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					LEON COUNTY
1999 REPORT




  TO THE
COMMUNITY
                            CHAPTER I

           ABOUT THE LEON COUNTY
          JUVENILE JUSTICE COUNCIL


THE COUNCIL’S ORIGINS

The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council was an
outgrowth of the work of a local citizen-based, public
policy "watchdog" group - the 21st Century Council.


In the fall of 1992, this group launched an extensive
study of the juvenile crime problem in Leon County.


A group of thirty-six Leon County citizen volunteers that
provided broad representation from the community,
including three teenagers, was organized
to form the Juvenile Crime Study committee.


The work of this citizen-driven Study Committee culminated during the spring and summer of
1993.


By that time, the Committee had documented a comprehensive description of the juvenile crime
problem and recommendations for an action plan for the Leon County community.




1999 Report to the Community                                                            Page 1
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
THE GROWTH OF JUVENILE CRIME IN LEON COUNTY


The 1993 Juvenile Crime Study Committee found that Leon County led the state in two of the
most important measures of juvenile crime:



      In 1993, Leon County was the #1 county in Florida in the rate of increase in felony
       crimes during the decade preceding the study ... increasing 241% in comparison to a 95%
       increase statewide.




      In 1993, Leon County was also #1 in the state in the rate of juvenile arrests per capita in
       the year prior to the study...an arrest ratio of 1,327 per 100,000 population...26% higher
       than runner up Hillsborough County with an arrest rate of 1,054 per 100,000.




1999 Report to the Community                                                                Page 2
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
THREE-PRONGED APPROACH


The 21st Century Council’s Juvenile Crime Study Committee developed a comprehensive action
plan for addressing juvenile crime in Leon County that focused on three areas:

   Dealing with Serious Offenders
   Prevention and Early Intervention
   Management of Juvenile Justice in Leon County




     Dealing with Serious Offenders
                                                          Prevention and Early Intervention
     Build enough secure commitment
       space to get the most serious                      Get serious about stopping juvenile
    offenders off the streets and reduce
        the threat to public safety.




                                Management of Juvenile Justice

                               Organize the key stakeholders in the
                               juvenile justice system and create a
                                 unified, county wide approach.




It was the last focus area that led the committee to recommend that a Leon County Juvenile
Justice Council be formed to coordinate a united approach to dealing with juvenile crime among
state and local government.


Also, in recognition of the fact that government alone cannot solve the juvenile crime problem,
the Florida Legislature authorized creation of juvenile justice councils to establish public-private
partnerships to address the issue at the local level.



1999 Report to the Community                                                                 Page 3
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
COUNCIL COMPOSITION
COUNCIL MEMBERS

                                                                         1999
                                                              State and Local Government
When the Council first formed in 1993, it was made up                Representatives
of 20 members.
                                                          Charles Billings, Tallahassee City
                                                            Commission
                                                          Larry Campbell, Sheriff - Leon
                                                            County Sheriff’s Department
                                                          Katie Zimpen, District 2,
The original Council included representatives from          Department of Children &
nine state and local government agencies considered         Families
key players in the local juvenile justice system.         Nancy Daniels, Public Defender,
                                                             Second Judicial Circuit
                                                          Joel DeVolentine, District 2
                                                             Manager, Department of
                                                             Juvenile Justice
                                                          Dave Lang, Leon County Clerk
Over the years this composition has changed.                Of Court
                                                          Charles D. McClure, Second
                                                            Judicial Circuit Courts
                                                          Walt McNeil, Chief, Tallahassee
                                                            Police Department
With the creation of the Department of Juvenile Justice William N. Meggs, State
in 1994, an additional government representative seat      Attorney, Second Judicial
was created for their participation.                       Circuit
                                                        Bill Proctor, Leon County Board
                                                           of County Commissioners
                                                          Forrest Van Camp, Leon County
                                                            Public Schools
Additionally, in recognition of the importance of
official records in the processing of juvenile offenders a seat was created for the Clerk of Court.




1999 Report to the Community                                                                 Page 4
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                 1999                               Today’s Leon County Juvenile Justice
           Citizen Members                                     Council has 27 members.

 Ashkan Abbey, Maclay School
                                           As was the case in 1993, the Council continues
 Ken Armstrong, United Way of the              to strive for broad representation from the
   Big Bend                                               entire Leon County community.

 Stephanie Davis, Lincoln High
    School

 Tim Center, 21st Century Council
                                                     COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
 Ted Duncan, Florida Crime
   Commission

 Calvin Hall, Leon County Schools             As with the 21st Century Council’s Juvenile
   Parent                                  Crime Study Committee, the element of citizen
                                           participation has remained a prominent aspect
 Rev. Robert W. Jones, Ministry                                    in the Council’s work.

 Maisha Mitchell, Frenchtown
  Neighborhood Improvement                     The work of the Council is actually carried
  Association                                                    out through committees.

 Erin Shockley, Lincoln High School
                                         The Council routinely solicits volunteers to serve
 Ken Stafford, Tallahassee Chamber            on these committees to ensure even broader
   of Commerce                                  citizen participation in Council activities.

 Rick Swaine, Accountant
                                             In fact, the Council has hosted well over 300
 Joe Thomas, Southside Coalition of           volunteers who have participated in Council
   Neighborhood Associations                      committees and activities over the years.

 *3 citizen seats vacant               In addition, in 1998, the Council shifted its staffing
                                                to a policy research center which employs
                                              graduate students from both Florida A & M
                                                 and Florida State universities, more fully
                                                                incorporating the academic
                                                                   community in its efforts.



1999 Report to the Community                                                          Page 5
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
COUNCIL FUNCTIONS

EXECUTION OF RESPONSIBILITIES


Activities of the Leon County Juvenile Justice Council are directed in part by recommendations
contained in the 1993 Juvenile Crime Study.




   1. Establish a working partnership of the nine state and local governmental agencies
   involved in juvenile justice in Leon County and provide for strong citizen input into
                                      decision-making.



The Council currently meets bi-monthly and working committees meet at least monthly.


                                          Over the Years

                Partnerships among the state and local governmental agencies
                involved in juvenile justice have been maintained through regular
                meetings of the Council members, as well as through their agency
                representatives that serve on working committees of the Council.

                Strong citizen input has been sustained through the continued
                membership of citizens on the Council. In fact, the Council has
                maintained a majority of citizen members since it was formed.

                In addition, citizen volunteers are frequently solicited to serve on
                committees and participate in events sponsored by the Council.
                These solicitations are made through specific professional groups
                or organizations to secure needed professional expertise.
                However, the Council also recruits citizen volunteers from the
                community at large to engage other interested citizens.




1999 Report to the Community                                                             Page 6
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
     2. Coordinate the efforts of the more than 75 juvenile crime prevention and early
                          intervention programs already in place.

The Council’s past experience has clearly demonstrated the need for centralized coordination of
prevention and early intervention programs. However, the complex interrelationships between
the numerous risk factors for delinquency requires that this coordination extend to all human
services provided in Leon County. Given the limited staff resources available to the Council,
this responsibility exceeds the scope of work feasible for the Council to assume. That is why the
Council supports

              the implementation of the Community Human Services Partnership to coordinate
               funding; and

              the recommendation from the 21st Century Council’s Human Services Study that
               a Human Services Coordinating Agency be established to coordinate service
               delivery.

Because changes in the presence of risk factors impact juvenile crime and the juvenile justice
system in the Leon County community, the Council will continue to monitor risk factors (see
Chapter II) as part of the Comprehensive Strategy under development by the Council.



                                         Over the Years

              The Council has organized various groups of providers to assess
              need and advocated for improving the coordination of services for
              at-risk youth.

              The Council has sponsored numerous coordination meetings for
              groups such as:

                                       Mentoring programs

                                         Parent trainers

                                       Assessment providers

              The Council has compiled listings of various prevention and early
              intervention programs funded through the governmental
              agencies represented on the Council.


1999 Report to the Community                                                               Page 7
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
    3. Develop and keep updated the first comprehensive county wide plan to deal with
         juvenile crime in Leon County and expedite implementation of the plan.




The Council is currently serving as the lead agency in the development of a Comprehensive
Strategy for Dealing with Serious, Violent and Chronic Juvenile Offenders in response to
guidelines adopted by the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention. This plan will more evenly place emphasis on the entire continuum
from prevention programs for at risk youth to graduated sanctions for delinquent youth, thus
dealing with juvenile offenders AND juvenile justice system issues than either of the Council’s

                                              Over the Years

                   The Council first adopted the 21st Century Council 1993 Juvenile
                   Crime Study as its plan during the first year of operation and focused
                   on implementing those recommended strategies, which emphasized
                   improvements to the local juvenile justice system.

                   The Council then developed their first county wide plan in 1994 which
                   placed greatest emphasis on prevention.

                   This plan defined an overall strategy for a risk-focused orientation to
                   dealing with juvenile crime which has since been followed by the
                   Council and other Leon County providers in developing priority
                   strategies for program implementation each year.

                   This plan has been widely recognized throughout the State of Florida
                   for its progressive approach.


two prior plans.




1999 Report to the Community                                                                 Page 8
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
  4. Evaluate current programs and needs and recommend new strategies to better cope
                                 with juvenile crime.




At the request of providers or direction from the Council, Council staff engage professional
evaluators to assess the effectiveness of individual programs.


In addition, the Council is currently sponsoring study committees composed of government
representatives and citizens to conduct in-depth studies and dialogue on Offense Prevention,
Domestic Violence and the Juvenile Justice System.


Another study committee is anticipated in the near future to conduct an in-depth investigation
into the adequacy of funding for prevention services for children and corresponding funding in
Leon County.




1999 Report to the Community                                                               Page 9
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
        COUNCIL ACCOMPLISHMENTS

As a result of the Council’s activities, and the support of partnering agencies, the following
changes and improvements have been seen in the resources available to deal with the prevention
of and intervention in juvenile crime in Leon County.


IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 1993 JUVENILE CRIME
STUDY RECOMMENDATIONS

                                       Over the Years

          The Council has monitored trends in juvenile crime and offender
          profiles to identify the need for targeted strategies to address specific
          problem areas, as they surface.

          The Council has identified and monitored key indicators of risk in the
          community to identify problem areas that need to be addressed.

          The Council has arranged for the services of professional program
          evaluators to assess the impact of specific programs such as the
          TIMEOUT! Mentoring program and the Tallahassee Chamber Youth
          Employment Initiative.

