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Reading Comprehension Strategy Skills - PowerPoint

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					IMPROVING READING
  COMPREHENSION
THROUGH STRATEGY
   INSTRUCTION
    Dr. Melinda Rice
            Report of the
       National Reading Panel
        “Balanced” Reading Instruction

   Phonemic Awareness
   Phonics
   Fluency
   Vocabulary
   Text Comprehension
      GUIDING QUESTIONS
   What does it mean to comprehend a text?
   Why invest time in comprehension
    instruction?
   Which students need particular help with
    vocabulary acquisition and comprehension?
   What characterizes effective comprehension
    strategy instruction?
   What are some classroom factors that affect
    comprehension instruction?
   What are some approaches to comprehension
    strategy instruction?
       What is comprehension?
   Comprehension is probably best regarded as a
    process (rather than a particular outcome or
    product) through which a reader interacts with a
    text to construct meaning.
   This view emphasizes the deliberate, strategic,
    problem-solving efforts of the reader as he or
    she engages with a text.
   This meaning-making process is “the essence of
    reading” (Durkin, 1993).
   Successful readers of all ages are highly
    strategic readers.
National Assessment of Educational Progress

“The new scores, based on tests given in 2005,
  show that only about 35 percent of 12th graders
  are proficient in reading. Simply put, this means
  that a majority of the country’s 12th graders
  have trouble understanding what they read fully
  enough to make inferences, draw conclusions
  and see connections between what they read
  and their own experiences.”

New York Times editorial, Feb. 27, 2007
Preschool family practices influence
children’s vocabulary (Hart & Risley, 2000)
        VOCABULARY MATTERS!
   Vocabulary knowledge is significantly related to
    reading comprehension, decoding, spelling, and
    school achievement in general.
   Children come to school with vastly different
    funds of knowledge about words; from school
    entry on, fostering word learning should be a
    high-priority goal to help some children “catch
    up.”
   Helping children learn about words helps build
    linguistic awareness, inferential reasoning ability,
    and comprehension skills.
The National Reading Panel (2000) reviewed
 hundreds of studies and found solid
 support for

   Direct and indirect vocabulary instruction
   Monitoring comprehension
   Summarizing
   Generating and answering questions
   Explicit teaching of story structure
   Graphic organizers
   Cooperative learning
   Integrating multiple strategies
 What about students with LD?
Based on several large-scale literature reviews and
   meta-analyses, we know

(1) that there is strong research support for
    comprehension strategy instruction, especially
    self-monitoring and self-questioning

(2) that reading comprehension instruction is one
    of the most effective techniques for students
    with LD
     Which students need particular
      help with comprehension?
   Students with language-learning
    disabilities
   Students with reading disabilities
   English language learners
   Students who begin school with limited
    vocabulary and literacy experiences,
    relative to their peers
(Even with good instruction, catch-up is difficult)
A simple comparison of two types
of reading difficulties/disabilities
Problems with word                Problems with
reading only                      comprehension only
    Listening comprehension is   or comprehension
     not affected                 and word reading
    May be good at learning
     words from spoken               Listening comprehension is
     language and                     below average
     comprehending oral input        Word reading may be
    Word reading is                  significantly poor
     significantly poor              Automaticity and fluency
    Automaticity and fluency         may be affected
     are central problems,           Limited vocabulary and
     leaving few “cognitive           grammatical knowledge
     resources” to devote to         Memory may be a
     reading comprehension            significant issue
        Difficulties Affecting Vocabulary
        Acquisition and Comprehension
   Deficits in metacognition (monitoring
    comprehension, selecting & applying strategies)
   Limited motivation
       Passivity may be an effect, not a cause
   Reasoning (particularly the ability to make
    inferences)
   Lack of awareness of sentence/text structures
   Deficits in general knowledge & vocabulary that
    result from years of struggles with reading and
    limited reading experience; “Matthew” effects
    are likely to pertain here.)
General Characteristics of Effective
       Strategy Instruction
   EXPLICIT (Duffy, 2002; Palinscar &
    Brown, 1984)
   SCAFFOLDED (Palinscar & Brown, 1984;
    Duke & Pearson, 2002)
   SUSTAINED (Klingner et al., 2004;
    Pressley et al., 1997)
   DIFFERENTIATED (Mosenthal, 1984;
    Spiro, 2001)
              EXPLICIT
   The teacher makes covert thought
    processes obvious to the student through
    modeling, demonstrations, and guidance.
   Students are encouraged to talk openly
    about their strategy use and problem-
    solving processes.
   There is emphasis on “metacognition”
    (thinking about one’s own thinking).
        SCAFFOLDED
The teacher provides temporary support, or
  “scaffolding,” to help the student move
  toward—
 Independent application of strategies

 Maintenance of strategy use over time

 Generalization to related reading
  situations
A systematic procedure for introducing and
  practicing strategies yields the best results
100                  Primarily Teacher

                                 Modeling*
                                       Modeling or
           Direct
                                         Demonstration
            Instruction
          Direct                          Guided Practice
          Instruction*




                                   Region o f Shared Responsibility

                          Scaffolding*
                                                                         Participating*

                                              Facilit ating*



                                                                      Primarily
                                                                       Student
  0
                Percent of Task Responsibilit y Assumed by the Student
      0                                                                               100
            SUSTAINED
   Effective strategy instruction cannot be
    regarded as a “quick fix”!
   Rather, it needs to be an integral part of
    reading instruction on an on-going basis.
   Ideally, a problem-solving approach to
    reading should be emphasized throughout
    the school day and across disciplines.
      DIFFERENTIATED
   Strategy instruction should be tailored to
    the needs of individual learners. (Vary rate
    at which new strategies are introduced,
    degree of explicitness, difficulty of reading
    material, etc.)
   Students should be exposed to a variety of
    reading experiences to foster their ability
    to use strategic approaches flexibly.
Interplay of aspects of the classroom context
       in reading and learning activities

                               Task




                     Setting




                                      Reader


        Situation
        Organ izer
                               Text
        Classroom Factors Affecting
            Reading Instruction
   Time limitations
   Very diverse ability levels
   Pressure to prepare students for tests
   Textbooks that are too difficult or poorly
    written
   Expectations that teachers will use a
    particular program adopted by the school
    or district
Excerpt from 6th grade SS text
     Today, most Middle Eastern countries are republics.
In republics, citizens are supposed to govern
themselves. Yet many republics in the Middle East, as
elsewhere, limit citizen participation. Military dictators
rule some Middle Eastern republics. Iraq’s Saddam
Hussein and Syria’s Hafez el Assad control all political
activity. Saddam has been particularly effective in
silencing those who oppose him.
     Jordan is a constitutional monarchy. Its king shares
some power with an elected legislature. Only Israel is a
democracy. It has many political parties and holds
regular elections.
National Reading Panel (2000) reviewed
 hundreds of studies and found solid
 support for

   Direct and indirect vocabulary instruction
   Monitoring comprehension
   Summarizing
   Generating and answering questions
   Explicit teaching of story structure
   Graphic organizers
   Cooperative learning
   Integrating multiple strategies
   Children learn about 3,000 words a year but
    only about 300 from organized instruction (Beck &
    McKeown, 1999)
   “Because the bulk of children’s vocabulary
    growth occurs incidentally. . . the single most
    important goal of vocabulary instruction should
    be to increase the amount of incidental word
    learning by students.” (Nagy & Herman, 1987)
   For every new word a child learns, there are 1-3
    related words that should be understandable to
    him/her, depending on ability to use content and
    morphology to infer meanings (Nagy &
    Anderson, 1984).
Developmental changes in types of
words known in 1st, 3rd, and 5th gr.
              (Anglin, 1993)
                Teaching Options
   Relying on incidental word learning alone
   Teacher-supported word learning in everyday
    activities
       Talking about words encountered in books; word
        games; modeling curiosity about words; discussing
        events & experiences; collaborative activities.
   Teaching word-learning strategies
       Inferring meanings from context
       Using knowledge of prefixes, suffixes & roots
   Emphasizing intentional word learning
       Studying selected words from texts or vocabulary lists
       Memorizing content-area terms
             Before Reading
   Spark students’ interest and curiosity.
   Focus attention on the purpose for
    reading.
   Help students think about what they
    already know about a topic and provide a
    framework for organizing this information.
   Expose students to key concepts and
    vocabulary that are vital to
    comprehending the text.
                      IDEAS
   Collaborative Strategic Reading (Klingner &
    Vaughn, 1999): Before reading, students are
    asked to preview the text, make note of what
    they already know, and predict what they might
    find out from reading.
   Possible Sentences (Stahl & Kapinus, 1991):
    Teacher provides brief definition, students
    construct “possible sentences” with words. After
    reading, decide whether sentences are “true” or
    not.
                               Learning Log
BEFORE READING                  DURING READING       AFTER READING
What I already know about the   Clunks and Gists     Questions about the important
topic.                                               ideas in the passage.




What I predict I will learn.                         What I learned.




