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                                        UGANDA

                             World Food Summit Follow-up
                  Draft Strategy for National Agricultural Development
                                      Horizon 2010


                                      CONTENTS


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

I     THE SETTING                                                           1
      1.1 Food Security                                                     1
          Food Demand and Nutrition
          Food Supply
          Food Security and Poverty
      1.2 Policy and Programme Highlights                                   2
          Economic and Institutional Policies
          Social Policies and Programmes
      1.3 The Agricultural Sector                                           3
          Agriculture in the Economy
          Land Use, Farming Systems and Institutions
      1.4 Recent Performance                                                4
      1.5 Government's Sectoral Objectives, Policies And Programmes         4
          Agricultural Production and National Food Security
          Rural Poverty and Household Food Security
          Agricultural Production Promotion Policies and Programmes
          Prospects for Trade in Agricultural Products


II.   REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTION: SCENARIOS FOR
      WORLD FOOD SUMMIT FOLLOW-UP                                           7
      2.1 Major Challenges and Constraints                                  7
      2.2 Strategic Options                                                 8
      2.3 Programme Targets and Goals                                       9
      2.4 Policy And Institutional Implications                             9
      2.5 Resource Implications to 2010                                     9



COUNTRY INDICATORS
                                      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

         Uganda has an overall positive food balance in many items such as peas, maize, fingermillet,
sorghum, cassava, potatoes, bananas, fish, goat meat and mutton. The commodities in deficit include
beans, milk, beef and poultry products. Most of the districts have a surplus except for Soroti, Kumi,
Pallisa, Tororo, Moroto, Kotido and Moyo. Some of these districts suffer chronic deficits while others
experience difficulties in food accessibility due to poor road network and distribution problems. A
number of households suffer from food insecurity due to poverty and other factors.

        Uganda's economy is dominated by agriculture and is heavily dependent on growth in the
agricultural sector. Eighty nine percent of the population lives in rural areas where they are mostly
engaged in agriculture. The sector employs more than 80 percent of the labour force and accounts for
50 percent of the Gross Domestic Product and over 90 percent of merchandise exports.

         The Government's major agricultural development objectives include: (1) increasing
agricultural productivity to ensure food security and self-sufficiency in raw materials for agro-
processing industries as well as surplus for export; (2) increasing peoples' incomes and reducing poverty
through increased sales of agricultural surplus; and (3) diversifying the country's exports through
promotion of non-traditional export crops as well as livestock and fish products. The Government has
identified four priority areas to be accorded special support: agricultural research and extension, primary
health care, primary education, rural feeder-and trunk-roads maintenance and rural water supplies.

        Ensuring food security for all and improved standards of living for the majority of households in
Uganda that depend on agriculture for their livelihood calls for increased agricultural production and
productivity. However, there are a number of constraints and challenges faced by the agricultural sector
which have to be addressed. These include: (1) use of rudimentary technology like hoes and pangs by
farmers with minimal utilisation of complementary inputs; (2) over-dependence on rainfed agriculture
and lack of irrigation facilities; (3) lack of planting and stocking material for crops and livestock; (4)
lack of access to credit to facilitate acquisition of recommended technology; (5) land fragmentation and
poor utilisation of the land; (6) recurring outbreaks of pests and diseases and frequent periods of
prolonged drought; (7) lack of proper marketing and infrastructure; (8) need for improved conservation
and more rational use of natural resources; and (9) gender-related social, cultural and economic
constraints faced by women.

        Principal areas to be addressed in a strategy to overcome these constraints include enterprise
selection, research - extension - farmer linkages, marketing and rural infrastructure development,
provision of water for agriculture and agricultural credit.

        In 1995/96 the Government contributed US$67.4 million in recurrent and development
expenditures to agriculture, natural resources, roads, trade, industry, transport and communications. In
the same financial year, donor agencies contributed US $209 million to the above items which directly
influence agricultural production. Private investments from both domestic and external sources are
estimated to account for US$ 185 million and are assumed to play a dominant role as sources of both
domestically and externally generated capital also in future. It can be expected that in future
investments will continue to be in the order of about US$ 460 million.
                                           I. THE SETTING

1.1 Food Security

         Food demand and nutritional needs. The food balance at national, regional and district levels
shows that Uganda can satisfy its food demands. An overall positive food balance is indicated in many
commodities such as peas, maize, finger millet, sorghum, cassava, potatoes, bananas, fish, goat meat
and mutton. The commodities in deficit include beans, milk, beef and poultry products. At the regional
level, the eastern region of the country has an overall positive food balance. Most of its districts have a
surplus except for Soroti, Kumi, Pallisa and Tororo which have some deficits due to cattle rustling, low
income and poor distribution networks. The northern region has a positive overall food balance.
However, the districts of Moroto, Kotido and Moyo have chronic deficits because of poor soils and
climatic conditions, low income as well as the influx of refugees. The western region shows an overall
food surplus except for the Kibaale, Bundibugyo, and parts of the Kabarole and Kasese districts which
experience difficulties in food accessibility primarily due to poor road network and distribution
problems. The central region has an overall negative food balance in terms of food self-sufficiency
primarily due to urbanisation and declining soil fertility. However, because of better infrastructure and
higher per capita household incomes compared to other regions, the central region is able to access food
from other regions as well as from outside the country.