          The Council has sponsored study committees, modeled after the
          Juvenile Crime Study Committee, to conduct in-depth studies of
          specific issues of concern. These studies have investigated:

                                 Mediation/Arbitration;
                              Minority Over Representation;
                                       Assessment;
                              Weapons Offender Curriculum;
                              Recreational Alternatives; and
                                   System Efficiency.




1999 Report to the Community                                                           Page 10
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
A 30-bed boot camp was established in 1994 to deal with the most serious offenders and has
      now been converted to a 60-bed Drill Academy which has resulted in a reduction in
      seriousness of offenders being handled in the local system.



Aftercare placements have been established to provide more continued supervision of youth
       returning to the community following residential placement.



A secure transitional management facility has been established in Ft. Walton to house youth who
       have been committed to the supervision of the Department of Juvenile Justice but are in
       need of extensive evaluation and treatment prior to placement in a residential facility.



A half-time Assistant Public Defender was added to the staff of the Public Defender’s Office to
       work in the Juvenile Division (due to heavy caseloads throughout the office, this position
       had to be reassigned in 1998).



A shared information system has been developed and is now being piloted to provide ready
       access to information on offenders by those agencies having the most immediate need for
       such information.
With support from the Tallahassee Area Chamber of Commerce, a year-round private sector jobs
       program was established to provide a way for offending youth to earn money in order to
       make restitution for damages imposed on crime victims.



A number of statutory changes were advocated by the Juvenile Justice Council and have now
     been adopted by the Florida Legislature, which allow judges to securely detain youth
     who are found to be in contempt of court; to extend the length of secure pre-trial
     detention for youth considered too dangerous to be released into the community; and to
     provide for post-commitment detention of youth ordered placed in a secure residential
     facility until a bed is available for the youth’s placement.




1999 Report to the Community                                                             Page 11
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
Numerous prevention programs provided through the Leon County Schools have been expanded
     to serve more youth who are at-risk of becoming juvenile offenders, including:
            Early Warning Systems to identify and treat children at the preschool and
             elementary school level who exhibit behavioral problems or early patterns of
             academic failure;
            Early Warning Systems in middle schools to identify and treat highly disruptive
             students;
            Shared Service Center programs to serve disadvantaged areas of Leon County;
            Vocational and career training programs to give hope to teenagers who see no
             future and improve their opportunities for getting a job;
            Life management courses to teach parenting skills to both male and female
             students;
            Dropout Prevention programs;
            Conflict Resolution skills training; and
            Alternatives to suspension and expulsion for the purpose of disciplining students.



City Parks and Recreation Department programs have been expanded and hours extended to
       provide more non-academic, positive alternatives to engaging in delinquent behavior.



The Leon Area Minority Over-Representation Initiative has been established to provide on-going
      monitoring of arrested youth to help prevent the continued, disproportionately high
      percentage of black youth entering the local juvenile justice system.




1999 Report to the Community                                                            Page 12
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COUNCIL’S 1996
REPORT TO THE COMMUNITY
RECOMMENDATIONS


The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council has continued to provide advocacy and other forms of
      support for early intervention programs which produce or contribute to low recidivism
      rates, such as mentoring programs and Teen Court.


Law enforcement has instituted programs to target the prevention of burglaries.


The Department of Juvenile Justice has allocated funds to provide substance abuse treatment in
      residential programs for adjudicated youth.


The Department of Juvenile Justice has allocated funds to provide for the addition of Level VI
      and Level VIII placements for female offenders.


The Leon County Juvenile Detention facility has been expanded to 56 beds.


The Department of Juvenile Justice has provided for the secure detention of all youth awaiting
      placement, including the implementation of electronic monitoring of juvenile offenders.


The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council has continued to identify and address issues related to
      improving their ability to coordinate and plan strategies intended to reduce juvenile crime
      in Leon County and has also continued to engage citizens in their efforts. The Council is
      also currently undergoing a self-assessment to better serve the citizens of Leon County.


The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council has assumed responsibility for staffing the local
      domestic violence task force which is currently exploring the availability and need for
      prevention services that target youth involved in domestic violence situations.




1999 Report to the Community                                                             Page 13
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COUNCIL’S STUDY
COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS
A social worker position has been established within the Public Defender’s Office in order to
       provide advocacy services for youth in need of specific treatment services or appropriate
       alternatives to incarceration.


A juvenile drug court has been established in Leon County to deal with any youth who exhibit
       alcohol or other drug use problems as a contributing factor to their delinquent activity.


The Council partners with the Leon Area Minority Over-Representation Initiative to support and
      remain informed about actions that can be taken to avert continued disproportionate over-
      representation of minority youth in the juvenile justice system.


A program has been established in Leon County designed to provide entertainment for older at-
       risk youth by having youth, themselves, create and organize recreational activities that
       will engage them and their peers in constructive social interactions.


A curriculum has been developed to educate weapons offenders on the impact of their crimes
       and classes are currently provided to youth, ordered by the court, to attend.


The Council worked in collaboration with the 21st Century Council’s Human Services Study
      Technical Advisory Team to assess human services needs as they relate to prevention
      and early intervention.


The Council has adopted a vision that emphasizes active lobbying and advocacy on behalf of the
      initiatives the Council supports in order to decrease juvenile delinquency in Leon
      County.


A Restorative Justice Initiative was recently funded to engage neighborhood residents in the
      determination/implementation of sanctions and prevention activities with high-risk youth
      and youth who have been referred to the juvenile justice system, as well as their parents.


The Council accepted a recommendation from their Strategic Planning Committee in 1998 to
      pursue remaining study committee recommendations as described in Appendix A.

1999 Report to the Community                                                               Page 14
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
OVERALL IMPACT

POLICY MAKING

The Council’s decisions affect legislative action, grant awards,
and program implementation regularly.




                                                                      PROGRAM ADVOCACY

                                The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council has served as a model
                              for a number of statewide initiatives to enhance prevention efforts,
                                   including the formation of mentoring coalitions (which is now
                         being promoted by the Department of Juvenile Justice and Governor Jeb
                        Bush) AND in its advocacy for parent training programs (which has been
                              adopted as a policy initiative by the Center for Florida’s Children).




PLANNING

The Council has adopted a Strategic Plan which has been recognized
as one of the most comprehensive in the state and which is routinely
used and referenced as a primary foundation and justification for local
providers to support their requests for funds for delinquency prevention
and intervention services.




                                            SYSTEM EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT

                                 Council studies are routinely translated into action or program
                            implementation efforts to improve the operation of the local juvenile
                                                 justice system (see Council Accomplishments).


1999 Report to the Community                                                               Page 15
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                          CHAPTER II
       THE LEON COUNTY STRATEGIC
                 PLAN

OVERVIEW


The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council engaged citizens throughout Leon County in working
committees and community forums for almost a year, developing its overall strategy to guide
future efforts to deal with juvenile crime. In particular, emphasis was placed on developing a
strategy that would be proactive by identifying local risk factors within community domains and
then developing strategies to address those factors recognized as priority issues.


The resulting overriding strategy the Council promotes in the community has three key
components:




                                   RISK-FOCUSED ORIENTATION
1999 Report to the Community                                                            Page 16
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
A proactive strategy for addressing any social problem requires the identification of root causes.

In 1994, the Council’s Assessment/Evaluation Committee conducted an exhaustive review of
research on risk factors that contribute to delinquency. The inventory is included in Appendix
B.

Due to the extensiveness of this inventory, this Committee were compelled to identify a more
manageable framework for reviewing the risk factors; using the "Community that Cares" model,
they grouped risk factors into clusters corresponding to different facets of a juvenile’s life.

This review of risk factors also led to understanding that these various risk factors interact in
very complex ways. Gerald Patterson and his colleagues depicted this complexity, as shown in
the illustration below, in their book Anti-Social Boys (1992).




1999 Report to the Community                                                               Page 17
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
PRIORITIZATION OF RISK FACTORS
The resulting scope of the problem made it clear that it would be impossible to effectively deal
with every potential contributor.

The Council approached this obstacle by establishing a prioritization of risk factors.

Establishing a prioritization of risk factors was very difficult. Even the experts did not agree on
which risk factors were most important.

The final prioritization was eventually achieved through a process of logical reasoning and
consensus building.




                                                                      Priority #1: Family Domain

                           These include things such as a lack of supervision or skills in parenting
                           practices (which some experts have argued is the primary root cause of
                                               delinquency) and the whole myriad of experiences
                                                                  that children have in their home.


  These were considered to be points of intervention that could be addressed early in the lives of
                              youth, preventing them from entering the juvenile justice system.




Priority #2: Individual/Peer Domain

These include variables, such as learning disabilities and peer
pressure, which must be addressed through strategies that
work directly with the youth.


The inclusion of peri-natal defects in this cluster renders this group
of variables as potentially the point of earliest intervention through the
prevention of contributors, such as poor nutrition during pregnancy.



1999 Report to the Community                                                                Page 18
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                                                                      Priority #3: School Domain

                                                   These include behavior and academic problems
                                                       that are evident in the school environment.


                                       This cluster was ranked third because they were considered
                                     to be more symptomatic of the presence of other risk factors,
                                                     like a learning disability or problems at home.




Priority #4: Community Domain

These include conditions in the neighborhoods where
children live that are stressors for youth in other areas of
their lives - like availability of drugs or disenfranchisement
of community members.


These were ranked last because effective intervention
will require more long-term, comprehensive strategies.




THE ANNUAL REPORT CARD

The Council monitors the status of various risk factor domains by routinely reviewing data on
key indicators as shown in the tables on the next four pages. Some longitudinal data on selected
measures is not yet available because the data collection has only recently been initiated.




1999 Report to the Community                                                                Page 19
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
1999 Report to the Community           Page 20
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
PRIORITIZATION OF GROUPS AT RISK
The Council also identified certain “pockets” of risk within the Leon County Community.

These “pockets,” or neighborhoods, had higher incidences of delinquency and other risk factors.

The Council selected these neighborhoods as priority areas for implementing prevention and
intervention strategies.

These neighborhoods are outlined on the map below. They include Frenchtown (Census Tracts 1,
6, 7, 14), Southeast Side (Census Tracts 3, 10.01, 10.02), and South Side - or Bond - (Census
Tracts 4, 5, 11.01, 11.02, 12).




1999 Report to the Community                                                      Page 21
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
1999 Report to the Community           Page 22
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                           CHAPTER III
 DEALING WITH JUVENILE CRIME IN
          LEON COUNTY
Since the formation of the Leon County Juvenile Justice Council, the steps followed and
resources available to deal with juvenile offenders have been greatly enhanced. The following
description provides an overview of changes in responsible agencies, what happens when a
juvenile is arrested, and the variety of programs available for sanctioning offending youth.

THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM
THE DEPARTMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE

In 1994, the Florida Legislature enacted the Juvenile Justice Act of 1994, creating the
Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ). This law transferred state responsibility and oversight of
juvenile justice services from the formerDepartment of Health and Rehabilitative Services to the
new department, effective October 1, 1994. The Legislature also committed significant funding
to the Department. Its annual budget is approximately $790 million.

THE PROCESS FROM ARREST TO RE-ENTRY

DELINQUENCY INTAKE/SCREENING/ASSESSMENT

When a youth has been taken into custody for a law violation, DJJ has the statutory
responsibility for receiving, investigating, and assessing allegations that a juvenile is
"delinquent" - has committed an act that would be a violation of law if committed by an adult.
In November 1995, Leon County established a Juvenile Assessment and Receiving Center
(JARC) for this purpose.

The JARC - operates 24 hours a day, providing a central receiving and booking facility for
processing arrested juveniles. Law enforcement is able to deliver arrested juveniles to the JARC
for supervision and return to their law enforcement duties more quickly. During processing at
the JARC, the juvenile is fully assessed by intake staff to identify needs for which intervention
referrals may also be expedited. A DJJ probation officer is then assigned to the youth’s case to
provide case management and supervisory services to the youth and family from the time of
entry into the juvenile justice system (i.e., the arrest) through the disposition of the case.


1999 Report to the Community                                                       Page 23
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
PRE-ADJUDICATION (PRE-TRIAL) DETENTION

After arrest, the youth may either be released to a parent, guardian, or responsible adult or
placed in some form of detention based upon an assessment of risk conducted according to
statutory criteria. This criteria is assessed using a Risk Assessment Instrument (RAI) which
determines whether and to what extent the youth should be securely detained:

        A)      Home Detention - the youth is supervised by a DJJ Community Youth Leader and
        the parents or guardians. The youth is usually supervised for a period of 21 days but
        supervision can be extended by the court.

        B)      Non-Secure Detention - the youth is supervised in an alternative home or a
        congregate living facility. The youth is usually supervised for a period of 21 days, but
        the length of supervision may be extended by the court.

        C)     Secure Detention - the youth is held securely at the Leon Regional Juvenile
        Detention Center for no longer than 21 days. An extension of time can be ordered by the
        court under exceptional circumstances as outlined within Chapter 985, Florida Statutes.




JUDICIAL/NON-JUDICIAL HANDLING

The Department of Juvenile Justice compiles extensive information regarding the seriousness of
the offense and its impact on any individual and/or community; the previous number and nature
of contacts with the Department, law enforcement or the circuit court; age, maturity and attitude
of the youth; the attitude of the parents; the ability of the parents to control the youth; the
attitude and opinion of the complainant and the victim; and available social information
including substance abuse or mental health issues, as applicable to the youth. All of this
information is considered and documented before the DJJ recommends Judicial or Non-Judicial
action to the State Attorney.

        A)      Judicial action - the juvenile attends court proceedings and is an active participant
        in the judicial process; sanctions are ordered and enforced by the court.

        B)     Non-Judicial action - the juvenile is referred to a diversion program which will
        monitor community service work hours, payment of restitution, and any other
        sanctions/treatment recommendations imposed by the supervising program.




1999 Report to the Community                                                          Page 24
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
1999 Report to the Community           Page 25
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
THE ADJUDICATORY HEARING (TRIAL) AND SENTENCING

If the State Attorney decides to file a petition of delinquency, an arraignment date is set. At the
time of arraignment, the youth is formally notified of the charges against him/her and appointed
an attorney, if indigent. Unless the youth pleads guilty or nolo contendere (no contest) to the
charges, then a date is set for an adjudicatory hearing. At the adjudicatory hearing, testimony
and evidence is presented and the judge makes a determination of guilt regarding the current
charge.

If the youth enters a plea at any stage in the process or is found guilty of the charged offense, a
disposition hearing is scheduled. This is similar to sentencing in the adult system.

Juvenile offenders are brought to court proceedings before a Circuit Court Judge specifically
assigned to all juvenile cases. This presiding judge may sentence the youth to:

        A)      A Diversion Program - where the adjudication of delinquency is withheld.

        B)      Community Control - the youth is court ordered to be supervised by the Department
        of Juvenile Justice. The youth continues to live at home but would be ordered to complete
        certain sanctions as determined by the court (e.g., school attendance, curfew, restitution,
        community service hours, apology letters, treatment services, or other sanctions deemed
        appropriate by the court). The court may withhold adjudication of delinquency or adjudicate
        the youth delinquent.

        C)      Commitment Program - the youth is adjudicated delinquent and supervision by
        the Department is ordered. Levels of supervision range from at-home (non-residential
        level 2) supervision to level 10 (residential maximum security) secure commitment.



NON-RESIDENTIAL DIVERSION/SANCTION PROGRAMS AVAILABLE FOR LEON
COUNTY JUVENILES



NON-JUDICIAL DIVERSION PROGRAMS

        A)       Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC) - This program is designed for
        first time misdemeanor offenders that are young, extremely remorseful, have no
        restitution due, and need few sanctions but may have treatment needs. Legal sanctions
        are restricted to essays, apology letters, and less than 20 community service hours. The
        Department determines the sanctions before the case is referred to TASC.

        B)     Inner City - This program is designed for the same types of offenders as TASC,
        except it specifically targets African Americans living within certain census tracts. The
        Department determines the sanctions before the case is referred to Inner City.


1999 Report to the Community                                                          Page 26
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
        C)       Teen Court - This is used for first time misdemeanor offenders, with little or no
        restitution, and older offenders who need peer-imposed sanctions. Teen Court
        determines the sanctions using youth jurors.

        D)      Arbitration - This program works with offenders who admit guilt but feel their
        actions were justified (as in some battery cases). Cases involving disputed restitution are
        also appropriate. Defendant and victim must agree to arbitration and volunteer
        arbitrators determine the sanctions.

        E)     Juvenile Alternative Services Program (JASP) - This program is for second time
        misdemeanor/first time felony offenders if restitution is minimal/undisputed. DJJ
        determines sanctions prior to referral to JASP.

        F)      Non-Judicial Fire Academy - This program accepts first and second time
        misdemeanor offenders with service needs who are 17 or under. Each youth has 30-60 days
        to complete four Saturdays of 2.5 hour sessions. The youth is expected to complete an
        apparatus/inventory class, letter of apology if applicable, perform community service hours
        at the station and write an essay on a specified topic. Youth will also participate in small
        group sessions discussing topics such as self-esteem, self-worth, values, respect, positive
        decision-making, etc. Youth are supervised by volunteer firefighters who are not on duty
        during the operation of the program and their case is managed by a JASP counselor.

        G)      Civil Citation - This program provides for youth who have committed certain non-
        serious offenses to be given a citation to appear for a work program in lieu of arrest.


JUDICIAL SANCTIONS

        A)      Judicial Fire Academy - Identical services to the Non-Judicial Fire Academy except
        participation is court-ordered. Adjudication of delinquency is withheld.

        B)       Community Control - This entails a court-ordered program of sanctions and
        treatment services. Youth may be required to complete any or all of the following sanctions:
        mandatory school attendance, essays, curfew, community service, restitution, apology
        letters, counseling (individual, family, group sessions), or any other sanctions deemed
        appropriate by the Court. Termination of community control must be approved by the court.
        Violators of community control can be brought back before the presiding judge for
        additional sanctions. The youth may be adjudicated delinquent or adjudication can be
        withheld.

        C)       Level II Non-Residential Commitment (Field Services Supervised Commitment) -
        This is a court-ordered commitment allowing youth who have been adjudicated delinquent
        to live at home and still be in commitment status. The youth must complete sanctions such
        as those listed under Community Control supervision. Violators of this Supervised
        Commitment can be transferred to higher restrictiveness levels of commitment.



1999 Report to the Community                                                         Page 27
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
1999 Report to the Community           Page 28
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
RESIDENTIAL COMMITMENT PROGRAMS

These programs are for more serious offenders who need to be removed from the community.
Juveniles live at the commitment facility. There are four restrictiveness levels of residential
commitment programs.


LEVEL IV

This custody classification is used for the least restrictive residential programs serving committed
youth who have been assessed and classified as representing low risks to themselves and the public.
Program models within this classification that serve Leon County youth include Group Treatment
Homes, Outward Bound’s Short-Term Elective Program -STEP, and Short-Term Wilderness
Programs (Blackwater Short-Term Offender Program - STOP).


LEVEL VI

This custody classification is used for residential programs serving committed youth who have been
assessed and classified as moderate risks to public safety, requiring close supervision in a structured
setting. These programs provide 24-hour a day secure custody, care and supervision. Program
models within this restrictiveness level include four- to six-month Boot Camp Programs (Leon
County Sheriff’s Department Drill Academy), Halfway Houses (RAFT Halfway House for Girls;
Seminole Work ‘N Learn; Guided Adolescent Treatment Environment - GATE; Madison Early
Residential Intervention and Treatment Program - MERIT, Joann Bridges Academy for Girls),
Long-Term Therapeutic Wilderness Camps (Eckerd Wilderness Camp), Short-Term Adolescent
Rehabilitative Treatment Centers (Duval START Center), DISC Village Treatment Center, and
Wilderness Camps (West Florida Wilderness Institute and Liberty Wilderness Crossroads Camp).


LEVEL VIII

This custody classification is used for residential programs serving committed youth who have been
assessed and classified as substantial risks to public safety, requiring close supervision in a
structured setting. These programs provide 24-hour a day secure custody, care and supervision.
Since placement in programs in this restrictiveness level is prompted by concern for public safety,
program models within this classification provide physical site security as well as staff security.
Program models within this classification include six- to eight-month Boot Camp Programs (Leon
County Sheriff’s Department Drill Academy), Developmentally Disabled Offender Programs
(HARP), Long-Term Environmentally Secure Programs (Florida Environmental Institute), Sexual
Offender Programs, Training Schools (Dozier School, Vernon Place for Girls, Jackson Juvenile
Offender Center (JJOC), and Eckerd Youth Development Center).




