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					Computing Essentials 2008
Chapter 5: System Software
      System Software (121)
          o System software works with end users, application software, and computer
             hardware to handle the majority of technical details.
          o It is a collection or a system of programs that handle hundreds of technical details
             with little or no user intervention.
          o There are four types of programs that makeup system software
                  Operating systems - coordinate computer resources, provide an interface
                     between users and the computer, and run applications.
                  Utilities - perform specific tasks related to managing computer resources.
                  Device drivers - specialized programs that allow particular input or output
                     devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system.
                  Language translators - convert the programming instructions written by
                     programmers into a language that computers understand and process.
      Operating Systems (123)
          o An operating system is a collection of programs that handle many of the technical
             details related to using a computer.
          o An operating system is the most important type of computer program.
          o Functions
                  Managing resources - memory, processing, storage, and devices such as
                     printers and monitors.
                  Provide user interface – How the user interacts with the computer. Almost
                     all newer operating systems use a graphical user interface (GUI).
                  Running applications - load and run applications such as word processors
                     and spreadsheets. Most operating systems support multitasking, or the
                     ability to switch between different applications stored in memory.
          o Features
                  Booting – The process of starting up or restarting the operating system.
                           Warm boot – occurs when the computer is already on, and you
                              restart it without turning off the power.
                           Cold boot – is starting the computer when it is turned off.
                           Desktop – A place which provides access to computer resources.
                  Icons—graphic representations for a program or function.
                  Pointer—controlled by a mouse and changes shape depending upon its
                     current function.
                  Windows—rectangular areas for displaying information and running
                     programs.
                  Menus—provide a list of options or commands.
                  Dialog boxes—provide information or request input.
                  Help—provides online assistance for operating system functions and
                     procedures.
                  File management system
                           Files are used to store data and programs.
                           Folders store related files. They can contain other folders for
                              organizational purposes.
          o Categories (124)



Chapter Outline                                                             Page 1 of 14
Computing Essentials 2008
Chapter 5: System Software
                    Embedded operating systems are used for handheld computers and
                     smaller devices like PDAs. The operating system programs are
                     permanently stored on ROM,
                  Network operating systems (NOS) are used to control and coordinate
                     computers that are networked or linked together. Typically located on one
                     of the connected computers’ hard disks, called the network server, this
                     computer coordinates all communication between the other computers.
                  Stand-alone operating systems, also called desktop operating systems,
                     control a single desktop or notebook computer. Often desktop computers
                     and notebooks are part of a network and are referred to as the client
                     operating system.
          o   Software environment, or platform (125)
                  Almost all application programs are designed to run with a specific
                     platform.
                  Windows, Mac OS, and Linux are operating systems commonly used by
                     individuals.
          o   Microsoft’s Windows (125)
                  The most popular microcomputer operating system today with over 90
                     percent of the market.
                  More application programs are developed to run under Windows than any
                     other operating system.
                  Next version: Vista
                          Advanced system security to guard against malicious files and
                             programs, including spyware.
                          Three-dimensional workspace capable of displaying transparent
                             cascading windows.
                          New file system called WinFS (Windows Future Storage) that
                             keeps track of files stored on your computer system so that it is
                             possible to locate files based on a description of their content.
          o   MAC OS (127)
                  One of the first GUIs, making it easy even for novice computer users to
                     move and delete files.
                  Designed to run with Apple computers.
                  Not nearly as widely used as the Windows operating system.
                  Fewer application programs have been written for it.
                  One of the most innovative operating systems.
                  It is popular with professional graphic designers, desktop publishers, and
                     many home users.
                  Mac OS X, Tiger
                          Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files,
                             folders, email messages, addresses, and much more.
                          Dashboard Widgets are a collection of specialized programs that
                             will constantly update and display information.
                          Next version: Leopard
          o   Unix (127)
                  Originally designed to run on minicomputers in network environments.
                  Now, it is also used by powerful microcomputers

