Addiction and Major Treatment Methods Abstract: An uncontrollable repetitive carving of anything regardless of its positive or negative outcomes is highly toxic and termed as addiction. It can be only positive if the motive is acceptable under human rights actions but can be dreadful negative if it results in a serious obsession or craving for drugs, behaviour, withdrawal of physiological tolerance and habits. The research paper scrutinized the major addictions and its effects on its social surrounding, family and friends, work and the person itself. Extreme limits for any action, activity or feelings can create a misbalance in human personality traits. The research paper also emphasis on the various treatments and counselling methods used to cure addicts and their ongoing development and after effects for using adverse addictions. (Timothy, 2000.) Addiction Addiction is the most progressive and destructive syndrome which creates an excessive craving and obsession for certain behaviour, object, sensation or drugs. Habits are very closely related to addiction and it creates dependency and urge for substance abuse, adverse eating disorder and weird physiological behaviour at any particular time (DiClemente, C. p5). Addiction can be of anything; drugs, food, habits, chores, work or even a person that has a strong effect on the personality and mood swings. Denial and dependence is the major symptom for addicts. It has destructive and adverse consequences, which have scar a family, charred a relationship and even demolished their former personality. There is no excuse to addiction be it for small things like (shopping, cooking, cleaning etc) as we consider it a daily habit and create dependency on such petty things. The reality is that we accept the addiction but denies understanding and restrain us from doing it. . According to a research based on substance abuse, by eighth grade, 52% of adolescents have consumed alcohol, 41% have smoked tobacco, and 20% have smoked marijuana (Wood, R. 2001). An estimated four million Americans over the age of 12 used prescription pain relievers, sedatives, and stimulants for "nonmedical" reasons during one month. According to data from the World Health Organization, there were 1.1 billion smokers worldwide and 10,000 tobacco-related deaths per day. Furthermore, in the United States, 43% of children aged 2-11 years are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, which has been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, asthma, middle ear disease, pneumonia, cough, and upper respiratory infection. (Timothy, K. 2000). Types and Forms of Addiction Addiction varies from abuse of substance, recreational addiction, everyday activities, sensation etc. The most common of them is the drug addiction which has been banned and is still found in children, adults and olds irrespective of their gender, habitants or social world. Several Non-for profit organisations, charities, councils and ministries of health have collaborated and banned addictions to restrain the adolescence and children from crucifying their future, family and social world. The common types of addictions are: Drugs, Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco, Cocaine, Inhalants and Solvents, Internet, Gambling, Marijuana, Oxcycontin, Prescription drug abuse, Shopping, Sexual, pornography, Video games, Eating disorders, Sedatives, Work, Nicotine etc. Causes and Effects Addiction is often confused with dependence. Dependence is the withdrawal symptoms after stopping substance abuse and is often regarded as tolerance. Tolerance occurs when the body becomes less responsive to a specific amount of a substance, thereby causing the person to increase the amount of drug intake to achieve the previous effect. It is said that when tolerance increases risk of addiction also increases. The causes of withdrawal and continues abuse depends on two main factors, physical and physiological. It is a complex brain disorder that instigates a very strong craving for an addict even in the worst circumstances. During the craving for substance abuse or addiction a person usually misses the physiological behaviour pattern such as being high tempered, low mood sings, acute depression and even haughty laugher and often experiences withdrawal symptoms. The brain responds to the addictive substance as the same way it responds to the pleasurable experiences. They do not care whether they will die or it is destroying their health, future, family, friends or even social world. According to report regarding the important factors investigating the causes of addiction (National Centre of Health and Wellnes: 2010) are: Genetics A person who has never been in contact with any drugs, alcohol is highly rare to get addicted. Inherited behaviour pattern or substance abuse in family, friends, social gathering, and exposure to social world are the basis risk factor contributing towards addictions. If a person is grown up with alcohol addicted or drug addicted parents they are likely to be affected by the environment either physiological disorders such as food addicts, work addicts or even in adverse cases kills their depression with sedative addictions. Environment The addict environment has drastic effects on children and even adolescent teenagers which either are engaged in other addiction with adverse physiological behaviour patterns ranging from rage of anger burst, acute depressions or even solemnization. They are even prone to drug abuse ranging from alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, heroine, opium, inhalant abuses and even sedatives to relief them from the miseries of their life. The most striking feature in the last decade was reported that children from broken families with divorced or single parents even results in different kind of substance or drug addictions to eradicate, depressions, anxieties, coping up with grief’s and even the world. Emotional Disorder: The other most common factor or rather an excuse for acute depressions, misery of life, poverty, bi-polar disorders and pressure from work, home and even school pressures. Children are more prone to such addictions ranging to teenagers emotional distress for quarrelling parents, broken relationships, poverty, and pressure for good grades. Adults are also prone to this factor with other serious physiological factor. They want to escape from all the problems and anxieties