A Proposal For by MikeJenny

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									                    A Proposal For:

Fish Passage at Road Crossings in Montana Watersheds
      Providing Bull and Cutthroat Trout Habitat

                     Submitted by:

              Dr. Joel Cahoon, P.E., Ph.D.
              Civil Engineering Department

              Dr. Thomas McMahon, Ph.D.
               Fish and Wildlife Science

                     Otto Stein, Ph.D.
              Civil Engineering Department

                Montana State University
                 Bozeman, MT 59715

                      Submitted to

            2701 PROSPECT AVENUE
               HELENA, MT 59620

             Revised Submission - July, 2001
Table of Contents

Problem Statement………………………………………….          2

Background Summary………………………………………           2

Objectives…………………………………………………..             5

Benefits……………………………………………………..              6

Research Plan………………………………………………             6

Products…………………………………………………….               9

Implementation…………………………………………….            9

Time Schedule……………………………………………..           10

Staffing……………………………………………………..             10

Facilities……………………………………………………             11

MDT Involvement………………………………………….           11

Budget………………………………………………………                12

References………………………………………………….             14

Investigator Qualifications…………………………………   16

Problem Statement

Culverts and bridges are common elements of transportation systems where roadways
intersect naturally occurring streams or rivers. Engineers have historically incorporated
structural, geotechnical, hydrologic, hydraulic and transportation planning concerns into
the design of these cost-effective and necessary transportation system components. It is
only recently that fish passage and fish habitat elements have been considered in the
design and maintenance processes. Many culverts and bridges in Montana span streams
that support diverse fisheries. The health of these fisheries is an essential element of a
recreational industry that draws hundreds of thousands of visitors to Montana annually.

Transportation system planners,
designers and managers recognize
that fish passage through Montana‟s
culverts and bridges is a concern.
However, there is little hard data to
indicate the magnitude and extent to
which existing culverts and bridges
impair fisheries in Montana.
Increasingly, fishery biologists                            Bull Trout
recognize that trout and other fish
species inhabiting western streams
and rivers are much more migratory
than previously thought (Gowen et
al. 1984, Jakober et al. 1988).
Montana is home to several fishes
listed under the Endangered Species
Act (Figure 1). Further – these are
fish species for which little is                         Cutthroat Trout
known        concerning      biologic
performance with respect to man             Figure 1. Trout species in this study.
made hydraulic structures. There
are many types of stream crossing structures, but culverts are of primary focus in this
project. Other structures, mostly bridges, may be included as study sites are selected.

Background Summary

Hydraulic structures that successfully convey the design flow, ensure the safety of
motorists, pedestrians and recreationalists, and are hospitable to fish passage are a
delicate marriage of engineering and biology. From an engineering standpoint, stream
crossing designs are based on many factors:

o   The choice of structural elements, maintenance expectations, design dimensions and
    design life depend on the type and frequency of the traffic the project will convey.
    Pedestrian crossings, for example, are dramatically different from major highway
    crossings, simply because of the traffic type and load expected over the life of the

    structure. The Hydraulics Section (Preconstruction Bureau, Engineering Division) of
    MDT uses revised chapters of the AASHTO Model Drainage Manual to arrive at
    many of these elements (MDT, 2001). To make culverts more hospitable to fish
    passage, various alterations to the traditional design have been used. For example,
    Rajaratnam and Katopodis (1990) studied the effect of baffles placed in the culvert
    barrel to regulate velocity, and Clancy and Reichmuth (1990) demonstrated the utility
    of placing metal fishways in a culvert to avoid perching.

o   Hydrologic computations for the drainages upstream of the crossing and, in controlled
    cases, water use demands, form the basis for estimating design flows. It is at this
    point that the conservativeness of the hydraulic design is established. The revised
    AASHTO Model Drainage Manual (MDT, 2001) has a hydrology chapter that is used
    by MDT to guide risk-based hydrologic designs.

o   The dimensions and specifications that ensure adequate hydraulic performance are
    then based on site-specific surveys, expectations of downstream backwater
    interference, and performance details for the specific structure proposed. Backwater
    interference can often be predicted using river analysis tools such as HEC-RAS
    (Army Corps of Engineers, 1998).

     Figure 2. Before and after photos of a culvert that has been rebuilt to accommodate
     fish passage (Grand Ronde, 1999).