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Chapter 5: System Software
                     There are a large number of different versions, Linux is one of these
                      versions
                     Linux
                           Open source operating system
                           Invented at the University of Helsinki by Linus Torvalds in 1991.
                           One of the most popular and powerful alternatives to the Windows
                             operating system.
                           Modifications and improvements to the OS is encouraged.
      Utilities (128)
           o Specialized programs designed to make computing easier.
           o Essential programs:
                     Troubleshooting or diagnostic programs that recognize and correct
                       problems, ideally before they become serious.
                     Antivirus programs that guard your computer system against viruses or
                       other damaging programs that can invade your computer system.
                     Uninstall programs that allow you to safely and completely remove
                       unneeded programs and related files from your hard disk.
                     Backup programs that make copies of files to be used in case the originals
                       are lost or damaged.
                     File compression programs that reduce the size of files so they require less
                       storage space and can be sent more efficiently over the Internet.
           o Window Utilities
                     Backup is a utility program included with the many versions of Windows
                       that makes a copy of all files or selected files that have been saved onto a
                       disk. It helps to protect you from the effects of a disk failure. (Figure 5-10
                       on page 129 illustrates the Backup utility)
                     Disk Cleanup is a trouble-shooting utility that identifies and eliminates
                       nonessential files. This frees up valuable disk space and improves system
                       performance. (Figure 5-11 on page 130 illustrates the Disk Cleanup
                       utility)
                     Disk Defragmenter is a utility program that locates and eliminates
                       unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused disk space to
                       optimize operations.
           o Utility Suites
                     Combine several programs into one package.
                     Buying the package is less expensive than buying the programs separately
                     The three best-known utility suites are McAfee Office, Norton
                       SystemWorks, and V Communications SystemSuite.
                     Norton SystemWorks
                             Norton AntiVirus is a collection of antivirus programs that can
                                protect a system from over 21,000 different viruses, quarantine or
                                delete existing viruses, and automatically update its virus list to
                                check for the newest viruses.
                             Norton CleanSweep is a collection of programs that guide you
                                through the process of safely removing programs and files you no
                                longer need.


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Chapter 5: System Software
                            Web CleanUp is a collection of programs that check your
                             computer system for unnecessary files, including temporary files
                             created by application programs, cache files, history files, and
                             cookies.
                            Connection Keep Alive prevents dial-up Internet connections
                             from timing out by simulating online user activity during periods
                             of inactivity.
                            GoBack Personal Edition will restore system configurations, help
                             to locate lost files, and repair damaged files.
                            Norton Utilities is a collection of several separate troubleshooting
                             utilities. These programs can be used to find and fix problems,
                             improve system performance, prevent problems from occurring,
                             and troubleshoot a variety of other problems.
      Device Drivers (133)
          o A program associated with every hardware device on a computer.
          o Work with the operating system to allow communication between the device and
              the rest of the computer system.
          o The operating system loads all of the device drivers into memory.
          o Whenever a new device is added to a computer system, a new device driver must
              be installed before the device can be used.
      Making it Work for You (134)
          o Virus and Internet Security
          o Walks the student through installing McAfee
          o It discusses the Internet Security Suite which includes
                   VirusScan
                   PersonalFirewall
                   PrivacyService
      Careers in IT (137)
          o Computer Support Specialists
                   provide technical support to customers and other users.
                   manage the everyday technical problems faced by computer users.
                   resolve common networking problems and may use troubleshooting
                      programs to diagnose problems.
                   Degrees in computer science or information systems may be preferred.
      A Look to the Future (137)
          o Autonomic computing (Self-healing computers)
          o Computers may becoming too complex for humans to oversee.
          o IBM announced plans to make self-repairing, self-updating, and self-protecting
              computers.




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Chapter 5: System Software
      System Software (121)
          o Students tend to know very little about system software. It is good to emphasize
             that it interfaces with the user, applications and the hardware. A good analogy is
             that it works like an interpreter between the user and the hardware.
          o It is good to make it clear that there are four types of programs that makeup
             system software
                  Operating systems - coordinate computer resources, provide an interface
                      between users and the computer, and run applications.
                  Utilities - perform specific tasks related to managing computer resources.
                  Device drivers - specialized programs that allow particular input or output
                      devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system.
                  Language translators - convert the programming instructions written by
                      programmers into a language that computers understand and process.
      Operating Systems (123)
          o Functions
                  Managing resources – a good way to illustrate the management portion of
                      the operating system is to use the Performance tool.
                           If you are running Windows XP, go to Control
                              Panel/Administrative Tools/Performance. You can then show the
                              students how the memory, disk, and processor are performing.
                           You can have them launch applications and do calculations to see
                              the different performance rates.
                  Provide user interface –
                           Most of today’s students have only known GUI type of interface.
                           To illustrate the different types of interfaces. You can go to the
                              command prompt on a Windows XP system and show them
                              different types of command, such as Dir, CD, and MD
                           Then you can switch into Windows and show the Browse,
                              File/New/Folder, etc…
          o Features
                  Booting
                           You can ask the students what a cold (or hard) boot is, and see how
                              many answers you receive, then do the same for a warm (or soft)
                              boot. You can then explain why you want to do one over another
                              in different instances.
                  Icons—Pointer—Windows—Menus—Dialog boxes—Help
                           You can use any application or utility projected onto a screen to
                              show the students these things. Most of them will be familiar with
                              terms. Or you can refer to figure 5-2 on page 124.
                  File management system
                           A good way to explain a file system is to use the analogy of a file
                              cabinet
                           A good lab is to use Explorer and create, copy, and move files and
                              folders. You can also introduce short cuts, such as Ctrl + click, or
                              Shift+click.
          o Categories (124)
                  It is good to briefly discuss the three categories.

