Scania trucks A century on the road by mmcsx

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									    Scania trucks
A century on the road
THE YEAR WAS 1902 and it was an age of pioneers.
In Malmö, MaskinfabriksaktieBolaget Scania built a truck with
a 2-cylinder, 12 hp engine, and a 1.5 tonne payload.
Meanwhile in Södertälje, Vagnfabriks-Aktiebolaget (Vabis) test-
drove a truck with a 9 hp engine on cobbled streets and rough
country roads.

A CENTURY of development work has followed, leading to
vehicles whose performance far exceeds even the wildest dreams
of Sweden’s pioneering truck builders.

SCANIA TRUCKS are marking their centenary. This booklet not
only tells how their technology, design, carrying capacity and main-
tenance requirements have progressed in 100 years, but also offers
a glimpse into their exciting future.

100 eventful years

         lot can happen in 100 years.            in any modern sense begin at Scania
         Two Swedish companies -                 and Vabis. However, both budding
         Scania, established in Malmö            companies launched tipping plat-
in 1901, and Vabis, founded in                   forms at an early stage as options on
Södertälje in 1891 – each produced               their trucks. A desire for more eco-
their first truck in 1902. At the time,          nomical, reliable operation led to
Sweden had about 50 motor vehicles.              gradual introduction from 1912 of
The world had yet to experience two              wheels with ball bearings, which
world wars, men on the moon,                     became standard in 1923.
nuclear power, 250,000-tonne super-                 In 1911, Scania and Vabis merged,
tankers, personal computers and the              enabling them to combine each com-
Empire State Building. The Nobel                 pany’s best technical solutions. Eight
Prize was one year old and Rudolf                years later, Scania-Vabis decided to
Diesel had eleven years left to live.            focus on trucks. This strategy was
   The very idea that mechanically               based on new fuel-efficient engines
powered trucks could replace the                 and a 4-speed gearbox designed in
horse and wagon was so revolution-               about 1920.
ary that it took several more years                 Scania-Vabis soon also looked for
before winning the acceptance of busi-           ways to improve its already fuel-
ness owners and the public. Only in              efficient engines. In 1922, it patented
1907 did series-production of trucks             a new type of carburettor designed

2 – A century on the road
by Technical Director August Nils-
son. A year later, it launched a new
engine range that could be adapted
to different types of fuel.
    These new engines could be given                                                         In 1909, this 24 hp Scania IL with
different compression ratios by chang-                                                        roller bearing-equipped wheels
                                                                                            made a well-publicised three-day
ing pistons; customers could thus
                                                                                          journey, covering 700 km and con-
individually adapt their engines to                                                            suming over 400 litres of fuel.
the most economical fuel – petrol, a
petrol-alcohol mixture or pure alco-
hol. This engine family laid the
groundwork for the modular system           a completely new engine type in its        pump controlled the quantity of fuel
that later gave Scania customers so         range – the Hesselman engine.              depending on engine load. Ignition
many specification options and              Designed and unveiled in 1926 by           was of the magnetic induction type,
advantages.                                 Jonas Hesselman, it was based on a         using ordinary spark plugs. Optimal
    The 1929 Wall Street stock mar-         carburettor-equipped engine but            ignition and injection timing were
ket crash did not directly affect Scania-   could run on fuel oil as well as petrol.   controlled by a centrifugal governor.
Vabis. From the mid-1920s, the com-         Fuel oil cost half the price of petrol,    The engine started on a small quan-
pany's business was in good order           so operating costs fell substantially.     tity of petrol before switching to fuel
and returning a profit. In 1932, how-          Unlike engines with carburettors,       oil.
ever, the depression hit Sweden. Sales      the Hesselman engine had an injec-             The Hesselman engine was anoth-
fell by 60 percent.                         tion pump that distributed fuel to         er way that Scania-Vabis helped its
        But by then, Scania-Vabis had       each cylinder via pressure pipes. The      customers cut operating costs, but this
                                                                                       engine had some snags. It required a
                                                                                       heavy load to achieve sufficient work-
                                                                                       ing temperatures, consumed many
                                                                                       spark plugs and emitted unpleasant
                                                                                       exhaust during cold starts. Scania-
                                                                                       Vabis soon focused on developing its
                                                                                       own diesel engine. Influenced by the
                                                                                       depression and the lack of imported
                                                                                       fuel, the company also experimented
                                                                                       with producer gas-powered trucks.

                                                                                             The first diesel engine
                                                                                       The first in-house diesel engine was
                                                                                       introduced in 1936, a 6-cylinder pre-
                                                                                       combustion diesel with a 7-bearing
                                                                                       crankshaft and 120 hp output. The
                                                                                       same basic engine could also be
                                                                                       ordered in a petrol version, produc-
                                                                                       ing 140 hp when burning light bentyl
                                                                                       (75 percent petrol and 25 percent ethyl
                                                                                       alcohol) and 115 hp as a Hesselman
                                                                                          Three years later, Scania-Vabis
                                                                                       launched another new modular
                                                                                       engine family in 4-, 6- and 8-cylinder
                                                                                       models, available in both carburettor
                                                                                       and diesel versions. Among numer-
                                                                                       ous shared components were cylinder
                                                                                       heads, pistons, connecting rods,
                                The first Vabis truck carried 1.5 tonnes at 12 km/h,
                               compared to its competitor the horse, which could       bearings and exhaust systems.
                                                                                          The Second World War forced

                              pull a wagon laden with about 1 tonne at 5–6 km/h.
                                                                                       Scania-Vabis to develop many impor-