When fish passage requirements are superimposed on the traditional stream crossing
design, biologic factors must be incorporated. Barriers to fish passage may be
categorized in three groups:

o   There are limits on the height of abrupt vertical changes that fish can overcome.
    Perched culvert outlets (a scour pool at the culvert outlet that causes water to free-fall
    from the culvert), sills, weirs, or headcuts downstream of the structure can all impose
    jump or fall limits on fish passage. Jump limits are exceeded if the vertical height
    that fish must jump to travel upstream exceeds the ability of the fish species and size
    class of concern. The jumping ability of trout has been studied (Stuart, 1962) but the

    results are not conclusive for all trout species. Fall limits are exceeded when fry are
    injured or killed by tumbling over excessively high falls as they migrate downstream.
    It is likely that this is not a primary restriction – most falls that can be jumped in the
    upstream direction can probably be negotiated in downstream migration unless the
    system is under dramatically different hydrologic regimes at these two points in time.

o   There are limits on the water velocities that fish can overcome when traveling
    upstream. The darting speed of trout tends to range from 6 to 14 ft/sec according to
    Bell (1973). The swimming speeds of fish are influenced by trout age which is
    usually inferred by the length of the fish. Watts (1974) related the swimming speed
    of immature fish to that of mature fish to incorporate the issue of age. Extreme water
    velocities my be overcome by high darting speeds, but only for very short durations
    or distances. High, but less than extreme, velocities may also be overcome when
    traveling upstream, but not indefinitely. To consider both velocity and duration,
    Baker and Votapka (1990) related water velocity and fish length to the ability to
    move 100 m in 10 minutes. This work did not include bull trout or specify any
    certain subspecies of (Yellowstone or westslope) cutthroat trout. Baffles, debris or
    cross sectional shape modifications may be used to lessen high velocities in long
    culverts or to provide resting stations.

o   Low flow depths are prohibitive to fish passage. Any design that results in
    conveyance of the flow at hand but at depth that fish will not venture into should be

At any given crossing, the flow rate that occurs during critical migration periods is
dependent on the species of fish of interest. For most fish species there are certain time
periods when passage is critical – cutthroat trout migrate and spawn in the spring (Baker
and Votapka, 1990) and bull trout begin their spawning migration in June even though
they don‟t actually spawn until the fall. Species, fish length and time-of-year are
therefore integral to evaluating the adequacy of fish passage at stream crossings.

The notion that man-made hydraulic structures can impair fish mobility is not new, see
Huston (1964), for example. However, there is a limited contemporary knowledge base
for river engineers and fishery biologists to use for assessing fish passage problems and
solutions in Montana. The study of Belford and Gould (1989) is a good precursor to this
study – the fish passage properties of six existing culverts, all in different basins, in
Montana were tested. Traps and tags were used to assess the passage ability of adult
brook, rainbow and brown trout in the culverts. All culverts were deemed acceptable for
fish passage, although in some cases the passage was termed strenuous. The limitations
of the Belford and Gould study are that the six culverts they chose did not represent a full
range of possible fish lengths representing the full life history of the species tested, nor
was passage evaluated for all the times of the year when fish passage could be of the
most concern (i.e., both high and low flows). There is significant interest in broad-
reaching studies of fish passage at road crossings. Knoteck et al. (2001), for example,
examined many crossings on Fish Creek (Montana) and found that passage impediments
exist, but are not always predictable using contemporary design and analysis tools. The

primary tool used by Knoteck et al. (2001) to assess fish passage is FishXing, a piece of
culvert hydraulics software that has a biologic-capability interface. The program
FishXing (Six Rivers … 1999) merges the concepts of hydraulics and a fishes ability to
overcome hydraulic features, but does not include all fish species and is not a big-scale
approach to the issue. Moreover, specific passage criteria are not available for the native
trout species that are federally listed as threatened (bull trout) or as Species of Special
Concern in Montana (Yellowstone and westslope cutthroat trout). Barber and Downs
(1996) present a good summary of velocity profiles measured in the field, and
demonstrate the use of equations to extract velocity profiles from mean velocity

Other good summaries of the factors involved in fish passage at road crossings may be
found in Fitch (1996) and White (1996). A good overall summary of fish passage issues,
in general, can be found in Tillinger and Stein (1996), where a review of literature and
specific recommendations for Montana fish and settings was presented.

In addition to the factors mentioned above, we believe an important but little addressed
fish passage issue concerns the question of how significant fish passage problems are
across entire drainage basins. We believe this is a potentially important aspect of fish
passage research and management, since fish may need habitats located throughout an
entire basin to complete their life cycle (Swanberg 1997a). We found very little direct
information on this question in the literature. However, some studies strongly suggest
that fish passage barriers can influence fish populations over a wide area. A culvert
redesign study in the Grand Ronde drainage in Oregon (Grand Ronde, 1999) found that
one perched culvert blocked access to many miles of tributary streams. Swanberg
(1997b) found that a dam blocked access to migratory bull trout over a large portion of
the upper Clark Fork basin in western Montana. These studies suggest that even a few
culverts that are fish passage barriers can have an influence over a very large area. It is
noteworthy, however, that in our literature review we found no published studies that had
evaluated fish passage at road crossings over a large drainage in order to fully assess the
extent of fish passage barriers.