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                      Embedded operating systems are used for handheld computers and
                       smaller devices like PDAs. The operating system programs are
                       permanently stored on ROM,
                     Network operating systems (NOS) are used to control and coordinate
                       computers that are networked or linked together. Typically located on one
                       of the connected computers’ hard disks, called the network server, this
                       computer coordinates all communication between the other computers.
                     Stand-alone operating systems, also called desktop operating systems,
                       control a single desktop or notebook computer. Often desktop computers
                       and notebooks are part of a network and are referred to as the client
                       operating system.
           o Software environment, or platform (125)
                     Almost all application programs are designed to run with a specific
                       platform.
                     Windows, Mac OS, and Linux are operating systems commonly used by
                       individuals.
           o Microsoft’s Windows (125)
                     Most students are familiar with the Windows environment. You can refer
                       to figure 5-5 on page 126 to give the students a summary of the different
                       versions of Windows there are.
                     It would be good to dedicate some time discussing the next version: Vista,
                       especially the security portion. It is a great concern to them.
           o MAC OS (127)
                     More and more students are using the MAC OS system. You can briefly
                       go over some of it characteristics
                     Current version is Mac OS X, Tiger
                             Spotlight is an advanced search tool that can rapidly locate files,
                                folders, email messages, addresses, and much more.
                             Dashboard Widgets are a collection of specialized programs that
                                will constantly update and display information.
                             Next version: Leopard
           o Unix (127)
                     You more computer savvy students have heard of Linux, but they don’t
                       always know that it is a type of Unix.
                     You can go over some benefits and features of Linux and Unix operating
                       systems. Here is a good time to discuss proprietary and non-proprietary
                       systems.
      Utilities (128)
           o You can use labs that the students can run some of these utilities, so that they can
               have first hand experience using them. It is a good way to generate questions and
               teach good computer management techniques.
                     Backup
                     Disk Cleanup
                     Disk Defragmenter
           o Utility Suites
                     The Making It Work for You section on page 134 is a good way to
                       illustrate a utility suite.
                     It covers the VirusScan, PersonalFirewall, and PrivacyService software.
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                     It is a good way to get the students familiar with these applications and to
                      understand what they do and why they are important.
      Device Drivers (133)
          o A program associated with every hardware device on a computer.
          o Work with the operating system to allow communication between the device and
              the rest of the computer system.
          o The operating system loads all of the device drivers into memory.
          o Whenever a new device is added to a computer system, a new device driver must
              be installed before the device can be used.
      Careers in IT (137)
          o Computer Support Specialists
                   provide technical support to customers and other users.
                   manage the everyday technical problems faced by computer users.
                   resolve common networking problems and may use troubleshooting
                      programs to diagnose problems.
                   Degrees in computer science or information systems may be preferred.
      A Look to the Future (137)
          o Autonomic computing (Self-healing computers)
          o Computers may becoming too complex for humans to oversee.
          o IBM announced plans to make self-repairing, self-updating, and self-protecting
              computers.




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                                                Key Terms
            Key Term                                               Definition
                                         A Windows feature provides step-by-step guidance for
            Add Printer Wizard (133)     selecting the appropriate printer driver and installing that
                                         driver.
                                         A system utility that guards a computer system against
              antivirus program (128)
                                         viruses or other damaging programs that can invade it.
                                         A utility program included with the many versions of
                        Backup (129)     Windows that makes a copy of all files or selected files
                                         that have been saved onto a disk.
                                         A system utility that makes copies of files to be used in
                backup program (128)
                                         case the originals are lost or damaged.
                                         Feature of Leopard, the new version of Mac OS, that
                    Boot Camp (127)      allows appropriately equipped Apple computers to run
                                         both Mac OS and Windows XP.
                        booting (123)    The process of starting or restarting a computer
                                         The process of starting a computer after it has been turned
                      cold boot (123)
                                         off.
                                         A person who provides technical support to customers and
     computer support specialist (137)
                                         other users.
                                         A feature of MAC OS. They are a collection of
            Dashboard Widgets (127)      specialized programs that will constantly update and
                                         display information.
                                         A place an operating system provides users access to
                        desktop (123)
                                         computer resources.
                                         An operating system that controls a desktop or laptop
       desktop operating system (124)
                                         computer. (See also stand-alone operating system)
                                         Specialized programs that allow particular input or output
              device driver (122, 133)   devices to communicate with the rest of the computer
                                         system. (See also driver)
                                         A system utility that recognizes and corrects problems,
            diagnostic program (128)     ideally before they become serious. (See also
                                         troubleshooting program)
                                         A feature of a GUI operating system which provides
                     dialog box (123)
                                         information or request input.
                                         A trouble-shooting utility included in many versions of
                  Disk Cleanup (129)
                                         Windows that identifies and eliminates nonessential files.
                                         A Windows utility program that locates and eliminates
             Disk Defragmenter (131)     unnecessary fragments and rearranges files and unused
                                         disk space to optimize operations.
                                         Specialized programs that allow particular input or output
                          driver (133)   devices to communicate with the rest of the computer
                                         system. (See also device driver)
                                         A device that has the operating system programs
    embedded operating systems (124)
                                         permanently stored on ROM
                            file (124)   Where data and programs are stored
                                         A system utility that reduces the size of files so they
      file compression program (128)     require less storage space and can be sent more efficiently
                                         over the Internet.
                                         A container in a file management system where related
                          folder (124)
                                         files are stored.

Key Terms                                                                               Page 8of 14
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Chapter 5: System Software
                                          When a file cannot be stored to disk as one contiguous
                     fragmented (130)     block, it is broken up into small parts and stored wherever
                                          space is available.
                                          A user interface that uses graphical elements such as icons
   graphical user interface (GUI) (123)
                                          and windows.
                                          Provides online assistance for operating system functions
                            Help (123)
                                          and procedures.
                            icon (123)    A graphic representation for a program or function.
                                          Convert the programming instructions written by
             language translator (122)    programmers into a language that computers understand
                                          and process.
                        Leopard (127)     The next version of MAC OS
                          Linux (127)     A nonproprietary version of Unix
                                          The operating systems that are design to run on Apple
                        Mac OS (127)
                                          computers.
                      Mac OS X (127)      One of the latest versions of MAC OS.
                          menu (123)      Provides a list of options or commands.
                                          the ability to switch between different applications stored
                    multitasking (123)
                                          in memory.
                                          Operating systems that are used to control and coordinate
network operating systems (NOS) (124)
                                          computers networked or linked together.
                                          In a network environment, it is the main computer that
                  network server (124)    coordinates all communication between the other
                                          computers.
                                          A program within Norton Utilities that integrates several
            One Button Checkup (132)
                                          of the separate troubleshooting utilities.
                                          Software that coordinates computer resources, provides an
           operating system (122, 123)    interface between users and the computer, and runs
                                          applications.
                                          Another name for an operating system. (See also software
                        platform (125)
                                          environment)
                                          A graphic that controlled by a mouse and changes shape
                         pointer (123)
                                          depending upon its current function.
                                          Wedge-shaped sections of a disk platter that help organize
                          sectors (130)
                                          the storage of files on a magnetic disk.
                                          Another name for an operating system. (See also
           software environment (125)
                                          platform)
                                          A feature of MAC OS that is an advanced search tool that
                       Spotlight (127)    can rapidly locate files, folders, email messages,
                                          addresses, and much more.
                                          An operating system that controls a desktop or laptop
    stand-alone operating system (124)
                                          computer. (See also desktop operating system)
                                          Works with end users, application software, and computer
                system software (122)
                                          hardware to handle the majority of technical details.
                           Tiger (127)    MAC OS X version 10.4
                                          Concentric rings on a disk platter that help organize the
                           tracks (130)
                                          storage of files on a magnetic disk.
                                          A system utility that recognizes and corrects problems,
        troubleshooting program (128)     ideally before they become serious. (See also
                                          troubleshooting program)
               uninstall program (128)    A system utility that allows unneeded programs and