        At the national level, the daily average nutrient intake stands at 2400 calories, 50g for proteins
and 19g for fats. The calorie intake is 99 per cent of the SSA minimum requirements. In the case of
proteins and fats, the average national intake levels are 87 and 94 percent of the FAO minimum intake
levels. In general, cereals and rootcrops are consumed more than oil seeds, pulses and livestock
products.

         Food supplies. Uganda has surpluses in almost all crops (except for beans and livestock
products). The country is also reasonably secure in oil crops (groundnuts, simsim, soyabeans) with a
surplus in the range of about 10,000 mt to 50,000 mt per annum. The deficit in beans is low and
transitional in nature (about 5,000 to 20,000 mt per annum) but there is a surplus in other pulses of
about 20,000 to 35,000 mt per annum. There are, however, large deficits for livestock products, most
notably milk, beef, poultry and eggs.

        Per capita food production in the country is on the decline mainly because the population
growth rate of 2.5 percent per annum is higher than the food production rate of 1.0 to 1.5 percent per
annum. Some of the reasons for the declining food production include recurrent droughts in some parts
of the country, the widespread use of rudimentary tools and unimproved seeds, high prices of
agricultural inputs, crops/animal pests and diseases, soil infertility and expensive labour. In addition,
food availability is adversely affected by inadequate food processing and poor storage facilities. Uganda
is, however, potentially a food surplus country with high export potential. With effective
implementation of an agricultural development strategy, Uganda could not only eradicate food
insecurity at home but also enhance food security in the region.

         Food insecurity and poverty. While Uganda has an overall positive food balance in most
districts, a number of poorer households suffer food insecurity. On average, rural households are poorer
than urban households with 27 percent of the rural and only 11 percent of the urban population falling
below the poverty line with 89 per cent of the population living in rural areas. It has been found that
out of the total household expenditure, 63 percent is spent on food in rural areas compared to 43 percent
for the urban population. There are also regional differences in the distribution of poverty. The share of
food in household expenditure is 49 percent for the central region, 64 percent for the eastern region, 62
percent for the western region, and 63 percent for the northern region. Low household incomes prevent
families from making purchases to make up for food deficits. The most vulnerable groups include
women, youth, the elderly, widows, handicapped and people with poor education and poor health
especially in rural areas. In urban and peri-urban areas, many households have adopted some farming
enterprises as a coping mechanism for food insecurity.

1.2 Policy and Programme Highlights

         Economic and institutional policies. Uganda's macro-economic policy aims at creating an
independent, integrated and self sustaining economy. This is to be achieved through sustainable growth
and development and restoration of internal and external financial stability. The policy aims at
mobilising resources, ensuring economic stability and promoting exports. It is the intention of the
Uganda government to increase the responsiveness and flexibility of both production and marketing
systems by divesting itself from direct participation in agricultural production and marketing. This
involves liberalisation of trade and commerce and fostering regional co-operation, among other
strategies. Liberalisation has freed prices and made trade more competitive and flexible. The
implementation of the Uganda Investment Code has attracted investments in the agricultural sector and
contributed to reduction in inflation, making Uganda’s goods competitive in regional and international
markets. However, due to rural poverty and increasing demands for cash, there is a tendency for rural
households, in some areas, to transform much of their produce into cash with little regard to food
security.

        Social policies and programmes. Among the principal social policies and programmes of the
Government is the National Food and Nutrition Policy (1993) which provides the framework for
addressing food and nutrition issues and problems in the country. The overall food policy objective is
to guarantee national food security by increasing food production and ensuring adequate nutrition
through sufficient food supply, processing and preservation, storage, marketing and distribution,
external trade and supplementary food aid. In 1996, the Uganda National Plan of Action for Nutrition
(UNPAN) was finalised to meet Uganda's commitment to the resolutions of the International
Conference on Nutrition (ICN) held in Rome in 1996. The plan outlines the strategies to address
problems of hunger and nutrition through multisectoral programmes and activities. The UNPAN is to
be followed by preparation of district plans of action for nutrition. So far two districts, namely Kabale
and Mubende, have already done so.

        With regard to health, Government policy is to promote health, prevent disease, provide timely
treatment and rehabilitation so as to enable all people in Uganda to attain a level of health that will
permit them to live a socially and economically productive life. The objectives of the policy include:
reduction of both maternal and infant morbidity and mortality rates, promoting the use of safe drinking
water and sanitary means of waste disposal and promoting immunisation against the major
immunisable diseases.

       The National Population Policy (1995) sets out explicit guidelines to respond to the impact of
past population phenomena on the economy and society, and aims at influencing future demographic


                                                  -2-
trends and patterns especially fertility, mortality and migration in order to improve the quality of life
and standard of living of the people.

1.3 The Agricultural Sector

        Agriculture in the economy. The National Population and Housing Census of 1991 indicates
that 89 percent of the population lives in rural areas where they are engaged predominantly in
agriculture. The sector employs more than 80 percent of the labour force, contributes 50 percent to the
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for over 90 percent of the merchandise exports. Small-
holders account for practically the entire agricultural output.

