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									Infusing Rigor, Relevance and
 Relationships in FCS Courses
        or “FCS Survival in the NCLB Era”

                           Marta Brooks, FCS Teacher
       Pleasant Valley High School, Pleasant Valley, IA

         Sally Rigeman, Sec. Math/Science Consultant
             Mississippi Bend Area Education Agency
                                        Bettendorf, IA


     IFCSEP Conference ― Ames, IA        July 30, 2007
FCS Survival in the NCLB Era
Schools pile on English, math classes
   By Shirley Dang, CONTRA COSTA TIMES
   (Article Launched: 05/19/2007 03:02:07 AM PDT)
   The leather sleeves of his varsity jacket resting on the table, seventh-
   grader Brandon Wilson copied down the vocabulary words with his left
   hand. Formidable. Cacophony. Impenetrable. He wrote out the
   pronunciation using a guide ("a, as in pad, bat"), and, with a stubby
   yellow pencil that had no eraser, he copied the meanings of the words
   from the New Webster's Student Dictionary. This is one of three
   language arts classes Brandon takes every day at Adams Middle
   School in Richmond, and his second with teacher Deborah Brittain.
   Across the room from the flat-screen computers where they take their
   quizzes, adjacent to the classroom's diminutive library, three massive
   metal pots sit on top of the fridge -- the last vestiges of the room's prior
   purpose: home economics. Brandon flipped the pages of the dictionary.
   "I wanted to take art or wood shop," Brandon said. "I'll get an elective
   next year."
   Under federal pressure to increase scores on English and math tests,
   many low-achieving schools in the Bay Area and across the country are
   loading up students with two or even three periods of math and English
   and abandoning electives such as art, music and shop.
Do not confine your children
   to your own learning,
    for they were born
      in another time.



                      Hebrew proverb
The Class of 2011                 (Beloit College Mindset list)

Born in 1989, incoming college freshmen:
•   Are too young to remember the space shuttle blowing up.
•   Their lifetime has always included AIDS.
•   Bottle caps have always been screw off and plastic.
•   The CD was introduced the year they were born.
•   They have always had an answering machine
•   They have always had cable.
•   They cannot fathom not having a remote control.
•   Jay Leno has always been on the Tonight Show
•   Popcorn has always been cooked in the microwave.
•   They never took a swim and thought about Jaws.
•   They can't imagine what hard contact lenses are.
•   They don't know who Mork was or where he was from.
•   McDonald's never came in Styrofoam containers.
•   They don't have a clue how to use a typewriter.
    ??? Why ???
Rigor and Relevance
    The World’s Top 10 Economies
       (Percent of World GDP)
  Today
1. U.S. (28.4%)
2. Japan (10.6%)
3. Germany (6.4%
4. U.K. (5.0%)
5. France (4.8%)
6. China (4.4%)
7. Italy (3.9%)
8. Spain (2.6%)
9. Canada (2.5%)
10. India (1.7%)