                                                                                                       A century on the road – 3
                                          Scania’s first truck export was an IL        range, especially since from 1951 the
                                          sold to St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1910 to   company could also offer a synchro-
                                          repair overhead tramway power lines.
                                                                                       mesh 5-speed gearbox as standard. It
                                                                                       now devoted major resources to
                                                                                       developing frames, axles and springs
                                                                                       that could handle heavier axle
                                                                                       weights. Compressed-air brakes and
                                                                                       power steering gradually became
                                                                                       standard equipment.
                                                                                          A large proportion of Scania-Vabis’
                                                                                       engine production was for marine and
                                                                                       industrial applications. The compa-
                                                                                       ny also produced 8-cylinder diesel
                                                                                       engines for railcars. In this niche, a
                                                                                       minor engine revolution occurred in
                                                                                       1951 when Scania-Vabis’ first tur-
                                                                                       bocharged diesel engine made its
                                                                                           The Drabant (L51) and Regent
                                                                                       (L/LS71) were launched in 1953 and
                                                                                       1954, respectively. They were replaced
                                                                                       five years later by the L55 and L75,
                                                                                       which were to remain largely
                                                                                       unchanged in appearance until 1980.

                                                                                             Higher engine outputs
                                                                                       The trend towards reduced mainte-
                                                                                       nance and higher engine outputs con-
                                                                                       tinued in the late 1950s, with new 7-
                                                                                       and10-litre engines and Scania’s
                                                                                       centrifugal oil filter, which purified
                                                                                       engine oil very effectively and was
                                                                                       easy to clean during servicing. The
tant components in-house and its           engine with swept volumes of 5.7 and        LT75 was launched as the company’s
experience of alternative fuels proved     8.5 litres. Soon there was a steady         first series-produced 6x4 truck. Two
very useful. Due to petroleum              stream of technical improvements in         years later came the LA82 “Anteater”
shortages, during1940, for example,        these trucks, such as hydraulic             6x6. This all-wheel- drive truck was
16,000 Swedish trucks were modified        vacuum-assisted brakes and an               newly designed in every detail and
to run on wood or charcoal producer        optional auxiliary gearbox that             began to be delivered to the Swedish
gas; two years later, more than 90 per-    doubled the number of gears (to             Armed Forces as one of the largest
cent of Sweden’s 35,000 trucks ran on      eight), as well as helical gearwheels.      truck models built in the country. Its
such gas. Previous experience with            In 1949, 4- and 6-cylinder pre-com-      kerb weight was over 11 tonnes and
this fuel made it relatively easy to       bustion diesel engines were replaced        it could pull an artillery piece weigh-
convert the Scania-Vabis trucks in         by direct-injection equivalents, a tech-    ing 10 tonnes.
service when war broke out.                nology Scania-Vabis had learnt from             The new engine series introduced
    Scania-Vabis’ post-war truck range     Leyland, the master of diesel engines       in 1958 on the L/LS/LT75 started as
was largely influenced by what the         in those days. The change to direct         a newly developed 10-litre engine,
company had been forced to learn           injection improved fuel economy by          followed in 1961 by a turbocharged
from wartime isolation and Swedish         up to 20 percent, while the auxiliary       version. Trucks with turbocharged
Army requirements. The company             gearbox increased tractive power by         engines were identified by the word
continued to modularise its product        40 percent. The improved engines            “Super” on their front. In 1963 this
range by introducing the L/F10 and         were also more reliable and needed          engine range was enlarged to 11-litres
L20/LS20 trucks (4x2 and 6x2, respec-      less maintenance.                           swept volume. With this engine
tively) in a choice of four wheelbas-         Scania-Vabis now had a promis-           Scania-Vabis passed the 200 hp mark
es and the 4- and 6-cylinder “Royal”       ing modern engine and gearbox               (205 hp), giving its product range a

4 – A century on the road
crucial competitive advantage well        spaciousness and easy access to the        the engine could always be driven at
into the 1970s. With numerous             cab as of making trucks easier to drive.   low speed, yet provide high tractive
improvements, the 11-litre engine         The new gearbox had an air-operat-         power, drivers could achieve very
remained in use until the arrival of      ed planetary section, and in 1971 a        good fuel economy – and long engine
the 4-Series.                             completely new generation of range-        service life. This engine became a
    During the 20th century, razor-       change gearboxes arrived. Five years       legend. Driving a Scania V8 became
sharp competition with Volvo in the       later, Scania introduced an automatic      a privilege that helped make Scania
domestic market forced Scania-Vabis       gearbox and power steering became          the ”King of the Road”.
to stay at the absolute forefront of      standard for the whole product range.          For Scania, 1980 was an important
research and development. This com-       The same year, Scania launched its         milestone. The company began to
petition contributed strongly to the      air-suspended rear axle. In 1978, air      introduce the most far-reaching
leading positions enjoyed by the two      springs were also installed on 3-axle      changes in its product range to date.
Swedish truck manufacturers today.        trucks with a tag axle (6x2).              Work begun nearly a decade earlier
    In the 1960s, Scania-Vabis focused                                               now resulted in the entirely new truck
its R&D work on two areas: firstly,                King of the Road                  range. Not only were engines, trans-
the company worked on developing          Development work continued on              missions and axles organised into a
high-output engines that could            chassis and suspensions. Apart from        modular system, but also frames and
operate at low speeds for better fuel     stronger gearboxes, the new Scania         cabs. The range featured three engines
economy, less noise and longer ser-       truck range featured more rugged           with swept volumes of 8, 11 and 14
vice life, in keeping with the compa-     frames and advanced brakes in              litres; three chassis strength classes
ny’s low-rev philosophy which has         response to ever-increasing engine         (M – medium duty, H – heavy duty,
subsequently served as a model for        outputs. In 1969, development work         E – extra heavy duty); four main cab
the industry. Secondly, the engineers     reached a new peak in terms of engine      models (G, P, R and T); gross weights
systematically built up knowledge of      output with the introduction of the        of between 16.5 and 36 tonnes; all-
loads on truck components under all       14-litre V8 turbodiesel engine. With       wheel-drive and four-axle trucks.
types of driving conditions. This         an output of 350 hp, it was the most           The new range, known as the 2-
knowledge began to influence new          powerful truck engine in the mar-          Series, gave Scania customers unsur-
designs, resulting in vehicles that       ket. In its modified 1977 version, the     passed opportunities to tailor trucks
offered higher load capacity with-        V8 became a clear manifestation of         exactly to their needs – while the effi-