1999 Report to the Community                                                           Page 29
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
LEVEL X - Juvenile Prison or Correctional Facility

This classification is used for residential programs serving committed youth who have been
assessed and classified as serious risks to public safety, requiring close supervision in a structured
setting. These programs provide 24-hour a day secure custody, care and supervision. Placement
in programs in this restrictiveness level is prompted by concern for public safety, as offenders
committed to this level have demonstrated a serious threat to public safety. Therefore, program
models within this classification are very physically secure. Program models within this
classification include Serious Habitual Offender Programs (SHOP) and Long-Term Maximum
Security Programs.




AFTERCARE AND RE-ENTRY PROGRAMS


AFTERCARE

These programs provide intensive supervision of youth returning to the community from
residential commitment programs, based on each youth’s projected risk to the community and
individual youth needs. The objective of these programs is to plan, guide, and assist youth in a
successful readjustment to community living, including appropriate educational/vocational
services.

Currently, there are two aftercare providers in Leon County. The Rattler Success Program has
30 slots and is specifically designed to serve Drill Academy or Boot Camp graduates. However,
youth from other residential programs may be served, on a case-by-case basis. Tallahassee
Marine Institute’s SAFE program is the other aftercare provider in Leon County. This program
provides seventeen (17) slots for youth returning from residential programs other than drill
academies or boot camps.


RE-ENTRY

These services are provided to youth returning from residential commitment programs, based on
the youth’s projected risk to the community and their individual needs. The objective of these
services is to plan, guide, and assist youth in a successful readjustment to community living,
addressing education as needed. Unlike aftercare supervision, re-entry supervision is provided
by DJJ juvenile probation officers, not private providers. Youth placed on re-entry supervision
are generally deemed to be less of a risk to the community; have completed or are nearing
completion of their education; and have fewer court-ordered sanctions to complete than youth
placed on aftercare supervision.




1999 Report to the Community                                                          Page 30
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
1999 Report to the Community           Page 31
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND
EFFECTIVENESS

THE "GET TOUGH" APPROACH IN OUR LOCAL JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

There is a great deal of literature which supports the need to handle offenders intensely and
immediately in order to have the greatest impact on preventing additional offenses.


INCREASED JUDICIAL HANDLING OF YOUTH OFFENDERS

Most juvenile offenders are deemed to be non-serious offenders and, while diverted from
traditional judicial handling, receive some sanctions through the judicial process. However, the
judicial handling of offenders in Leon County has increased overall in the last five years. As the
next Chapter describes, while the greatest increase in cases has involved less serious offenses,
the system is handling more cases more seriously using the judicial forum for disposition.


In 1993-94, 44% of juvenile offenders were handled judicially. By 1997-98 this percentage had
increased to 47%.


                       JUDICIALLY AND NON-JUDICIALLY HANDLED
                                        YOUTH
                                      Leon County
                                   1993-94 and 1997-98
                     Case              1993-94      %       1997-98          %
                   Processing           Youth    of Total    Youth        of Total
                    Method             Handled    Youth     Handled        Youth
                                                 1993-94                  1997-98
                                         673       44%         931         47 %
                    Judicially
                    Handled
                                         908      56%         1,063         53 %
                      Non-
                    Judicially
                    Handled
                      Total             1581      100%        1994          100%




1999 Report to the Community                                                         Page 32
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
HARSHER SANCTIONS

Since 1993-94, the Court has increased the restrictiveness of imposed sanctions, requiring
greater supervision of youth who remain in the community and removing more children from the
community in the interest of public safety.

This table shows that an increasing number of youth are placed on community control or in
commitment status, requiring supervision by the Department of Juvenile Justice in order to
remain in the community.

   Case Disposition            1993-94         % of               1997-98              % of
       Method                               Dispositions                            Dispositions
 Judicial JASP                   214            32%                  16                  2%
 Community Control               254            38%                 680                 73%
 Commitment                      143            21%                 151                 16%
                                                 Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice

While only 59% of youth were placed under Department supervision in 1993-94, that percent
has increased to 89% in 1997-98.




FEWER TRANSFERS TO ADULT COURT

With the greater emphasis on "getting tough" and the creation of more commitment beds within
the juvenile justice system has come a reduction in the number of youth transferred to adult
court.

The table on the next page shows the numbers and percentages of youth transferred to adult
court by sex and race.




1999 Report to the Community                                                          Page 33
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                    YOUTHS TRANSFERRED TO ADULT COURT
                                Leon County
                             BY RACE AND SEX
                       1993-94         1994-95   1995-96      1996-97      1997-98          %
                                                                                         Change
                                                                                         93-94 to
                                                                                          97-98
                           14            14        11            16           12          -14 %
 WHITE MALES
                           55            37        45            34           31          -43 %
 BLACK MALES
                           0             0         0              0            0           0%
 OTHER MALES
                           2             0         1              2            2           0%
      WHITE
     FEMALES
                           4             4         1              3            5          +25 %
      BLACK
     FEMALES
                           0             0         0              0            0           0%
      OTHER
     FEMALES
                           0             0         0              0            0           0%
    UNKNOWN
                           75            55        58            55           50          -33 %
      TOTAL
                                                       Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice




Transfers to adult court are down by 33%. In addition, there has been a significant reduction in
the proportion of transfers involving minority youth. In 1993-94, minority youth represented
73% of the transfers to adult court. In 1997-98, minority youth composed 62% of the transfers
to adult court.




1999 Report to the Community                                                                Page 34
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
AREAS FOR SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

LEON COUNTY IS AMONG THE SLOWEST COUNTIES IN
PROCESSING JUVENILE CASES


Another issue raised in the 1993 Juvenile Crime in Leon County report was the problem of
delays in processing cases in Leon County. This continues to be an area of concern since more
immediate consequences are much more effective in managing human behavior.


The chart below shows the case processing times for the five fastest counties in the state, based
upon the most recent data provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice.




1999 Report to the Community                                                        Page 35
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
The chart below indicates that Leon County is among the five slowest counties in the state with
regard to juvenile case processing; the data reflecting a county average case processing time of
120.2 days far exceeds the state average of 91.7 days and the court’s case processing standard of
90 days. In addition, one large urban area, Duval County, processes their cases twice as quickly.

However, the Court has recently instituted a practice of adhering to statutory requirements for
youth being held in detention to be tried within 21 days. This practice could significantly impact
the overall average case processing time.




                      Court Case Processing Delays Should Be Monitored

  Delays in court case processing in Leon County should continue to be monitored closely to
  ensure that modifications in court practice do, in fact, alleviate delays in processing juvenile
                                              cases.




DETENTION CENTER OVERCROWDING HAS BEEN ALLEVIATED BUT NOT
SOLVED

In 1994, the Florida Legislature passed statutory changes which allowed for post-adjudication
detention of all youth committed to level VIII or X programs; this was expanded in 1996 to
require detention care for any youth awaiting placement in a residential commitment program.



1999 Report to the Community                                                         Page 36
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
These statutory changes now give the local juvenile justice system the authority to securely hold
youth to further preserve public safety. However, this has had considerable impact on the
adequacy of detention facility capacity. In response to the Council’s last Report to the
Community findings, the Department of Juvenile Justice provided a 20-bed expansion of the
facility from 36 beds to 56 in 1997.


However, this has not fully
addressed the problem. The data                Leon Regional Juvenile Detention Center
shown here reflects the average                      1997-98 Population Report
daily population for a consecutive
twelve month period. This data                Month           Average Daily       % Over/Under
shows that the Leon Juvenile                                   Population           Capacity
Detention Center consistently
maintained average daily                  July 1997                  56                  0%
populations at or below capacity          August 1997                52                 -7%
67% of the time during the 1997-98
fiscal year. But there were still four    September 1997             60                 0.07
months when capacity was
exceeded, even with the additional        October 1997               57                 0.02
beds.
                                          November 1997              52                 -7%

                                          December 1997              60                 0.07

                                          January 1998               59                 0.05

                                          February 1998              51                 -9%

                                          March 1998                 52                 -7%

                                          April 1998                 49                -12.5%

                                          May 1998                   54                  -4%
                                              Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice




                Detention Center Overcrowding Should Be Closely Monitored

 Though it is clearly necessary to detain youth who present a threat to the public safety of our
community, there are numerous potential negative consequences of crowded facilities including
        the threat posed to detention center staff, as well as to youth being detained.




1999 Report to the Community                                                                Page 37
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
POST-ADJUDICATION PLACEMENTS ARE DELAYED


Part of the overcrowding at the Detention Center could be addressed if post-adjudication
placements could be expedited. Although Leon County’s waiting list has been relatively low,
some of these youth may await placement for months.


The following chart shows the waiting list for several randomly selected weeks during a four
month period of time in 1998 provided by the Department of Juvenile Justice. It also shows the
level of commitment program for which they are waiting.
                         POST-ADJUDICATION PLACEMENTS
                                  WAITING LIST
                                 LEON COUNTY
                                 April to July 1998
                      Waiting List           LEVEL        LEVEL       LEVEL
                      Sample Period            IV           VI         VIII

                      April 1998                 3           7            2
                      Waiting List
                      May 1998                   2           10           2
                      Waiting List
                      June 1998
                      Waiting List               2           11           4
                      July 1998                  1           9            5
                      Waiting List
                            Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice




                                       Level VI Program Capacity
                                          Should be Increased

  As was the case for the 1996 Report to the Community, the greatest number of youth awaiting
 placement are waiting for Level VI placements. Youth awaiting these placements contribute to
                             overcrowding at the Detention Center.




1999 Report to the Community                                                         Page 38
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
DJJ CASELOADS CONTINUE TO EXCEED ACCEPTABLE STANDARDS



Prior to court sentencing or when adjudicated youth are not committed to a residential program,
they are usually subject to supervision by the Department of Juvenile Justice. However,
caseloads for juvenile probation officers are so high, it is impossible to provide appropriate
levels of supervision to all youth who require that monitoring. These youth remain in the
community and, if not monitored adequately, are prone to commit additional offenses.



Department of Juvenile Justice Juvenile Probation Officers are responsible for monitoring
alleged offenders from intake through case disposition by the Court, as well as for supervising
juvenile offenders in the community while they complete their court-ordered sanctions.



Current caseloads for these Department of Juvenile Justice Officers in Leon County are
approximately 70 per juvenile probation officer. These juvenile probation officers are
responsible for monitoring alleged offenders from intake through case disposition by the court,
and for supervising juvenile offenders in the community while they complete their court-ordered
sanctions.


The Department of Juvenile Justice has recommended caseloads of 28 per worker for post-
sentencing community supervision and 32 per worker, pre-sentencing. The enhanced
supervision that is possible with smaller caseloads has proven successful in lowering recidivism
in a variety of pilot programs around the country.