        Land use, farming systems and institutions. Uganda has a total land area of 241,000 square
kilometres of which close to 167,600 sq. km. are cultivable. Only between 30 and 40 percent of the
cultivable land has been used mostly by small-scale farmers. It is estimated that 94 percent of
agricultural production and virtually all food production comes from 2.5 million smallholders who own,
on average, 2 hectares of land each. In 1990, an estimated 4.6 million hectares were under cultivation of
which 64 percent were in annual crops (cotton, tobacco, cereals, pulses and oilseeds) and 36 percent
were in perennial crops (bananas, coffee, sugarcane and tea). In some parts of the country, growth in
population is exerting pressure on forests, wetlands and marginal areas.

        Agricultural production is carried out on the basis of farming systems that are categorised
according to agro-ecological zones, soil types, rainfall and cropping patterns. The farming systems
include:

         Teso system in Eastern Uganda, characterised by annual crops;

         Banana - coffee system in high-rainfall areas around Lake Victoria and some parts of
          Western Uganda, characterised by bananas, robusta coffee and food crops grown in mixed
          farming systems;

         Banana/finger millet/cotton system in parts of Western and Eastern Uganda, major crops
          include cotton, robusta coffee, beans and maize;

         Northern system mostly in the districts of Gulu, Lira, Kitgum and Apac; cotton, tobacco,
          simsim, finger millet and cassava cultivation predominate;

         West Nile system where tobacco, cotton, arabica coffee, sorghum and cassava are the major
          crops;

         Montane system found in mountainous areas of the West and East; arabica coffee, bananas,
          maize, and temperate crops at higher altitudes are grown;

         Pastoral system in the North east and parts of Southern Uganda; pastoral livestock
          production is combined with sorghum and millet cropping.

1.4 Recent Performance


                                                  -3-
         Growth in the agricultural sector in recent years has been rapid increasing from an annual rate
of 0.1 percent in 1986/87 to 4.2 percent in 1994/1996. This is attributed to the prevailing peace in most
parts of the country, good governance and better macro-economic management. The traditional export
crops (coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco) are still important, accounting for 80 per cent of total merchandise
exports while non-traditional export crops (horticultural crops, simsim, vanilla, cereals, particularly
maize) contributed 15 per cent in 1994/1995.

        The food crops produced are generally high in starch with banana's accounting for 53 percent of
the total tonnage and occupying 1.5 million hectares with an annual production of 9 million tonnes.
Root crops (cassava, potatoes) account for 28 percent and occupy 875,000 hectares with an annual
production of 4.8 million tonnes. Cereals (maize, fingermillet, sorghum, rice and wheat) account for 12
percent with 1.2 million hectares and an annual production of 2.0 million tonnes. Pulses and oil seeds
account for the remaining 7 percent with 1.2 million hectares and annual production of 799,000 tons.

         With respect to livestock, the country has an estimated 5.2 million cattle, 5.5 million goats, 0.9
million sheep, 1.3 million pigs and 21.8 million chickens. Milk output increased from 235 million
litres in 1981 to 436 million litres in 1996. Beef output, however, declined from 72,035 metric tonnes
in 1981 to 71,920 metric tonnes in 1994. Goat meat and mutton production has increased at an annual
rate of 4 percent while pork production has increased at an annual rate of 43 percent from 1991 to 1994.
 Poultry products have also shown an increase in output, poultry meat having an annual increase of 9
percent while eggs increased at 29 percent between 1991 and 1994.

       Fish catches have increased at the rate of 2.7 percent with 217,000 tonnes of fish caught in
1996. Fish exports have also increased by over 75 percent from 8,640 mt in 1994/95 to 14,330 mt in
1995/96. Receipts from fish exports rose from US$ 17 million to slightly less than US$ 30 million in
the same period.

1.5 Government's Sectoral Objectives, Policies and Programmes

        Agricultural production and national food security. The major agricultural development
objectives being pursued by the Government are to:

                a) Increase agricultural productivity to ensure food security and self sufficiency in raw
                   materials for agro-processing industries as well as surplus for export;

                b) Increase peoples' income and reduce poverty through increased sales of agricultural
                   surplus; and

                c) Diversify the country's exports through promotion of non-traditional export crops as
                   well as livestock and fish products.

        Emphasis is to be put on optimal use of factors of production and effective transfer of
appropriate technology to farmers. The aim will be to foster sustainable agricultural productivity
through promotion of rational utilisation of land resources and selection, adoption and maintenance of
suitable technologies. These measures will be reflected in increased production of food and cash crops.


                                                   -4-
        In the case of the livestock subsector, it should be noted that cattle numbers declined slightly to
4.5 million due to an exodus of cattle to Rwanda in 1995. Therefore, an increase in cattle population
and milk production is targeted at 2 percent in 1996/97. Further increments and improvements in cattle
numbers and milk production are expected in subsequent years. Improvements in goats, sheep and
poultry are expected both in numbers and quality. In the fisheries subsector, productivity improvements
are projected both for lake fisheries and aquaculture.

