Portable Toilet for

Document Sample
Portable Toilet for Powered By Docstoc

                INSTRUCTION MANUAL
  Technical Drawings, List of Materials, Assembly Instructions, Field
    Checklist, Decommissioning Guidelines, Adaptations for Local
         Conditions, Common Repairs, Design Calculations

Developed by:
         Emergency Sanitation & Portable Toilet Concept
What is a Portable Toilet?
  - Technology for Safe Excreta Disposal that can be easily transported & quickly
      constructed to provide culturally appropriate sanitation facilities in an emergency situation

Why a Portable Toilet?
  √ Need for rapid response (24 to 72 hours) to provide sanitation to large numbers of
     persons in an emergency situation.
  √ Can be installed in a day & fully decommissioned in hours.
  √ Easy to use at temporary welfare centers when sanitation facilities are needed
     immediately, where as masonry construction takes days to implement.
  √ Access to Sanitation Facilities is critical for blocking the Fecal-Oral disease transmission

Design Parameters
  - Rapid Sanitation Response
        ⇒ Fast & easy to assemble, Construction completed in one day, Little to no skilled
            labor required, Efficient to transport- collapsible pieces, Made from locally
            available materials
  - Hygienic, easy to clean
  - Safe to use- structurally sound design
  - Durable materials for sufficient lifetime until semi-permanent installations are constructed,
     able to withstand climate conditions
  - Culturally Appropriate Sanitation Method
  - Universal Accessibility (elderly, children, women, pregnant person, disabled)
  - Simple to decommission- removable & reusable, bury & compost pit
  - Environmentally Sensitive- limited wasting of construction materials

Cultural Factors in Eastern Sri Lanka
   • The preferred sanitation choice among eastern Sri Lankans is the pour flush toilet.
   • Water is typically used for personal hygiene cleaning purposes.
   • The traditional sanitation practices include the use of pour flush toilets or open defecation
      in jungle, fields, or seaside areas.
   • There is typically a high aversion to foul odors from toilets.
   • Gender (Male/ Female) should be designated for each communal public toilet.
   • Screening in front of toilet areas is preferred to provide privacy

Design Considerations for Portable Emergency Toilet
The Portable toilet can be divided into two distinct parts: Superstructure (above ground) and the
Receiving Pit (below ground). The Superstructure is the “user-interface” of the toilet, while the
Receiving Pit is the “excreta storage & disposal” component.

The Septic Tank & Soakage pit is designed in accordance with the recommendations provided
in the Draft Sri Lanka Standard, CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE DESIGN AND
(FIRST REVISION- SLS 745 : 2003).
                                      2 of 21                   version- 15 Sept 2007
                                       A       PORTABLE TOILET FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Amino Sheet
                                                       Footprint Roof Area
                                                       6'0" X 8'0"                                                                           Roof Height-                        Roof Height--->
                                                                                                                                             High side 6" slope                  Low side 6" slope
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Wall Covering:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Plastic Tarpaulin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       sheeting (UNICEF)
                                                                                                                                          Frame Assembly
                                                       4mm Bolt & Nut (3 nos)                                                                                                                                                          fixed by Binding wire
                                                                                                                                          see Sheet 1&2
                                                       to fix Squatting pan                                                                                                        GI pipe 3 4"
                                                       to plastic floor slab
                                                       E                   E             Pan & Trap                                                 3 1 2"
Air Vent Pipe
                                       C           D                                    with Silicone                                               PVC Pipe                                                                                        Sand Bag
(field testing)
                                                                                E                Seal                                                                                          clear 8"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Step 6"
                                                                                    B                                                                                                                                                         G.L

                                                                                                                                   4'-0" (varies)                                                           1'-9"

                                                                                                                      2" X 2" Timber (4'-0")
                                       C           D
                                                                                                                      2" X 2"Timber (4'-0")
  Wooden                                           E                      E
  Planks                                      Welded              4" x 4" Cut                  8" X 8" Gully Sucker                                  SECTION A-A
                                            Floor Frame           sewarage                         Access Point
                                                                  pipe inlet                   with 12" x 12" Cover
                                                                                                                                                                                                4' x 4' x 15 mm Plywood
                                                                                                        C       D                                    E                                           Polythene sheet lining
                                                                    G.L                                                                             G.L                                              1'              1'           1'                  1'
                                                          Plywood                                                                                                     12" x 6"
 Plastic                                                 Polythene                                                                                                    cutaway
 Floor                                                        lining
                                                                                                                                                          4'-0"                                       Overflow Weir
  Slab                                              2" X 2" Timber
 (NIC)                                             Horizontal (4'-0")                                                                                                     1'
                                                                                                                                                                  1'-6"        1'-6"
                      6'-0"                         2" X 2" Timber
                                       A            Vertical (4'-0")                                    C       D                                    E
                      8'-0"                                                                                                                                                                                                   25 nos. 1"dia. hole
                                                                        Plywood Base 6' x 4'                   2' x 4' Timber   Soakpit                                                                                        Silcone Coating
                      PLAN                                              Polythene lining                       Joint Plywood    Open Bottom