            Caseloads for Juvenile Justice Probation Officers Need to be Reduced

    The most recent findings of the Department of Juvenile Justice in their 1997-98 Outcome
   Evaluation Report showed District 2 had the second highest recidivism rate in the state for
  subsequent commitments to DJJ or the adult corrections system at 13 percent. One potential
  remedy for this is to reduce caseloads through the allocation of additional juvenile probation
                                             officers.




1999 Report to the Community                                                       Page 39
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
OTHER GAPS IN THE SYSTEM

In 1993, the 21st Century Council Juvenile Crime Study Report recommended that an additional
half-time Assistant Public Defender be provided to work in the Juvenile Division in order to
reduce caseloads, provide for better early intervention services prior to court action, and enhance
the services that the Public Defender’s Office could provide to youth and their families.

This recommendation was implemented in 1994.

However, since that time caseloads in all divisions of the Public Defender’s Office have
increased, creating the need to reallocate personnel to keep up with demands. As a result, this
half-time Assistant Public Defender had to be reassigned to keep caseloads throughout the office
as manageable as possible.

This situation has been exacerbated by the Court’s recent enforcement of the practice of trying
youth who are being held in detention within 21 days.

   The Need for Additional Staff in the Juvenile Division of the Public Defender’s Office
                                   Should be Evaluated

 The Juvenile Justice Council should reassess the caseloads of attorneys working in the juvenile
division and make a recommendation regarding the extent of need for additional Public Defender
                                           personnel.


In addition, in spite of the addition of numerous residential commitment programs, there remains a
gap in available services to provide a full continuum. When youth return from these residential
programs, they are returned to the same environment in which their delinquent behavior occurred.


It is often the case that a juvenile’s own home and/or family contributed to their delinquent behavior
patterns. Returning these youth to their homes is not conducive to their rehabilitation.


For youth who are old enough to work, the Department of Juvenile Justice has established
independent living programs in some areas of the state to provide an alternative to returning the child
to their home. Leon County needs this type of program to provide a second chance for these youth.


                            Independent Living Programs Are Needed

 Though recommended in the 1996 Report to the Community, the Department of Juvenile Justice
  has still not allocated funding to provide for Independent Living placements for Leon County
                                               youth.

1999 Report to the Community                                                          Page 40
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                            CHAPTER IV

   JUVENILE CRIME IN LEON COUNTY
OFFENSE TRENDS
        INCREASE IN TOTAL DELINQUENCY                                  INCREASE IN DELINQUENCY
                  REFERRALS                                                 REFERRALS EXCEEDS
             FY 1987-88 to FY 1997-98                                                 THE STATE
(Based on statistics provided by the former Department of Health
   and Rehabilitative Services and the Florida Department of              The 1993 Juvenile Crime Study
                         Juvenile Justice)                             established a precedent for looking
                                                                         at trends in delinquency referrals
                    Cases           Cases            % change                  across ten years. From that
                   received       received                                perspective it appears that Leon
                    87-88           97-98                            County is doing well. In the past ten
                                                                               years, while referrals to the
 Leon               2,040              2,563           +26 %          Department of Juvenile Justice rose
 County                                                               by 61% statewide, cases referred in
                                                                     Leon County increased by only 26%.
 Statewide         107,558         173,525             +61 %
                                               INCREASE IN DELINQUENCY REFERRALS
                                                      FY 1993-94 to FY 1997-98
                                               (Based on statistics provided by the Florida Department of
                                                                     Juvenile Justice)
However, in the past five years
the trends are not as optimistic for                             Cases           Cases        % change
Leon County. During that time,                                  received       received
the total number of delinquency                                  93-94           97-98
referrals in Leon County
increased by 19 % in comparison            Leon                  2,157            2,563           19%
to only 11 % statewide.                    County

                                           Statewide            156,803         173,525           11%



1999 Report to the Community                                                                 Page 41
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
LEON COUNTY ARREST RATES ALSO EXCEED THE STATEWIDE RATES

One encouraging piece of news is that the overall juvenile arrest rate (or number of arrested youth
per 100,000 total population) in Leon County has declined by 21% compared to a 61% increase
statewide, since 1993.

                               1993 Juvenile            1997 Juvenile
                                  Arrests             Arrests per 100,000              % Change
                                per 100,000               population
                                population

 Leon County                       1324.3                     1051.76                     -21%


 Statewide                             644.1                  1036.83                      61%
                                 Calculated from Data provided by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement

However, the county-wide rate still exceeds the state. Trends in juvenile arrest rates in Leon
County, relative to statewide trends are depicted below.


                      Juvenile Arrest Rates (per 100,000 population)

   2000
   1800
   1600
   1400
   1200
                                                                                     Leon County
   1000
                                                                                     Statewide
     800
     600
     400
     200
        0
            93            94               95            96              97


1999 Report to the Community                                                              Page 42
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                   The State of Juvenile Crime in Leon County Still Requires
                              Close Monitoring and Coordination

 Though Leon County has made considerable progress in managing the growth of juvenile crime,
  the county-wide rate has really only come closer into line with the statewide rate, which still
shows an increasing trend. The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council should continue to monitor
      delinquent activity and trends to prevent the reoccurrence of the crisis faced in1993.




THE OFFENSE PROFILE

JUVENILE OFFENDERS IN LEON COUNTY ARE COMMITTING LESS SERIOUS
CRIMES


Most of the increase in the number of youth entering the juvenile justice system in Leon County
in the last five years continues to come from an increase in the number of youth committing
misdemeanor and "other" offenses, instead of felonies.


                          YOUTHS REFERRED FOR DELINQUENCY
                                     Leon County
     OFFENSES            1993/94       1994-95   1995-96    1996-97       1997-98       CHANGE
                                                                                       FROM 93/94
                                                                                        TO 97/98
                            600         670       649          621          628           + 5%
     FELONIES

                            726         849       939         1044          1054           + 45%
 MISDEMEANORS
      OTHER
     OFFENSES               26           24        40          34            31            + 19%
                           1352         1543      1628        1699          1713           + 27%
       TOTAL
                                                   Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice




There is also a decrease in the actual number of cases received which involved felony offenses.

1999 Report to the Community                                                           Page 43
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                              DELINQUENCY CASES RECEIVED
                                      Leon County
     OFFENSES            1993-94       1994-95       1995-96     1996-97       1997-98       CHANGE
                                                                                            FROM 93/94
                            875            973         905          762          798             -9%
     FELONIES
 MISDEMEANORS
                           1,152           1,290      1,510        1,548        1,585            +38%
      OTHER
     OFFENSES               130            116         197          170          180            +38%

                           2,157           2,379      2,612        2,480        2,563           +19%
       TOTAL
                                                        Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice

VIOLENT JUVENILE OFFENSES HAVE DECLINED

The number of juvenile cases involving violent offenses in Leon County has declined. This is
similar to trends noted in at least two other metropolitan communities in the state.

                                       VIOLENT REFERRALS
                               YOUTH               YOUTH             CASES                  CASES
                               1993-94             1997-98           1993-94                1997-98
          LEON                     169               127                227                    160
       BROWARD                     1,047            1,171              1,390                 1,439
          DADE                     2,336            2,400              3,210                 2,995
         DUVAL                     744               652                917                    750
   HILLSBOROUGH                    942               973               1,245                 1,224
        ORANGE                     836               701               1,088                   890
       ALACHUA                     153               179                196                    226
      STATEWIDE                   12,407           12,475             16,197                 15,377
                                                        Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice




1999 Report to the Community                                                                Page 44
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                   CHANGES IN VIOLENT REFERRAL RATES PER 1000
                                 1993-94 To 1997-98

                                 YOUTH REFERRAL RATE                   YOUTH REFERRAL
                                        1993-94                             RATE
                                                                           1997-98
            LEON                             8.2                             5.6

         BROWARD                             9.1                                  8.8

            DADE                            11.4                                  10.6

           DUVAL                             10                                   8.2

     HILLSBOROUGH                           10.7                                  10.1

          ORANGE                            11.4                                  8.5

         ALACHUA                             8.7                                  9.4
                                             9.5                                  8.6
        STATEWIDE
                                                   Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice



Violent offenses include murder, attempted murder, manslaughter, felony sex offenses, robbery,
aggravated assault, shooting or throwing a deadly missile, and resisting arrest with violence.




JUVENILE FELONY CRIME IS INCREASING

As previously indicated, the overall trend across the last five years has reflected a shift toward
less serious crimes, particularly violent offenses. The charts on the next two pages show the
changes in frequency of felony offenses and numbers of juvenile offenders, by offenses, in Leon
County for each of the last five years. This information suggests the need to monitor this
information very closely. Both felony offenses committed by youth and youth committing felony
offenses have increased in the last year.




1999 Report to the Community                                                             Page 45
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                       DELINQUENCY CASES RECEIVED: FELONIES
                                    Leon County

         OFFENSES                      1993-94   1994-95      1995-96       1996-97        1997-98
                                          4         0            1             0              0
    Murder/Manslaughter
                                         7         5              1              2             2
      Attempted Murder
                                         22        10             8              9             10
        Sexual Battery
                                         9         5             11             10             12
  Other Felony Sex Offenses
                                         34        21            30             10             4
        Armed Robbery
                                         18        23            27             21             15
        Other Robbery
                                         18        9             11              8             7
             Arson
                                        308       351           296            239            273
           Burglary
                                        113       104            99             58             61
          Auto Theft
                                         50        63            51             51             45
        Grand Larceny
                                         2         2              1              1             0
  Receiving Stolen Property
                                         15        13            14              5             10
      Concealed Firearm
                                        109       114            86            101             91
 Aggravated Assault/Battery
                                         8         6              6             11             16
            Forgery
                                         26        24            44             53             58
    Felony Non-Marijuana
            Drug
                                         8         37            19             16             22
       Marijuana Felony
                                         35        21            15              9             13
             Escape
                                         10        25            34             26             17
     Resisting Arrest with
           Violence
                                         14        9             13              9             9
 Shooting/Throwing Missile
                                         65       131           138            123            133
         Other Felony
                                        875       973           905            762            798
             Total
                                                    Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice




1999 Report to the Community                                                            Page 46
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                  YOUTHS REFERRED FOR DELINQUENCY: FELONIES
                                 Leon County
         OFFENSES                      1993-94   1994-95     1995-96        1996-97        1997-98
                                          4         0           1              0              0
     Murder/Manslaughter
                                         7         5              1              2              2
      Attempted Murder
                                         20        10             8              9             10
        Sexual Battery
                                         7         5             11              9             11
  Other Felony Sex Offenses
                                         32        18            24             10              4
        Armed Robbery
                                         14        23            25             20             15
        Other Robbery
                                         16        8             10              7              7
             Arson
                                        238       265           231            205            227
            Burglary
                                         64        50            56             46             45
          Auto Theft
                                         28        41            37             38             34
        Grand Larceny
                                         0         2              1              1              0
  Receiving Stolen Property
                                         13        10             9              4              8
      Concealed Firearm
                                         70        74            68             88             74
 Aggravated Assault/Battery
                                         8         5              3              7             14
            Forgery
                                         14        14            29             41             40
 Felony Non-Marijuana Drug
                                         6         27            14             14             20
       Marijuana Felony
                                         6         6              7              4              9
             Escape
                                         4         17            23             18              9
     Resisting Arrest with
           Violence
                                         11        6              7              6              2
  Shooting/Throwing Missile
                                         38        84            84             92             97
         Other Felony
                                        600       670           649            621            628
             Total
                                                    Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice



1999 Report to the Community                                                            Page 47
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
BURGLARY IS STILL THE FELONY CRIME OF CHOICE AMONG JUVENILES



In the Council’s 1996 Report to the Community, it was noted that burglary was the crime of
choice for juveniles. Although the cases received and youth referred have decreased from five
years ago, burglaries have increased in the past year and continues to be the most frequently
committed felony among juvenile offenders in Leon County.