out adverse consequences for frames       Scania’s low-rev philosophy. Since         cient modular system with its small-
and axles.
    The 1958 launch of the L75 series
also signified the abandonment of
Scania's unitary engine range. Instead,
the company introduced a number of
6-cylinder engines with a variety of
strokes and cylinder volumes, dimen-
sioned for and equipped with tur-            The Hesselman engine was based
bocharging. In 1963, Scania-Vabis            on a carburettor engine but could
revived its forward-control truck con-       run on fuel oil as well as petrol.
cept. The LB76 – also available with
right-hand drive for the first time
since 1945 – was highly appreciated
during its five years of production. In
1968, it was replaced by the substan-
tially more modern LB110 with its
tilting cab. During this period, the
company also launched twin-circuit
air brakes and a gearbox with main
and planetary sections in the same
    The new 1968 generation of
forward-control trucks signified a
major advance in the driver environ-
ment. It was as much a matter of
er number of unique components led
to lower manufacturing costs and
short delivery times.
    At this time, Scania also started
field tests of computer-aided
                                                                                                       In 1991, Scania was the
gearchanging (CAG). Laboratory test-
                                                                                                   world’s first manufacturer
ing had begun some years earlier. In
                                                                                                   to offer a turbocompound
1983, Scania launched its CAG sys-                                                                 truck engine. This innova-
tem, in which a computer continu-                                                                     tion began a new era in
ously gathers information on the posi-                                                           diesel engine development.
tion of the accelerator pedal, the speed
of the truck and what gear it is being
driven in. The data is processed and,
via a display, the computer suggests
to the driver which gear should be         that would otherwise be lost through       for transport services with an
used. The driver changes to the rec-       the tailpipe. An additional exhaust        improved global environment. Sca-
ommended gear by declutching.              turbine – placed after the regular         nia's environmental work in the mod-
    CAG allowed simplified – and           turbo – utilises energy in the exhaust     ern sense began in the 1970s. Hav-
more economical – driving. It also sig-    gases leaving the turbocharger. Power      ing previously focused mainly on
nalled the beginning of modern elec-       is fed to the engine’s flywheel via a      emissions from production plants,
tronics in trucks; in the 1980s, Scania    hydraulic coupling and a set of gears.     environmental work today also takes
launched electronically controlled anti-       This significantly boosted the effi-   into account the environmental
lock brakes (ABS), electronic diesel       ciency of the charge-cooled diesel         impact of vehicles throughout their
control (EDC) and field trials started     engine; output and torque rose 5 per-      life cycle.
with electronic braking systems, which     cent to 400 hp and 1,750 Nm respec-            In 2000, Scania unveiled the suc-
were to be launched in 1986.               tively – and specific fuel consump-        cessor to its classic V8, an entirely new
    Shortly after introducing CAG, the     tion dropped. Also contributing to         V8 engine with a swept volume of 16-
company launched an entirely new           improved fuel economy was Scania’s         litres and modular parts shared with
9-litre in-line engine in 250 and 280      aerodynamic Streamline cab, also           the 12-litre engine. The following year,
hp versions. Meanwhile, work con-          launched in 1991, along with a new         the company launched a new 12-litre
tinued on developing the 14-litre          generation of gearboxes.                   turbocompound engine with Scania
engine. In 1982, Scania introduced a                                                  HPI (High Pressure Injection), an
420 hp charge-cooled version – again                    Opticruise                    advanced system developed and man-
Europe’s most powerful truck diesel.        At this time, Scania also introduced      ufactured together with Cummins.
Five years later, this engine was also     a new improved CAG system and                  The modular system – with as
the first to be equipped with EDC          began experimenting with systems           many shared components as possible
electronic fuel injection, boosting its    for integrated control of the entire       in a large model range – has been the
output to 470 hp.                          powertrain. As a result of these trials,   basis for Scania’s successful growth
    In 1988, the 2-Series truck range      in 1995 Scania unveiled its Opticruise     for more than 60 years. This way of
was succeeded by the 3-Series, with        system, in which engine, gearbox and       thinking has enabled Scania to offer
the new Topline sleeper cab as one of      retarder (Scania’s own concept, intro-     its customers a huge variety of unique
its high points. In 1989, the 3-Series     duced in 1993) work together to allow      vehicles that are specially adapted to
was named International Truck of the       automatic pneumatic, clutch-less           different operating conditions. It has
Year.                                      gearchanges using a standard man-          also enabled the company’s pre-pro-
    The next major step in Scania’s        ual gearbox.                               duction engineers to quickly intro-
long record of technical innovations          In 1995 Scania also introduced its      duce new developments into the exist-
was the turbocompound engine.              4-Series truck range, featuring a brand    ing model range. Major model
Launched in 1991, it again proved that     new 12-litre inline six-cylinder engine.   changeovers have occurred at rela-
traditional combustion engines had         A few years later, the company             tively long intervals, but technical
not reached the end of their devel-        launched unit injectors on the 12-litre    development work has never stood
opment capacity. Based on Scania’s         engine, with the pump and injector         still: Scania customers always bene-
straight six 11-litre turbo engine, with   integrated in a single unit.               fit from the latest technology for high
charge-cooling and electronically con-        Today Scania is at the forefront        transport efficiency and reliability,
trolled fuel injection, the turbocom-      among world vehicle manufacturers          low maintenance costs and excellent
pound engine also harnesses energy         working to combine the growing need        overall operating economy.

