Addiction and Major Treatment Methods by cuiliqing

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									Addiction and Major Treatment Methods
Abstract:

An uncontrollable repetitive carving of anything regardless of its positive or negative
outcomes is highly toxic and termed as addiction. It can be only positive if the motive
is acceptable under human rights actions but can be dreadful negative if it results in a
serious obsession or craving for drugs, behaviour, withdrawal of physiological
tolerance and habits.
The research paper scrutinized the major addictions and its effects on its social
surrounding, family and friends, work and the person itself. Extreme limits for any
action, activity or feelings can create a misbalance in human personality traits. The
research paper also emphasis on the various treatments and counselling methods used
to cure addicts and their ongoing development and after effects for using adverse
addictions. (Timothy, 2000.)
Addiction
Addiction is the most progressive and destructive syndrome which creates an
excessive craving and obsession for certain behaviour, object, sensation or drugs.
Habits are very closely related to addiction and it creates dependency and urge for
substance abuse, adverse eating disorder and weird physiological behaviour at any
particular time (DiClemente, C. p5).
Addiction can be of anything; drugs, food, habits, chores, work or even a person that
has a strong effect on the personality and mood swings. Denial and dependence is the
major symptom for addicts. It has destructive and adverse consequences, which have
scar a family, charred a relationship and even demolished their former personality.
There is no excuse to addiction be it for small things like (shopping, cooking, cleaning
etc) as we consider it a daily habit and create dependency on such petty things. The
reality is that we accept the addiction but denies understanding and restrain us from
doing it. .
According to a research based on substance abuse, by eighth grade, 52% of
adolescents have consumed alcohol, 41% have smoked tobacco, and 20% have
smoked marijuana (Wood, R. 2001). An estimated four million Americans over the
age of 12 used prescription pain relievers, sedatives, and stimulants for "nonmedical"
reasons during one month.
According to data from the World Health Organization, there were 1.1 billion
smokers worldwide and 10,000 tobacco-related deaths per day. Furthermore, in the
United States, 43% of children aged 2-11 years are exposed to environmental tobacco
smoke, which has been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome, low birth
weight, asthma, middle ear disease, pneumonia, cough, and upper respiratory
infection. (Timothy, K. 2000).


Types and Forms of Addiction
Addiction varies from abuse of substance, recreational addiction, everyday activities,
sensation etc. The most common of them is the drug addiction which has been banned
and is still found in children, adults and olds irrespective of their gender, habitants or
social world. Several Non-for profit organisations, charities, councils and ministries
of health have collaborated and banned addictions to restrain the adolescence and
children from crucifying their future, family and social world. The common types of
addictions are: Drugs, Alcohol, Caffeine, Tobacco, Cocaine, Inhalants and Solvents,
Internet, Gambling, Marijuana, Oxcycontin, Prescription drug abuse, Shopping,
Sexual, pornography, Video games, Eating disorders, Sedatives, Work, Nicotine etc.




Causes and Effects
Addiction is often confused with dependence. Dependence is the withdrawal
symptoms after stopping substance abuse and is often regarded as tolerance.
Tolerance occurs when the body becomes less responsive to a specific amount of a
substance, thereby causing the person to increase the amount of drug intake to achieve
the previous effect. It is said that when tolerance increases risk of addiction also
increases.
The causes of withdrawal and continues abuse depends on two main factors, physical
and physiological.
It is a complex brain disorder that instigates a very strong craving for an addict even
in the worst circumstances. During the craving for substance abuse or addiction a
person usually misses the physiological behaviour pattern such as being high
tempered, low mood sings, acute depression and even haughty laugher and often
experiences withdrawal symptoms. The brain responds to the addictive substance as
the same way it responds to the pleasurable experiences. They do not care whether
they will die or it is destroying their health, future, family, friends or even social
world.
According to report regarding the important factors investigating the causes of
addiction (National Centre of Health and Wellnes: 2010) are:


Genetics
A person who has never been in contact with any drugs, alcohol is highly rare to get
addicted. Inherited behaviour pattern or substance abuse in family, friends, social
gathering, and exposure to social world are the basis risk factor contributing towards
addictions. If a person is grown up with alcohol addicted or drug addicted parents
they are likely to be affected by the environment either physiological disorders such
as food addicts, work addicts or even in adverse cases kills their depression with
sedative addictions.
Environment
The addict environment has drastic effects on children and even adolescent teenagers
which either are engaged in other addiction with adverse physiological behaviour
patterns ranging from rage of anger burst, acute depressions or even solemnization.
They are even prone to drug abuse ranging from alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, heroine,
opium, inhalant abuses and even sedatives to relief them from the miseries of their
life. The most striking feature in the last decade was reported that children from
broken families with divorced or single parents even results in different kind of
substance or drug addictions to eradicate, depressions, anxieties, coping up with
grief’s and even the world.


Emotional Disorder:
The other most common factor or rather an excuse for acute depressions, misery of
life, poverty, bi-polar disorders and pressure from work, home and even school
pressures. Children are more prone to such addictions ranging to teenagers emotional
distress for quarrelling parents, broken relationships, poverty, and pressure for good
grades. Adults are also prone to this factor with other serious physiological factor.
They want to escape from all the problems and anxieties and thus the relief is
pleasurable and often chose for excessive drug, food, shopping, exercise, alcohol or
sleeping abuse.


Abuse:
According to the study, individuals who are pawned or experienced physical,
physiological, emotional abuse are prone become addicts. Children and teenagers are
highly likely to get addicted in such circumstances when their self-esteem has been
degraded, emotional distress and loss of pride can even stimulate to get addicted to
certain substance abuse.


Substance:
Substance abuse is the most common and obsessive then other addictions. It creates
dependencies and high tolerance due to excessive use of substances like alcohol,
cocaine, heroine, methamphetamine, marijuana, oxcycontin, sedatives, drugs etc.
According to a psychoanalytic view addicts substance abuse or drug abuse to run
away from distress and anxiety and other painful emotions such as hunger, anger,
loneliness and depressions. They avoid responsibility, problem solving initiatives,
denial of physiological disorders signalling a threat to overwhelm their ego. (Thombs,
D. 2006).


Seeking Counselling or Medical Care:
Addictions such as drug addiction, alcohol, substance abuse needs sudden and
immediate counselling and medical care. Counselling can be done to such patients or
addicts who either can be a part of support groups, Rehabs (in patient treatments),
medical intensive care, hospitals etc. Group sessions, individual sessions, family
counselling and psychiatric supervision is required to cope up with the abuse habits.
The session ranges from coping with anger skills, expression of desires and feelings
and are encourage speaking up in order to heal their addictions.
Support groups enable the addicts to participate and socialise to revive their former
personality. The after effects of leaving the addiction can be severe and the addict is
prone to get back if he did not maintain the tolerance level. Peer pressure groups also
contribute along with the family to cure patients like narcotics, heroine or alcohol
addicts.


Addiction Treatment Methods
Counselling and seeking a medical care for abuse of substance and addictions are the
first step to eradicate this big menace. Treatment options depend on different factors
and also on the extent of addiction of the individual. Treatment can be a combination
of in patient and out patient programs, rehabs; psychotherapy, support groups,
medication, family and friend support and in sever case surgeries too.


Psychotherapy
It can be achieved with family or spouse sessions with a specialist or medical
practioner depending on the extent of addiction, behaviour patterns and health status.
They are sessions on individual and combine to cope up with the sudden and
excessive craving of addicts, relapses and other dependencies resulted in adverse
behaviour patterns.
Medical Treatment
Detoxification can also be needed for sever addiction like alcohol or drug abuses.
Acute symptoms of withdrawal is linked with discontinuation of drugs are alcohol and
is very helpful in long term.
Medication like Methadone,buprenorphine (Suboxone), and levo-alpha-
acetylmethadol (LAAM) can be prescribed for individuals addicted
to heroin Acamprosate (Campral) is an agent to help in maintaining abstinence in
people with alcohol dependency. A nicotine replacement product (such as patches or
gum) or an oral medication (such as bupropion) can be an effective component of
therapy for people addicted to nicotine. (Nash, C.M.2007).


Self help groups
They help the addicts to cope up with their abuse engaging them in different
activities, relishing their behaviour patterns, meeting with people of same problems
and motivating them towards better life and future. They are educationist, therapist
and volunteers who educate them and revive them for abuse of alcoholics, narcotic
and other drugs.


Behavioural therapy
The extreme changes in behaviour pattern are treated by this therapy. It also helps
them to deal with the withdrawal symptoms. This is recommended either as an
outpatient or inpatient residential treatment centres which serious addictions such as
Alcohol, stimulants, depressants, opioids etc.
Motivation and encouragement are the basic theme for the behavioural therapy.
Family, friends, co-workers can engage the addict in replacement of addiction
activities like playing some sports, dinning and hanging out etc. They could also resist
him for doing or developing the particular behavioural pattern or urgency for the
addiction.
It emphasis on improving the problem solving skills, grief coping skills, strengthening
the physical appearance with balanced diet and interacting in constructive and
rewarding activities. Prevention of relapse is very important and transforming new
behaviour pattern can avoid it in long term withdrawal too.
Conclusion
It’s never too late to quit, extreme hobbits resulting in addiction or obsession can
destroy life, family, friends, and social world. Addiction is a very serious mental
disorder which needs medical care, counselling, help and coordination of friends and
family to demolish it completely. Avoidance is not a solution because life is too short
to live like an addict.
References


DiClemente, C.C. (2006). Addiction and Change: How Addictions Develop and
Addicted People Recover. Maryland, Baltimore County: Guilford Press.


Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. (2001) Substance Abuse: The Nation's #1
Problem. Princeton, N.J.


Kalivas, P. (2001)."Drug Addiction: To the Cortex … and Beyond." The American
Journal of Psychiatry 158, no. 3 .


"Scientists May Use Existing Drugs to Stop Addiction." Life Science
Weekly (September 21, 2004): 1184.


Timothy, K. (2000). "Addiction: A Booming $800 Billion Industry." The World and
I .22nd Nov 2010.


Thombs, D. (2006). Introduction to Addictive Behaviors.New York: Guilford Press


National Centre of Health and Wellness. (2010).’What Causes Addiction’. Retrieve
online: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-
solutions.com/wellness_concerns/addiction/addiction_causes.php


Leshner, A. (2001). "Addiction is a Brain Disease." Issues in Science and
Technology 17, no. 3. Online. 22 Nov 2010.


Biotech Week (2004) “A New Office-based Treatment for Prescription Drug and
Heroin Addiction." Vol: 219.


Heyman, M.G. (2009). Addiction: a disorder of choice. Harvard, US: Harvard
University Press.

								
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