         Rural poverty and household food security. Poverty reduction is an important national
objective and the Government has put substantial investment into human capital and the social sectors
to improve the peoples' standards of living. Measures taken include keeping inflation under control by
reducing the overall budget deficit, extending credit to the private sector, and investing in the
agricultural sector which is the main source of productive jobs. This reduces unemployment and
increases peoples' incomes. Emphasis is placed on universal primary education which has given many
children access to educational facilities especially females and the rural poor. In health, emphasis is
placed on primary health care, water supply and sanitation. In addition, feeder and trunk roads
maintenance, improved technology generation and transfer, and the policy of divesting most
administrative and political powers to district authorities are some of the measures that contribute to
raising the standards of living of the rural poor.

         Agricultural production promotion policies and programmes. The Government has
initiated a number of measures which focus on structural and institutional rehabilitation. The measures
target elimination of constraints to growth in agriculture by placing emphasis on agricultural
production, reviving and strengthening agricultural research and extension and rehabilitating the
physical infrastructure. In the crop subsector, improvement of yields will be achieved through effective
research and extension services, control and eradication of plant diseases, and restructuring the
marketing and distribution infrastructure. In the livestock subsector, the Government will strive for
effective disease control through intensive use of vaccinations, treatments, and inspection of livestock
and their products at exit/entry points; vector control, supervision and regulation of the use of animal
drugs; and improved breeding stock. Measures being undertaken in the fisheries subsector include
monitoring the productivity of the national water systems and the conservation of local fish species,
restocking lakes and rivers, controlling water hyacinth, improving the processing and marketing of fish
products and developing industries that supply inputs related to fishing. Emphasis will also be put on
expansion and intensification of fish farming.

        Specific programmes underway include:

                 National Agricultural Research Organisation (NARO) - In the past, there was
                  minimal rationalisation and harmonisation of agricultural research and the delivery
                  of extension services. Preliminary studies and wide consultations carried out led to
                  the formulation and implementation of an Agricultural Extension Programme and
                  the establishment of NARO. NARO is an autonomous institution which sets out the
                  policy framework to undertake, promote and co-ordinate research in all aspects of
                  crops, livestock, fisheries and forestry. This avoids wasteful overlapping and
                  duplication of research efforts and makes the most efficient use of available
                  resources;



                                                   -5-
                Agricultural Extension Programme (AEP) - AEP was instituted in 1992 and is now
                 implemented countrywide. The programme was initiated following the merger of
                 the former Ministry of Animal Industry and Fisheries with that of Agriculture.
                 Under AEP, the unified extension approach using training and visit methodology
                 was adopted. Its main features include a single line of command, systematic
                 scheduled visits to farmers, group approach methods, participatory planning and
                 promotion of research-extension-farmer-market linkages. The programme develops,
                 on a continuous basis, extension messages on crop and livestock management,
                 identification and initiation of farmers' groups, improved household food storage,
                 nutrition, family resource management, family life education and income generating
                 activities, among others. The programme has significantly improved the delivery of
                 extension services to farm families and the adoption of recommended technologies
                 to increase productivity and production;

                Early Warning and Food Information Systems (EWFIS) - EWFIS was established as
                 a unit in the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) in
                 1991. It is responsible for monitoring and making regular forecasts of the food
                 situations in different parts of the country. This is done in collaboration with other
                 stakeholders, notably the Meteorological and Marketing Departments of the
                 Ministries of Natural Resources and of Trade and Industry. Such information is used
                 by Government in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes
                 concerning food security and other aspects of agricultural production. It is also used
                 to advise the public to take appropriate precautionary measures for ensuring food
                 security;

                Home Economics Programme (HEP) - The HEP is designed to promote food
                 utilisation and bridge the gap between food production and utilisation. Its
                 components include promotion of indigenous foods especially local vegetables and
                 fruits, food preparation, diet diversification, farm and family resource management
                 and nutrition education;

                With regard to legislation concerning agricultural development, Uganda's current
                 agricultural laws cover various acts of parliament, statutory instruments and by-
                 laws. The laws and regulations are difficult to interpret and enforce while the
                 penalties they spell out are not sufficiently deterrent. Besides revising and reviewing
                 the existing laws, new ones are under consideration to close loopholes in the
                 existing agricultural laws and regulations.

        Prospects for trade in agricultural products. Various food and cash crops are grown in
different parts of the country which increases opportunities for inter- and intra-district trade and
contributes to import substitution. According to the Uganda National Integrated Household Survey of
1994, the country has been a net importer of rice and wheat to supplement domestic food supply for
human consumption as well as for industrial use. The World Food Programme and other relief
agencies have, in the past, imported beans, maize, Irish potatoes and cow peas specifically to supply
refugees within the country and in the neighbouring countries.



                                                 -6-
        Uganda's food exports have mainly been channelled through international food agencies like
World Food Programme and formal and informal border trade by the private sector. Over the last five
years, only beans, maize and simsim were exported in sizeable quantities. In terms of prospects for
agricultural exports, Uganda can export cereals, pulses, oil and root crops, hides and skins, fish
products, fruits, vegetables and floricultural crops and bees-wax.