The primary objective of this study is to examine the extent to which road crossings of
streams and rivers fragment fish populations across a large drainage basin or basins in
Montana. Our goal is to pick one or two basins that are home to one or more migratory
fish species that have high management interest. Specific sub-objectives are to determine
the hydraulic passage limitations for bull trout, to refine the currently limited knowledge
base concerning passage criteria for cutthroat trout, and to identify physical and
biological factors that relate to previously identified barriers to fish passage.


The benefits of the basin scale assessment are three-fold:

    1) The current state-of-the art in fish passage lacks information concerning the
       biologic capacity of bull trout and cutthroat trout to overcome hydraulic obstacles
       at stream crossings. For example, the fish species included in FishXing (Six
       Rivers, 1999) includes “cutthroat trout” but not any particular subspecies, and
       does not include bull trout at all. This project will provide the initial criteria
       necessary to adequately design a road crossing that is hospitable to these sensitive
       species. Ancillary observations concerning other coldwater species (whitefish,
       sculpin, suckers…) would be noted to supplement the current state of the science.

    2) It is possible to assess any given culvert with respect to fish passage and species
       fragmentation for species with known biological abilities. However, fish passage
       related to road crossings has not been evaluated on a basin-wide scale for the
       species of interest here. Results may have far-reaching implications on the design
       and maintenance approach that MDT uses at stream-roadway intersections.

    3) This project will focus needed attention on fish passage issues related to road
       crossings, provide a showcase for the state-of-the-art, and serve as the host for
       incorporating this important issue into the mainstream of river engineering design.

Research Plan

Study Basins

One or two basins will be selected for intensive field surveys. The selection will ensure
that both cutthroat trout (Yellowstone or westslope) bull trout are included in the study.
The criteria for basin selection will require that each basin have as many as possible of
the following features.

o    The study basins will have a significant number of road crossings on bull or cutthroat
    trout supporting streams. These road crossing may be on state, county, or forest
    service recreational access roads.
o   The study basins will be hydrologically independent and have existing hydrologic
    records to the extent that base and extreme flows at each road crossing can be
o   If possible, the basins should have some culverts that have been historically
    retrofitted for fish passage. This will allow a follow-up look at the performance of
    these modifications.
o   There may be special cases where a road corridor is of more interest than a
    hydrologic basin. This is acceptable if a road corridor can be selected for a study area
    without compromising the overall nature and intent of the study.

o   The study basins should have a good stream of historic or background data
    concerning fish populations, documentation of infrastructure development and current
    land use practices.

Project Personnel

The bulk of this project will be carried out by the principal investigators, two graduate
students (one in Civil Engineering and one in Fish & Wildlife Science), and one or two
undergraduate assistants. In addition, a team of cooperators will be assembled to help the
principal investigators select the study basins and to provide guidance as needed. The
cooperators, where appropriate, might also be asked to serve on a graduate student
advisory committee, assist in outreach activities within their respective agency, or help
coordinate multi-agency outreach functions. Potential research cooperators may include
the following, or their delegates1:

    o   Glenn Phillips          Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks
    o   Mark Story              US Forest Service
    o   Bill Ruediger           US Forest Service
    o   Amanda Hardy            Western Transportation Institute
    o   Pat McGowen             Western Transportation Institute
    o   Jim Nallick             Montana Department of Transportation
    o   Sue Sillick             Montana Department of Transportation
    o   Chuck Parrett           US Geologic Survey

Initial Field Observations

The stream flow rates that exist during critical fish passage periods will be predicted at
each crossing in the study basins. If the basins are not gauged, critical flows will be
estimated by correlating to similar nearby gauged basins. In addition, stream flow
measurements will be used to ground-truth the hydrologic predictions. Because these
flow rates will be used to assess fish passage limitations, the dimensions and hydraulic
characteristics of each crossing will also be measured. Measurements will include:

    o   culvert length, slope, shape and cross-sectional dimensions,
    o   culvert type, material, hydraulic roughness, and inlet and outlet characteristics
    o   upstream and downstream channel descriptions,
    o   evidence of backwater, perched outlets or other hydraulic abnormalities.

To assess contextual factors that may affect „success‟ or „failure‟ of a culvert to provide
adequate fish passage, we will also determine the stream channel type, surrounding soil
type, and age (date of construction) of a culvert. Upstream and downstream photo points
at each culvert will also be established. Anecdotal observations, such as high water

 The final list of research cooperators will be arrived at after discussions with MDT early in the project.
The list of research cooperators should reflect the full diversity of agency and stakeholder concerns and

marks, debris, physical damage and physical wear will also be noted at teach culvert. At
sites that have as-built drawings available, it will be interesting to note the changes at the
site that have occurred since installation.