                                                               SECTION B-B               SECTION C-C                                                                                           SECTION D-D SECTION E-E
     1. Superstructure Assembly See Sheets 1&2
     2. Superstructure & Pit may be elevated in cases of high            DRAWING TITLE:                                                                                                                             UNICEF- Batticaloa
        groundwater conditions                                                   PIT DESIGN &                                                                                                                       WASH- Emergency Program
     3. Air vent pipe for storage pit to be field tested                                                                                                                                       DATE:                      SCALE:            SHEET:
     4. Plywood timber supports fixed with 2" and 3" thin nails                  SITE LAYOUT                                                                                                    05.03.2007                 1:50              3/3
                     3 nos. Frame with 3/4" GI

                                                  Typical Plan of Temporary
                                                      Collapsible Toilet

         4 of 21      version- 15 Sept 2007

                                    Unicef Batticaloa
                                     Typical Plan of Temporary
                                         Collapsible Toilet
                        List of Construction Materials
Item             Materials                         Description             Unit   Q'ty   PACKAGE

SUPERSTRUCTURE FRAME (2 frames per 1 set, 2 toilet units per 1 frame)
 **    Roof
       Amino Sheet 26 gauge (6'-0" x
 1                                          Roof Structure                 Nos     2
       8'-0") with GI pipe Frame
 **    Walls (3 Side frames)
 2     3/4"GI Pipe 9'-6" height             Side Frame-right               Nos     2
 3     3/4"GI Pipe 9'-3" height             Side Frame-middle              Nos     2

 4     3/4"GI Pipe 9'-0" height             Side Frame-left                Nos     2

 5     3/4"GI Pipe 3'-0" length             Back Support                   Nos     4
       Plastic Tarpaulin
 6                                          Cabin Cover                    Nos     2
       (UNICEF std dims)
 7     Binding Wire                         Attach tarp & frame             kg    0.20
 **    Doors (2 units, Left & Right side)
       Amino Sheet &
 8                                          Door Frame- Right              Nos     2
       GI pipe Door Frame
       Amino Sheet &
 9                                          Door Frame- Left               Nos     2
       GI pipe Door Frame
 10    Nylon String                         Passive Door Guard              m     2.5
 **    Flooring Materials
       Floor Frame-
 11                                         Floor Frame                    Nos     2
       L Angle Bar & Wood Planks
       1"GI Pipe 2'-6" length with
 12                                         Foundation Support Post        Nos     12
       4"x4" Plate
 13    Plastic Floor Slab (Pre-fab)         Floor Surface                  Nos     4
       Squatting pan with Trap
 14                                         Squatting Pan                  Nos     4
 15    Self tapping Screws                  Attach squat pan & frame       Nos     12
 16    PVC Pipe 3.5"                        Pipe to pit                    Nos     2
 17    PVC Glue ( 50 g )                    Plumbing connection            Nos     2
 18    Silicone 400 g                       Seal Trap                      Nos     3
 **    Steps: Toilet Cabin Entrance
 42    Empty rice bag 50 Kg (4" fill ht.)   Entrance step to cabin         Nos     4