and thus the relief is pleasurable and often chose for excessive drug, food, shopping, exercise, alcohol or sleeping abuse. Abuse: According to the study, individuals who are pawned or experienced physical, physiological, emotional abuse are prone become addicts. Children and teenagers are highly likely to get addicted in such circumstances when their self-esteem has been degraded, emotional distress and loss of pride can even stimulate to get addicted to certain substance abuse. Substance: Substance abuse is the most common and obsessive then other addictions. It creates dependencies and high tolerance due to excessive use of substances like alcohol, cocaine, heroine, methamphetamine, marijuana, oxcycontin, sedatives, drugs etc. According to a psychoanalytic view addicts substance abuse or drug abuse to run away from distress and anxiety and other painful emotions such as hunger, anger, loneliness and depressions. They avoid responsibility, problem solving initiatives, denial of physiological disorders signalling a threat to overwhelm their ego. (Thombs, D. 2006). Seeking Counselling or Medical Care: Addictions such as drug addiction, alcohol, substance abuse needs sudden and immediate counselling and medical care. Counselling can be done to such patients or addicts who either can be a part of support groups, Rehabs (in patient treatments), medical intensive care, hospitals etc. Group sessions, individual sessions, family counselling and psychiatric supervision is required to cope up with the abuse habits. The session ranges from coping with anger skills, expression of desires and feelings and are encourage speaking up in order to heal their addictions. Support groups enable the addicts to participate and socialise to revive their former personality. The after effects of leaving the addiction can be severe and the addict is prone to get back if he did not maintain the tolerance level. Peer pressure groups also contribute along with the family to cure patients like narcotics, heroine or alcohol addicts. Addiction Treatment Methods Counselling and seeking a medical care for abuse of substance and addictions are the first step to eradicate this big menace. Treatment options depend on different factors and also on the extent of addiction of the individual. Treatment can be a combination of in patient and out patient programs, rehabs; psychotherapy, support groups, medication, family and friend support and in sever case surgeries too. Psychotherapy It can be achieved with family or spouse sessions with a specialist or medical practioner depending on the extent of addiction, behaviour patterns and health status. They are sessions on individual and combine to cope up with the sudden and excessive craving of addicts, relapses and other dependencies resulted in adverse behaviour patterns. Medical Treatment Detoxification can also be needed for sever addiction like alcohol or drug abuses. Acute symptoms of withdrawal is linked with discontinuation of drugs are alcohol and is very helpful in long term. Medication like Methadone,buprenorphine (Suboxone), and levo-alpha- acetylmethadol (LAAM) can be prescribed for individuals addicted to heroin Acamprosate (Campral) is an agent to help in maintaining abstinence in people with alcohol dependency. A nicotine replacement product (such as patches or gum) or an oral medication (such as bupropion) can be an effective component of therapy for people addicted to nicotine. (Nash, C.M.2007). Self help groups They help the addicts to cope up with their abuse engaging them in different activities, relishing their behaviour patterns, meeting with people of same problems and motivating them towards better life and future. They are educationist, therapist and volunteers who educate them and revive them for abuse of alcoholics, narcotic and other drugs. Behavioural therapy The extreme changes in behaviour pattern are treated by this therapy. It also helps them to deal with the withdrawal symptoms. This is recommended either as an outpatient or inpatient residential treatment centres which serious addictions such as Alcohol, stimulants, depressants, opioids etc. Motivation and encouragement are the basic theme for the behavioural therapy. Family, friends, co-workers can engage the addict in replacement of addiction activities like playing some sports, dinning and hanging out etc. They could also resist him for doing or developing the particular behavioural pattern or urgency for the addiction. It emphasis on improving the problem solving skills, grief coping skills, strengthening the physical appearance with balanced diet and interacting in constructive and rewarding activities. Prevention of relapse is very important and transforming new behaviour pattern can avoid it in long term withdrawal too. Conclusion It’s never too late to quit, extreme hobbits resulting in addiction or obsession can destroy life, family, friends, and social world. Addiction is a very serious mental disorder which needs medical care, counselling, help and coordination of friends and family to demolish it completely. Avoidance is not a solution because life is too short to live like an addict. References DiClemente, C.C. (2006). Addiction and Change: How Addictions Develop and Addicted People Recover. Maryland, Baltimore County: Guilford Press. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2001) Substance Abuse: The Nation's #1 Problem. Princeton, N.J. Kalivas, P. (2001)."Drug Addiction: To the Cortex … and Beyond." The American Journal of Psychiatry 158, no. 3 . "Scientists May Use Existing Drugs to Stop Addiction." Life Science Weekly (September 21, 2004): 1184. Timothy, K. (2000). "Addiction: A Booming $800 Billion Industry." The World and I .22nd Nov 2010. Thombs, D. (2006). Introduction to Addictive Behaviors.New York: Guilford Press National Centre of Health and Wellness. (2010).’What Causes Addiction’. Retrieve online: http://www.anxiety-and-depression- solutions.com/wellness_concerns/addiction/addiction_causes.php Leshner, A. (2001). "Addiction is a Brain Disease." Issues in Science and Technology 17, no. 3. Online. 22 Nov 2010. Biotech Week (2004) “A New Office-based Treatment for Prescription Drug and Heroin Addiction." Vol: 219. Heyman, M.G. (2009). Addiction: a disorder of choice. Harvard, US: Harvard University Press.
Pages to are hidden for
"Addiction and Major Treatment Methods"Please download to view full document