Culverts have been identified as the more troublesome of hydraulic structure with respect
to fish passage while bridges have long been considered the ultimate solution to fish
passage impediments. There may, however, be isolated cases where small full-span
bridges alter the bed-load and debris carrying capacity of the channel and restrict fish
passage in proximity to the bridge because of these impediments. As such, all
transportation related crossings in the study basins will be examined, noting the extent to
which any crossing restricts or encourages fish migration.

Hydraulic Modeling

All of the culverts in the study will be modeled hydraulically to select a subset for direct
assessment of fish passage. Based on the measured physical characteristics of the
culverts made in the field, and hydrologic predictions of flow regime timing, hydraulic
models will be used to predict water velocities and water surface profiles within and near
each culvert at flow rates that represent critical fish passage times. The culverts will be
modeled using HEC-RAS, CulvertMaster, the template of Cahoon et al. (2001), or other
established and documented models as appropriate2. Model runs at selected crossings
will be ground-truthed at several different flow rates early in the project to validate data
collection methods and the extent of field observations. The results of the hydraulic
modeling will be used to identify the subset of culverts that are candidates for direct
measurements of fish passage. This subset will intentionally include a statistically
appropriate sample of culverts that fall into the categories of a) fish passage is likely, b)
fish passage is unlikely, and c) fish passage is unpredictable.

Direct Measurements of Fish Passage
Direct assessment of fish passage at the culverts identified by assessing the results of the
hydraulic modeling will be made by measuring length-frequency distributions and
species composition above and below each of the selected culverts. Fish populations will
be sampled by single pass electrofishing a 250-m section of stream above and below a
culvert. Differences in length-frequency distribution or presence or absence of a species
will be used to evaluate if a culvert acts as a fish passage barrier to any species or length
class. If this assessment is inconclusive at any given culvert, further direct observations
of fish passage will be employed by tagging fish above and below culverts under two
different flow regimes to assess fish movement downstream and upstream through a
stream crossing. Movement would then be measured at weekly intervals for one month
after tagging by electrofishing a 500 m section above and below a culvert. We envision
the use of a "batch tag" like fin clips will be adequate to assess degree of upstream or
downstream movement through a particular road crossing in most instances. However,

  FishXing is a relative newcomer in the field of fish passage modeling. The hydraulic computations in
FishXing are not as thorough as those in HEC-RAS, but FishXing does have biological fish performance
factors built-in. FishXing will be of considerable interest in this project, and field data and HEC-RAS
results may be compared to the results of FishXing at every opportunity.

tagging methods that allow identification of individual fish such as PIT (passive
integrated transponder) tags or visible implant (VI) tags will be used when more specific
information about movement of individuals, size classes, or species is deemed important.


Tangible products that will be developed in this project include, but are not limited to:

   o   quarterly reports, the draft final report, and the final report,
   o   photographs of all research sites,
   o   the complete and annotated data set from field observations and model runs,
   o   a demonstration site with outreach materials and design information,
   o   maps showing fish access and no-access reaches in the study areas,
   o   one Master of Science thesis in Civil Engineering,
   o   one Master of Science thesis in Fish & Wildlife Science,
   o   an update to the literature review of Tillinger and Stein (1996)
   o   publications for use by MDT and other interested agencies, and
   o   refereed publications for the academic community.

As important as these products are, the primary intangible product may be the most
important. Fish passage has generally been a topic of consideration in roadway crossing,
but never before have the limitations of these structures to fish migration been assessed
on a basin-wide scale, and been presented in a manner that could be incorporated into
design methods and philosophies.

As in the professional world, it is important to maintain communication between
disciplines in the academic setting also. This project represents a real opportunity for
engineers and biologists to share by working together. We anticipate that the principal
investigators and students will work as a team, sharing field activities and computational


The MDT and MFWP will be direct recipients of most of the products listed above. The
planning unit at MDT and the MDT/FWP Task Force may want to use this information to
formulate broad reaching policies concerning fish passage. This work should improve
our understanding of the hydraulic and biologic features that must be evaluated to design
road crossings, and may perhaps serve as the impetus for additional basin-wide
assessments of how significant fish passage problems are at stream crossings in other
basins. The information developed here may improve Chapter 9 of the modification of
the FHWA document that MDT uses to design road crossings.

The demonstration site will assist MDT in outreach to stakeholders and in personnel
education internally. The demonstration site will be developed in concert with the MDT
design unit, at a crossing of mutual choice, preferably one of high visual profile and
ADT, and having bull trout concerns. Project personnel will develop and outreach packet

including design procedures and calculations, as-built drawings, descriptions of unique
features, and recommendations for monitoring. This material can be used by MDT for
internal training or external outreach.

