ART IN 19TH CENTURY ART IN 19TH CENTURY FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON: NEOCLASSICISM (David) LIBERALISM AND NATIONALISM: ROMANTICISM (Delacroix) WORKERS MOVEMENT: REALISM (Courbet) INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: NEW ARCHITECTURE (Eiffel) ART AFTER THE PHOTOGRAPHY: IMPRESSIONISM AND POSTIMPRESSIONISM (Monet) (Van Gogh/Cezanne/Gauguin NEOCLASSICISM Subject matter: "history" paintings most important (especially subjects from Greek or Roman history or mythology) Themes: social, moral, ethical themes or classical or patriotic themes urban themes Theory of art: didactic: art is to teach General style: clear, orderly, rational Composition: figures parallel to picture plane Space: clearly defined space: box-like or bas relief Figures: idealized, generalized, statue-like Color: somber, flat Application of paint: linear, careful application DAVID, "Oath of the Horatii" DAVID, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard DAVID: Coronation of Napoleon and Josephine ROMANTICISM Subject matter: various subject matters; if "historical" subjects, the Bible was the source Themes: sensuous themes or religious themes, interest in nature Theory of art: art is to move, inspire General style: dynamic, restless, emotional, moody Composition: use of diagonal; dynamic Space: vast, unlimited; ambiguous Figures: expressive, individualistic Color: vivid, intense Application of paint: painterly David's The Death of Socrates, 1787. Delacroix's The Death of Sardanapalus, 1827 DELACROIX:Liberty leading the People REALISM Subject matter: life as it is Themes: ordinary places and people. Theory of art: to report and describe reality as accurately and honestly as possible; to denounce the workers class situation. Space: in the open air Figures: realistic, individualistic COURBET: The Stone Breakers COURBET: Proudhom and his daughters NEW ARCHITECTURE New materials Iron Concrete Buildings: Towers Bridges Warehouses JOSEPH PAXTON: Crystal palace THOMAS PRITCHARD: Ironbridge EIFFEL’S TOWER BEFORE IMPRESSIONISM Subject matter: portraits of rich or famous people. religious themes. historical themes • • • • Style in paintings: realism. Artists painted on commission Lighting in portraits was mostly indoors. Colors and shadows. There were lots of browns and yellows AFTER IMPRESSIONISM Subject matter: everyday people doing everyday activities landscapes color • Style in paintings: Impressionism (their impression of the subject) • Artists painted for enjoyment • Lighting was mostly outdoors. • Small brushstrokes of color next to each other that were blended by the viewer's eye MONET: Impression: Sunrise MONET: The English Parliament MONET: Waterlilies CEZANNE: Le chateâu noir CEZANNE: Self-portrait CEZANNE: Apples and oranges VAN GOGH: Self-portrait VAN GOGH: His room in Arles Comparison of Van Gogh's Early Paintings with those after being influenced by Impressionism Before: · The Old Church at Nuenen is painted in dark mudding colors (as was standard for Gogh's Early Paintings) · The painting is a literal representation of the church, sky and surroundings. · The use of color is very minimal. The dark church and light sky keep the eye focused on the building. After: · The Church at Auvers is painted in the bright colors of the impressionist and post impressionists · The free forming lines cause the subject (the church) to become wavy and appear to be bending or melting. · The vivid color schemes move the onlookers eyes around the painting. VAN GOGH: The sunflowers GAUGUIN: Self-portrait with the yellow Christ GAUGUIN: Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going ? GAUGUIN: In the market
"ART IN 19TH CENTURY"