         II. REQUIREMENTS FOR ACTION: SCENARIOS FOR WORLD FOOD SUMMIT
                                FOLLOW-UP


2.1 Major Challenges and Constraints

         Uganda's population growth rate of 2.5 per cent per annum is higher than its food production
rate of 1.5 per cent per annum. This calls for increased agricultural production and productivity.
However, the majority of the farmers in Uganda are small-scale holders who still realise low production
due to repeated use of low yielding seed varieties and inferior breeds of animals and fish. The farmers
mostly use inappropriate technology relying on hand hoes and machetes with minimal utilisation of
complementary inputs such as fertilisers and other agro-chemicals. There is over-dependence on
rainfed agriculture and lack of irrigation facilities. Recent retrenchment of extension workers by the
districts has hampered the technology transfer and dissemination process.

        Lack of access to credit to facilitate acquisition of recommended technology and effective
management is a further constraint. In the last three years, the percentage share of loans to the
agricultural sector for production purposes was about 4.5 percent while manufacturing received 15
percent and trade and services more than 65 percent. In addition the high interest rates inhibit
agricultural investments. The agricultural sector is further constrained by low budgetary allocations. In
1996/67, the Government allocated only 2.4 percent of the non-wage recurrent budget to agriculture
compared with health (10 percent), education (20 percent), and law and order (10 percent).

         Poor utilisation of land has led to a contradictory phenomena in which land fragmentation
exists side by side with large tracts of unutilised cultivable land. This indicates a need to re-examine
the land tenure systems in the country.

         Combating pests, diseases and weeds which threaten the productivity of crops, livestock and
fisheries resources is still a major challenge. The country has to grapple with problems like African
cassava virus, wilt in bananas, vascular wilt (trichomycosis) in coffee, CBPP in cattle, gumboro in
poultry and water hyacinth on lakes and rivers. Lack of planting and stocking material for crops and
livestock is also a constraint.

        Currently, virtually all production is consumed raw with little or no value added. This limits
market outlets, prices farmers receive and incentives to increase production. Development of agro-
processing facilities is needed.
        The high cost and variable quality of livestock feeds are hindering progress toward an increased
supply of livestock products. The national challenge is to more than double not only the production of
cereals but also other crops necessary for making livestock feeds.


                                                  -7-
        Lack of proper marketing and infrastructure is an important constraint. Also the need for
improved conservation and more rational utilisation of natural resources to ensure sustainable
production is a major area of consideration. Problems such as soil erosion, lack of soil and water
conservation measures, unplanned reclamation of wetlands, overgrazing and excessive deforestation
have to be addressed.

        Women play a significant role in agricultural production in addition to their other
responsibilities in the family. They provide about 70 percent of the agricultural labour force, are
responsible for 70 to 80 percent of food crops and more than 50 percent of cash crop production, and
perform virtually all the food processing. Unfortunately, the women's role has often not been
adequately reflected in the formulation and implementation of agricultural policies. It is largely men
who have had access to production resources like land, credit and inputs. Constraints which limit the
opportunities of women to play their rightful role in agricultural development must be addressed.

2.2 Strategic Options

        Principal strategy options include enterprise selection, research-extension-farmer linkages,
marketing and rural infrastructure, water for agriculture, and agricultural credit. With regard to
enterprise selection, farmers have to be guided on identification of profitable enterprises. A study is
underway to identify various crops, livestock and fish species that are suitable for each production zone
and farming system. Collaboration among farmers, researchers, extension agents and other
stakeholders will enhance selection of profitable enterprises and help find solutions to priority
problems.

        Existing studies indicate that it is possible to double yields for most crops with improved
extension of existing technology. There must be a concerted effort to bridge the gap between potential
yields and what the farmers are currently obtaining in crops, livestock and fisheries. Extension should
also educate farmers about how to deal with the market so that they realise optimal returns from the
sale of their products. Research and extension have been identified by the Government as priority
programmes to be supported.

         Another strategy priority is improving rural credit. This will have to include a review of
existing government policy on rural credit, increasing the number of accredited banks that can provide
rural credit, establishing viable rural financial intermediaries, and adopting group lending schemes.
Measures will be needed to mobilise rural savings and educate farmers on efficient and effective credit
utilisation.

         The land tenure system is to be reviewed. New statutory instruments are expected that will
regulate the relationship between lawful occupants of the land and the registered owners of that land. It
is also intended to provide for acquisition of registrable interest in the land by the occupant.

        Any strategy for development of the agricultural sector should also take full account of gender
considerations in formulation and implementation of programmes. The Government has recognised the
socio-economic constraints faced by women and their adverse implications for agricultural and overall
national development. It established the Ministry of Gender and Community Development whose
mandate is to spearhead the development of policies and strategies for empowering women to play an
active role in all aspects of socio-economic development. This Ministry assisted MAAIF to re-examine

                                                  -8-
its policies to make them more gender-oriented. Since then, MAAIF has taken measures to target
women in its research and extension programmes. This is in addition to similar programmes executed
by the national and international NGOs which are working in rural areas.

2.3 Programme Targets and Goals (See attachment)

2.4 Policy and Institutional Implications (See attachment)


2.5 Resource Implications to 2010

        The bulk of the investment resources will be required for rehabilitation of market infrastructure
particularly feeder roads. Up to about 70 percent of the total investment resources will be required for
feeder roads rehabilitation and maintenance. Provision of improved extension services will require
about 23 percent of planned investment. In order to improve access and availability of rural credit, a
commitment of 3 percent of the total resources to credit institutions is required .