Time Schedule

The time schedule for the project is shown below. With heavy student participation it is
convenient to think of the project in terms of semesters. The first semester (Fall 2001)
will be devoted to selecting sites for the field surveys and the demonstration site,
collection of hydrologic data, and recruiting graduate students. The bulk of the project -
field activities, data collection, data analysis, report writing, etc. – will take place during
the 2002 and 2003 calendar years. This arrangement places the summers, when most of
the field activity will take place, in the middle of the project rather than at the beginning
or end. This schedule also provides coincidence of field activity with fish spawning and
migration time periods.

                                   Federal              Federal                  Federal              Federal
                                   FY 01                FY 02                    FY 03                FY 04

Task   Task Description             Fall 01    Spr 02     Sum 02   Fall 02   Spr 03    Sum 03       Fall 03
 1     Recruit Grad Students           X
 2     Select Basins/Cooperators       X
 3     Prepare Literature Review       X         X
 4     Field Obs – Hydraulic                     X           X       X
 5     Field Obs – Biologic                                                     X         X           X
 6     Demo Site Development                                                              X
 7     Report Writing                  X                             X                                X

                                              State                   State                   State
                                              FY 02                   FY 03                   FY 04


                                                                  Hours Contributed to Task
Name/Classification               Role                         1     2      3     4       5     6       7
Cahoon                            Principal Investigator      15    25     15     30     10    10      20
McMahon                           Co-Principal Investigator    5    25     15     20     40    10      10
Stein                             Co-Principal Investigator    5    10      5     30     15    15      10
Grad Student 1                    Graduate Assistant           0     0     40 840 800           0      80
Grad Student 2                    Graduate Assistant           0     0     40 840 800           0      80
Undergraduate Student             Student Intern               0    50     50 100 100 10               40
Cooperators*                      Advisory                     0     4      2     0       0     6       4
Budget Administration/Support Accounting and Clerical          4     2      2     0       0     4       4
* This group of people includes representatives of agency and stakeholder organizations. The time

contributions listed are per member.

Montana State University has all the equipment and facilities necessary to complete this
project. These include surveying and measurement equipment, electrofishers, tagging
equipment, computers and software. The study basins will be chosen to minimize land
access issues. No line-item requests are made for equipment (items with cost greater than
$1000 - MDT‟s minimum for equipment).

MDT Involvement

Project personnel will work with the MDT design unit in the development of the
demonstration site. The site will be one that, in the course of routine road crossing repair
or replacement, would have had significant construction work anyway, So, this project
will contribute to the design, but will not require additional MDT activities over and
above what is presently planned at that site.


                              Federal Fiscal                  State Fiscal
                               Year Budget                   Year Budget
                          (October 1 to September 30)      (July 1 to June 30)    Category
 Category                 FY01 FY02 FY03 FY04             FY02 FY03 FY04             Total

  Cahoon                     0    2500 2500         0         0 2500      2500       5000
  Stein                      0    1250 1250         0         0 1250      1250       2500
  McMahon                    0       0 5000         0         0     0     5000       5000
  Engr Grad Student          0    9000 12000     3000      6000 12000     6000      24000
  F&WS Grad Student          0    9000 12000     3000      6000 12000     6000      24000
  Undergraduate            400    1200 1200         0       800 1200       800       2800

 Fringe Benefits
  Cahoon                      0    625     625       0        0     625    625       1250
  Stein                       0    313     313       0        0     313    313        625
  McMahon                     0      0    1250       0        0       0   1250       1250
  Engr Grad Student           0    400     480      60      180     480    280        940
  F&WS Grad Student           0    400     480      60      180     480    280        940

 In-State Travel           100    3150    3350    200      1450   3350    2000       6800

 Out-of-State Travel          0      0       0   1000         0       0   1000       1000

 Supplies                 4000    1000    1000       0     4000   1000    1000       6000

 Publications                 0      0       0   1000         0       0   1000       1000

 Equipment                    0      0       0       0        0       0      0              0

 Tuition and Fees             0 12000 12000          0     6000 12000     6000      24000

 Total Direct Costs       4500 40838 53448       8320     24610 47198 35298

 Indirect Costs            675    4326    6217   1248      2792   5280    4395      12466
 Grand Totals             5175 45163 59665       9568     27402 52477 39692        119571

Budget Detail

Salary - Dr.‟s Cahoon, McMahon and Stein are on academic-year (9-month) contracts at
MSU. The budget request includes a total of approximately 2 months salary for Cahoon
and McMahon and approximately 1 month salary for Stein. These are approximations, as
their respective salaries are not equal. The university accounting system allows for this
to be paid as summer-salary even though the hourly contributions to the project are

spread over the project duration. Graduate students are paid a monthly stipend of $1000
and undergraduate employees pay varies from $7/hr to $10/hr based on qualifications.

Fringe Benefits - Faculty fringe benefits are calculated at 25% of salary, graduate
students fringe benefits are calculated at 2% when enrolled full-time in classes, and 10%
when not enrolled (summer). Undergraduates are not assessed fringe benefits.

In-State Travel - Many miles will be logged visiting field sites to record research data.

Out-of-State Travel - Funds are requested to sent one project representative to a national
conference or society meeting to present the result of the project.

Supplies - This project includes a considerable amount of field data collection and
evaluation. As such, the request for supplies includes expendables, all less-than-$1000
purchases, and the maintenance needs associated with flow measurements, fish counts,
computational tools, etc. If any single item exceeds the $1000 limit, a request will be
made to adjust the budget so that that item becomes „equipment‟ and is then property of
MDT. Such purchases are not anticipated but will be accommodated if necessary.

Publications - It is anticipated that several media will host the results of the project -
Internet based deliveries, printed brochures or design guides, professional society
presentations and refereed journal articles. All of these have some combination of
production, printing, or page-fee costs.

Tuition and Fees - Tuition and Fees is the term that MSU uses to describe the total
amount of money that a student pays directly to the University to attend, including
tuition, lab fees, and user fees. Tuition and Fees does not include room, board, insurance
or other incidental costs. There is no automatic waiver of these costs for graduate
research associates - the costs are either paid directly by the student or are reduced by
actual monetary contributions from grants (such as this one) scholarships or fellowships.
The budget request includes Tuition and Fees for two students, each enrolled full-time for
a total of four semesters. The request is approximately the average of the in-state and
out-of-state rates. This allows us to recruit the best students possible, while giving the in-
state students the monetary incentive of fully covered Tuition and Fees. Experience has
shown that even when offering out-of-state students approximately 80% of their out-of-
pocket Tuition and Fees, we still tend to recruit a desirable mix of in-state and out-of-
state students.


Army Corps of Engineers. 1998. Hydrologic Engineering Center. HEC-RAS River
Analysis System. Sept. 1998, Version 2.2. Developed by the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, 609 2nd St., Davis, CA, 95616.

Baker, C. O. and F. E. Votapka. 1990. Fish passage through culverts. FHWA-FL-90-
0006. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Barber, M. E. and R. C. Downs. 1996. Investigation of culvert hydraulics related to
juvenile fish passage. WA-RD 388.2. Washington State Department of Transportation.

Belford, D. A. and W. R. Gould. 1989. An evaluation of trout passage through six
highway culverts in Montana. North American Journal of Fisheries Management.

Bell, M. C. 1973. Fisheries handbook of engineering requirements and biological
criteria. Fish Eng. Res. Program. Corps Engr., North Pacific Division, Portland OR.

Cahoon, J. and D. Baker. 2001. An Excel template for generating rating curves for
corrugated metal pipe culverts. http://www.coe.montana.edu/wti/Projects

Clancy, C. G. and D. R. Reichmuth. 1990. A detachable fishway for steep culverts.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 10:244-246.

Fitch, M. G. 1996. Nonadromous fish passage in highway culverts. VTRC 96-R6.
Virginia Transportation Research Council.

Gowan, C. M. K. Young, K. D. Fausch, and S. C. Riley. 1994. The restricted movement
paradigm of stream-resident salmonids: a paradigm lost? Canadian Journal of Fisheries
and Aquatic Sciences 51:2626-2637.

Grand Ronde. 1999. Internet based material. Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde
Community of Oregon. www.grandronde.org/nr/fw/culvproj.htm.

Huston, J. E. 1964. Stream improvement to increase cutthroat spawning runs. Hungry
Horse Reservoir Research and Management Project, Montana Fish and Game

Jakober, M. J., T. E. McMahon, R. F. Thurow, and C. G. Clancy. 1998. Role of stream
ice on fall and winter movements and habitat use by bull trout and cutthroat trout in
Montana headwater streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:223-

Knoteck, L. W., D. A. Schmetterling and T. L. Sylte. 2001. Identification, analysis and
remediation recommendations for fish passage barriers at road crossings in a Montana
watershed. Presented at: Practical Approaches for Conserving Native Inland Fishes of
the West. June 6-8, 2001. University of Montana. Montana Chapter and Western
Division of the American Fisheries Society.

MDT. 2001. AASHTO Model Drainage Manual as revised by the Hydraulics Section
(Preconstruction Bureau, Engineering Division) of MDT to reflect the current procedures
of the MDT Hydraulics Section. http://www.mdt.state.mt.us/general/hydraulic.html

Rajaratnam, N. and C. Katopodis. 1990. Hydraulics of culvert fishways III: weir baffle
culvert fishways. Can. J. Civil Eng. 17:558-568.

Six Rivers National Forest Watershed Interaction Team. 1999. FishXing software,
version 2.2.

Stuart, T. A. 1962. The leaping behavior of salmon and trout at falls and obstructions.
Freshwater and Salmon Fisheries Research 28. Dept. of Ag. And Fisheries for Scotland,
Edinburgh. 1962. 42 p.

Swanberg, T. 1997a. Movements of and habitat use by fluvial bull trout in the Blackfoot
River, Montana. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126:735-746.

Swanberg, T.R. 1997b. Movements of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Clark
Fork River system after transport upstream of Milltown Dam. Northwest Science 71:

Tillinger, T.N. and O.R. Stein. 1996. Fish Passage Through Culverts in Montana: A
Preliminary Investigation. Federal Highway Administration FHWA/MT/96/8117-2.

Watts, F. J. 1974. Design of culvert fishways. Water Resources Research Institute,
University of Idaho.

White, D. 1996. Hydraulic performance of countersunk culverts in Oregon. MS Thesis.
Oregon State University.

                                Dr. Joel Eugene Cahoon, Ph.D., P.E.
                            Civil Engineering Department, 220 Cobleigh Hall
                            Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717
                               (406) 994-5961     joelc@ce.montana.edu


B.Sc.              Agricultural Engineering      New Mexico State University         1985
M.Sc.              Agricultural Engineering      Montana State University            1987
Ph.D.              Engineering                   University of Arkansas              1989


ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR. Civil Engineering Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana.
June 2001 - present. Teach water resources engineering courses (0.63 FTE Civil Engineering) and conduct
research in water resources engineering as related to agricultural and rural issues (0.37 FTE Montana
Agricultural Experiment Station).

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR. Civil Engineering Department, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana.
January 1995 - June 2001.

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR. Biological Systems Engineering Department, University of Nebraska, Lincoln,
Nebraska. March 1990 - December 1994. Research and cooperative extension related to water quality and
applied water management.


Member, American Society of Civil Engineers
American Water Resources Association


Registered Professional Engineer - Montana (12322)

Relevant Publications

Cahoon J. E. 1995. Defining the furrow cross section. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.
American Society of Civil Engineering. Technical Note No. 7694. 121(1):114-119.

Cahoon, J. E. and R. B. Ferguson. 1995. A root zone water balance algorithm for educational settings.
Journal of Natural Resources and Life Science Education. 24(1):17-22.

Cahoon, J.E. 1998. Incorporating uncertainty and the factor of safety into a natural resources-based
engineering curriculum. Journal of Natural Resources and Life Science Education. 27:20-24.

Sanford, P., J.E. Cahoon and T. Hughes. 1998. Modeling a concrete block irrigation diversion system.
Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 34(5):1179-1187.

Cahoon, Joel C., and David Breck, 2000, Computational Methods in River Engineering - Modeling Water
Surface Profiles over a Bendway Weir using HEC-RAS 2.2, Montana University System Water Center
Technical Report # 203, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 30 pgs.

                                        Thomas E. McMahon
                             Ecology Department, Fish and Wildlife Program
                                       Montana State University
                                  406/994-2492; ubitm@montana.edu

    o Ph.D. Fisheries Science, University of Arizona, 1984
    o M.S. Fisheries Science, University of Arizona, 1978
    o B.A. Aquatic Biology, University of California, 1975

Academic and Visiting Appointments
     o Assistant/Associate Professor of Fisheries, Biology Department, Fish and Wildlife Program,
       Montana State University-Bozeman, 1990-present.
     o Assistant Professor, Oregon State University, Marine Science Center, Newport, 1987-1990.
     o Visiting Scientist, Pacific Biological Station, Canada Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo,
       British Columbia, 1984-87.

Honors and Activities
     o   Coordinator, Coastal Oregon Productivity Enhancement Program, College of Forestry, project leader
         for cooperative fishery, forestry, and wildlife program, budget of $500K, 1987-90.
     o   President, Montana Chapter, American Fisheries Society, 1998-99 (150 members).
     o   Associate Editor, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 1996-98
     o   Most Significant Paper Award, North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 1996
     o   Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Management of Natural Resources, Western
         Conservation Administrative Officers Association, 1993.