SOAKAGE PIT 12' x 8' x 4' (1 pit/ 2 sets superstructures 4 toilet units)
 **    Pit Structure
       Plywood 8'-0" x 4'-0"x 15mm          Storage Pit Structure (2
 1                                                                         Nos     2
       (Water Proof)                        sides)
       Plywood 8'-0" x 4'-0"x 15mm          Storage Pit Top (3 access
 2                                                                         Nos     1
       (3 8"x8" Cuts)                       holes)
       Plywood 6'-0" x 4'-0"x 15mm          Storage Pit Structure
 3                                                                         Nos     1
       (Water Proof)                        (bottom)
       Plywood 4'-0" x 4'-0"x 15mm
 4                                          Pit Structure (front, top)     Nos     2
       (Water Proof)
 5     Plywood 4'-0" x 4'-0"x 15mm          Pit Structure (middle panel)   Nos     1
      (12"x6" Cut)
      Plywood 4'-0" x 4'-0"x 15mm
 6                                      Pit Structure (middle panel)    Nos        1
      (1'-0" Weir Cut)
      Plywood 4'-0" x 4'-0"x 15mm       Walls SoakPit- Exfiltration
 7                                                                      Nos        3
      (1" Circular Cuts)                Cuts
      Plywood 12"x 12"x 15mm
 8                                      Gully Suck Access Cover         Nos        3
      (Water Proof)
      Plywood 8"x 8"x 15mm
 9                                      Gully Suck Access Plug          Nos        3
      (Water Proof)
      Polythene Plastic Sheeting        Waterproof Lining for
 9                                                                       kg       14
      (500 Gauge)                       Storage Pit
 10   Timber 2"x 2" x 4' (Pine)         Timber Supports for pit         Nos       26
                                        Timber Supports for Joining
 11   Timber 2"x 4" x 4' (Pine)                                         Nos        4
                                        Water Seal for Exfiltration
 12   Silicone 400 g                                                    Nos        2
 13   Thin Nail   - 2"                  Attach Timber to plywood         Kg      1.25
 14   Thin Nail   - 3"                  Attach Timber to plywood         Kg        1
 **   Ventilation Pipe
 15   "L" Bow - 2"                      Air vent pipe                   Nos        1
 16   Pipe - 2" ( 12 '-0" )             Air vent pipe                   Bar        1
 17   Air vent Cap 2"                   Air vent pipe                   Nos        1
 18   PVC Mesh Net (vector control)     Air vent pipe                   Sq.ft.    0.5
      Support Timber Posts
 19                                     Air vent pipe                   Nos        1
      (2" x 2" x 8' )
 1    Mammoty                           Digging pit                     Nos        2
 2    Shovel                            Digging pit                     Nos        1
 3    Hand Saw                          Cutting plywood                 Nos        1
 4    Hack Saw Frame                    Cutting GI pipe-adjustment      Nos        1
 5    Hack Saw Blade                    Cutting GI pipe-adjustment      Nos        1
 6    Hammer                            Fitting insert pieces           Nos        1
 7    Spanner (medium)                  Bolt tightening                 Nos        1
 8    Alascoor                          Tarp & plastic slab holes       Nos        1
 1      Toilet Bucket (9L Plastic)      Flushing & Cleaning             Nos.       2
        Toilet Brush
 2      (Plastic with Nylon Brush)      Toilet Cleaning                 Nos.       2
 3      Soap & Plastic Case (Dettol )   Handwashing                     Nos.       2
        Disinfectant Cleaner
 4      (Phynol 5L)                     Toilet Cleaning                 Nos.       1
 5      Broom                           Cleaning of Toilet Area         Nos.       1
 6      Rubber Gloves                   Toilet Cleaning                 Nos.       1

                                         7 of 21                       version- 15 Sept 2007
             Assembly Instructions
                               √   Select site in Consultation with responsible local
                                   authorities (PHI, GS, Camp Manager)
                               √   Avoid contamination of water supply sources (30m)
                               √   Road Access for Gully Sucker (30m max)
        1. Site Selection      √   Select Level Ground
                               √   Avoid lowland Flooding areas
                               √   Consultation with surrounding users or host families is
                                   highly recommended.

                               √ Excavate pit to 14’-long x 6’-wide x 4’-deep.
                               √ If groundwater is encountered before reaching 4’, then
        2. Pit Excavation        - look for alternative location with more clearance to
                                 - if none, it may be necessary to raise the pit,
                               ⇒ 2 laborers + 2 mammoties to excavate

        3. Superstructure Frame Assembly

        a. Connect Center      √   Insert Center Side Frame (¾” GI pipe) into Floor Frame
        Side Frame to Floor        bushing (1-inch GI pipe)

        b. Connect Left &      √   Insert Left & Right Side Frames (¾” GI pipe) into Floor
        Right Side Frame to        Frame bushing (1-inch GI pipe)
        Floor Frame

                               √   Slide on Foundation Support Posts
        c. Attach Foundation   √   Adjust support post length based on desired height of
        Support Posts              frame
                               √   Tighten 6mm bolts with spanner

                               √   Slide ½” GI pipe inserts from the Roof piece into the ¾” GI
        d. Attach Roof
                                   pipe Side Frames

                         8 of 21                     version- 15 Sept 2007
e. Upright the
                           √   Rotate Frame Structure 90-degrees to upright position

                           √   Fit the ¾” gi Pipe Back Frame Support into the 1” GI pipe
f. Insert the Back             bushings welded to the 3 Side Frame pieces
Support                    √   Use a hammer to assist with the entry of the Back support
                               pieces into the bushings

                           √   Using Claw hammer, exert downward pressure to ensure
                               full entry of the Roof piece ½” GI pipe inserts into the Side
                               Frame ¾” GI pipe.
g. Secure Roof             √   Verify that roof is secure
                           √   CAUTION: If roof is not fully secured, then it could
                               dislodge in a strong wind, which could be dangerous for
                               the people living in the surrounding area.

       Assembled Superstructure Frame

4. Floor Slab, Squatting Pan & Trap

                               √   Verify that the squatting pan and trap have a good fit.
a. Check fit between               The gap at the joint between the pan & trap pieces
Squatting pan                      should be minimal (less than 5mm).
                               √   Large gaps could lead to future leaking of excreta.