        In 1995/96 the Government contributed US$67.4 million in recurrent and development
expenditures to agriculture, natural resources, roads, trade, industry, transport and communications. In
the same financial year, donor agencies contributed US $209 million to the above items which directly
influence agricultural production. Private investments from both domestic and external sources are
estimated to account for US$ 185 million. Private investments are assumed to play a dominant role as
sources of both domestically and externally generated capital in future. It can be expected that in future
investments will continue to be in the order of about US$ 460 million.

         Implementation of the proposed strategy requires availability of qualified and skilled manpower
in all the technical and managerial areas for both the public and private sectors. For the foreseeable
future, staffing research and extension programmes will remain a responsibility of the public sector.
The managerial training needs for NARO have been assessed. But those for professional and technical
fields have not yet been established. In the process of implementing the Agricultural Extension
Programme, long term and short-term training has been carried out for some staff. A number of staff
received sponsorship from IDA and IFAD for Masters degree Programmes as well as short-term
training. Nevertheless, the requirement for training is still enormous.




                                                  -9-
2.3 Programme Targets and Goals

                                                                            UGANDA: Programme Target Matrix

                       OBJECTIVE                                         STRATEGY/ACTION                          AGENCIES INVOLVED                              EXPECTED OUTCOMES
To select suitable agricultural enterprises for each           Selection of profitable enterprises backed    MAAIF                                  Appropriate profitable enterprises identified and
production zone, farming system and district                   by feasibility studies.                       Local Consultants.                     circulated for farmers adoption.
To prepare annual production targets for individual            Preparation of Annual production Targets      District production committees.        -          Capacity developed at district level.
districts at their lower levels of administration relating     at District level.                                                                   -          Availability of meaningful targets.
input and technology requirements and productivity                                                                                                  -          Projected production by 2010:
levels.
                                                                                                                                                     Cereals, 3267 (000 MT)
                                                                                                                                                     Root crops 10616
                                                                                                                                                     Coffee      181
                                                                                                                                                     Tea         25
                                                                                                                                                     Cotton       49
                                                                                                                                                     Banana       12367
                                                                                                                                                     Pulses       809
To collect agricultural data                                   Encourage administrators and policy-          MAAIF, professionals, NGOs             Reliable data collected and analysed.
                                                               makers to make sound judgements                                                      Regular stock assessment of livestock and fisheries
                                                                                                                                                    effected.
                                                                                                                                                    Agricultural census.
                                                                                                                                                    Price fluctuations and market trends monitored.
To increase awareness of farmers on all aspects of             Mobilisation of farmers.                      District authorities, professionals,   Higher levels of sustainable production awareness.
increased sustainable agricultural production, prevention                                                    Farmers Associations, NGO(s) civic     Increased emphasis on agriculture as a business.
of post-harvest losses and food security.                                                                    and religious leaders.
                                                                                                                                                    Increased food production trends and food
                                                                                                                                                    availability.

To increase the ability of the district local authorities to   Capacity Building                             Authorities, professionals, MAAIF.     Enhanced planning capacity in the districts
plan the development of agriculture in the district
                                                                                                                                                    Improved district agricultural plans
To increase availability/ accessibility of inputs to           Encourage private sector to avail inputs      Input stockists                        Priority inputs identified
farmers.
                                                                                                             MAAIF                                  Stockists/agents for every district identified,
                                                                                                                                                    registered and informed about needed inputs and
                                                                                                             Ministry of Trade and Industry         quantities.

                                                                                                                                                    Inputs made available as near to the farmer as
                                                                                                                                                    possible.
Increased adoption and use of the animal traction              Promote Animal traction technology.           Extension workers, farmers'            Increased number of trained draught animals.
technologies by farmers.                                                                                     organisation/ groups and NGO(s).
                                                                                                                                                    Increase in number of farmers using animal
                                                                                                                                                    traction.

                                                                                                                                                    Availability of trained village artisan tool makers.

                                                                                                    - 10 -
                     OBJECTIVE                                    STRATEGY/ACTION                           AGENCIES INVOLVED                                EXPECTED OUTCOME
To intensify provision of veterinary services and          Campaigns, demonstrations, water             Veterinary personnel, extension         Intensified veterinary services in all districts.
adoption of improved livestock management practices.       development and breeding legislation.        workers, Local Administrations.
                                                                                                                                                Active participation of farming communities in
                                                                                                                                                control of disease vectors.

                                                                                                                                                Availability of disease diagnostic facilities in all
                                                                                                                                                districts.

                                                                                                                                                Controlled nomadic farming.

                                                                                                                                                Enhanced supply of improved breeding stock for
                                                                                                                                                the farming communities.

                                                                                                                                                Increased number of farmers practising planned
                                                                                                                                                diversified agriculture.

