Differentiated Instruction

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					   Backwards Design, Differentiated
Instruction, and Assessment… the Big

                 Katherine Barwin,
                 Essex Town School
                 District, July 2009
Differentiated Instruction

Simply put, means:
a) Knowing what you want students to know
    and be able to do, and understanding WHY
    this is important.
b) Knowing what students already know and
    are able to do, relative to (a) above.
c) Mapping out a plan that ensures all students
    reach (A).
The thing about DI

…as compared to “one size fits all” teaching…
DI is harder for teachers, but better for
It requires planning, anticipation, and flexibility.
Luckily, you have a range of expertise in your classrooms,
  technology, and a vast amount of resource (human/ material) at
  your disposal in school.
A word about planning…

   Did I mention planning?
   Planning at the outset is very, very important. You
    will spend a lot of time in this area. Planning,
    planning, planning, revising, and planning some
    more… and then you’ll start…
   We’ll have a taste of this planning over the next two
   By the way… I’m a planning junkie…as you will

   Teaching is incredibly hard work. Planning
    for effective learning is even harder.

   Some of us are better at this planning than
    others. Use the strengths of those around
    you to determine the best way to accomplish
    this planning. Start small. Move it forward.
My bias…

 If you feel it is a reasonable expectation that
  all students will learn the same thing, at the
  same rate, in the same way,
You should reconsider your choice of careers.
This is the KISS version of
Assessment and DI

   These topics are vast and complicated.
   I have 2 hours approximately for each topic.
   Thus, I have sugared these two topics down
    to the essentials… the KISS version… so
    hold on and away we go!

   Take it.
   When you have finished, bring it up to me.
   Stay with me until I give you a task to do with a partner.
   When you and your partner have the tasks, go into a corner of
    the room, read them, choose one, and talk quietly (try to not
    disturb those still taking the pre-assessment)
   Keep going until I give you the signal for three more minutes.
   After three minutes, come join the group to share.
Enduring Understandings and Content
Understanding for these two days:

Enduring Understanding: Planning for success requires
  looking at your context/current state (before you
  start), what are the possibilities/paths to getting there
  (options), what might happen during the journey
  (planning for contingencies), and knowing when your
  reach the desired end-state (goal).
Content Understanding: Backwards Design (UbD),
  Assessment, and Differentiated Instruction are
  inextricably interwoven.
Day 1 versus Day 2 objectives:

   Day 1: Solidify Backwards Design ideas
    (Enduring Understandings, KUD’s) as the
    building blocks of a unit, and then clarify the
    three types of assessment and the purposes
    of each.
   Day 2: Explore the options for DI in terms of
    content, process, and product. Apply all of
    these concepts to “the GRID.”
Backward Design

 This is an approach to planning for
  instruction, by looking at the end-state
  FIRST, and then planning backwards for that.
(hopefully, you have had a taste of this
Backwards Design and DI

Backwards design, as the process for planning
  your instruction, is critical because it forces
  you to clarify:
    Goals (ie: Content area standards/GE stems).
    Enduring Understandings (Big ideas that will be remembered and
    extend beyond just this content area)
   Essential Questions (Really “big answer” questions that will help lead
    students to think deeply about the content and hook them into the
    thinking process.
   What are your KUD’s? (Content understandings, knows, do’s)?
The Steps of Backwards Design
   Identify your content goals and KUD’s.
   Determine Enduring Understandings and Essential Questions
    that hook the student.
   Determine the summative project/ assessment(s) that a child
    will do to show that they can apply this knowledge (KUD) in a
    new way.
   Plan “backwards” from this assessment. Map out the skills and
    content knowledge that a child is going to need in order to be
    successful at this assessment.
   Then, create your PLAN to teach/ structure learning
    opportunities that will help all students learn these critical skills.
    Readiness, interest, learning styles are all part of this planning.
                               The Principle of Backward Design

                                                                                Student Starts with Formative Assessment
                                      Enduring Understanding
Teacher Starts with Planning

                                      Know Understand Do
                                          Start with GE’s
                                   SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT -
                                  How does he/she apply the learning in
                                         an authentic setting?

                               What are the skills I need to teach to advance
                               understanding so the child can demonstrate
                                   knowledge in an authentic setting:.
                                               USE the GE’s

                                   FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS
                                How do I make sure everyone is getting it
                                           along the way?
Explorers Unit:

Enduring Understanding: Exploration involves
   risk, success and failure, and brings about
Can this be applied across settings over time?
Is this a big idea?
                        What is the overarching
                       theme that can be applied
                              to real life?