                               √   Attach the squatting pan to the floor slab using 3 self-
b. Attach Squatting Pan
                                   tapping screws per floor slab.
to Floor Plate
                               √   Ensure that connection is secure.

                               √   Prior to installing the rivots, adjust trap position tight
c. Rivot trap to squatting
                                   against the squatting pan to minimize the gap.
                               √   Attach trap to pan using 2 Rivots with 180-degree

                     9 of 21                      version- 15 Sept 2007
                                                    √   Insert silicone gel into the joint between the squatting
                                                        pan and trap
                       d. Seal the joint between
                                                    √   Smear the gel into the space between the trap and
                       trap and pan with
                                                        pan to ensure that there are not gaps.
                       silicone                     √   CAUTION: Any gaps in silicone seal may lead to
                                                        leaking of excreta, causing a health hazard.

                               Completed Floor plate, squatting pan & trap

                       5. Septic Tank & Soakage Pit Box Assembly

                                                4 x 4 front     4 x 4 1st         4 x 4 2nd        4 x 4 soakpit
8 x 4 side panel (2)     8 x 4 top cover (1)    panel & soak    compartment       compartment      side & end
                                                pit top (2)     panel (1)         panel (1)        panel (3)

                       a. Cover plywood         √   Cut polythene to size of plywood panels
                       sections with            √   Attach polythene to plywood with tin tacks
                       polythene sheets         √   Fold polythene around corners and edges

                                                √   Use 2-inch nails to attach 2” x 2” timber supports to
                       b. Attach vertical 2x2       polythene covered side panels at 2-foot intervals.
                       timber supports to       √   Attach first 2” x 2” support at edge with rectangular
                       8x4 side panels              cutouts.
                                                √   Affix with 2-inch nails.

                                                √   Attach 2” x 4” support timber to end of 8’ x 4’ side panels
                       c. Attach 2x4 timber         and 4x4 soakpit side panels
                       support at edge of       √   Overlap 2” x 4” support timber 2 inches on each side panel
                       8x4 & connect 4x4        √   Affix with 2-inch nails.
                       soakpit side panel       √   Attach 2” x 2” support timbers to middle and end of soakpit
                                                    4x4 panel at 2-foot intervals

                       d. Build Pit Support     √   Follow the series of instructions below to construct
                       Frame                        the pit frame & side panels

                                         10 of 21                      version- 15 Sept 2007
                          ii. Install interior
i. Install Back 4 x4                                  iii. Install vertical support     iv. Install interior support
                         horizontal support
   panel (soakpit)                                       timber on back panel            timbers at 2-ft intervals

 v. Install Second         vi. Install First          vii. install 2” x 2” support
Compartment 4’x4’        Compartment 4’x4’            timber in Septic Tank (1st       viii. Install Front 4x4 panel
       panel                    panel                        Compartment)

                                                  √    Attach 8’ x 6’ plywood bottom panel to pit frame
                       N. Attach 8’ x 6’
                                                  √    Affix with 2-inch nails.
                       Bottom Panel
                                                  √    Standing on the pit is not recommended!

                       6. Septic Tank & Soakage Pit Box Installation

                                                  √    The assembled pit box is very heavy.
                                                  √    It is recommended to assemble the pit box close to the
                       a. Move pit box to
                                                       excavation to avoid unnecessary movement of the box.
                       edge of excavation
                                                  √    Care should be taken to avoid injury when carrying box
                                                       (muscle strain or crushed toes or fingers)

                       b. Put Pit box on          √    Set pit box on edge of excavation
                                                  √    Verify that the excavation is sufficient in width & depth.
                       edge and verify
                                                  √    Verify that the base of the excavation is level and uniform
                                                       in depth (or slight slope from septic tank downwards to
                       dimensions                      soak pit)

                       c. Set box in              √    Carefully lower the assembled pit box into the excavated
                       excavated pit and               pit.
                       level surface              √    If necessary, adjust the base level of the pit

                       d. Connect 4” PVC          √    Ensure 6-inch minimum overlap of PVC pipe end into pit
                       Sewerage Pipe                   box.

                                           11 of 21                         version- 15 Sept 2007
                         e. INSTALL AIR VENT SYSTEM

                         ii. Apply PVC glue to
i. Assemble elbow, air                                ii. Attach net over air vent &         iv. Attach air vent to vent
                         secure pieces (gloves
       vent cap                                       secure with binding wire                pipe & apply PVC glue
                         are recommended)

                                                      iii. Install 2” x 2” x 8’ timber
iii. Cut bottom 12-
                         ii. Nail Air vent pipe to    support outside of pit box &       v. Cut opening in top
inches of vent pipe in
                         2” x 2” timber support       Attach vent pipe to support        plywood section for Vent pipe
                                                      timber with binding wire

                                                      √   Backfiill native soil around the external walls of the pit box.
                         f. Backfill pit box              Take care to avoid any voids which could lead to
                                                          differential settlement.
                         excavation and
                                                      √   In cases where native soil has low porosity, sand or
                         compact.                         aggregate could be substituted to promote exfiltration of
                                                          effluent from soakage pit to surrounding soil.