Selected Publications
     o   Selong, J.H., T.E. McMahon, A.V. Zale, and F.T. Barrows. In press. Effect of temperature on
         growth and survival of bull trout, with application of an improved method for determining thermal
         tolerance in fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.
     o   Jakober, M.J., T.E. McMahon, and R.F. Thurow. 2000. Diel habitat partitioning by bull charr and
         cutthroat trout during fall and winter in Rocky Mountain streams. Environ. Biology of Fishes
     o   Jakober, M.J., T.E. McMahon, and R.F. Thurow. 1998. Role of stream ice on fall and winter
         movements and habitat use by bull trout and cutthroat trout in Montana headwater streams.
         Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:223-235.
     o   McMahon, T.E., A.V. Zale, and D.J. Orth. 1996. Aquatic Habitat Measurements. Pages 83-120 IN
         B. Murphy and D. Willis, (eds.). Fisheries Techniques, 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society.
     o   Dalbey, S.R., T.E. McMahon, and W. Fredenberg. 1996. Effects of electrofishing pulse shape and
         electrofishing-induced spinal injury on long-term growth and survival of wild rainbow trout. North
         American Journal of Fisheries Management 16:560-569. (Received best paper award for 1996)
     o   Magee, J.P., T.E. McMahon, and R.F. Thurow. 1996. Spatial variation in spawning habitat and
         redd characteristics of cutthroat trout inhabiting a sediment-rich stream basin. Transactions of the
         American Fisheries Society 125:768-779.
     o   McMahon, T.E., S.R. Dalbey, S.C. Ireland, et al. 1996. Field evaluation of visible implant tag
         retention by brook trout, cutthroat trout, rainbow trout, and Arctic grayling. North American
         Journal of Fisheries Management 16:921-925.
     o   Matter, W.J., R.W. Mannan, E.W. Bianchi, T.E. McMahon, J.H. Menke, and J.C. Tash. 1989. A
         laboratory approach for studying emigration. Ecology 70: 1543-1546.

                                     Otto R. Stein Jr.
                         Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department
                          Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717
              406-994-6121 Fax: 406-994-6105 E-mail: OTTOS@CE.MONTANA.EDU


Doctor of Philosophy, 1990    Colorado State University, Department of Civil Engineering
Master of Science, 1983       Purdue University, Department of Agronomy
Bachelor of Science, 1980     Pennsylvania State University, Environ. Resource Management

Professional Experience

Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Montana State University, 1996-Present
Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Montana State University, 1990-1996

Professional Affiliations

American Society of Agricultural Engineers            American Society of Civil Engineers
International Association for Hydraulic Research      International Water Association

Honors and Awards

Gamma Sigma Delta Honor Society
College of Engineering Outstanding Instructor Award, 1991
Bio-Resources Engineering Professor of the Year, 1992, 1993, 1995

Selected Publications

o   O.R. Stein and D.A. LaTray. 2001. Headcut Advance in Stratified Soil. Submitted to:
    Water Resources Research.
o   Stein, O.R. and D.D. Nett. 1997. Impinging Jet Calibration of Excess Shear Sediment
    Detachment Parameters. Trans. American Society of Ag. Engineers. 40(6):1573-1580.
o   Stein, O.R., P.Y. Julien and C.V. Alonso. 1997. Headward Advancement of Incised
    Channels. In S.S.Y. Wang, E.J. Langendoen and F.D. Shields, Jr. (Eds.) Management of
    Landscapes Disturbed by Channel Incision, pp.497-502. Oxford, MS.
o   Boelman, S.F., O.R. Stein and R. Seal. 1997. Hydraulic and Geomorphic Assessment of In-
    Stream Boulder Clusters. In S.S.Y. Wang, E.J. Langendoen and F.D. Shields, Jr., (Eds.)
    Management of Landscapes Disturbed by Channel Incision, pp.684-690. Oxford, MS.
o   Stein, O.R., and P.Y. Julien. 1994. Sediment Concentration Production Below Free Overfall.
    Jour. Hydraulic Engineering - American Society of Civil Engineers. 120(9):1043-1059.
o   Stein, O.R., P.Y. Julien and C.V. Alonso. 1993. Mechanics of Jet Scour Downstream of a
    Headcut. Jour. Hydraulic Research - International Association for Hydraulic Research.
o   Stein, O.R. and P.Y. Julien. 1993. Criterion Describing the Mode of Headcut Migration.
    Jour. Hydraulic Engineering - American Society of Civil Engineers. 119(1):37-50.
o   Seal, R., O.R. Stein and S.F. Boelman. 1998. Performance of In-Stream Habitat Structures
    Under Flood Conditions. In: D.F. Hayes, Ed. Engineering Approaches to Ecosystem
    Restoration Paper# 144 (On CD ROM).
o   Tillinger, T.N. and O.R. Stein. 1996. Fish Passage Through Culverts in Montana: A
    Preliminary Investigation. Federal Highway Administration FHWA/MT/96/8117-2.


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