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American Psychological
     Association
     Your APA Instructors:
Candice Benjes-Small,
 Reference & Instructional
 Librarian, Associate Professor
Theresa Burriss, LARC Director
 & English Assistant Professor
          Please Note!

When instructing students in APA citation,
 we refer to the official APA Manual 5th
 edition and APA Style Guide to Electronic
 Resources (2007). Because some
 professors may require exceptions to
 these guidelines, we urge you always to
 consult your professor to verify the
 citation.
 Changes to Electronic Resources
              Style
 Summer   2007 APA released revised and
  updated version of section 4.16 of the 5th
  edition manual
 Our examples reflect these changes
         Goals of workshop
 Why we cite sources
 How to cite in APA in works cited list
 How to write in-text citations
                 Why cite?


 Credibility
 Source   retrieval
 Ethics
 Always  cite quotes, paraphrases,
  summaries, ideas
 Integrate your sources into the text in a
  readable, logical, interesting way
 Citations should get reader to bibliographic
  entry
 Bibliography is alphabetized
     Example Article Citation

Burriss, T., & Benjes-Small, C. M. (2007).

 APA the easy way: Learning by example.

 Journal of Applied Language Arts, 73(2),

 50-56.
            Online Articles
 No  longer need a retrieval date
 No longer need to list library database
 Always include the issue number
 Include DOI if available
            What’s a DOI?
A  DOI is a unique alpha-numeric string
  assigned by a registration agency
  (Crossref.org) to provide a persistent link
  to an online article
 Often located on the first page of the
  article- if it’s in PDF
Example
Close-up of Example
       What is NOT a DOI?
 Database   numbers
 Example Online Article with a DOI
  (from a library database or Website)

Stultz, J. (2006). Integrating exposure

 therapy in trauma treatment. American

 Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76(4), 482-

 488. doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482
               DOI Problems
 Not   all articles have DOIs
     Mostly psychology and biology
 Not all DOIs seem to work
 Only seen them in PDFs, not HTML
          Online Article, No DOI
           (from library database)

Whittaker, T. (2005). A comparison of student

  achievement and satisfaction in an online versus

  a traditional face-to-face statistics class.

  Innovative Higher Education, 29(3), 233-255.
         Online Article, No DOI
               (from Website)

Trent, J. M., & Touchman, J. W. (2007). The gene

  topography of cancer. Science, 318(5853),

  1079-1080. Retrieved from

  http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/

  content/summary/318/5853/1079
                 Harder to Cite
 Web    items
     Websites
     Blog entries
     YouTube videos
 Difficulties
     Often no author
     Often no date
     Varying amount of information available
             Web Citations
 If the page is part of a larger Website,
  identify the host organization
 If there’s no author, start with the page title
  and move the date to the 2nd slot
 If there’s no date, use (n.d.)
 If the URL is too long to fit on one line, try
  and break it at a slash
       Sample Web Citations
Brainard, B. (n.d.) Puns to make a macho man cry.
  Retrieved February 5, 2007, from
  http://www.brainard.com/puns.html

Ryan Seacrest nervous about how audiences will
 respond to slightly shorter haircut. (2007).
 Retrieved February 7, 2007, from The Onion
 Website: http://www.theonion.com/content/
 news_briefs/ryan_seacrest_nervous_about
            In-Text Citations
 Used   within the paper to give attribution
     Quotes
     Paraphrases
     Summaries
 Serves   as cross reference to Works Cited
 list
           In-Text Citations
      time cited, must include author, year
 First
  and page number (if applicable)

  Students “performed at a higher level
  when enrolled in a traditional face-to-face
  class than through an online class”
  (Whittaker, 2005, p. 234).
            Another way:
According to Whittaker (2005), students
“performed at a higher level when enrolled
in a traditional face-to-face class than
through an online class” (p. 234).
         In-Text Citations
 Subsequent citations to the same work do
 not need year (unless there are multiple
 items by same author)

 Whittaker hypothesized that the students
 in the physical classroom “learned more
 by just showing up” (p. 260).
In-Text Citations for Summaries
 When   you are summarizing a work, you do
  not include the page number.
 Many disciplines do not use quotes.


 The chimpanzee Nim was raised by
 researchers who trained him in American
 Sign Language by molding and guiding his
 hands (Terrace, Petitto, Sanders, & Bever,
 2001).
           Multiple Authors
 Ifmore than 3 authors, cite all in first
  citation
 Subsequent citations to the same work
  should have first author followed by et al.

  The chimpanzee Nim was raised by
  researchers who trained him in American
  Sign Language by molding and guiding his
  hands (Terrace et al.).
 In-Text Citation with No Author
Ryan Seacrest has assured his fans that his
new hair style will still be fun and youthful
(“Ryan Seacrest,” 2007).

Ifyou are quoting an online source without
page numbers, use paragraph numbers.
Example: (Martin, 2006, para. 5).
              For more help
 LARC
    larc@radford.edu
    Set up an appointment to meet with a writing
     tutor
    http://www.radford.edu/larc
                For more help
McConnell      Library
   IM: RULibSpot
   E-mail: refdesk@radford.edu
APA    Color-Coded Guide:
http://lib.radford.edu/Resources/handouts/styleguides-
apa.asp
(From library homepage, click Find Articles &
   More, APA Info on right)
           Other Sources
 An APA manual
 Any college handbook
 Reputable APA websites
 Your professor

				
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