                                                                                         h. Install Top Plywood
                         g. Prepare Gully
                                                                                         Sections- 8’x4’ and 4’ x 4’
                         Sucker access point
                                                                                         Insert Gully Sucker Access

                         i. Cover Top with            √   Ensurethattopslabisfullycoveredwithwaterproofpolythenes
                         Polythene Sheeting               heetingtoreducecontactofwaterwiththeplywood.

                                                                                         √    Slight elevation of the pit
                         j. Cover Pit with                                                    is recommended to avoid
                         excavated soil                                                       ponding of rainwater on
                                                                                              the top plywood slab.
                                                                                         √    Standing water can lead
                             Fully buried pit                                                 to water logging &
                              Elevated Pit                                                    weakening of the integrity
                                                                                              of the plywood.

                                               12 of 21                         version- 15 Sept 2007
7. Superstructure Frame Installation

a. Locate
                         √   Superstructure Frame should be positioned approximately
Frame position in
                             3 feet (1 meter) from the edge of the pit excavation.
relation to Pit
                         √   Determine the desired height of the floor frame above the
                             ground level.
b. Dig pits for the      √   If pit is fully buried the distance between ground level and
                             the floor frame should be minimized to provide minimum
frame foundation
                             clearance for the trap and slope for the sewerage pipe.
support posts            √   If pit is to be elevated, then determine the height needed
                             to provide sufficient downward slope for the sewerage
                             pipe from the trap outlet to the pit inlet.
                         √   Verify height of Superstructure Frame is sufficient
                         √   Verify if Superstructure Frame is level
d. Backfill and
                         √   If position is correct, then backfill the foundation holes with
compact foundation
                             excavated soil and manually compact soil.
                         √   Verify stability of Superstructure Frame.

c. Place Floor Plate     √   Insert plastic floor slab unit onto the Angle Iron ledge of
inside                       the Superstructure Floor frame.
Superstructure           √   Verify that the floor slab is securely seated onto Angle Iron
Frame                        ledge.

                         √   Install a sand bag between the trap and the ground level
Support Trap with
                         √   The sand bag will provide support to the pan and trap
Sand bag
                             during toilet cleaning.

8. Attach Tarpaulin Wall Cover

a. Cut plastic           √   Outside Walls (1/2 Tarp per Frame)
tarpaulin                √   Center Divider Section (1/6 Trap per Frame)

b. Attach outer
                         √   Ensure that plastic sheet is fully attached to GI Pipe
tarpaulin to GI pipe
                             Structure. NO GAPS!
with Binding wire

                  13 of 21                      version- 15 Sept 2007
b. Attach center
panel tarpaulin to GI   √   Ensure that plastic sheet is fully attached to GI Pipe
pipe with Binding           Structure. NO GAPS!

                        √   Tie a 1.25m length of string between the doors, fixing to
9. Attach Door              the outside doorframe
retention String        √   This string should prevent wind damage to doors and door
                            hinges from excessive swinging.

                        √   The Sri Lanka Disability Access standards specify a
                            maximum step height of 15cm
10. Accessibility       √   Efforts should be taken to fill sand bag to this approximate
Step                        height.
                        √   The path to the toilet should also be cleared of bushes and
                            holes filled to make a smooth entrance.
-> If the total
                        √   …then it is recommended to install a series of 2 steps.
distance between
                        √   For the 2 step installation, 3 sand bags are needed to form
the ground level is
                            the pyramid as shown in photo at left. (2 bottom sands
greater than                bags, one on top staggered)
                        √   It is recommended that a safety fence be installed to
                            restrict access to the soakage pit area.
                        √   Awareness raising programs through Camp Managers and
11. Safety Fence
                            Volunteers should be conducted to inform the camp
                            residents of the dangers of entry (particularly by children)
                            into this area.
                        √   Each toilet set contains 4 toilet units, 2 per side, typical
12. Mark Gender &            - Male: 2-units side by side
Donor Visibility             - Female: 2-units side by side
                        √   Consultation with surrounding users is recommended to
                            verify toilet assignments
                        √   In coordination with Hygiene Volunteers and Camp
                            Management, provide the Toilet Care Kit Accessories
                            - Toilet Bucket
13. Toilet Care Kit         - Toilet Cleaning Brush
accessories                 - Soap for Handwashing
                            - Toilet Cleaning Disinfectant (Harpic, Phynol)
                            - Rubber Gloves
                            - Broom


                 14 of 21                      version- 15 Sept 2007
Field Inspection Checklist (UNICEF)
                      Emergency Toilet Installation Checklist
Division/ Location:                                                    Start Date:

Camp Code/ Name:                                                       Completion Date:

Number of Toilets to be constructed:
Responsible Technical Officer(s):
Names of Laborers:
I. Site Selection
     Is toilet at least 15m (50ft) from water supply wells (tubewell or open)?
     Is there a water supply source for toilet hygiene water within reasonable walking distance?
     Is the pit location accessible for gully sucker truck?
     Are toilet locations arranged for 50m max walking distance to shelters?
     Is the toilet location safe for use by women and children during day & night?
     Is toilet at sufficient distance from shelters or neighbors to avoid complaints of bad smells?
II. Approval of Responsible Authorities
     PHI Approval- Signature:
     GS Approval- Signature
     Camp Manager Approval- Signature:
III. Construction Details
    Septic Tank & Soakage Pit construction
     Is pit construction in accordance with design drawings?
     Is all polythene sheet lining fixed as shown on design drawings?
     Are gully sucker hose holes in top slab accessible and easy to find?
     Is pit box sufficiently buried to prevent leakage?
     Is safety fence in place to discourage entry into Soakage Pit area?
  Superstructure Installation
     Are welded frame pieces properly fitted? And frame stable?
     Is Plastic Sheeting fixed to walls with no gaps?
     Are steps installed to facilitate easy entry to toilet?
     Is there an external locking system so door is closed when not in use?
     Is Privacy sheeting installed in front of door locations?
IV. Signage
     Is each Toilet assigned to be for Male or Female users? ____ units- Male         ____ units- Female
     Is UNICEF logo placed on door?
     Is Implementing Partner logo placed on door?
V. Toilet Hygiene & Cleaning Accessories
     Toilet brush
     Soap with case for Handwashing
     Cleaning Detergent, Broom & Rubber Gloves provided to Camp Manager/ Hygiene Committee

Signature of Responsible Technical Officer:                                          Date:

                                            15 of 21                        version- 15 Sept 2007
                Common Repairs-Field Testing Results
Field Testing of the Portable Toilet is on-going. To date, UNICEF-WASH team in Sri Lanka, in
partnership with ACTED and IRD, have installed 186 Portable Toilets for Emergency response
during the conflict displacement in Batticaloa District (2007). Currently, the longest duration
installation of toilet is SEVEN months.

   •   Door hinges: Failure of welds on the door hinge
   •   Roof: Tearing of the roof tin sheets at the nail cap tops
   •   Squatting pan: Separation of the squatting pan from the plastic floor slab
   •   Pit Top Slab: Top plywood slab may weaken over time, expecially if exposed to
       standing water conditions.

                     Adaptations for Local Conditions

   1) Privacy Screening
   Privacy Screening made from tin sheets or plastic tarpaulin
   and timber posts can be installed surrounding the toilet units.
   Privacy Screening GREATLY improves the acceptability
   of the emergency toilets by the Users.

   2) Improved Accessibility
   The entry point access to the existing toilet Superstructure can be improved through the
   construction of timber stairs or a ramp in accordance with the National Standards for Stair
   dimensions and ramp slope.

   3) High Groundwater Table
   In the event of high groundwater table, the Superstructure and Pit Box can be elevated in
   order to provide sufficient storage capacity in the septic tank & Soakage pit. Care should be
   taken to ensure that the Superstructure is STABLE andt hat there is sufficient slope of the
   sewerage pipe.      Additionally, it is recommended that the pit box is buried in sand &
   waterproof polythene sheets secured inside the plywood pit box panels in all above ground
   areas, so as to avoid the exfiltration of wastewater into the above ground environment.
   Access to the area restricted in order to prevent human contact with the fecal matter.

   Furthermore, Design Modifications include the installation of a Seepage Trench or Seepage
   Bed, as shown in Appendix F & G of the SLS 745 : 2003, Draft Sri Lanka Standard, CODE

   4) Low Soil Permeability
   In cases where native soil conditions have low infiltration rates (e.g. high clay content, rock
   areas etc.),construction installation of Seepage Trench or Seepage Bed, as shown in
   Appendix F & G,is recommended (See below).

                                      16 of 21                 version- 15 Sept 2007
                                                                                                                                  APPENDIX G- SEEPAGE TRENCH SYSTEM
                            APPENDIX F- SEEPAGE BED
                                                                                                                                Applicability- Seepage trenches shall be applicable only
Seepage beds shall be applicable only in areas where                                                                            in areas where the seasonal high groundwater table is
the seasonal high groundwater table is greater than 1.5                                                                         greater than 1.5 m below the surface, the soil percolation
m below the surface, the soil percolation rate is between                                                                       rate is between 25 and 250 mm/hr., and the ground slope
25 and 250 mm/hr., and the ground slope is less than 5                                                                          is less than 25 per cent across trenches and less than 5
per cent.                                                                                                                       per cent along trenches.