6 – A century on the road
Service and maintenance
Planning and design cut
downtime by half in 30 years
“No topping-up between oil changes” was one of Scania-Vabis’ sales
arguments for the direct injection diesel engines launched in 1949.
The move was one of many steps towards lower-maintenance trucks.

                                           such mileages without engine over-         that no repairs should be needed.
                                           hauls had become commonplace.              Instead, maintenance prevents
                                              Around this time, Scania-Vabis also     unplanned stoppages by means of
                                           started building up a dense network        regular inspections of vehicles and
                                           of service workshops. Even more            their components and replacement of
                                           importantly, it emphasised its work-       parts that are subject to wear before
                                           shops were staffed by well-trained         they fail.
                                           employees working in well-planned             Preventive maintenance can also
                                           premises with special tools. Compa-        be scheduled at times when trucks
                                           ny specialists also performed method       are idle for other reasons, for exam-
                                           studies, which not only helped work-       ple during driver changeovers or rest
A hinged radiator made it
easy to service the engine.                shop staff provide faster service but      periods.
                                           also laid the groundwork for more ser-        “In the past 20 years the need for
                                           vice-friendly vehicle designs. For truck   maintenance and service has actual-
                                           owners, this meant less downtime and       ly been determined entirely by the

         t that time, most trucks were     higher vehicle utilisation. Workshop       development of engine oils,” says
         maintained by their owners        planning was so forward-looking that       Håkan Ericsson, Scania’s Senior Vice
         – owner-drivers, larger com-      many Scania workshops still operate        President, Service. “Or rather, by the
panies or public authorities with their    the way they did in the 1960s, without     fact that engine oils have not devel-
own workshops. Given the relative          major changes apart from those             oped further. The industry has hit a
simplicity of the vehicles, and their      required by new product ranges and         ceiling, which is also unnecessarily
high quality, a fairly simple service      larger vehicles.                           low in markets where the sulphur
organisation sufficed.                                                                content of diesel fuel oil is high. Sul-
   The modular engine range intro-         New maintenance programmes                 phur causes faster deterioration of the
duced in 1939, (4-, 6- and 8-cylinder      In the 1980s, Scania collaborated with     engine oil than low-sulphur diesel.”
engines for both petrol and diesel fuel,   major customers to develop entirely           How much repairs and mainte-
with shared components such as pis-        new maintenance programmes based           nance needs have declined in recent
tons, crankshafts and cylinder heads),     on time instead of mileage. By then,       decades is clear from Scania’s own
also provided a basis for uncompli-        maintenance and repair agreements          statistics. In 1967, a long-haul truck
cated parts supply. Engine overhauls       had already been introduced in             averaged 95 hours of maintenance per
were still part of the routine – until     Sweden and the Netherlands, for            year. Thirty years later, it was 48
Scania-Vabis launched its “400,000         example.                                   hours. For trucks in heavy long-
kilometre engine” in 1954. The rea-            These new ways of handling ser-        haulage the figures are 100 and 74
son for the name was that after dri-       vice and maintenance meant that            hours, for construction trucks 75 and
ving 400,000 kilometres with no            truck owners could often cease with        28 hours and for distribution trucks
engine overhaul, the owner received        their own routine maintenance and          65 and 26 hours.
a badge to place on the radiator grille.   could plan their truck utilisation with-      Scania’s progress in the service
More than 1,350 badges were award-         out problems. The basic concept            field can hardly be illustrated more
ed before the company realised that        behind today’s service philosophy is       effectively.

                                                                                                      A century on the road – 7
From 2 to 60 tonnes
A century ago, trucks were hardly more than an idea among forward-thinking vehicle manufac-
turers. Long-distance haulage was undertaken by rail and water, local distribution by horse-drawn
wagon. There was simply no market for trucks, the pundits noted. But optimists saw an unex-
ploited business opportunity.

      o generate publicity for its        with solid rubber tyres consumed          sumption of 200 litres, or 33 litres per
      trucks and underscore their         more than 400 litres of fuel – almost     100 km, and an average speed of
      reliability, in 1909 Scania drove   60 litres per 100 km.                     almost 80 km/h.
one of its commercial vehicles from          Today, in 2002, a Scania truck            Until the mid-1930s, truck payload
Malmö to Stockholm. The 700-              makes the same trip in one day –          capacity rose rather slowly. In 1929
kilometre journey took three days at      though road improvements have cut         Scania-Vabis could offer an 85 horse-
an average speed of 20 km/h. Along        the distance to 600 kilometres – with     power truck with gross weight of six
the way, the two-axle, 2-tonne truck      a payload of 25 tonnes, a fuel con-       tonnes – and petrol consumption of

                                                                   Early in 1909, the München Brewery in Stockholm bought
                                                                    this 3.5 tonne IL, which could haul a heavily laden trailer.
in 100 years
  25 litres per 100 kilometres. The intro-       However, genuinely heavy trucks
  duction of the Hesselman engine and        were still rare immediately after the
  later the diesel engine, both of which     Second World War. In Sweden, for
  provided relatively high torque at         example, not a single truck with a
  modest engine speeds, meant that           maximum payload of more than 10
  gross weights could be raised above        tonnes was registered in 1950. That
  6 tonnes while the amount of fuel          same year, truck traffic accounted for
  used nearly halved compared to the         less than 20 percent of domestic trans-
  petrol engine. This was at a time when     port services; railways dominated
  long-haul truck transport was start-       with nearly 63 percent, while domes-
  ing to emerge: rail haulage, often         tic maritime traffic accounted for the
  involving several cargo transfers,         remaining 17 percent.
  slowly began to be replaced by door-           In 1954, the launch of the Scania-
  to-door truck delivery services.           Vabis L/LS71 Regent models marked
                                             the beginning of significant growth
                                             in truck haulage capacity. Gross
                                             weights of 17–18 tonnes became com-
                                             mon. Within a few years, the upper
                                             limit was 22 tonnes (LT75 with tan-
                                             dem bogie). Another decade on, in
                                             1969, the introduction of Scania’s first   among hauliers in the 1980s. Scania’s
                                             V8 engine made new capacity increas-       response to demands for high relia-
                                             es to more than 22 tonnes possible.        bility, short downtime and good fuel
                                             Meanwhile, the engine’s specific fuel      economy included its 420 hp V8
                                             consumption was a modest 216               engine, unveiled in 1982. This engine
                                             g/kWh.                                     had low fuel consumption, 197
                                                                                        g/kWh, and was ideally suited to
                                                 Modularised construction               high average speeds; its large out-
                                             Truck capacity is determined not only      put “flattened the hills”.
                                             by engine power, but just as much by          The turbocompound engine of
                                             frame, transmission and axle size.         1991 demonstrated even better fuel
                                             Scania-Vabis and Scania trucks have        consumption and the 500 hp 14-litre
                                             been continuously updated in this          V8, which could handle gross train
                                             respect. The task became easier as the     weights of up to 60 tonnes, had
                                             company’s pre-production engineers         record-low fuel consumption levels.
                                             modularised vehicle systems and               During the 100-year history of
                                             components. By 1974, Scania could          Scania trucks, development work has
                                             thus deliver its LB111 in a 40 tonne       never stopped. Rather, it has acceler-
                                             model (as a semitrailer tractor unit).     ated from one decade to the next.
                                             With its thoroughly modular struc-         Scania’s experts foresee even faster
                                             ture, the GPRT range launched in 1980      development rates in the near future.
                                             enabled buyers to specify the exact        Ten years hence, truck haulage per-
                                             strength of their Scania trucks based      formance may have doubled as a
                                             on their own particular needs. Given       result of improved fuel economy and
                                             exactly the right capacity for each type   higher cargo capacity. The driving
                                             of transport work, they were able to       time for the 600-kilometre journey
                                             optimise their operating economy and       from Malmö to Stockholm will not fall
                                             efficiency.                                below one day but payloads could be
                                                This proved important when just-        raised from 24 to 40 tonnes, and it is
                                             in-time deliveries and running to tight    realistic to expect that fuel consump-
                                             schedules became competitive tools         tion can drop from 200 to 160 litres.

                                                                                                       A century on the road – 9
Design, ergonomics and comfort

From basic to
As early as 1907, both Scania and Vabis (the two had not yet merged) could offer their customers
trucks with tipper platforms, which in Scania’s case were even engine-driven.
This is an early example of Sweden’s truck industry, which had just begun to emerge, taking the
concept of design very seriously. A designer’s task is to combine form and function in a harmonious
whole. And good functionality frequently results in an aesthetically pleasing shape.

                                                                   Cab interior, 1929 style.
          tipper platform makes a truck
          far more versatile and eases
          the workload of the driver
 and any assistants.
     During Scania’s early decades as a
 truck builder, design work was large-
 ly a matter of giving trucks good func-     A curved dashboard brings all controls closer so
 tionality. In the 1910s, this meant         that the driver does not have to lean forward.

 equipping trucks with simple protec-
 tion against the elements: windscreen,      modern sense. Designed to envelope           merely for the sake of change. The
 roof and little doors, which, by the end    and protect the radiator, the new            cab, bonnet and mudguards on trucks
 of the decade, included windows.            grilles gave Scania-Vabis trucks a           featuring Scania-Vabis assembled
     The 1920s witnessed steady minor        fresh, more imposing face.                   cabs made by AB BeGe Karosseri-
 improvements in the driver’s work-              By then, a long series of engine and     fabrik in Oskarshamn were combined
 ing environment and ergonomics.             gearbox improvements had made the            into a single rubber-suspended unit
 Pneumatic tyres made travel more            driver’s job easier. More powerful           that insulated the driver from noise
 comfortable and less noisy. Closed          engines and carefully adapted gear-          and vibrations. Form and function
 cabs kept out the worst of the weath-       boxes simplified the task of driving.        went hand in hand.
 er. Ventilation hatches enabled dri-        By the early 1950s, customers could              Another major step in design and
 vers to regulate airflow to some extent.    also order trucks with heating inside        ergonomics was taken by positioning
 But heating systems were not in evi-        the cab. 'Ergonomics' – adapting             the instruments in front of the driver,
 dence, even as options, so drivers often    equipment to users in an effort to           not in the centre of the dashboard as
 created their own solutions to make         improve comfort and reduce the risks         previously. The brake pedal was also
 winter driving more bearable.               of fatigue or physical injuries - became     repositioned so the driver did not
     Manufacturers, including Scania,        a recognised feature of Swedish              have to lift his foot high off the accel-
 paid little attention to how trucks         design, including that of Scania-Vabis.      erator in order to brake: the driver
 looked. Trucks were delivered as            And in a natural way, ergonomically-         applied the compressed air brakes
 chassis which customers themselves          correct function was often accompa-          using a plate-type pedal level with
 often drove to specialists, who built       nied by a characteristic look.               the accelerator – which was more con-
 the cab and the bodywork.                                                                venient and safer.
     The only styling tasks that Scania-          Design and functionality                    In 1961, Sweden introduced
 Vabis took upon itself in the early         The name of the designer of the grille       strength requirements for truck cabs.
 days following the merger of the two        on Scania-Vabis’ first post-war trucks       The purpose was to improve driver
 companies, were the appearance of           is long forgotten. But by the time the       safety in case of accidents. To meet
 the radiator and bonnet – and by the        L75 model was launched in 1958, the          these standards, cabs had to be
 1920s, the characteristic look of a         company had a stylist with a name            impact-tested: A 1-tonne weight was
 Scania-Vabis radiator gave the brand        and a face. Björn Karlström modified         suspended from the laboratory ceil-
 a strong visual identity.                   the appearance of Scania-Vabis trucks        ing and swung in a 3-metre arc
      Over time, the quality of cab-         in a way that gave them an almost            against the A- pillar of the cab. The
 building techniques improved. Wood          timeless character. The main features        resulting deformation had to remain
 gradually gave way to steel. Struc-         of the 1944 front remained, but Karl-        within certain limits if the cab was
 tures became stronger and thus more         ström integrated the headlights into         to receive Type Approval in Sweden.
 durable. Not until 1944, when Scania-       the mudguards, giving the bonnet a           Some competitors saw this as a ploy
 Vabis launched its post-war range,          new look. He also made the grille            by Swedish authorities to protect their
 spearheaded by the L10 model, did           more prominent.                              domestic truck industry. But for

 its truck feature radiator grilles in the       But the 75 series was not styled         Scania-Vabis, impact-tested cabs

                                                                                                          A century on the road – 11
offered a good sales argument.           ditioning mounted in the cab’s roof.
   The next major design and                 The cab interior was almost luxu-
ergonomics breakthrough at Scania-       rious, with new seats and space to
Vabis came in 1968 when the com-         install a radio and loudspeakers. Cabs
pany unveiled its second generation      were available in two types – day cabs
of forward-control trucks. A follow-     or sleeper cabs with two beds, a
up to the successful LB76 series, they   wardrobe and curtains. Starting in
featured new styling by Britain’s        1972, the LB models also featured sus-
Lionel Sherrow that represented a        pensed Bostrom seats that were easy
major departure from the cute lines      to adapt to the driver’s weight.
of earlier models – but the real revo-        Apart from their new look, the
lution had occurred in cab comfort       trucks also boasted a number of prac-
and ergonomics.                          tical features. Behind a large hatch
   The driver of a forward-control       at the front, a number of inspection
truck now entered the cab via two        and servicing points were easily acces-
steps in front of the wheel. The cab     sible for using dipsticks to check
was generously proportioned and          engine and power steering oil; adding
offered good visibility through its      oil to the engine, power steering and
large windscreen. But what perhaps       hydraulic clutch; adding anti-freeze
pleased drivers most of all was the      for the brake system and activating
powerful ventilation system, which       the cold-start function.
was soon supplemented by air con-            For major servicing inside the

                              In the 1970s, there was growing awareness of the
                                role of air resistance in fuel consumption. Wind
                                   tunnel tests with half-scale models provided
                                 greater knowledge during the development of
                                                the GPRT range launched in 1980.

                                                                                   engine compartment, it took only
                                                                                   about a minute to tilt the cab forward
                                                                                   using a one-person manual hydraulic
                                                                                   pump. As a safety feature, the cab had
                                                                                   to be pumped back to its normal posi-
                                                                                   tion where it was locked in position
                                                                                   by two independent latches.
                                                                                      Together with technical improve-
                                                                                   ments like power steering, com-
                                                                                   pressed-air brakes and servo-assisted
                                                                                   clutch, innovations in the form and
                                                                                   function of its 1970s trucks placed
                                                                                   Scania, (the Vabis name had been

12 – A century on the road
                In the early 1930s, large 3-axle long-haul rigs
                were built with cabs featuring a bunk bed.

dropped in 1966 when Scania merged             These bonneted 140 series trucks       working environment of Scania dri-
with Saab), at the cutting edge of auto-    had an appearance that represented        vers. The importance of good
motive technology. In 1972, Scania          a major change in Scania’s then tra-      ergonomics through good design was
also introduced bonneted trucks with        ditional lines. The broad, sloping bon-   also underscored by the company’s
V8 engines in its 140 series, since         net was integrated with prominent         decision to work with international-
many hauliers preferred this once-          front wings. The whole unit was bal-      ly recognised automotive stylists to
universal and conventional concept          anced and could be tilted for easy        achieve good results. A genuine high
to the forward-control range. The new       access to the engine and front sus-       point in terms of publicity value
series gave buyers a level of cab com-      pension; for this reason it was made      occurred when Scania revealed, dur-
fort not previously available in bon-       of glass fibre-reinforced plastic.        ing the launch of its 2-Series range in
neted trucks, thanks to their three-           The post-war decades thus wit-         1980, that the man behind the look
point cab suspension systems and            nessed numerous breakthroughs that        of these trucks was none other than

roomy interiors.                            improved the safety, comfort and          Giorgio Giugiaro.