Thirty-four percent (34%) of the Leon County felony cases received by the Department of
Juvenile Justice involved burglary, and 36% of the youth referred for felonies in Leon County
were charged with burglary, during the 1997-98 fiscal year.




                       Felony Burglary Should be Targeted for Prevention

   Felony burglary should be the target for prevention efforts by law enforcement, as well as the
                                            community.




The charts on the next two pages detail the number of offenses and offenders charged with
specific misdemeanor offenses.




1999 Report to the Community                                                        Page 48
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                  DELINQUENCY CASES RECEIVED: MISDEMEANORS
                                 Leon County

         OFFENSES                 1993-94      1994-95        1995-96       1996-97        1997-98
                                    197          195            275           298            320
       Assault/Battery
                                        0        1                1             0              0
         Prostitution
                                        0        1                5             1              0
   Other Misdemeanor Sex
          Offenses
                                       290       91              94            89             117
        Petty Larceny
                                       221      476             506            507            404
          Shoplifting
                                        0        0                0             1              0
  Receiving Stolen Property
                                        8        13              16             5             10
     Concealed Weapon
                                        31       29              25            26             59
     Disorderly Conduct
                                        55       52             106            94             78
          Vandalism
                                        87      141             136            115            146
         Trespassing
                                        10       22              23            30             25
   Loitering and Prowling
                                        24       37              54            52             63
     Misdemeanor Non-
      Marijuana Drug
                                        46       71              80            93             124
   Marijuana Misdemeanor
                                        80       66              57            90             104
    Possession of Alcohol
                                        2        0                2             2              1
   Other Alcohol Offenses
                                        2        2                2             3              1
  Violation of Game Laws
                                        22       28              41            35             47
  Resisting Arrest Without
          Violence
                                        0        0                0             0              0
  Unauthorized Use of Car
                                        77       65              87            107            86
     Other Misdemeanor
                                       1,152    1,290          1,510          1,548          1,585
             Total
                                                     Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice




1999 Report to the Community                                                             Page 49
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
             YOUTHS REFERRED FOR DELINQUENCY: MISDEMEANORS
                                  Leon County

         OFFENSES                 1993-94    1994-95        1995-96       1996-97        1997-98
                                    121        126            171           216            217
       Assault/Battery
                                        0      0                1             0              0
         Prostitution
                                        0      1                4             1              0
   Other Misdemeanor Sex
          Offenses
                                       212     59              64            65             74
        Petty Larceny
                                       152    367             364            399            314
          Shoplifting
                                        0      0                0              0             0
  Receiving Stolen Property
                                        6      9                7             3              8
     Concealed Weapon
                                       19      14              11            14             34
     Disorderly Conduct
                                       22      34              57            51             51
          Vandalism
                                       26      79              65            54             68
         Trespassing
                                        5      8                8             9             14
   Loitering and Prowling
                                       17      23              40            36             46
     Misdemeanor Non-
      Marijuana Drug
                                       29      38              51            62             85
   Marijuana Misdemeanor
                                       65      47              39            74             81
    Possession of Alcohol
                                        2      0                2             0              1
   Other Alcohol Offenses
                                        2      2                2             3              1
  Violation of Game Laws
                                        8      10              13            11             14
  Resisting Arrest Without
          Violence
                                        0      0                0             0              0
  Unauthorized Use of Car
                                       40      32              40            46             46
     Other Misdemeanor
                                       726    849             939           1,044          1,054
             Total
                                                   Provided by the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice




1999 Report to the Community                                                           Page 50
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
DRUG OFFENSES ARE INCREASING

Involvement with drugs appears to be increasing among juvenile offenders.

Since 1993-94, the number of youth referred for felony drug offenses has tripled. In addition, the
number of youth charged with misdemeanor drug-related offenses has almost doubled.

Though the actual numbers of felony drug charges are small, the rate of the increasing trend is
alarming. In addition, the increased number of misdemeanor drug-related offenses now makes up
18% of all juvenile misdemeanor cases received in Leon County.

Further, the 1996 Report to the Community documented an alarming involvement with drugs by
youth arrested on other offenses.


                        Substance Abuse Treatment Services are Needed

The extent of involvement with drugs by youth offenders requires that substance abuse treatment
     services be enhanced both in residential and non-residential juvenile justice programs.




SHOPLIFTING IS THE MOST FREQUENTLY COMMITTED MISDEMEANOR

As the preceding tables show, shoplifting is the most frequently committed misdemeanor by
youth offenders. In addition, referrals for shoplifting among juveniles has increased by 83% in
the past five years.

Many people argue that criminal behavior patterns begin with less serious offenses but then
escalate to more serious crime.


                         Shoplifting Should be Targeted for Enforcement

  The business community should be actively engaged with law enforcement to institute "target
   hardening" which will make it more difficult for juveniles to shoplift, as well as enhanced
                                  enforcement strategies .




1999 Report to the Community                                                      Page 51
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
THE OFFENDER PROFILE
OFFENDERS MAY BE GETTING YOUNGER

At the time of the Juvenile Crime Study Report of 1993, one alarming finding was that offenders
were getting younger. Information reported in the 1996 Report to the Community indicated that
trend was not continuing. However, current data shows that the number of youth under the age of
13 entering the system in Leon County has increased by 45% and again represent 13% of the
youth referred. This is an increase from the 1993-94 fiscal year, when this younger group made
up only 11.5% of the youth entering the system in Leon County.

                                OFFENDER PROFILE CHANGES
                                      Ages of Offenders
                                     1993-94 to 1997-98
                  (Based on information provided by the Department of Juvenile Justice)


                                   1993-94                  1997-98                % CHANGE
 Youth <13 Referred                    155                     225                        +45 %
   Cases Received                                                                         +57 %
                                       207                     326
 Involving Youth <13
     Youth 13&14                       357                     431
       Referred                                                                           +21 %
    Cases Received                     587                     651
   Involving Youth                                                                        +11 %
       13&14
     Youth 15&16                       532                     643                        +21 %
       Referred
    Cases Received                     942                    1,012
   Involving Youth                                                                        7%
       15&16
     Youth 17&18                       308                     414
       Referred                                                                           34 %
    Cases Received                     421                     574
   Involving Youth                                                                        36 %
       17&18


                       Programs Targeting Younger Offenders are Needed

1999 Report to the Community                                                              Page 52
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
The juvenile justice system and prevention service providers need to ensure that adequate services
                         are available to serve youth under 13 years of age.


MORE FEMALES ARE BECOMING OFFENDERS

There continues to be alarming increase in the number of female offenders and the number of
cases involving females.


                                OFFENDER PROFILE CHANGES
                                   Sex and Race of Offenders
                                       1993-94 to 1997-98
                  (Based on information provided by the Department of Juvenile Justice)


                                   1993-94                  1997-98                % CHANGE
 White Male Youths                     410                     556                        +36 %
  White Male Cases                     603                     798                        +32 %
  Black Male Youths                    566                     637                    +12.5 %
   Black Male Cases                    1,026                  1,073                       +4.5 %
     White Female                      135                     236                        +75 %
       Youth
 White Female Cases                    173                     294                        +70 %
 Black Female Youth                    236                     280                        +19 %
 Black Female Cases                    348                     394                        +13 %

The above chart shows the increase in youth entering the system is a result of more females
entering the system. Both white and black females are entering the system more frequently
making up 30% of the youth referred for delinquency in 1997-98, compared to 26% in 1993-94.


                             More Programs for Females are Needed

    As with the younger offenders, there needs to be a conscious effort to ensure that adequate
    program capacity is available to serve females with prevention and intervention services.

MINORITY OVER-REPRESENTATION IS STILL A PROBLEM

1999 Report to the Community                                                               Page 53
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
The above chart also shows the continued over-representation of minority youth in the juvenile
justice system.


While blacks make up about 32% of the youth population in Leon County, they represent 54% of
the youth who enter the juvenile justice system.


Though this is a slight decrease from 1993, this still constitutes substantial overrepresentation of
the minority youth in the local juvenile justice system.

                 Reducing Minority Overrepresentation Should Be a Priority

 As with juvenile crime in general, there is only so much that government can do to address the
problem of minority overrepresentation. Juvenile justice stakeholders, as well as the community
 at large should be made aware of the extent of this overrepresentation and actively engaged to
                      determine what action they might take to alleviate it.




1999 Report to the Community                                                         Page 54
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                                       APPENDIX A

       Recommendations for Disposition of Past Study Committee Recommendations




1999 Report to the Community                                           Page 55
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
I.      For Public Awareness Campaigns to Certain Target Audience Groups

        A.      Providers
                1)    Establish family advocacy programs for parents to encourage and increase
                      parental involvement.
                2)    Identify and serve the siblings of offenders being served as a prevention
                      strategy.
                3)    Establish a coalition of mentoring programs to facilitate the sharing of
                      information and resources for the purpose of recruitment, program
                      implementation, etc. (Or let District JJ do it if they are continuing the
                      district coalition).
                4)    Continue working toward adoption of a single services plan that empowers
                      a family to deal with the problems it faces, ensures that all individual and
                      family needs are met, eliminates duplication of services, and identifies a
                      single point of contact for plan implementation.
                5)    Maximize the use of existing available resources in the implementation of
                      services.