                                                                                                                                                Increased supply of animal products.
                                                                                                                                                Projected total animal numbers:
                                                                                                                                                5.8m cattle & buffaloes
                                                                                                                                                8.8m sheep & goats
                                                                                                                                                0.75m pigs
                                                                                                                                                25.0m poultry
                                                                                                                                                Projected Production:
                                                                                                                                                0.9m mt milk
                                                                                                                                                0.11m mt beef.
To enable fishing communities to actively participate in   Meetings/Training sessions for fishing       Extension workers, civic leaders and    Improved fish landing facilities and social
fisheries management and to reduce illegal fishing         communities, integrated control of water     fishermen, MAAIF, Lake Victoria         infrastructure.
practices                                                  hycianth.                                    Environment Organisation.
                                                                                                                                                Increased use of modern fishing methods.
                                                           Promotion of sound post-harvest
                                                           management, legislation.                                                             Established community fish fry production centres.

                                                                                                                                                Improved preservation of fish and fish products for
                                                                                                                                                market.

                                                                                                                                                Reduced levels of water hyacinth on Uganda's water
                                                                                                                                                bodies.
To rehabilitate and develop efficient rural market         Liberalisation of Marketing                  Private sector, Ministry of Trade and   Stores/silos constructed in rural areas.
facilities and improve market linkages.                    - Government to monitor market trends        Industry;
                                                           - Strengthen district road construction                                              Markets rehabilitated and new ones developed.
To rehabilitate and develop the network for rural feeder     Units                                      MAAIF, MOLG
                                                                                                                                                Trained Personnel.
roads which will ensure market outlets for commodities.
                                                                                                                                                Cold Storage facilities rehabilitated/established

                                                                                                                                                Feeder roads rehabilitated and maintained.




                                                                                               - 11 -
                   OBJECTIVE                                      STRATEGY/ACTION                         AGENCIES INVOLVED                         EXPECTED OUTCOME
To improve market infrastructure                        - Conduct workshops and seminars at           MAAIF, Uganda National Farmers    Improvement of farmers’ access to markets.
                                                        district and sub-district levels;             Association (UNFA), Ministry of   Competitive pricing.
                                                        - Gather price information;                   Local Administration, District    Encouragement of high quality products.
                                                        - Publish information on local and export     Administrators                    Reduction in number of middlemen.
                                                                                                                                        Stimulation of more production
                                                        markets.                                                                        Improvement in flow of market information.
                                                                                                                                        Farmers’ production to be market oriented.
Prevention of post-harvest losses and wastes.           Sensitise farmers on the importance of        Extension Workers                 Improved stores and storage facilities.
                                                        proper storage of agricultural products.      NGOs, Private Sector
                                                                                                                                        Enhanced utilisation on farm/ lakeside technologies.
                                                        Construction and Renovation of valley         Government.                       More water available for humans and livestock, more
Provision of water for Agriculture.                     dams/tanks.                                                                     farmers will be trained in aspects of water harnessing
                                                                                                                                        and harvesting for agriculture.
                                                        Draw up a masterplan on provision of          NGO(s)
                                                        water for livestock                                                             More farming will be done in drought prone areas
                                                                                                                                        especially in cattle corridors.
Irrigation and Drainage.                                Documentation of the results of a review      Government.                       Data bank on all farmers with sources of Irrigation
                                                        of the current policy on ownership and                                          water.
                                                        management of existing government             NGO(s)
                                                        Irrigation Schemes.                                                             Increased farmers ability to harvest and harness
                                                                                                                                        water for agriculture.
Conservation of Natural Resources                       Education of farmers & enaction               Districts                         More water and soil conservation structures
                                                        appropriate bye-laws related to soil and      MOLG                              constructed, laws enforced, and soil erosion
                                                        water conservation (to revive and             MAAIF                             reduced.
                                                        enforce)
Provision of agricultural credit.                       New appropriate policy on credit,             Bank of Uganda, Commercial        Improved accessibility of rural farmers to credit.
                                                        opening up more branches of financial         banks, rural financial
                                                        intermediaries operating in rural areas.      intermediaries                    Reduced collateral requirements for the poor
                                                                                                                                        borrower.
To develop appropriate technology through               Promotion of adaptive research, on-farm       NARO                              Appropriate technological Packages developed
strengthening research, extension and farmer linkages   trials.                                       MAAIF
                                                                                                      Farmers Organisations             Increased dissemination and adoption of improved
                                                        Improvement in delivery of extension          NGOs                              technologies.
                                                        services
Practising Agroforestry                                 Sensitise farmers on the importance of        Extension workers, NGOs.          Provision of fodder to livestock.
                                                        using the technology                                                            Boost farmers’ income.
                                                                                                                                        Improve soil fertility.