                                                                                                     A century on the road– 13
                                                                                     Three-way tipping bodies were offered
                                                                                        by Scania in the early 20th century.

   At the time, Giugiaro was the          filter was standard equipment.              years,” says Kaj Holmelius, who for
wunderkind of the automotive                  In 1988, the new 3-Series present-      nearly two decades was in charge of
styling world and his company,            ed a reconfigured interior including        Scania’s cab development pro-
ItalDesign, had quickly become the        a dashboard curved towards the              gramme. “Scania has always had lim-
pacesetter of the industry. Scania        driver. Designed by Aldo Sessano,           ited in-house styling resources, so this
came into contact with ItalDesign via     this has now become a standard fea-         task was contracted out to Bertone,
the Karmann bodybuilding compa-           ture in the industry.                       the Italian design house.”
ny in Osnabrück, Germany, which                                                           However, this did not mean that
was helping Scania’s Oskarhamn                      Streamline cabs                   Bertone was given a free hand. The
plant develop tools and fixtures for      Scania’s Streamline cabs, introduced        cab’s dimensions, visibility angles,
cab production.                           in 1991, lowered the truck’s aerody-        corner radii and various other crite-
   Giugiaro was instrumental in           namic coefficient of drag towards 0.5.      ria were prerequisites that stylists had
giving the trucks in the 2-Series range   Lower air resistance, achieved through      to work with.
an individual character despite their     new styling and refined by lengthy              Simultaneously, Scania continued
highly modular nature. The                wind tunnel testing, improved fuel          its efforts since the 1970s to improve
bonneted T truck was outstanding,         consumption by 4–5 percent, or 2–3          the driver environment and
but the most impressive feature of        litres per 100 kilometres. Thus, a truck    ergonomics.
the range was its high level of driver    driven 120,000 kilometres per year              “In this respect we have always
comfort. The cab door opened wide         could save between 2,400 and 3,600          had highly capable people in-house,”
(90o), the dashboard was totally new,     litres of diesel fuel.                      Mr Holmelius says. “We have always
the steering wheel was adjustable for         “The 4-Series, introduced in 1995,      had a good grasp of what drivers
rake and reach; the engine did not        must be regarded as one of Scania’s         appreciate and what will improve the
intrude as much on the interior as in     high points in styling terms. A man-        bottom line for hauliers. We have
previous models; the gearshift was        ufacturer like Scania makes such            combined this knowledge with new
closer to the driver – and a pollen       major changes only every fifteen            technical and aesthetic possibilities.”

14 – A century on the road
Industrial designers peer into the future
Tomorrow’s rugged T-trucks
Despite the distinctive new styling, the lines are familiar to any Scania customer. A concept study
on future bonneted trucks shown at the IAA in 2002 combines tradition and fresh thinking.

      cania’s bonneted T-truck,            owner has enough money and expe-          of the company’s industrial design-
      despite relatively limited sales     rience to offer the driver a flat floor   ers were asked to carry out a concept
      volume in Europe, is an impor-       and the superior comfort provided         study, looking 2 – 3 generations ahead
tant identity platform for Scania. It      by a driver’s seat behind the front       and using the T-truck as their start-
signals both strength and prestige,        axle.                                     ing point. Project manager Ola
showing that the driver is pulling            But how should Scania extend its       Pihlgren and his team began by gath-
such a heavy payload that he does not      heritage of 20th century bonneted         ering both abstract and concrete

need full cargo length. It says that the   trucks into the 21st century? Some        evidence for discussion.

                                                                                                   A century on the road – 15
   ”At that stage we were not look-      asked what type of boat a Scania trac-   where the team of stylists principally
ing particularly at vehicles or trucks   tor unit reminds you of, the reply       focused its attention."
but were trying to distinguish expres-   might have been not so much a                But at least as important as iden-
sions and feelings. For example, if we   streamlined day cruiser as a tugboat     tifying new design concepts was the
                                         that exudes confidence and strength.”    task of conveying the historical iden-
                                            Another early source of inspira-      tity of Scania bonneted trucks. Put
                                         tion in the concept study was the US     simply, it was all about finding Sca-
                                         and European customisation cultures      nia’s soul and seeing how it could be
                                         in which owners who refuse to settle     expressed in the future. “We looked
                                         for a mass-produced look personalise     at T-trucks as part of the history of
                                         their trucks to create a more distinc-   Scania," says Ola Pihlgren. "Which
                                         tive image.                              design features have survived? Which
                                            "We also decided to use the slop-     ones are important? Which are not so
                                         ing grille and A-pillar you see on       good?”
                                         many 1960s pick-ups," continues Ola          The final result, unveiled at the
                                         Pihlgren. "In the end, the slope was     IAA show , is a shorter but more pur-

16 – A century on the road
                                           Before the model of the future T-truck can be
                                           built, a so called tape rendering is made where
                                           a top-, side- and front view is made from tape.

poseful bonnet than has been the cus-
tom on such trucks. Cab, bonnet and
chassis unite to form a clearer whole.
The bonnet lines continue into the cab,
making the bonnet seem longer than
it is in reality.
    Ola Pihlgren concludes: ”This is one
in many concept studies as we prepare
to work with our trucks several gen-
erations ahead. That is important to
remember. But a Scania T-truck might
look like this in 10–15 years time. We
are very much looking forward to the
reaction it generates, which will form
part of the basis for any future devel-
opment decisions.”