        B.      Schools
                1)    Provide resources to and encourage the infusion of African-American
                      studies throughout the K-12 curriculum.
                2)    Require a separate course on African-American history of all students at
                      the elementary, middle and high school levels.
                3)    Provide professional development opportunities for teachers and
                      administrators and evaluate their impact on an on-going basis to assure
                      cultural diversity and sensitivity in their interactions with students and
                      parents.
                4)    Provide professional development opportunities for teachers and
                      administrators to increase their understanding of how the juvenile justice
                      system works.
                5)    Encourage training in areas to prepare youth to undertake entrepreneurial
                      endeavors in their teen years.

        C.      Community
                1)  Establish family advocacy programs for parents to encourage and increase
                    parental involvement.
                2)  Volunteer to be a mentor.
                3)  Organize block parties to provide more entertainment for older youth
                    allowing them to create and organize activities of a more mature flavor.
                4)  Strive constantly to improve your parenting; take parenting classes
                    appropriate to your circumstances and the age of the children.




1999 Report to the Community                                                       Page 56
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
        D.      Local Juvenile Justice System Agencies
                1)     Identify and serve the siblings of offenders being served as a prevention
                       strategy.
                2)     Ensure uniformity in data collection and storage. This includes standard
                       forms or face sheets, e.g., release of information form; and standard
                       database structures.
                3)     Court- Order parents to participate in parent education, as appropriate.

        E.      Funding Sources
                1)    Ensure adequate funding provisions for substance abuse treatment slots.
                2)    Continue to support the availability of bus passes for youth.
                3)    Provide adequate funding for treatment/rehabilitation for committed youth
                      and their families.
                4)    Provide local and state funding to establish a residential "lock-out" facility
                      in Leon County.

        F.      City of Tallahassee
                1)     Provide assistance on an equitable basis, to individual community centers
                       and recreation facilities by:
                       a)      Updating sports equipment;
                       b)      Providing more staff;
                       c)      Providing better support of activities;
                       d)      Providing more space and extending hours where needed;
                       e)      Providing more funding; and
                       f)      Promoting parental support groups.
                2)     Promote volunteerism, parent participation and access of university
                       resources in all areas of recreation; involve parents in all facets of
                       recreation decision-making.
                3)     Create a formal committee whose mission would be to get all recreation
                       partners together to discuss ongoing recreation issues and alternatives.
                       This committee would include representatives from the City of
                       Tallahassee, Leon County, the School Board, Chamber of Commerce,
                       representatives of the justice system, PTA, churches, commercial
                       establishments, youth groups and Youth Council representatives. After
                       coming up with a unified direction, this committee could visit schools and
                       ensure that children know what is available.

        G.      Leon County
                1)    Increase access to recreation activities for youth in rural areas by:
                      a)     Creating parks and satellite centers in outlying areas of the County;
                      b)     Providing transportation to youth activities;
                      c)     Providing staff to work directly on these problems;
                      d)     Getting the City of Tallahassee and Leon County Law Enforcement
                             involved in these activities; and
                      e)     Getting Schools and parent groups in the outlying parts of the
                             county involved.
                2)    Promote volunteerism, parent participation and access of university

1999 Report to the Community                                                         Page 57
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                        resources in all areas of recreation; involve parents in all facets of
                        recreation decision-making.
                3)      Create a formal committee who’s mission would be to get all recreation
                        partners together to discuss ongoing recreation issues and alternatives.
                        This committee would include representatives from the City of
                        Tallahassee, Leon County, the School Board, Chamber of Commerce,
                        representatives of the justice system, PTA, churches, commercial
                        establishments, youth groups and Youth Council representatives. After
                        coming up with a unified direction, this committee could visit schools and
                        ensure children know what is available.

II.     For Prioritization for Council Implementation

        A.      Council/Council Staff Activity
                1)    Arrange for the airing of the DJJ video on the experience of being arrested
                      on local public access channels.
                2)    Identify resources in the community (Tallahassee Bar Association,
                      Neighborhood Justice Center, Raising a Healthy Child, Inc., etc.) who can
                      launch or maintain public awareness activities to educate parents about
                      child protection laws, parental responsibility and rights of parents to
                      discipline their children.

        B.      Directory Compilation
                1)     Annually update the Directory of Mentoring Programs.
                2)     Compile a directory of job readiness preparation and community-based
                       employment programs which documents how civic organizations and
                       private businesses are involved with the program to promote job training
                       and placement.
                3)     Identify local entrepreneurial development programs and compile a
                       directory.
                4)     Work with area service providers to develop a directory of service
                       providers who conduct assessments that could be used by providers to
                       make referrals and contains information on how agencies receive referrals,
                       what assessments or evaluations they conduct, how their services are
                       funded and who is eligible for services or funding.
                5)     Maintain a current directory of parent education programs/providers.

        C.      Advocacy/Resource Development
                1)    Advocate for the establishment of Neighborhood Justice Initiatives (those
                      which engage neighborhood residents in the monitoring and discipline of
                      youth residents of the neighborhood).
                2)    Support individual youth council initiatives.
                3)    Participate in the design of independent living options and aggressively
                      pursue funding for independent living options.
                4)    Aggressively pursue resources for reducing case management caseloads.
        D.      Assessment/Evaluation
                1)    Re-assess public opinion on the need to pursue changes in relevant child

1999 Report to the Community                                                        Page 58
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                        protection laws after a public awareness campaign on child abuse laws and
                        what they mean is instituted on a broad scale.
                2)      Undertake an assessment to define the unemployment problem within the
                        juvenile offender population.
                3)      Undertake a comprehensive process evaluation on juvenile assessment
                        which would examine the types of information collected, how this
                        information is applied in the development of a treatment/services plan for
                        an individual juvenile, and reveal areas where improvements are needed,
                        e.g., database systems, forms, communications, etc.

        E.      Routinely Schedule on Council Agendas
                1)    Schedule quarterly reports on the Council agenda for reports/updates from
                      the LAMORI Steering Committee; the Civil Citation program on
                      utilization and strategies for increasing its use (supporting efforts to
                      increase its use); from the detention center on average daily population,
                      capacity, and detention status (e.g., weapons violation, contempt, awaiting
                      placement) (reviewing this information to identify the most appropriate
                      means of addressing overcrowding, dependent upon the detention status
                      information and encouraging the relevant agencies to take appropriate steps
                      (e.g., increase use of alternative sanctions, expedite placements) and then
                      supporting efforts by these identified agencies to accomplish this); have
                      speakers to the issue of the design and implementation of the statewide
                      information systems network to ensure that Leon County’s data issues and
                      needs are addressed by the state system.

        F.      Refer to the Youth Advisory Committee
                1)     Refer the issue of establishing a Teen Center for youth using existing
                       facilities to the Youth Advisory Committee as a priority for next year.

        G.      Refer to System Efficiency Committee
                1)     Sponsor a workshop of detention providers and interested participants to
                       identify strategies and recommendations to more effectively target the use
                       of secure detention slots for serious offenders and to better match less
                       serious offenders with alternatives to secure detention (encouraging the
                       Court and the Department of Juvenile Justice to implement these strategies
                       and recommendations and supporting their efforts to accomplish this).
                2)     Work with the Department of Juvenile Justice to develop non-residential
                       detention options for the most appropriate offender candidates,
                       encouraging relevant agencies to use such options, when appropriate, and
                       supporting efforts by these identified agencies to accomplish this.
                3)     Maintain a standing committee that scrutinizes the practices and
                       effectiveness of the local juvenile justice system, including the Council.




1999 Report to the Community                                                        Page 59
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
        H.      Workshops
                1)   Sponsor a workshop of Leon County parent education and parent
                     mentoring providers to identify strategies for identifying referral sources
                     that can increase their visibility and referrals.
                2)   Have the Council adopt a vision that emphasizes active lobbying
                     participation on behalf of the initiatives the Council supports to decrease
                     juvenile delinquency in Leon County.

III.    For Follow-up After Initial Implementation

        D.      Community Service Options for Weapons Offenders
        Curriculum has been implemented but there have been obstacles; there needs to be
        clarification regarding qualifying offenses and it is recommended that the classes be
        offered at the Detention Center to ensure that designated offenders are reached.

        E.      System Efficiency Study Committee

        Recommendation 8: The Council should lobby key juvenile justice agencies to research
        the most significant factors that can decrease case processing time, particularly for non-
        judicially-handled cases, since small caseloads do not seem to predict short case
        processing times. The Council should then encourage the relevant agencies to adopt such
        strategies, when appropriate and support efforts by these identified agencies to
        accomplish this.

IV.     Completed

        A.      Minority Over-Representation Study Committee

Recommendation 3: The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council should facilitate procurement of
funding to support a family advocacy services unit in the Public Defender’s Office. This unit
would be designed to serve as a central location of information for families dealing with the
juvenile justice system and to enhance efforts of the juvenile restitution program.

Recommendation 4: Chapter 39 (this is now Chapter 985), F.S. should be revised to provide for
the courts to require parents to enter into a written performance plan that parents must comply
with, along with ordering sanctions for the child.

Recommendation 8: Leon County should determine if a sufficient population exists to establish a
juvenile drug court (to deal with any youth with alcohol or other drug use problems). If so, the
Council should pursue its implementation including making adequate provision for treatment
slots to address the substance use.

Recommendation 14: The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council should organize a round table
discussion among key agencies to review policies and procedures within the juvenile justice
system relative to changes which could be made to alleviate minority over-representation.



1999 Report to the Community                                                        Page 60
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
Recommendation 15: The Leon County Juvenile Justice Council should hold regular meetings of
this Minority Over-Representation Study Committee to review progress toward the
implementation of these recommendations.

        B.      Recreational Alternatives Study

Recommendation 1: Provide more entertainment for the older youth by having them create and
organize activities of a more mature flavor. This could be accomplished by:

        A) Organizing street entertainment activities.

        E.      System Efficiency Study Committee

Recommendation 1: The Council should resolve the lack of information sharing between the
schools and other agencies by breaking down barriers to communication (e.g., working with the
schools to provide computers in the JARC that access school data, training JARC staff to access
the schools’ database, assuring confidentiality of school data obtained). The Council should then
support efforts by these identified agencies to accomplish this.