        Confucius say: ”Exploration involves risk, success
              and failure and brings about change.”

                                Content                     Content
  Content                      Knowledge                     Doings
Understanding                  What are the facts
                                 you want the
   The big ideas             students to know? (ie:
                                                         These start with
worth remembering           Which specific explorers?     active verbs:
 about the subject .        What accomplishments?       Locate, Construct,
                            When? Why important?
                                                        Read, Use, Define
American Exploration-
Content Understandings

What do I want the students to Understand about American

   Both voluntary and involuntary migration is based upon
    environmental forces such as climate, the availability of resources,
    and economic opportunities as well as cultural forces including
    religious and political factors.

   Geographical features and the environment shaped the patterns of
    settlement, land use, and migration in specific regions of the United
    Humans adapt to the environments in which they live often causing
    cultural shifts and broader understanding.
American Exploration- Content Knowledge
   Patterns of voluntary migration: economic and/or religious regions
   Patterns of involuntary migration: Trans-Atlantic slave trade,
    resettlement/relocation, religious persecution
   The physical and cultural geographic characteristics that shaped and
    defined what America is today. Mountains, climate, natural resources,
    proximity to other countries, etc.
   The physical, political, and cultural characteristics of each region of the
    United States that influenced migration.(ex. Westward expansion,
    building or railroad, etc.)
   The contributions that various cultural groups within regions made to
    the diversity of American culture. (French explorers impact on
    Louisiana (Mardi Gras) French settlements along the Mississippi
    whose names still exist.
Coming up with the KUD’s:

   What do you want the students to know,
    understand, and be able to do at the end of
    your unit (this connects with your GE’s).
   Why is this important for kids to know? So
   Be sure to keep in mind the fact that these
    elements will drive your assessments.
Take a peek…

 If you were doing a unit on Immigration, what
  might you devise for your students as a:
 Content Understanding:
 Know:
 Do:
Bonus: What might an Enduring Understanding
  for this unit be?....
(we will share some together as a class)

     Pre-assessment: Figuring out what students
      already know (readiness), and/or how they
      approach learning (their affective, learner
      characteristics related to learning).
     Ongoing-formative assessment: Determining
      how successful they are along the way (what
      is sticking, where is the confusion).
     Summative: End-state assessment…
      application of the learning to new setting.
Summative Assessment

   Culminating project
   Application of learning that has taken place
    (KUD’s) in a new situation
   Authentic and relevant (address the Enduring
   Allows for differentiation
   “Brings the learning, to this point, all
In UbD, thinking about your summative
assessment comes at the beginning…

   Once you know your EU’s and KUD’s, you
    then plan for your summative assessment.
   Once you have come up with ideas for your
    summative assessment, you double-check to
    make sure that they are aligned with your
    EU’s and KUD’s.
   Then, you identify the requisite skills/content
    students need, in order to be successful in
    the summative assessment.
Day 2

   Yesterday, we did the following:
    –   Refresher of UbD
    –   Solidified K-U-D
    –   Solidified Enduring Understanding
    –   Solidified what a Summative Assessment entails
        (qualities of…/ evaluated some/ made revisions
TODAY, we will be…

   Solidifying your ideas for the DO’s of YOUR unit
    (either KUD, or Summative Assessment ideas)…
   Determining the requisite skills/content students
    need to be successful at that successfully
    accomplishing the DO...
   Looking at strategies for pre/formatively assessing
   Looking at options for differentiation for content,
    process, product.
Agenda (2 hours)

   20 minutes: Work in groups to clarify a KUD for your potential
    unit, and focus on one or two DO’s. Determine the requisite
    skills involved in the DO.
   10 minutes: Share some requisite skills… what does this
   20 minutes: Review pre- and formative assessments. Q and A
   20 minutes: Review DI thinking for content/process/product. Q
    and A.
   45-60 minutes: Group work… continue to work on your KUD’s,
    EU, and summative assessment and identifying requisite skills,
    and readiness concerns. Start thinking about assessments and
    content/process/product DI elements…
During end-of-class Group work/ Team

   Can see me
   Can work with your group
   Can pick brains of others in the class
   Can talk to students about whether or not
    your ideas for DO’s sound interesting.
Task (20 minutes)

   You will be put into groups. In your groups, each
    person will take five minutes to explain at least one
    K-U-D’s of their unit and/or what they are thinking
    will be the summative assessment (the BIG DO).
    The rest of the group will then give feedback about
    whether or not the DO is clear and relates to the KU
    part (if YOU had to do it, would you know what you
    had to do and why?).
   Once you have feedback about the clarity of your
    DO, you will list out the specific requisite
    skills/content that students need to have, in order to
    be able to be successful at this DO(GRID).
How to determine assessments
needed: (again, use the skills/content of your summative
assessment to start your thinking about this…what skills/content
must students have in order to be successful at the
DO?): What is your DO (describe it):

What are the requisite   What are my readiness/     How can I preassess for   How can I formatively
skill/content (the       affect/ LS/ Intelligence   this/ how have I pre-     (dip-stick) assess for
KNOW/DO)?                concerns about this?       assessed for this?        this?
Share sample of MY draft unit…

   Yesterday, we reviewed the EU’s and KUD’s
    for a short unit on Literary Elements/Devices.
   Take a look at my initial planning GRID (just
    look at the first two columns…
   Your thoughts? Questions??? What comes
    to mind as you look at this?

   Depend on what you are trying to learn about
    the students.
   Happen at the start of the year (big,
    repeating skills).
   Also happen at the start of a new unit
    (discrete, new skills/content)…
   Use the information that you get from them to
    guide/plan instruction.
As a MS Reading/LArts teacher…

   Beginning of the year pre-assessments: (thinking
    about requisite skills and assumptions)
Reading comprehension for literal and inferential text, for both literary and informational text, at
     approx. levels, to determine a baseline.
Purpose/organization/details/VT/Gum in a writing sample (Do you think you are a good reader,
     explain) to determine a baseline.
Note-taking abilities
Ability to read my cursive handwriting
Use a dictionary… find a word, locate correct meaning from context.
Ability to deal with frustration (frustration assessment)
Questionnaire (nosy questionnaire) about the students interests and lives (hobbies, learning
     styles, study habits, time after school, pet peeves, tv, chores, family responsibilities,
     favorite movies/tv shows, etc.)
Pre-assessment for UNIT

   Pre-assess the readiness skills that you don’t
    already know, related to the KUD’s and Summative
    Assessment skills/content that you have identified.
   Not for a grade… culture shock for some students
    (parents) if not a regular occurrence.
   To be used to plan for your instruction and to monitor
    growth! As a teacher, you will want to check your
    pre-assessments against your formative (ongoing)
    assessments, to see what sort of growth has taken
    place, and/or if anyone is “stalling.”
Formative Assessments

   Dipstick checks at frequent intervals to monitor
    understanding and growth as students move along
    the “got it” continuum.
   Teacher uses it to guide instruction for next
    session... Next steps. Teacher gives students
    feedback about their growth along the “starting,
    getting there, got it!” continuum.
   Students use it as an opportunity to self-reflect on
    how they feel about their learning and make plans
    about next steps.
   Teacher gives FEEDBACK to students (not a grade).
Formative Assessment examples

   Exit tickets
   Review of student work.
   Skills checklists from student work
   Anecdotal records of student work
   Student questionnaires and feedback forms
   Observation checklists
   Individual check-ins with student
Data collection is EXTREMELY

   It isn’t enough to do these assessments. You
    need some sort of a data collection system,
    related to the KUD’s and points of interest, so
    that you can monitor growth of students
   This will also help you group students for
    either extensions or remediation (flexible
Example of data collection form:

          Purpose   Organization   Details   VT   GUM
          M         M              N         M    N
          N         B              N         N    M
          M         M              M         M    B
          B         N              B         N    N
          N         N              M         M    M
Your unit ideas:

   In your groups, continue to fill out the GRID
    for the requisite skills related to your DO’s
    summative assessment that you have
    outlined, and consider what pre-assessment
    and formative assessments that you might
    want to be thinking about...
Mapping out your plan

   Differentiated Instruction usually means
    looking at three areas:
           •   Content (Skills/content that we want students
               to learn)

           •   Process (How students will learn this)

           •   Product (How students will show us that they
               have learned this)
Differentiating Instruction

   Content
   Process
   Product
Content: What are we talking about?