Key Terms                                                                               Page 9of 14
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                                       related files to be safely and completely removed from a
                                       hard disk.
                                       An operating system operating system was originally
                                       designed to run on minicomputers in network
                      UNIX (127)
                                       environments, and currently runs on powerful
                                       microcomputers and servers.
                                       How the user communicates with the operating system,
               user interface (123)
                                       computer, and/or application.
                                       Perform specific tasks related to managing computer
                 utility (122, 128)
                                       resources. (See also service program)
                                       A combination of several utility programs into one
                 utility suite (131)
                                       package.
                                       A dangerous program that can cause a variety of damage
                       virus (131)
                                       or problems to a computer.
                                       The process of starting or restarting a computer when the
                  warm boot (123)
                                       computer is already on.
                                       A rectangular area for displaying information and running
                    window (123)
                                       programs.
                   Windows (125)       An operating system released by Microsoft corporation.
                                       A Windows utility that makes it easy to update the drivers
            Windows Update (133)
                                       on a computer.
              Windows Vista (125)      The next major version of Microsoft Windows
               Windows XP (125)        The most widely used version of Windows.




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Crossword Puzzle Answers:

Across
 Num.                                  Clue                                          Answer
   5      Program that makes copies of files in case of damage or loss.   Backup
   6      Boot that occurs when the computer is already on.               Warm boot
   8      Combination of several utility programs in one package.         Utility Suite
   9      Allows communication between devices and the operating          Driver
          system.
  11      Concentric rings on a disk.                                     Tracks
  12      Used to control and coordinate networked computers.             NOS

Down
 Num.                                  Clue                                          Answer
   1      Location to store related files.                                Folder
   2      Computer that coordinates all communication between other       Network server
          computers.
   3      Uses graphical elements to communicate with the operating       GUI
          system.
   4      Broken-up file stored in different sectors.                     Fragmented
   5      Starting or restarting a computer.                              Booting
   7      Operating system with over 80 percent of the market.            Windows
  10      Graphic objects on the desktop used to represent programs and   Icons
          other files.



Num      Multiple Choice            Matching
           Answers                  Answers
  1              C                       J
  2              D                       D
  3              C                       F
  4              A                       B
  5              A                       G
  6              C                       H
  7              B                       A
  8              B                       E
  9              A                       I
 10              C                       C


Open Ended Questions:
   1. Describe system software. What are the four types of system programs?
      System software works with end users, application software, and computer hardware to handle
      the majority of technical details. System software is not a single program. Rather it is a collection
      or a system of programs that handle hundreds of technical details with little or no user
      intervention. System software consists of four types of programs:
      • Operating systems coordinate computer resources, provide an interface between users and the
      computer, and run applications.
      • Utilities, also known as service programs, perform specific tasks related to managing computer

Answers to End of Chapter materials                                                Page 11 of 14
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Chapter 5: System Software
       resources.
       • Device drivers are specialized programs that allow particular input or output devices to
       communicate with the rest of the computer system.
       • Language translators convert the programming instructions written by programmers into a
       language that computers understand and process.

   2. What are the basic functions of every operating system? What are the three basic operating
      system categories?
      Every operating system performs various functions. These functions are:
      • Managing resources: These programs coordinate all the computer’s resources including
      memory, processing, storage, and devices such as printers and monitors. They also monitor
      system performance, schedule jobs, provide security, and start up the computer.
      • Providing user interface: Users interact with application programs and computer hardware
      through a user interface.
      • Running applications: These programs load and run applications such as word processors and
      spreadsheets. Most operating systems support multitasking, or the ability to switch between
      different applications stored in memory.

       The three main categories of Operating systems are:
       • Embedded operating systems - The entire operating system is stored within or embedded in
       the device and permanently stored on ROM.
       • Network operating systems (NOS) are used to control and coordinate computers that are
       networked or linked together.
       • Stand-alone operating systems control a single desktop or notebook computer.

   3. Explain the differences and similarities between Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.
      They all perform the basic functions of an operating system. They manage resources, provide a
      user interface, and run applications. They all use a graphical user interface, and can network
      small groups of computers.

       The differences are as follows:
       Windows – has 90 percent of the market operating system market share, more application
       programs are developed to run under Windows than any other operating system, designed to run
       with Intel and Intel-compatible microprocessors. The new version, Vista, has Advanced system
       security, a Three-dimensional workspace, and utilizes WinFS, makes it possible to locate files
       based on a description of their content.
       MAC OS- Designed to run on Apple machines, but with the latest version can also run on Intel
       microprocessors. It is not as widely used as Windows, but is one of the most innovative
       operating systems. It includes utilities such as Spotlight which is an advanced search tool that
       can rapidly locate files, folders, email messages, addresses, and much more, and Dashboard
       Widgets which are a collection of specialized programs that will constantly update and display
       information.
       Linux – Of the three operating systems, it is the only one that is an open source. It is a version
       of UNIX. It runs on powerful microcomputers and by servers on the Web. It encourages others
       to modify and further develop the code.

   4. Discuss utilities. What are the five most essential utilities? What is a utility suite?
       Utilities are specialized programs designed to make computing easier. The most essential are
       • Troubleshooting or diagnostic programs that recognize and correct problems, ideally before
       they become serious.
       • Antivirus programs that guard your computer system against viruses or other damaging
       programs that can invade your computer system.

Answers to End of Chapter materials                                                Page 12 of 14
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       • Uninstall programs that allow you to safely and completely remove unneeded programs and
       related files from your hard disk.
       • Backup programs that make copies of files to be used in case the originals are lost or damaged.
       • File compression programs that reduce the size of files so they require less storage space and
       can be sent more efficiently over the Internet.

       Utility suites combine several programs into one package. Buying the package is less expensive
       than buying the programs separately.

   5. Explain the role of device drivers. Discuss the Add Printer Wizard and Windows
      Update.
      Every device, such as a mouse or printer, that is connected to a computer system has a
      special program associated with it. This program, called a device driver, works with the
      operating system to allow communication between the device and the rest of the
      computer system. Each time the computer system is started, the operating system loads
      all of the device drivers into memory.

       Windows’ Add Printer Wizard provides step-by-step guidance for selecting the
       appropriate printer driver and installing that driver.

       Windows Update makes it easy to update the drivers on your computer.




Answers to End of Chapter materials                                              Page 13 of 14
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                   Applying Technology             Expanding Your              Writing About
     Focus                                           Knowledge                   Technology
Ethical                                                                     Antitrust
Web Tools                                     Customized Desktop
Software Tools    Virus Protection            How Virus Protection
                  Windows Update              Programs Work
                  WinZip                      Booting and POST
Writing Skills                                How Virus Protection          Antitrust
                                              Programs Work                 Online Backup
Ethical focus
  1. Writing About Technology exercise #1 Antitrust has students research and write about
      the legal and ethical ramifications of Microsoft’s antitrust lawsuit and domination of the
      software market.
Web Tools
  1. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #3 Customized Desktop has students explore the
      Web to learn about desktop customization. They need to explain the answer they found
      and how they could use them.
Software Tools
   1. Applying Technology exercise #1 Virus Protection explores what viruses are, how a
      computer system can be protected, and what means the student has taken in the past to
      protect a computer system.
   2. Applying Technology exercise #2 Windows Update has the student explore what the
      function Windows Update is, how to configure it, and when to use it.
   3. Applying Technology exercise #3 WinZip has the student research the functionality of
      the WinZip program, what are some of its uses, and how to use it.
   4. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #1 How Virus Protection Works explores what
      viruses are, and how a computer system can be protected. It also has the student write
      about the steps they have taken in the past to protect a system and if was effective or not.
   5. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #2 Booting and POST has the student research the
      boot process, the definition of BIOS, and what can be achieved by customizing the
      process.
Writing Skills
  1. Expanding Your Knowledge exercise #1 How Virus Protection Works explores what
      viruses are, and how a computer system can be protected. It also has the student write
      about the steps they have taken in the past to protect a system and if was effective or not.
   2. Writing About Technology exercise #1 Antitrust has students research and write about
      the legal and ethical ramifications of Microsoft’s antitrust lawsuit and domination of the
      software market.
   3. Writing About Technology exercise #2 Online Backup has students research and write a
      paper on online backup options.




Focus tables to End of Chapter materials                                     Page 14 of 14

				
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