             Sources: World Bank/Angus Maddison, “The World Economy: Historical Statistics” (OECD)/
                    PricewaterhouseCoopers/Milken Institute/Goldman Sachs
    The World’s Top 10 Economies
       (Percent of World GDP)
  Today
1. U.S. (28.4%)
2. Japan (10.6%)
3. Germany (6.4%
4. U.K. (5.0%)
5. France (4.8%)
6. China (4.4%)
7. Italy (3.9%)
8. Spain (2.6%)
9. Canada (2.5%)
10. India (1.7%)
              Sources: World Bank/Angus Maddison, “The World Economy: Historical Statistics” (OECD)/
                     PricewaterhouseCoopers/Milken Institute/Goldman Sachs
    The World’s Top 10 Economies
       (Percent of World GDP)
  Today
1. U.S. (28.4%)
2. Japan (10.6%)
3. Germany (6.4%
4. U.K. (5.0%)
5. France (4.8%)
6. China (4.4%)
7. Italy (3.9%)
8. Spain (2.6%)
9. Canada (2.5%)
10. India (1.7%)
             Sources: World Bank/Angus Maddison, “The World Economy: Historical Statistics” (OECD)/
                    PricewaterhouseCoopers/Milken Institute/Goldman Sachs
    The World’s Top 10 Economies
       (Percent of World GDP)
  Today
1. U.S. (28.4%)
2. Japan (10.6%)
3. Germany (6.4%
4. U.K. (5.0%)
5. France (4.8%)
6. China (4.4%)
7. Italy (3.9%)
8. Spain (2.6%)
9. Canada (2.5%)
10. India (1.7%)
              Sources: World Bank/Angus Maddison, “The World Economy: Historical Statistics” (OECD)/
                     PricewaterhouseCoopers/Milken Institute/Goldman Sachs
     The World’s Top 10 Economies
        (Percent of World GDP)
   Today                        2050
1. U.S. (28.4%)     1. China (25.6%)
2. Japan (10.6%)    2. U.S. (20.3%)
3. Germany (6.4%    3. India (16.0%)
4. U.K. (5.0%)      4. Japan (3.9%)
5. France (4.8%)    5. Brazil (3.5%)
6. China (4.4%)     6. Russia (3.4%)
7. Italy (3.9%)     7. Indonesia (2.3%)
8. Spain (2.6%)     8. U.K. (2.2%)
9. Canada (2.5%)    9. Germany (2.1%)
10. India (1.7%)    10. Mexico (2.0%)
               Sources: World Bank/Angus Maddison, “The World Economy: Historical Statistics” (OECD)/
                      PricewaterhouseCoopers/Milken Institute/Goldman Sachs
     The World’s Top 10 Economies
        (Percent of World GDP)
   Today                                    2050                                     1820

1. U.S. (28.4%)                 1. China (25.6%)                          1. China(28.7%)
2. Japan (10.6%)                2. U.S. (20.3%)                           2. India (16.0%)
3. Germany (6.4%                3. India (16.0%)                          3. France (5.4%)
4. U.K. (5.0%)                  4. Japan (3.9%)                           4. England (5.2%)
5. France (4.8%)                5. Brazil (3.5%)                          5. Prussia (4.9%)
6. China (4.4%)                 6. Russia (3.4%)                          6. Japan (3.1%)
7. Italy (3.9%)                 7. Indonesia (2.3                         7. Austria (1.9%)
8. Spain (2.6%)                 8. U.K. (2.2%)                            8. Spain (1.9%)
9. Canada (2.5%)                9. Germany (2.1%)                         9. U.S. (1.8%)
10. India (1.7%)                10. Mexico (2.0%)                         10. Russia (1.7%)

      Sources: World Bank/Angus Maddison, “The World Economy: Historical Statistics” (OECD)/
             PricewaterhouseCoopers/Milken Institute/Goldman Sachs
                                  Perspectives
“We go where the
smart people are. Now
our business
operations are 2/3 in
the USA and 1/3
                             “If I take the revenue
overseas. That ratio will
flip in the next 10           in January and look
years.”                     again in December of
 Howard High, Intel
                             that year, 90% of my
                               December revenue
                            comes from products
                             which were not there
                                        in January.”

                                     Craig Barrett, Intel
                                    What will it take?

                                     “If we don’t step up to
                                            the challenge of
                                    finding and supporting
“Secret weapon – to
                                    the best teachers, we’ll
remain an economic                   undermine everything
leader and innovation               else we are trying to do
powerhouse – creative,                       to improve our
risk-taking, can-do                               schools.”
spirit of its people.”
                                               Louis Gerstner, IBM

Yong Zhao, Director,
U.S. China Center for Research on
Educational Excellence
    ??? Why ???
Rigor and Relevance
How People Learn (Bransford et al)

•   Teachers must draw out and work
    with the pre-existing understandings
    that their students bring with them.
•   Teachers must teach some subject
    matter in-depth, providing many
    different examples in which the same
    concept is at work and developing a
    firm foundation of factual knowledge.
How People Learn (Bransford et al)

•   The teaching of meta-cognitive skills
    should be integrated into the
    curriculum in a variety of subject
    areas.
•   Attention must be given to what is
    taught…why it is taught…and what
    competence or mastery looks like.
•   Formative assessments… are
    essential… [They] help both teachers
    and students monitor progress.
Changing the Paradigm of
Teaching and Learning

• Engagement in learning

• Application of knowledge

• Collaboration among teachers and students



                                What does
                                   your
                                classroom
                                look like?
21st Century Skills

• Communication and
  Information skills
• Thinking and Problem-
  Solving skills
• Interpersonal and Self-
  Directional skills
• Collaboration skills
21st Century Classroom


• Student-centered

• Engaging project-based
  activities
                           • Performance-based
• Integrated curriculum      assessment

• Multiple resources       • Virtual Labs

• Problem-solving          • Writing workshops

• Interaction with experts • Primary resources
    ??? Why ???
Rigor and Relevance
• Changing Student Cognitive
  Dispositions and Historical
  Perspectives
• Changing Student Demographics
• Changing Global Competition
• Changing Workforce Demands
  and Job Skills
• Changing Roles of Technology
Changes in Iowa Education

• No Child Left Behind
• Teacher Quality
• Senate File 245 – Iowa Model
  Core Curriculum (HS)
• Iowa Model Schools Project
• Senate File 588 – K-12
• Core Content Standards
Iowa’s Model Core Curriculum
• Literacy
    Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, Viewing
• Mathematics
    Essential Characteristics
    Skills (NCTM Process Standards)
      • Problem Solving, Communication, Reasoning and Proof, Ability to
        recognize, make, and apply Connections, and Ability to construct
        and apply Multiple Representations
    Content (NCTM Content Standards)
      •   Algebra
      •   Geometry
      •   Statistics and Probability
      •   Quantitative Literacy

• Science
    Science as Inquiry, Earth and Space, Life Science,
     and Physical Science
Presentation Overview


 Why Rigor and Relevance
 The Rigor/Relevance Framework
 Identifying Levels of Rigor and
  Relevance
 Planning Effective FCS Lessons
 Aligning Strategies
The Rigor & Relevance
           Framework
Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives
• Cognitive Domain – B. Bloom, 1956
• Affective Domain – Krathwohl & Bloom,
  1964
• Psychomotor Domain – Reynolds, 1965
• Revision: Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001
• Revision: Marzano, 2007
               Assimilation
               of knowledge

 Knowing
Continuum
 (Hierarchy)

                Acquisition
               of knowledge
Bloom’s Taxonomy


 H
 O
 T
 S
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Cognitive Domain Revised
New Knowledge Taxonomy

6   Creating
5   Evaluation
4   Analysis
3   Application
2   Comprehension
1   Recall Knowledge
Knowledge Taxonomy
Managing Resources

6 Evaluate spending habits
5 Set goals based on budget
4 Match expenses to budget
3 Buy something within budget
2 Explain values
1 Identify money
Knowledge Taxonomy
Basic Nutrition

6 Appraise results of personal
  eating habits over time
5 Develop personal nutrition goals
4 Examine success in achieving
  nutrition goals
3 Use nutrition guidelines in planning
  meals
2 Explain nutritional value of foods
1 Label food by nutritional groups
Action Continuum


Application    Application
     of            of
knowledge      knowledge
   in one        across
 discipline    disciplines
Daggett’s Action Model

1 Knowledge of one discipline
2 Application within discipline
3 Application across disciplines
4 Application to real-world
   predictable situations
5 Application to real-world
   unpredictable situations
Daggett’s Action Model
Managing Resources

1    Know money values
2    Solve exchange-rate money
     problems
3    Relate wealth to quality of life
4    Prepare budget
5    Handle lottery winnings
Daggett’s Action Model
Basic Nutrition

1   Label food by nutrition groups
2   Rank foods by nutritional value
3   Make cost comparison of foods
    considering nutritional value
4   Develop nutritional plan for a health
    problem affected by food
5   Assess nutritional value in diets
    developed for patients in hospitals
Rigor/Relevance Framework

  B
  L
  O
  O
  M

          DAGGETT
Knowledge-Action Model

K
    6
N
O   5
W
    4
L
E   3
D
G
    2       A
E       Low ─ Low
    1

        1   2       3    4   5
                ACTION
Knowledge-Action Model

K
    6
N
O   5
W
    4
L
E   3
D
    2                    B
G
E   1                 Low ─ High

        1   2     3      4     5
                ACTION
Knowledge-Action Model

K
    6
N
O   5       C
W       High ─ Low
    4
L
E   3
D
    2
G
E   1

        1     2      3     4   5
                  ACTION
Knowledge-Action Model

K
    6
N
O   5                     D
W
    4                 High ─ High
L
E   3
D
    2
G
E   1

        1   2     3      4      5
                ACTION
Rigor/Relevance Framework

  R
  I
  G
  O
  R

       RELEVANCE
Rigor/Relevance Framework

K
N
O   R   C         D
W   I        Knowledge of and
             application within
L   G          one discipline
E
D
G
E
    O
    R   A          B
        RELEVANCE
        APPLICATION
Rigor/Relevance Framework

K
N
O   R   C                    D
W   I   Knowledge of and
        application across
L   G      disciplines
E
D
G
E
    O
    R   A                    B
            RELEVANCE
          APPLICATION
Rigor/Relevance Framework

K
N
O   R   C           D
W   I         Application to real
               world situations
L   G        within one discipline
E
D
G
E
    O
    R   A           B
        RELEVANCE
        APPLICATION
Rigor/Relevance Framework

K
N
O   R       C
        Application to real-
                               D
W   I   world unpredictable
L        situations across
    G       disciplines.
E
D
G
E
    O
    R        A                 B
                 RELEVANCE
                APPLICATION
Rigor/Relevance Framework


 R     C                          D
       Quadrant A ― Gather and store bits of
 I     knowledge and information. Primarily expected
 G     to remember or understand this knowledge.

 O
 R     A                 Example:
                                  B
                  Pick the right definition

            RELEVANCE
Rigor/Relevance Framework


 R     C                          D
         Quadrant B ― Apply acquired knowledge
 I       to solve problems in real-world situations.
 G
 O
 R      A                         B
            Example:
      Compare car lease to loan

             RELEVANCE
Rigor/Relevance Framework
     Quadrant C ― Use knowledge to analyze and solve
     school-based problems and create solutions.



 R       C                        D
 I
                        Example:
 G            Analyze symbolism in a poem

 O
 R        A                       B
               RELEVANCE
Rigor/Relevance Framework
Quadrant D ― Apply knowledge and skills in
complex ways to solve real problems and create
solutions. Control real world unknowns.


   R             C                          D
   I                    Example:
   G             Take part in a classroom
                   role-playing debate
   O
   R             A                          B
                       RELEVANCE
Student and Teacher Roles

K
N
O   R   C                  D
W   I       Teacher works to create and assess
L           learning activities. The student may
    G              be a passive learner.
E
D
G
E
    O
    R   A                   B
         RELEVANCE
         APPLICATION
Student and Teacher Roles

K
N
O   R        C                          D
W   I   Student works applying
        knowledge and skills in real-
L   G   world task.
E
D
G
E
    O
    R         A                         B
                  RELEVANCE
                 APPLICATION
Student and Teacher Roles

K
N
O   R   C                   D
W   I       Student thinks in complex ways:
L           analyze, compare, evaluate and create.
    G
E
D
G
E
    O
    R   A                   B
         RELEVANCE
         APPLICATION
Student and Teacher Roles

K
N
O   R   C                  D
W   I     Student thinks and works in more
L   G     complex and unscripted situations.
E
D
G
E
    O
    R   A                  B
         RELEVANCE
         APPLICATION
               Activity
Identifying Levels of
 Rigor & Relevance
Knowledge Taxonomy

   Tool: Verb List
Identify Knowledge Levels
K
     Read or view news reports, interpret information
4    and vote in an informed manner
     Use second language to discuss current events
3    in a country where the language is spoken

2    Follow directions in a manual to use equipment
     safely
     Write an essay, using references about an issue
5    of interest
     Compare prices, interest rates and maintenance
 4   costs of buying an appliance
   Action Model

Tool: Decision Tree
Action Decision Tree

1. “Is it Application?”
   If   NO                         Level 1
2. If YES, “Is it real world?”
   If   NO and one discipline      Level 2
   If   NO and interdisciplinary   Level 3
3. If YES, “Is it unpredictable?”
   If   NO                         Level 4
   If   YES                        Level 5
Identify Action Levels
  A
      Read or view news reports, interpret information
  5   and vote in an informed manner
      Use second language to discuss current events in
  4   a country where the language is spoken

  4   Follow directions in a manual to use equipment
      safely
      Write an essay, using references about an issue of
  3   interest
      Compare prices, interest rates and maintenance
  4   costs of buying an appliance
Planning Effective
   FCS Lessons
“Teaching is only as
good as the learning
that takes place.”
                       Curriculum
Curriculum Standards    Planning
                         Steps
Planning Effective Lessons
• Define the instructional unit
• Identify Model Core Content Areas &
  Skills
• Choose levels of expected knowledge
  and application
• Identify what mastery looks like
  (design the assessment)
• Determine what will the student do
Model Core in FCS Gold Seal Lessons

• Language Arts
   Writing and Speaking, Communicating,
    Reading, and Listening (Interview)
• Mathematics
   Content: Numbers and Operations,
    Measurement, and Geometry
   Process: Problem-solving, Mathematical
    Reasoning, and Tools and Technology
• Science
   Process: Inquiry
   Content: Earth and Space, Life Science and
    Physical Science
High Rigor & Relevance
    Lesson Design
Title                    R & R Levels
Model Core Content
Student Learning
Performance Task
Instructional Focus
Scoring Guide
Exemplars (optional)
Lesson Plan (optional)
          Rigorous & Relevant Lessons

                  Student Learning

                      Instruction
  Expected                                    Actual
   Student                                    Student
 Performance                                Performance
                     Assessment

Rigor/Relevance   Student Learning      Rigor/Relevance


                                    Feedback
                                    Reflection
Sequencing Learning

    Launching Activity
    Teacher Procedure
    Student Work
    Extending the Learning
           Planning Rigorous and
           Relevant FCS Lessons
 Step 1                 Step 2              Step 3            Step 4

Focus of           Student                                  Learning
                                         Assessment
Learning         Performance                               Experiences
                   R&R

                                 Alignment with      Alignment with
             Student              Performance         Assessment
             Learning

             Standards
           Best Practices
              Student
            Differences
              Reading
Aligning Strategies
        Aligning Strategies and
         Rigor and Relevance
    C
    O        C           D
    M
R   P
         Compare and     Design a Real-
    L    Contrast        World Product
I   E    Summarizing     Teach Others
    X
G
O   S
    I        A              B
R   M     Lecture        Make, Produce,
    P
    L
                         Perform
    E     Memorization   Role Play

            Low             High

             RELEVANCE
  Matching
 Strategies
       and
     Rigor/
 Relevance
Framework
 Matching
Strategies
      and
 Learning
    Styles
Benefits of Using the Rigor and
Relevance Framework in Planning
Instruction

 Prepares students for future work
 Process to focus student learning on
  priority standards
 Ensures students achieve standards
 Aligns curriculum, instruction and
  assessment
 Prepares students for high stakes tests
 Increases student interest and motivation
   Tell Me.....
“When will I ever
  use what I’m
learning today?”
Presentation Resources
• “Rising above the Gathering Storm” PPT Judy Jeffrey,
  Iowa Department of Education, ELI training presentation,
  Aug. 2006
• “Rigor and Relevance Framework” PPT slides, The
  International Center for Leadership in Education, Model
  Schools Conference, June 2006
• “Rigor and Relevance” Professional Development
  Sessions for North AEA 9 Consortium Schools, 2006-07
  School Year
• Gold Seal FCS Lesson ― Mary Kuhlman, Fort Dodge
  Senior High School, Fort Dodge IA
• Investigating Child Care Options, Marta Brooks, Pleasant
  Valley High School, Pleasant Valley IA

								
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