                                                                           Disposal field trenches

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1m < Width < 6m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Distributor pipes

        Septic tank                                                                                                                               Septic tank
                                Ground slope 25% max.

                                                                                                                                                                     Ground slope < 5%
                                                                           Ground slope 5% max.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Length < 20m

                                                                            20m max.


 Settlement allowance

                                                        Finished surface
                                                                                              Ground surface                                                                               Perforated distributor pipes
                                                                                                                                                   Soil barrier                            dia.100mm min.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Finished surface
                                                               Topsoil                                                                                                                                                                             Existing surface
                                                                                                                 100mm min.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Topsoil                  100mm min.
                                                                                                     75mm min.                     allowance            75mm min.
                        Soil barrier
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     300mm min.
              Perforated pipe                                                                                                                                                               Prepared aggregate
              dia.100mm min.                                                                                     300mm min.                                                                     (20 – 40mm)
                                                                                                                                    Level floor
                                                                                                                                                       1000mm max.                       2000mm max. spacing                         1000mm max.
    Prepared aggregate
       (20 – 40mm)                                                                                                                                     From wall                                                                     From wall
                                                                                                                                                                                         Level site – slope less than 5 %

                                                             300mm min.

                                                                                                                                                             TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SEEPAGE BED

                                                                                                           17 of 21           version- 15 Sept 2007
                                 Design Assumptions & Calculations
                      Storage Tank Design: Portable Toilets for Emergency Response

Objective: Calculate the Design Storage Capacity for Solids & Liquids                                        •
STAGE 1: Volume of Liquid Entering Tank Daily (24 hour Retention Time)

Base Equation:   A = P * q_total                where          A=          Volume of Liquid to be stored in Storage Tank
                                                               P=          Number of People using the Tank
                                                               q_total =   Sewage Flow per day per person

                                                Let            P=           200 Average Number of Persons per Pit (50/toilet, 4 toilets per pit)
                                                               q_use =       5     Liters per use for anal cleaning & flushing
                                                               n=            1     Number of uses of toilet per person per day
                                                               q_total =   q_use * n
                                                               q_total =     5     Total liters used per person per day
thus                               A=    1000   liters/ day

STAGE 2: Volume of Sludge & Scum (Maximum Volume prior to Empty)

Base Equation:   B=P*N*F*S                      where          B=          Volume of sludge and scum
                                                               P=          Number of People using the Tank
                                                               N=          Period (years) between emptying of storage tank (Gully Suck Frequency)
                                                               F=          Sizing Factor (table 6.2, source Franceys, Pickford, & Reed, 1992)
                                                               S=          Sludge and Scum accumulation rate
                                                                           (table 5.3, source Franceys, Pickford, & Reed, 1992)
                                                Let            N=            0.17 1 empty per 2 months of use (emergency conditions)
                                                               P=            200
                                                               F=             1.5 F = 1, when >20C, but 50% increase suggested
                                                                                    due to short storage period and low decomposition
                                                                                    Liters of solids per person per year
                                                               S=             25 (25L-toilet only, 40L-toilet+sullage)
                                   B=    1250   liters/ N desludging period

STAGE 3: Required Storage Tank Capacity for Liquids & Soilds

Base Equation:   Vl,s = A + B                   where          A=          Volume of Liquid to be Stored (24 Hour Liquid Volume)
                                                               B=          Volume of Accumulated of Solids & Scum at time of Empty (1/2 wks)

                                                Let            A=          1000   Liters Liquid per day
                                                               B=          1250   Liters of Solids prior to Empty
                                                               C=                 Liters for ventilation

                                Vl,s =   2250.0 Liters
                                            2.3 m3
                                           79.4 ft3

STAGE 4: Ventilation Space

Base Equation:   C = VF * TSA                   where          C=          Volume of ventilation required for gas release & scum
                                                               VF=         Vertical Freeboard above inlet pipe
                                                               TSA=        Tank Surface Area

                                                Let            VF=         6 inches (15cm)
                                                               TSA=        depends on design
                                                                                                                     calcs:    kelly       03.03.07

                                                              18 of 21                              version- 15 Sept 2007
             Soakage Pit Design: Portable Toilets for Emergency Response

Objective: Calculate the Design Soakpit Capacity for Effluent Disposal

STAGE 1: Selection of Soil Infiltration Capacity Rate (RI)

Table2-1. Approximate clean water and waterwater infiltration rates according to soil type
Engineering in Emergencies, Appendix 20, Emergency Sanitation p.27 (reed & dean, 1994)
                                                 Infiltration Rate
                                               (L/m2/day, mm/day)
                     Soil Type          Clean water          Wastewater
                     Gravel, Course
                     medium sand            1500-2400              50
                     Fine and loamy san      720-1500              33
                     Sandy Loam               480-720              24
                     Silt Loam               240-480               18
                     Clay Loam               120-240                8
                                                              unsuitable for
                     Clay Loam                24-120              soak

