influenced by Impressionism

Before:
 · The Old Church at Nuenen is painted in dark mudding colors (as was standard for Gogh's Early Paintings) ·  The painting is a literal representation of the church, sky and surroundings. ·  The use of color is very minimal.  The dark church and light sky keep the eye focused on the building.

After:
 · The Church at Auvers is painted in the bright colors of the impressionist and post impressionists ·  The free forming lines cause the subject (the church) to become wavy and appear to be bending or melting. ·  The vivid color schemes move the onlookers eyes around the painting.

VAN GOGH: The sunflowers

GAUGUIN: Self-portrait with
the yellow Christ

GAUGUIN: Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going ?

GAUGUIN: In the market


				
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