Recommendation 12: The Council should encourage provider agencies to maximize the use of
available resources to ensure that services are available when needed. In addition, the Council
should communicate service needs and deficits to the 21st Century Council’s Human Services
Study Technical Advisory Team to ensure that these needs are being identified and their
unavailability in the community is remedied. The Council should also work cooperatively with
advocates for early intervention programming and funding.

V.      Abandon

        B.      Recreational Alternatives Study

Recommendation 6: Try to lure large youth entertainment theme parks to the area that would
have a clean, safe and well run environment for children to spend their time.

        E.      System Efficiency Study Committee

Recommendation 14: The Council should constitute a group to work with providers and
collaborative alliances in their negotiations for annual contracts and inter-agency agreements.
The Council’s endorsement and active support should strengthen these county-specific
negotiations.




1999 Report to the Community                                                        Page 61
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                                          APPENDIX B

                                       Risk Factor Inventory




1999 Report to the Community                                   Page 62
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
A.      Community Domain

        1.      Availability of Drugs
                a.      Perceived Availability of Drugs
        2.      Availability of Firearms
        3.      Community Laws and Norms (favorable to drug use, firearms and crime)
                a.      Taxing Practices (e.g., alcohol)
                b.      Laws (e.g., opportunities for violations without consequence)
                c.      Community Standards (lack of monitoring or enforcement)
                d.      Lack of Clarity (e.g., allowance of alcohol at community activities)
        4.      Media Portrayals of Violence
                a.      Modeling of Violence
                b.      Desensitization to Violence
        5.      Transitions and Mobility
                a.      Normal School Transitions
                b.      Relocation within the Community
                c.      Relocation to the Community
        6.      Low Neighborhood Attachment/Community Disorganization (reduces impact of
                school, church, family)
                a.      High Vandalism Rate
                b.      Low Surveillance
                c.      Key Players Live Outside the Community
                d.      Low Voter Participation
                e.      Low Rates of Parental Involvement in School
        7.      Extreme Economic Deprivation
                a.      Poverty
                b.      Poor Living Conditions
                        1.      Substandard Housing
                        2.      Homelessness
                        3.      High Unemployment/Under Employment

B.      Family Domain

        1.      Family History of High Risk Behavior
                a.     Substance Abuse
                b.     Criminal History
                c.     Teen Parents
                d.     Drop Outs
        2.      Family Management Problems
                a.     Poor Discipline
                       1.     Lack of Clear Expectations
                       2.     Inconsistent Consequences
                       3.     Lack of Monitoring/Supervision
                              a.      Lack of Parental Involvement
                              b.      Lack of Consistent Parent
                       4.     Abuse

1999 Report to the Community                                                    Page 63
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                       5.      Lack of Positive Reinforcement
        3.      Family Conflict
                a.     Persistent, Serious Conflict in the Home
                       1.      Lack of Effective Problem Solving Behaviors
        4.      Favorable Parental Attitudes/Involvement
                a.     Poor Modeling
                       1.      Abusive Behavior
                       2.      Violent Behavior
                       3.      Substance Abuse
                b.     Denial of Behaviors as Inappropriate
                c.     Tolerance/Excusal for Inappropriate Behavior
                d.     Involvement of Child in Patterns of Parental Inappropriate Behaviors
        5.      Lack of Sufficient Parental Support Systems or Inability to Access Support Systems
                a.     Low Educational Level of Parent
                b.     Unemployment/Under Employment of Parent

C.      School Domain

        1.      Early/Persistent Anti-Social Behavior
                a.     Aggression Evident in K-3
                       1.      Isolation
                       2.      Withdrawal
                       3.      Hyperactivity
                       4.      ADD
                b.     Lack of Impulse Control
                c.     Persistent Anti-Social Behavior in Early Adolescence
                       1.      School Conduct Disorders
                       2.      Truancy
                       3.      Fights with other children
        2.      Academic Failure beginning in late elementary grades)
                a.     Poor Study Skills
                b.     Experience of Failure
                c.     Lack of Academic Ability/Repeated Failure
                       1.      Low IQ
                       2.      Learning Difficulty
                       3.      Poor Reading Skills
        3.      Lack of Commitment to School
                a.     Lack of Recognition of Value of Learning (poor attitudes toward school)
        4.      Unsafe School Environment




1999 Report to the Community                                                      Page 64
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
D.      Individual/Peer Domain

        1.      Alienation/Rebelliousness
                a.      Alienation from Society/Withdrawal
                        1.      Discrimination
                        2.      Rejection by Normal Peers/Poor Peer Relationships
                b.      Lack of Respect for Rules
                        1.      Covert/Concealing Conduct Problems
                        2.      Delinquency
                c.      Lack of Aspiration for Success/Responsibility
                        1.      Childhood Depression
                D.      Active Rebellion/Oppositional Behavior
                        1.      Aggressive Behavior
                        2.      Delinquency
                        3.      Recidivism
                e.      Lack of Self-Identity
                        1.      Integration
                        2.      Rapid Societal Change
        2.      Friends Engaging in Inappropriate Behaviors (most consistent predictor of negative
                peer influence)
        3.      Favorable/Individual Attitudes toward Problem Behavior (usually develops in
                middle school)
        4.      Early Initiation of Problem Behavior (especially under 15 and again at 19)
                a.      Smoking, Alcohol and other Drug Abuse
        5.      Constitutional Factors (biological or physiological basis)
                a.      Sensation Seeking Behaviors
                b.      Low Harm Avoidance
                c.      Lack of Impulse Control
                d.      Neurological Impairment
                        1.      Neurotoxins
                        2.      Low Birth Weight
                        3.      Maternal Substance Use/Alcohol
                        4.      Physical Abuse
                        5.      Maternal Health
                        6.      Premature Birth
                                a.      Teenage Pregnancy
                        7.      Lack of Prenatal Care and Monitoring
                        8.      Lack of Pediatric Follow-up
                e.      Hyperactivity/ADD
                f.      Childhood Depression
        6.      Lack of Appropriate Recreational Behavior/Boredom




1999 Report to the Community                                                       Page 65
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                                         APPENDIX C

                           Sources of Data for the Annual Report Card




1999 Report to the Community                                            Page 66
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
       RISK FACTOR                     INFORMATION SOURCE               CONTACT PERSON & #
 Criminal Activity/Arrest Data         Florida Dept. of Law             Priscilla Waiters 410-7000
                                       Enforcement
 Delinquent Activity                   Department of Juvenile Justice   Nathan Epps 488-1850
 Number of Unemployed                  Bureau of Labor Market and       Susanna Patterson 488-1048
 Citizens                              Performance Info.
 Reported Child Abuse and              Child Protective Services        Cheryl Jackson 922-4439
 Neglect Cases
 Runaway Reports                       Tallahassee Police Department Alvin Anderson/Debra Page
                                                                     891-4309
 Divorce                               Florida Office of Vital       Joe Shively, Ph.D. (904)
                                       Statistics                    359-6960
 Domestic Violence Petitions           Leon County Clerk of Court    488-7539
 Filed with the Court
 Babies Born Affected by               Department of Health -
 Alcohol or Other Drugs                Division of Family Health
                                       Services
 AFDC Children & Adults                DCF Economic Services            Ray Desear 488-8512
                                       Bureau
 Maternal and Child Health             Capital Area Healthy Start       Junelle Brandt 681-0097
                                       Coalition
 School Domain                         Leon County Schools Fact         Ruth Hobbs, Eartha Lamar,
                                       Book                             Vickey Campbell, Rudy
                                                                        Givens 488-7100
 Birth Rate to Females 10-19           Capital Area Healthy Start       Junelle Brandt 681-0097
                                       Coalition




1999 Report to the Community                                                          Page 67
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
                                           APPENDIX D

                                 Glossary of Juvenile Justice Terms




1999 Report to the Community                                          Page 68
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
Term                                   Definition

Adjudicatory Hearing                   Trial by a judge. No jury is provided in
                                       juvenile cases.

Adjudicated Delinquent                 Found guilty.

Aftercare                              Similar to adult parole. Provides
                                       supervision of youth in the community
                                       who have returned from a residential
                                       commitment program.

Bed                                    Refers to a residential opening at a
                                       commitment facility. The juvenile sleeps
                                       at the facility.

Juvenile Probation Officer             A DJJ counselor who is assigned to either
                                       Intake or Community Control and
                                       provides support and supervision to
                                       assigned youth.

Residential Commitment Facility        Corresponds to adult prison with
                                       emphasis on rehabilitation. There are
                                       four levels of residential commitment
                                       facilities:
                                       Level I V- Low risk residential, such as a
                                       group testament home or Short Term
                                       Offender (STOP) camp.
                                       Level VI - Moderate risk residential, such
                                       as a halfway house.
                                       Level VIII - High risk residential, such as
                                       Dozier Training School or a boot camp.
                                       Level X - Maximum risk residential, such
                                       as three year SHOP (Serious Habitual
                                       Offender Program) residential programs.
Community Control
                                       Similar to adult probation, it includes the
                                       supervision of a youth by a juvenile
                                       probation officer. The youth remains at
                                       home, but must report to a juvenile
                                       probation officer periodically.


1999 Report to the Community                                        Page 69
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council
Delinquent Youth                       A youth who has been found guilty of a
                                       criminal offense by a judge.

Disposition                            Sentencing

Felony Crime                           Florida Law defines a felony crime as any
                                       criminal offense if committed by an adult
                                       that is punishable by death or
                                       imprisonment in a state penitentiary.
                                       Felonies include the most serious crimes
                                       such as murder, rape, armed robbery,
                                       aggravated assault and grand theft.


Intake                                 The assignment to DJJ custody of a
                                       juvenile who has been charged with a
                                       crime by a law enforcement agency.

                                       Juvenile Alternative Services Program - A
JASP                                   program to divert low-risk youth away
                                       from judicial handling.

Juvenile Offender                      A youth who has been adjudged guilty of
                                       a criminal offense.


Misdemeanor Crime                      Florida law defines a misdemeanor as a
                                       crime that, if committed by an adult, is
                                       punishable by imprisonment for up to one
                                       year in county jail.

Prevention Program                     An intervention program designed to
                                       minimize or eliminate one or more risk
                                       factors that may lead to juvenile crime.

Secure Detention                       Temporary custody or intensive
                                       supervision of a juvenile pending
                                       adjudication, disposition or placement.

Slot                                   Refers to a non-residential opening in a
                                       commitment program.




1999 Report to the Community                                       Page 70
Leon County Juvenile Justice Council

				
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