   Content consists of ideas, concepts, skills,
    knowledge that we want students learn. The
    way we differentiate content is by thinking
    hard about the depth and complexity of this,
    depending upon what a student currently
    knows and where you want him/her to move.
How can you differentiate content?

   You can tier complexity of the content (depth,
    breadth). Use your standards and GE’s…
    they are already tiered for you… if you look
    above and below…
   You can also differentiate the source of
    content (resources)…
History                       Historical Connections
6.4        Students identify major historical eras and analyze periods of transition in various times in their
local community, in Vermont, in the United States, and in various locations world wide, to interpret the
influence of the past on the present. This is evident when students:

                     Prek-4                                                5-8                                               9-12

6.4.a. Demonstrate understanding of concepts         Evidence Prek-4 b. and c. applies, plus-           Evidence Prek-4 b. and c. applies, plus-
of past, present and future (e.g., create time       6.4.aa. Demonstrate the ways that time has         6.4.ddd. Sequence historical eras; identify the
lines, create chronologies based on narratives,      been organized throughout history (e.g. linear,    characteristics of
compare and contrast family life, or school, and     cyclical) and various dating system (e.g., A.D.,   transitions between eras, being sure to make
community life in different periods);                B.C.); and                                         connections to past and present; and
6.4.b. Examine local history by reading historical   6.4.dd. Sequence historical eras; identify the     research, analyze, and synthesize historical
narratives and documents, investigating              characteristics of transitions between eras,       data from each era:
artifacts, architecture, and other resources that    being sure to make connections to the present;     VERMONT
illustrate key periods in local history (e.g.,       and research, examine, and analyze historical      The Growth and Emergence of Modern
investigate local town's history and establish its   data from each era:                                Vermont Era (1860-1930)
connection/place with Vermont and other              VERMONT                                                -discover the impact Vermonters made on
cultures);                                           The Pre-Contact to 1608 Era                        the Civil War and the war's impact on life in
6.4.c. Investigate the impact of new knowledge         -discover how Abenaki oral tradition reflects    Vermont
and inventions (e.g., the knowledge of fire, the     and influences their society                          -discover the environmental and industrial
printing press, the cotton gin, train, automobile,                                                      factors that effect the emergence of modern
textile, machine, electricity, steam); and           The Colonization Era (1609-1774)                   Vermont (e.g. the great flood of 1927 and
                                                        -interpret the impact of resettlement on        immigrations)
                                                     Abenaki, European colonizers, and the
Content Differentiation continued…

   Differentiate the source of your content. For
    example, if you have to extract content from
    a source (text book, resources, materials),
    make sure there is a wide range of sources
    to choose from, in terms of difficulty.
   For example, if I am going to learn how to fix
    my computer, I want the EASIEST source (a
    picture book is best).
Differentiated Sources

   Different leveled texts, web sources for
    information sources (example: variety of
    sources on a topic put on class webpage,
    variety of texts around a common theme).
    English classes tend to be centered around a
    BOOK (different versions of the book) OR a
    GENRE -ie: historical fiction (different
Tiering by Resources (first sentence in each box)
Tier        Where Plants and Animals Live
Tier I.   Use picture books to help you locate 3 animals and 3
          plants that live in each of the following habitats: desert,
          ocean, tundra, plains. Create a poster using your
          pictures where you sort them by habitat. Include labels.
Tier II. Use National Geographic Kids Magazines to help you
          find pictures and information about the following
          habitats: desert, ocean, tundra, plains. Create a booklet
          of your habitats with pictures and write a one paragraph
          summary explaining the information you found.
Tier III. Use the internet to help you find kid-friendly websites for
          the following habitats: desert, ocean, tundra and plains.
          Critique each website and create a reference document
          for your classmates that includes important facts and
          information to help them find quickly what they need.
Considerations for Content

   Do you have the knowledge to expand your
    content expectations (especially for those
    students who are at either end of a vast
   Do you have the resources/materials to
    access, that will help with the content
    acquisition? (on-line resources, librarians,
    other teachers at other grades)
Process Differentiation

   Coming up with different “ways” students can
    learn the material.
   Peer learning (heterogeneous groupings or partners)
   Teacher coaching (homogeneous groups or individual help)
   Stations/centers/independent study/contracts
   Accessing learning styles/intelligences
   Scaffolding (templates, helping devices)
   Technology tools help with the process
When thinking Process Differentiation:

   You have to think about how to structure your
    time, both in the day and over the week…
   How you use your human resources in the
    class (you, your teaching partners, your
    special educators, your students)…
   Set up a schedule that works for you, that
    takes into consideration both activities and
Some ideas about time…

   45 minute classroom
        First 10 minutes: ongoing work (individual
    or group), while teacher does a 10 minute
    check-in or review with a small group who
    needs more review on a particular skill from
    the previous day BASED ON EXIT TIX.
        Rest of your usual teaching.
        Last three minutes: Give students exit tix.
A bit more complicated…

   Mini-lesson….(15-20 minutes)
   5 minute independent work…students self-
    assess or teacher assesses through
   Teacher pulls the students who are
    struggling into a small group…while other
    students continue working and if they have a
    question, they have a go-to person in the
More complicated…

    Set up your class in three sections…
a) independent work,
b) station/center (ie: technology, games, manipulative
     practice, etc.)
c) Rotation to teacher for explicit teaching.
Students spend 15-20 minutes rotating through each
     section during a 45-60 minute class.
This works well when you are working on three
     different levels of skills/content (ie: math, writing)
(a few times a week? Every day? Other????

   Consider expanding your time. Can you double-
    block? Can you integrate your content areas (ie: a 2
    hour block to teach reading-writing-content?)?
   Can you team with another teacher, so that you can
    flexibly group students into more groups and then
    split/share those groups between the two of you? (ie:
    on a pre-test, you see that you have five distinct
    readiness levels in your class related to skills. Can
    you and another teacher break the kiddos up into the
    five groups, and you take three of the groups and
    he/she take two?)
Sponge/ “Lag time” activities

   This is an important thing to have on-hand,
    so that as students finish at different rates,
    they can move onto another activity without
    wasting time.
   Examples: specific skills practice (ie: cursive,
    word processing), journaling, silent reading,
    working on the problem of the week, contract
    work, etc…
Product Differentiation

   Tiered assignments of a variety of forms…
    Tiered Assignments

In a DI classroom, the teacher:
 Uses varied levels of tasks to ensure that students explore ideas.
 Uses varied levels of tasks that asks students to use skills at a level
   that builds on what they already know.
 Uses varied levels of tasks that encourage student growth.

In a DI classroom, the students
   Explore the same essential ideas.
   Work at different levels of thought.
   Work at varied degrees of difficulty on their tasks.
  Tiering by Complexity

   Tier      Read and respond to a Time for Kids article
                        on global warming
Tier I.     Write a public service announcement using jingles,
            slogans, or art to convey why global warming is a
            problem and what people can do to prevent it.
Tier II.    Conduct a survey of peer awareness and
            understanding of global warming. Design a limited
            number of questions and decide how to report your
            results such as with charts or in a newscast.
Tier III.   Debate the issue. How serious is global warming?
            Each side should express a different viewpoint.
            Provide credible evidence to support your opinions
            and arguments.
Tiering by Challenge Level

  Bloom’s Levels of           Elementary Activities for Book Talk
     Taxonomy                          Presentations
Knowledge                    List the story elements.

Comprehension                Write a summary of the book.

Application                  Support a conclusion about a character
                             with evidence from the book.
Analysis                     Discuss the theme or author’s purpose
                             for writing the book.
Synthesis                    Create a new ending for the story.

Evaluation                   Critique the author’s writing and support
                             your opinion.
 Tiering by Product
                 Groups are formed based on learning preference,
     Tier      using Gardner’s multiple intelligence
                   Solar System: Study of rotation and
                          revolution of the earth.
    Tier I.      Create a flip book, diagram, or model
Visual-Spatial showing the rotation and revolution of the
               earth around the sun.
   Tier II.      Position and move three people to
   Bodily-     demonstrate the concept of revolution and
 Kinesthetic   rotation of the earth with respect to the
               moon and sun.
  Tier III.      Make a timeline of a year detailing the
  Logical-     position of Vermont with respect to the sun.
Product Differentiation - Health

    VISUAL             ORAL            WRITTEN          KINESTHETIC

 Create a story    Radio-spot         Brochure for a    Pantomime a
 board for a TV    (public            pediatrician’s    struggle of “will”
 “ad” using        information with   office for kids   regarding smoking
 few/no words to   music timed,       9-16 with         – including a
 make the point    lead-in)           graphics          decision with
 Comic book        Nightline (T.      Research &        Act out a skit on
 parody with       Koppel, with       write an          pressures to
 smoking super     teen who           editorial that    smoke and
 heroes/heroines   smokes,            compares the      reasons not to
                   tobacco farmer,    relative costs    smoke.
                   CEO, person        and benefits of
                   with               tobacco to NC
                   emphysema          – submit for
  Tiering by Outcome
Tier        Students use the same materials, but what they
            do with the materials is different.
                           Pattern Block Math
Tier I.     Identify all the ways you can group your pattern

Tier II.    Identify all the different patterns you can make
            with your pattern blocks.