                                                                  A century on the road – 17
When drivers can
An improved road network between Europe and the Far East will open the potential for very long
intercontinental truck transport services. At the 2002 IAA commercial vehicle show in Hanover,
Germany, Scania unveiled a full-scale study of how future drivers might live in their vehicles. Indus-
try reaction will provide vital input to Scania’s pre-production engineers.

        rivers who face journeys of    ality and safety. Therefore, vehicle      The interior concept developed by
        up to two weeks and over       manufacturers need to think along      Scania’s styling department is based
        8,000 kilometres will demand   new lines about how best to organise   on customer clinics with drivers who
high standards of comfort, function-   and equip a cab for such long hauls.
decide                                     main constraint on improved com-
                                           fort. Using the ubiquitous modular
                                           system, Scania ergonomics and
                                           styling specialists built a sleeper cab
                                                                                     use of the additional length. Cab
                                                                                     length is indirectly limited by legal
                                                                                     requirements but also by vehicle
                                                                                     manoeuvrability. The aim of the new

 spend at least four nights a week in      with the same overall length as           cab is to offer the driver a better en-
 their cabs. “These customer meetings      Scania’s CrewCab, making maximum          vironment for rest and recreation
 showed that there is a gap between
 how drivers live in their vehicles
 today and how they would actually
 like to live,” says Johan Lundén,
 ergonomics engineer and project
    Today’s length restrictions and        The Silk Road of
 resulting relatively short cabs are the

                                           the 21st century
                                           q From Pusan in East Asia to Rotterdam in Europe, it will run through 31 nations.
                                           In the not too distant future, Scania trucks will carry heavy cargo along the
                                           new Silk Road as an alternative to the transoceanic traffic.

                                           q For nearly half a century, various projects have been initiated to revive the
                                           ancient Silk Road. So far, no one has succeeded, but in May 2002 the route for
                                           a new Asian highway system was finalised, 43 years after it was first mooted
                                           by the United Nations as a way to promote prosperity and unity in the region.

                                           q The highway will have 86 segments. The No. 1 route, considered the Silk Road
                                           of the 21st century, will start in Pusan, South Korea, and run through China,
                                           India, Turkey and into Europe. The project should move into an even higher gear
                                           if participating nations sign a planned treaty at the end of 2002. This treaty
                                           will detail the route specifications, standardise traffic signs and create ways to
                                           cross borders more easily. The nations will also discuss an inspection system to
                                           enable vehicles to drive straight from Europe to Asia and vice-versa.

                                           q Construction costs for this huge project will be shouldered partly by the
                                           World Bank and various international financial institutions.

                                           q The ancient Silk Road and its various branches spanned more than 13,000
                                           kilometres and endured for more than 1,500 years. Though it helped stock
                                           bazaars on two continents with silk, porcelain, spices, furs, gems and ivory, its
                                           most influential commodities could not be hauled by camels – the trucks of
                                           those days. Culture, cutting-edge technology and many of the great religions
                                           were carried between East and West by the traders. They brought with them
                                           the secrets of printing, papermaking, ceramics, glazing, astronomy, fireworks
                                           and winemaking. The Silk Road became the world’s first information super-
                                           highway, some 2,000 years before the first electrical signal was transmitted
                                           on earth.

                                           q Just as the future Asian Highway consists of a road system, the fabled Silk
                                           Road refers to a series of routes that criss-crossed Eurasia. The best known seg-
                                           ment of the Silk Road began in the Chinese city of Changan (Xian), diverged
                                           into northern and southern routes that skirted central Asia’s Taklamakan Desert,
                                           converged to cross the Iranian plateau and ended on the eastern shores of the
                                           Mediterranean in cities including Antioch and Tyre.

                                                                                                    A century on the road – 19
between shifts behind the wheel, thus      fortable seating height – that does not    TV set in the cab wall and a DVD
promoting active safety.                   have to be folded away each morning.       player provide entertainment regard-
   The added space gives the driver           An enlarged social area enables the     less of geographic location.
an easily accessible sleeping area, with   driver to sit comfortably and relax           The cab features a microwave, cof-
a large spring mattress – at a com-        or eat at a regular table. A flat-screen   fee maker and washstand with sink
                                                                                      and running water, plus drawers for
                                                                                      kitchen equipment.
                                                                                         Luggage lockers on the side of the
                                                                                      cab provide easily accessible and con-
                                                                                      venient storage.
                                                                                         Cash, credit cards and other valu-
                                                                                      ables can be locked in a safe perma-
                                                                                      nently attached to the cab.
                                                                                         “Most important has been to create
                                                                                      a genuinely spacious cab. Technical
                                                                                      refinements have therefore been lim-
                                                                                      ited to the most desirable," Mr Lundén
                                                                                      explains. "We have also increased
                                                                                      ‘elbow room’ and thus created a cab
                                                                                      that supplements today’s range. With
                                                                                      Scania’s modular system, it is fully
                                                                                      possible to start production of such a
                                                                                      cab, if and when the time comes.”

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