                                                   Adapted from Klingner et al.
               During Reading
   Emphasize strategic reading behavior (e.g., self-
    questioning, self-monitoring, identifying
    words/phrases that pose difficulty and trying to
    determine their meaning; summarizing, note-
    taking, etc.)
   Teach ways of representing text structure and
    key ideas graphically.
   Emphasize “big ideas,” key concepts, and
    relationships among concepts.
   Train students to apply reading strategies in
    small, interactive groups (or pairs).
                          IDEAS
   Collaborative Strategic Reading
       Identify “clicks” vs. “clunks” & apply “fix up”
        strategies to try to figure out “clunks”
       State the “gist” of each section (1-2 paragraphs) in
        10 words or fewer (Also a feature of PALS)
   Elaborative Interrogation (Pressley et al., 1992)
       Formulate and try to answer “why” questions about
        information in text
   Identifying sentence/text structure (recognizing
    “signal” words, etc.) Making Connections
    (Dewsbury & Kovales, 2006)
   Visual Imagery
    Roles in the Collaborative Group
         (Collaborative Strategic Reading and other systems)

   Leader: Helps the group implement the assignment by
    focusing on the four strategies and ensuring that each
    member has opportunities to participate.
   Clunk Expert: Reminds the students of the steps to
    follow for figuring out a word.
   Gist Expert: Reminds the students of the steps to follow
    to figure out the main idea.
   Announcer: Calls on members to read or share an idea
    and represents the group when the teacher calls the
    groups back for reporting to the class as a whole.
   Vocabulary Expert: selects words to teach, identifies
    meanings, asks students to derive meaning from
    context, confirms or gives more precise meaning (Fisher
    et al., 1991)
                               Learning Log
BEFORE READING                  DURING READING       AFTER READING
What I already know about the   Clunks and Gists     Questions about the important
topic.                                               ideas in the passage.




What I predict I will learn.                         What I learned.




                                                   Adapted from Klingner et al.
               After Reading
   Review newly acquired knowledge,
    concepts, and vocabulary.
   Help students extend what they have
    learned to their personal world.
   Help students draw conclusions, think
    critically about what they have read, and
    compare one text to another.
   Help students apply what they have
    learned in meaningful ways.
                               Learning Log
BEFORE READING                  DURING READING       AFTER READING
What I already know about the   Clunks and Gists     Questions about the important
topic.                                               ideas in the passage.




What I predict I will learn.                         What I learned.




                                                   Adapted from Klingner et al.
                Question Stems
              (Collaborative Strategic Reading)

   What do you think would happen if _____?
   Why do you think _____?
   How are ______and _____ alike?
   How are ______ and _____ different?
   What do you think caused _____to happen?
   What other solution can you think of for the problem?
   How do you think _____ could have been prevented?
   How would you interpret _____?
   What could have made a difference in the ending?
   What are the strengths (or weaknesses) of ______?
                 Question Game
           Adapted from Collaborative Strategic Reading

   $10.00 questions are ones where the answer is right in
    the text and can be provided in one or two words.
   $20.00 questions are ones where the answer is right in
    the text but requires more than a couple of words to
    give.
   $30.00 questions are ones where the answer is in the
    text but you have to have read the text and to compose
    the answer yourself based on what you've read.
   $40.00 questions are ones where the individual has to
    use his or her own previous experiences and integrate
    them with what they have learned from the text.
   $50.00 questions are ones that connect the present text
    to other texts the students have read.
 Semantic Feature Analysis
            (adapted from Nagy, 1988)

        For     For      For      Big or   small   Crude   Permanen   Portable
        peopl   animal   storag   fancy            or      t
        e       s        e                         rough


house   +       -        -        O        O       O       +          -
shack   +       -        -        -        + +             ?          -
shed    -       -        +        -        + +             ?          -
barn    -       +        O        -        -       O       +          -
tent    +       -        -        -        O       O       -          +
mansion +       -        -        +        -       -       +          -
Concept Hierarchy

            Matter

            Living
            Thing
            Animal

            Vertebrate

            Bird

            Robin
Democracy         IS A          Form of Government
 Always Present   Sometimes Present    Never Present




   Examples                            Non-Examples
                  Conclusions
   It is becoming increasingly clear that children in
    classrooms in which strategy instruction is a
    sustained, on-going aspect of reading instruction
    outperform those who experience more
    traditional approaches on measures of reading
    comprehension.

   “Strategy instruction provides students with their
    culture’s best secrets about how to obtain
    academic success” (Harris & Pressley, 1991).

				
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