Tier III.   Create a bar graph to show all the different kinds
            of pattern blocks in your bag.

   Role
   Audience
   Format
   Topic
RAFTs as Projects (also think about them as
possibilities for a Summative Assessment)

   Students pick, or are assigned, one row on
    the RAFT.
   They take a specific role.
   They address a specific audience within a
    given format.
   They address a specific topic.
     Creating a Raft for Immigration Unit

       ROLE              AUDIENCE             FORMAT                TOPIC

12 year old boy who       Best friend in                          Crossing the
came from Europe in        Germany                Letter        ocean on the ship
    the steerage
                           Emigrants                            How to prepare for
     Ship Captain        waiting to come         Booklet            your trip
                           to America
Artist arriving at Ellis Graphic design      picture postcard    Wish you were
 Island from France       firm in NYC                                here
 Dorothy Hargrove        Mayor of NYC                             We are being
 NYC Sophisticate                               Editiorial         overrun by
Father arriving in first    Wife and                             Don’t worry. It’s
   class from Italy      children in Italy        Letter        easy to immigrate!
 Math RAFT
ROLE           AUDIENCE         FORMAT           TOPIC

Fraction       Whole #          Petition         To be
                                                 considered part
                                                 of the family
Improper       Mixed Numbers    Reconciliation   We’re more alike
Fraction                        Letter           than different
A simplified   A non simplified Public Service   A case for
fraction       fraction         Announcement     Simplicity
GCF            Common Factor Nursery Rhyme       I’m the greatest!

Equivalent     Non-equivalent   Personal ad      How to find your
Fractions                                        soulmate
Curriculum Compacting as Product
Curriculum Compacting:

   Curriculum compacting is one of the most common forms of
    curriculum modification for academically advanced students. It
    is also the basic procedure upon which many other types of
    modifications are founded. Compacting is based on the premise
    that students who demonstrate they have mastered course
    content (through pre-assessment), or can master course
    content more quickly, can “buy time” to study material that they
    find more challenging and interesting (Renzulli and Reis, 1985).
    This study is usually in the form of an independent study, that a
    student will negotiate with a teacher (or choose from a list of
    options), that related to the EU’s and Content Understandings
    of a unit.
Remember what I said about Planning,
Planning, and more Planning????

   Here is a GRID that I use when I begin to OUTLINE
    a unit.
   Once I fill it out, I begin to create my daily lesson
    plan overview (not overly specific, but a general
    planning guide for each day).
   Once I rough draft the daily/weekly schedule, I go
    back to the outline and slash/edit it as needed, to fit
    in with my real timeframe/schedule.
   Then, I develop the specifics of each day.
In closing…

   As you can see, there is far more to UbD, DI,
    and Assessment than easily fits into this
   Hopefully, I’ve hit the highlights for you, and
    given you plenty of examples to play with.
   Sources for you, for further exploration, on
    the next page…
WARNING revisited:

   Teaching is incredibly hard work. Planning
    for effective learning is even harder.

   Some of us are better at this planning than
    others. Use the strengths of those around
    you to determine the best way to accomplish
    this planning. Start small. Move it forward.
      Additional Resources
Some Tiered Activity Resources include:
 Coil, C (2004) Standards-Based Activities and Assessments for
  the Differentiated Classroom. Pieces of Learning

   Davidson, K.and T. Decker. (2006) Bloom’s and Beyond: Higher
    Level Questions and Activities for the Creative Classroom.
    Pieces of Learning.
   http://www.doe.in.gov/exceptional/gt/tiered_curriculum/welcome.html (Great
    samples for grades K-12 in 3 content areas: science, math and
    lang. arts.)

   Heacox, D. (2002) Differentiating Instruction in the Regular
    Classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc.
More resources…

 Summative assessment video (math)… this
  will REALLY get you thinking about your
  summative assessment!!!:

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