Table 2-2. Infiltration rate of local material (RI)
Draft Sri Lanka Standard: Effluent Disposal               Specific effective area
                       Perc Rate                              WW disposal
                            mm/day               mm/hr         m2/m3/day
                               3000               125               6.6
                               2400               100               8.4
                               1800                75               11
                               1200                50               17
                               600                 25               34

STAGE 2: Effluent Volume to be Exfiltrated per Day (VI)
                       Effluent Volume to be exfiltrated per tank per day
                                   1000 liters per day
                                      1 m3                    from sht1, stage 2 calculation

STAGE 3: Calculation of Required Infiltration Area (AI)

Base Equation:         AI= Vl * SEA                           where          AI=      Infiltration Area
                                                                             VI=      Effluent Volume to be Exfiltrated per Day
                                                                             SEA=     Specific Effective Area of Infiltration

                                                              Let            VI=      1000     L/day
                                                                             SEA=     Table    m2
                       From Table 2-2.               Surface Area
                                                   m2               ft2
                                      B=           6.6               68      course sand
                                                   8.4               87      medium sand            Selection for
                                                   11.0             113                        Batticaloa Conditions
                                                   17.0             175
                                                   34.0             350

ANNEX: Soakpit Surface Area
Base Equation          Ai= base+ 2 sides+ back                where          Base=    base of pit (OPEN)
                                                                             Sides=   Sides panels of pit (HOLES)
                                                                             Back=    Back panel of pit (HOLES)
                                                              Let            Ai=      87      ft2
                                                                             SL =       SL
                                                                             W=          4
                                                                             D=         3.5
                       Ai= (SL*W)+2*(SL*D)+(W*D)
                                 Length            6.6        ft

                                           STD Plywood (8' x 4' x 15mm)

                                           4 ft width

                         3.5 depth (0.5                  19 of 21                          version- 15 Sept 2007
                      Storage Tank and Soakage Pit Design: Portable Toilets for Emergency Response

Objective: Analysis of Storage Tank & Soakpit design of Proposed UNICEF-ACTED Pit Design

STAGE 1: Design Criteria
                                      79 ft3          Volume Solid & Liquid Storage
                                      87 ft2          Required Area for Exfiltration of Effluent

STAGE 2: Storage Tank Volume
Base Equation    V=A+B+F                              where        A=        Volume of Liquid entering tank per day
                                                                   B=        Accumulation of Sludge at time of desluding          Proposed UNICEF-ACTED DESIGN
                                                                   B=        200*N Liters per person per year * N years
Volume of tank   V = V_1 + V_2                        Let          V=        (B*W*D)_chamber1 + (B*W*D)_chamber2                             4 ft width
                                  Vs,l =       84.0 ft3            B1 =          4                                         4 ft
                                                                   W1 =          4                                      3.5ft L,S
Analysis         needed                        79.4                D1 =         3.5                                      0.5 G
                 provided                      84.0                V_1 =        56 ft3
                 extra                          4.6                B2 =          2                                                       4ft            2 ft
                                                                   W2 =          4
                                                                   D2 =         3.5
                                                                   V_2 =        28 ft3
                                                                   freeboard    0.5

STAGE 3: Soakpit Surface Area
Base Equation    Ai= base+ 2 sides+ back              where        Base=       base of pit (OPEN)
                                                                   Sides=      Sides panels of pit (1" perforations)                Proposed UNICEF-ACTED DESIGN
                                                                   Back=       Back panel of pit (1" perforations)
                                                      Let          Ai_mod=     (B*W)+2*(B*D)+(W*D)                                  4 ft width
                                                                   B=             6                                        4 ft
                                                                                                                                                             perforations of
                                                                   W=             4                                     3.5ft L,S
                                                                                                                                                              side walls for
                                                                   D=            3.5                                     0.5 G
                             Ai_mod=           80.0 ft2

Analysis-mod                      needed        87                                                                     calcs:    kelly            03.03.07
                                 provided      80.0                                                                    reviewed:
                                 shortage      -6.6

                                                   20 of 21                            version- 15 Sept 2007
Questions/ Comments:
  If there are any questions or comments about the content of these Guidelines, Philippe
  Barragne-Bigot (pbarragne@unicef.org), WASH Programme Head of Section, UNICEF-
  Colombo. please address your comments to Kelly Naylor (kanaylor@unicef.org), Nimaladas
  (animaladas@unicef.org) or Leslie Morris (lmorris@unicef.org), WASH Programme,

Many thanks to the ACTED & IRD Technical Officers &
“EMERGENCY TOILET TEAMS” for your Commitment &
Creativity in developing & providing Emergency Sanitation

                                    21 of 21                  version- 15 Sept 2007

Shared By: