Hybrid Cars Conventional Cars by suchenfz

VIEWS: 36 PAGES: 28

									                  Hybrid Cars
                      versus
            Conventional Cars




Frank J. DiMauro               Project: Green Products
November 25th, 2008            ENVS 664-660

                                                         1
           U.S. Hybrid Vehicle Sales – In ‘000’s

400.0

350.0

300.0
                                                                       Hybrid sales
250.0
                                                                       have increased
200.0
                                                                       313% from 84K
150.0                                                                  in 2004 to 347K
100.0                                                                  in 2007.
 50.0

  -
             2004              2005              2006           2007




        Source: Green Car Congress, (www.grencarcongress.com)                       2
  And the Green Car Award goes to……..
Motor Trend & Automobile Magazines – Nissan Altima Hybrid

Green Car.org - Toyota Prius

Yahoo’s Top 100 Green Cars - Honda Civic Hybrid.

Consumer Reports – Nissan Versa

Green Car Journal – 2009 Volkswagen Jetta Diesel

Consumer Guide Auto.com – Chevy Malibu Hybrid

RAND Study – Diesels better than Hybrid

Edmunds.com – Chevy Tahoe Hybrid (top pick)

Green Vehicle Guide.gov – Toyota Prius

CNW Marketing Research in Bandon, Oregon
                                                            3
What’s Being Evaluated….?

                       Use




                Resource Consumption
                during the products useful
                Life, (i.e. fuel economy)
                                             4
The Bigger Picture….


       Creation                    +             Use               +   Disposal




Raw Materials                             Fuel Consumption             Ease of Recycling
Complexity of Assembly                    Oil & Tire consumption       Environmental Waste


 Source: US Department of Energy - 2006                                                      5
  Coastal North West Research – Bandor, Oregon

•For profit automotive research company

•Started in 1984

•Pioneer in automobile life cycle analysis

•They have 10,000 subscribers

•Publishes a monthly Retail Automotive Summary periodical

•Home and Shelter Update newsletters

•Purchase Path studies, sales forecasting and other industry analyses.

•In 2001, CNW published their “Dust to Dust” analysis, the first ever life
cycle assessment of the automotive industry. Focuses on ENERGY



                                                                             6
Which is more efficient from a Complete Life Cycle Perspective?
The Jeep Grand Cherokee or the Toyota Prius?




                                                           7
The Grand Cherokee is more efficient than the Toyota Prius!!


                                                             Grand Cherokee:
                                                             Life Cycle Factor Per Mile – 2.043




Prius:
Life Cycle Factor Per Mile – 2.191


 Source: CNW Research, (www.cnwmr.com) – Dust to Dust Energy Report 2007
                                                                                             8
Why did the Prius Receive a Lower Rating than the Cherokee?
The 15,000 mile battery commute…..

   •Prius has two engines – a conventional gas engine and an electric motor.

   •The Prius battery is made of nickel which is mined in Sudbury, Canada
       (Sudbury is so polluted it is used by NASA to simulate the moon)

   •The nickel is smelted at the Nickel Center near Georgian Bay, Canada.

   •Then it’s shipped to Europe for refinement in Wales.

   •Then it’s shipped to China for further processing into nickel foam.

   •Then it’s shipped to Japan where the batteries are manufactured.

   •Finally the completed cars are shipped back to North America for sale.


     What was the most energy efficient car in the study?
                                                                               9
Winner – The Smart Car




Life Cycle Rating of 0.583
                             10
 Why the Smart Car?

                      •Lightweight steel unibody

                      •Plastic Body Panels that
                      can be easily replaced
                      and recycled

                      •3 cylinder aluminum
                      engine

                      •Dashboard and Wheel
                      arches made of recycled
                      Material

                      •Less is more…..


Life Cycle Rating of 0.583
                                             11
The Best of the Best…….

          Top 10 Best Performers                                      All Hybrids
    Sorted in Ascending Order of Efficiency              Sorted in Ascending Order of Efficiency
                                 Dust to Dust                                         Dust to Dust
           2007 Models                                         2007 Models
                                   Per Mile                                             Per Mile
 Mercedes SMART                         0.583         Toyota Prius                           2.191
 Saturn Ion                             0.621         Ford Escape Hybrid                     2.747
 Ford Focus                             0.621         Honda Civic Hybrid                     2.943
 Chevy Cavalier                         0.655         Toyota Camry Hybrid                    3.042
 Jeep Wrangler                          0.656         Toyota Highlander Hybrid               3.078
 Scion xB                               0.683         Ford Mercury Mariner Hybrid            3.412
 Chevy Aveo                             0.693         Honda Accord Hybrid                    4.228
 Scion xA                               0.713         Lexus GS450h                           4.365
 Pontiac Sunfire                        0.732         Lexus RX400h                           4.661
 Toyota Corolla                         0.748
 Industry Average - All Models          2.538         Hybrid Average                        3.407

        In total, 284 vehicles were tested. The industry average was 2.538


Source: CNW Research, (www.cnwmr.com) – Dust to Dust Energy Report 2007                          12
The Honda Accord…
             Hybrid                      Non-Hybrid




 Engine               3.0L V6    Engine                2.4L I6
 Horsepower                255   Horsepower                166
 MPG (city/highway)      29/37   MPG (city/highway)      25/35
 Price                $31,000    Price                $21,500
 Energy Factor            4.23   Energy Factor            1.96

                                                                 13
  How about Electric Vehicles….?
  Cradle to Grave CO2 Emissions – Gas / Hybrid / Electric

  Study conducted in 2003
  by the Institute for
  Lifecycle Environmental
  Assessment.




Total carbon dioxide emissions over the lifetimes of gasoline, hybrid, and electric cars.
The electric car is shown three times, with differing use energies depending on the method
of generating electricity: coal, liquefied natural gas, or hydroelectric.
Electric power losses of 7% to 8% during transmission are excluded.

 Source: Institute for Lifecycle Environmental Assessment, (www.ilea.org) – Automobiles: Electric vs. Gasoline   14
United States Sources of Electricity in 2006….


                                         Other, 4.5%

                         Hy dro Electric, 7.1%




                      Nuclear, 19.4%
                                                       Coal, 49.0%




                           Natural Gas, 20.0%




Source: US Department of Energy - 2006                               15
Pennsylvania Sources of Electricity in 2006….

                                           Other, 2.1%

                                Hy dro Electric, 1.3%




                      Nuclear, 34.4%



                                                         Coal, 56.0%




                            Natural Gas, 6.2%




Source: US Department of Energy - 2006                                 16
Not so Easy to figure out……
   Determining whether a product is more or less environmentally friendly
   is not a subject that can be evaluated easily. Consumer Marketing
   makes being objective more difficult. It is certainly not as black and
   white as I originally thought. If anything, it taught me that there is still a
   lot of grey in the world of green.




Source: US Department of Energy - 2006                                              17
Biodiesel




            18
                                Nothing is Wasted….

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats
    and recycled cooking oils.
    Only 3 ingredients are necessary to make biodiesel.


    Methanol or
                  Process Input                                          Process Output
     Alcohol                                                            Methanol or
                             Catalyst
       12%                                                  Glycerin     Alcohol
                              (Lye)                                                     Fertilizer
                                                               9%           4%
                               1%                                                          1%




                                               Vegetable
                                                  Oil                                                    Biodiesel
                                                 87%                                                        86%

  Vegetable Oil   Methanol or Alcohol   Catalyst (Lye)     Biodiesel   Glycerin   Methanol or Alcohol   Fertilizer


Source: www.biodiesel.org, production fact sheet
                                                                                                                19
                      How Does it Compare?
                             Tail Pipe Emissions

In a comparative study conducted by the EPA in 2002, between
conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel, the EPA found biodiesel to cause
less (or more) pollution in the following categories:


         Unburned Hydrocarbons                                            -67%
         Carbon Monoxide                                                  -48%
         Particulate Matter (Soot)                                        -47%
         NoX                                                              +10%
         Sulfates                                                        -100%
         Ozone Smog                                                       -50%

    Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (www.epa.gov)
    A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions
    October 2002 – Pronouncement Number: EPA420-P-02-001
                                                                                 20
                   How Does it Compare?
                        Green House Gasses

In a full life cycle analysis conducted by Harvard University in 2001, they
found Biodiesel, produced the least amount of Green Houses Gasses.




  The Electric Car is considered to have been powered by the New England power grid.
                                                                                       21
                                    Comparison of Petroleum and Biodiesel
                                          Consumption in the U.S.
                              U.S. ANNUAL Biodiesel Consumption                                                  U.S. DAILY Petroleum Consumption

                      300                                                                                 21.0

                      250
Millions of Gallons




                                                                                    Millions of Barrels
                                                                                                          20.5
                      200
                                                                                                          20.0
                      150
                                                                                                          19.5
                      100

                      50                                                                                  19.0

                       0                                                                                  18.5
                            1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006                                1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006
                                                    Year                                                                                 Year




   A Drop in the Bucket...
   In 2007, the US consumed 317 BILLION gallons of crude oil. 2007 production
   of Biodiesel is projected to be 500 million gallons. That’s only 0.16% of total
   petroleum consumption, and 0.71% of total diesel fuel / heating oil consumption.


   Source: www.eia.doe.gov (Energy Information Administration – Official Energy Statistics from the US Government)
                                                                                                                                                                  22
                              Benefits….

Renewable and Sustainable…..
•Made from vegetables, plants and animal fats.

Better for your engine…..
•Biodiesel has inherently better lubricating properties than diesel. Engines run on
 biodiesel last longer.

Less Reliance on Foreign Oil…..
•And less potential money in the hands of terrorists

Significantly less pollution….
•Biodiesel is 10 times LESS toxic than household table salt. If you wanted to, you
 could eat it with no ill effects. It biodegrades faster than sugar.

Practical….
•Can be used in any conventional diesel engine with no modifications whatsoever.

                                                                               23
                             Problems….

A Different Shade of Green…..
•Fuel is a commodity. “Break even business” Very dependent on oil prices.
•15 to 20% of the total fuel cost is federal and local taxes.
 Some “biodieselers” have been fined and threatened with imprisonment.

Watch Out for COLD Weather…..
•Biodiesel gels about 32 deg. F (versus -15 for Diesel)

Can only be used in a DIESEL engine…..
•Less than 2% of cars in the US have diesel engines.

Could raise food prices….
•What happened to corn with ethanol could happen to soy or other crops if
virgin oil is taken from the food supply.

Cleaner, but not the cleanest….
•Fuels like hydrogen are better, but not currently practical.

                                                                            24
Frank’s Biodiesel Processor

                    25 Gallon Batch Capacity
                    3 Stages – Process, Wash
                    & Dry




                                               25
1983 Mercedes 240D - Before




                              26
1983 Mercedes 240D - After




                             27
1999 Mercedes E300 Turbo Diesel




                                  28

								
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