                                                                                             - 12 -
2.4 Policy and Institutional Implications

                                                         UGANDA: Policy Institutions Matrix
             POLICY AREAS                                 CONSTRAINTS/ISSUES/GOALS                                        POLICY ACTIONS
  Economic Environment of Agriculture       Inadequate private sector involvement, fluctuating           Encourage investors by giving conducive terms, encourage liberalised
                                            inflation and, high debt servicing ratio, insecurity, lack   exports of non-traditional crops.
                                            of policies conducive to investments.
                                                                                                         Improve market information system, improve tax base and revenue
                                                                                                         collection, and stabilisation programs. Exercise budgetary control.
                                                                                                         Expand social and economic infrastructure to increase productivity.
  Land tenure                               Insecure tenure, absence of an organised land market,        A new land policy in offing which will promote “the Land to the Tiller”
                                            fragmentation of land                                        program.
  Land Availability and use                 Poor crop/livestock husbandry coupled with wide              Promote water and soil conservation practices revise, and revive by-laws
                                            spread deforestation due to high demands for fuelwood        on water and soil conservation, promote reforestation programmes.
                                            and expansion of cultivable land, have lead to land
                                            degradation.
  Alleviation of Rural Poverty              Low literacy, high unemployment, low productivity.           Improve education, health and other social infrastructure and services
  and Provision of rural credit             Loans don't reach the poor, inadequate credit                target more credit to the rural poor, reform and strengthen rural financial
                                            institutions in rural areas high interest rates. Little      institutions.
                                            credit available for agricultural production which is not
                                            easily accessible to the resource poor farmer.               Avail off-farm income generating enterprises in rural areas.
  Research                                  Inadequate funding.                                          Increased funding to focus on demand driven client-oriented research
                                                                                                         and participatory prioritisation of research programmes. Intensify on
                                            Weak research/extension/farmer/market linkages               farm research and dissemination of research findings to farmers.
  Crop production                           Poor husbandry, high cost of mechanisation. Poor             Increase production and distribution of seed, and other inputs by the
                                            accessibility, availability and high costs of inputs.        private sector, promote animal traction and water and soil conservation.
                                            High post-harvest loses, poor storage facilities,            Promote low input, intensive sustainable agriculture. Improve rural
                                            increasing soil infertility, poor market and road            infrastructure, roads, market information and crop storage. Review staff
                                            infrastructure.                                              working conditions.

                                            Inadequate improved seed and planting materials Poor
                                            extension coverage. Poor staff remuneration and
                                            motivation.
  Livestock Production                      Prevalence of disease, and pests, low cattle population      Strengthen disease and pest control services supervision and regulation
                                            due to Civil strife, poor husbandry, scarce forage and       of the use of animal drugs and chemicals. Improve livestock feeding
                                            water during dry seasons, poor breeds, high-cost of in-      facilities and management, promote artificial insemination (AI)
                                            puts, lack of credit facilities.
  Fisheries Production                      Low productivity due to over-fishing, inadequate             Monitoring productivity of the national water systems, conservation of
                                            processing facilities, poor control over fishing waters,     local fish species, restocking lakes and rivers, controlling water hyacinth,
                                            infestation of water bodies by water hyacinth.               increasing aquaculture, improve processing and marketing facilities.




                                                                                 - 13 -
       POLICY AREAS                    CONSTRAINTS/ISSUES/GOALS                                              POLICY ACTIONS
Extension                  Inadequate delivery of services to farmers; high staff:   Improve staff motivation increase logistical support and operational
                           farmer ratio; inadequate funding. Illiteracy of farmers   funds. Increase extension farmer ratio. Provide adequate funds to the
                                                                                     sector, promote functional literacy and farmer training.
Infrastructure             Rural Markets                                             Establish rural markets with the accompanying facilities by the private
                           Lack of developed rural markets, poor market              sector. Improve collection and dissemination of market information.
                           infrastructure (poor storage and transport), scarce
                           market information to farmers.                            Increase central and local Government funding for road construction and
                                                                                     maintenance.
                           Rural Feeder roads
                           Poor rural feeder roads and poor maintenance.             Expand and privatise hydro-power generation and distribution. Promote
                                                                                     use of solar energy, biogas and other energy sources.
                           Rural energy
                           Excessive dependence on fuelwood leading to
                           deforestation.
Agricultural Trade         Poor processing facilities and storage. Lack of           Liberalise export marketing, provide market information and facilities.
                           organised markets and market information.                 Improve processing (to add value) and storage facilities.
Water Development          Inadequate Water for household, farm use and              Promote small scale irrigation and water harvesting and conservation
                           livestock. Sole-dependency on rainfed agriculture         (collection) programmes. Widen access to clean water in rural areas.
                           leading to transitory food insecurity. Poor access to
                           clean water.
Resource use/environment   Absence of an interdisciplinary approach to building      NEMA to formulate appropriate environment policies and disseminate
                           institutional capacity,                                   environmental information. Formulate national land and water policy
                                                                                     and legislation. Carry out environment impact assessment, carry out
                              widespread land and water resource degradation        environment education programmes in institutions and rural
                               and lack of policy on conservation of biodiversity    communities. Promote use of renewable energy resources.

                              Poor sanitation

                              Lack of public awareness on environmental
                               pollution
Food security              Pockets of chronic and transitory food shortages, poor    Promote small scale irrigation particularly in semi-arid and dry areas.
                           distribution infrastructure, low purchasing power in      Improve infrastructure, strengthen family planning programmes.
                           some areas, poor production technology, high              Strengthen early warning unit, market integration, nutritional education
                           population growth rate, absence of food reserves,         and diversify production. Carry out food insecurity and vulnerability
                           malnutrition especially in children under 5 years. Lack   mapping. Implement the Uganda Nutrition Plan Action and the Food
                           of disaster preparedness.                                 Nutrition and Policy.
Employment                 Low rural employment opportunities                        Promote commercial agriculture, support income generating activities
                                                                                     and enhance agro-processing.




                                                               - 14 -

				
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