Chapter 1 :Tables,Charts and Graph Graphis Aid in Business Commnuication Tables - Commonly used for presenting data. -Convenient for presenting lot of data -Giving absolute value when precision is very important - not predominantly visual,reader‟s mind must translate each number into relationship with every other number. Bar Graphs - uses bar of equal witdth in varying length to present comparison of item at one particular time comparison of item over time. change in one oem over time or comparison of portions of a sinle item - the horizontal and vertical axes represent the two element being ilustrated Such time and quality -extend in either a verticaland horizontal directioncannot represent exact quantities or provide comparison of quantities as precisely as table can. -appear on both sides of the axis to indicate positive and negative quantities --useful for reader who want to understand overall trends and comparison. Pictographs - a variationmof bar graph that uses sysbols instead of bar to illustrate specific quanties of item. - the symbol should realiscally correspond the item,such as a cow representing milk production. - provide novelty and eyes-catching appeal,particularly in document intended for customers. -Limited,because symbol cannot adequately represent exact figures or fraction. Line Graphs -uses a line between the horizontal and vertical axes to show change in the relationship between the elements represent by the two axes. -usually plot changes in quantity or in position . - particularly useful for illustrating trends. - three or four line representing different item can appear on the same graph for comparison. -the line mus distinguished by colour or design,and key must identify them Pie Charts - circle representing in whole unit,with the segments of the circle or pie,representing portion of the whole. - often used to indicated distribution trends, - particularly good at providing a quick visual impression of a particular item - sometime difficult to represent exact quantities. - useful if the whole unit has between three and ten segments. - colours and shading are used to highlight segment of special important,or separate one segment from the pie for emphasis. - start the largest segment at the 12 o„clock position and follow clockwise with the remainding segment in desending order. Graphis Aid Table Type of Data For numbers data comparison of item at one particular time comparison of item over time. change in one oem over time or comparison of portions of a single item Change in one item over time Change in quantity or in position For showing distributions trends Strength Able to provide very precise data Very good for depicting overall trens and comparisons Weaknesses Difficult to show trends or direction in the data Cannot present exact quantities or provide precise comparison of quantities an important part of meeting is asking ang giving opinion. Items/Expressing Opinion Asking For Opinion Languace expressions Would you mind telling me what you think of.. What do you think about…. What‟s your opinion of….. What your feel about……. What are your views on……. Any comments..? I think that… I feel/believe that… In my opinion/view… My opinion is that… My point of view is.. Giving An Opinion Expressing Agreement Languace expressions Strong I quite agree.. Yes,definitely.. I‟m in complete agreement.. Exactly.. Precisely.. Neutral I agree… You‟re right there.. I think you‟re right. That‟s true. That‟s right. Expressing Disagreement Languace expressions Strong I disagree completely. That‟s out of the question. On the contrary. Of course not. That ridiculous. Neutral I don‟t agree. That‟s not how I ses it. I wouldn‟t say that, I think you are wrong. I disagree. Making and Asking for Suggestion Languace expressions Making request for suggestion I‟d like to hear some of your suggestion. What would you suggest? I‟d like to hear yours ideas on this? Do you have any suggestions? What do you recommend? Any suggestions? What are your view on this? Making suggestion & recommendation Strong : We must.. Neutral: I think we should.. Tentative : It might be a good idea to… I recommended that we should.. I think we should…. I would suggest that we.. We should… It might be a good idea to.. Bar Graphs CHAPTER 4 : PRESENTATION MAKING A PRESENTATION When making a presentation,it is important to note that how you present yourself is as important as what you present. Successful presentation you ought to ask yourself about : why am I giving this presentation what do I hope to achive? how much does the audience already know about the subject? what are some of the visual aid I can use to make point? what kind of audience is going to see and hear the presentation? how can I make my talk interesting? Pictograph Novelty and eyes catching appeal Particularly useful for illustrating trend Particularly good at providing a quick visual impression Line Graph Pie Chart Cannot adequately represent exact figures or fraction Cannot represent exact quantities Difficult to represent exact quantities PLANNING PLAN A Structure of Subject Matter begin by gathering all your thought on the topic. read,do some research,talk to tour colleagues or peers and conduct your own brainstrorming session to get a comprehensive understanding of the topic. sort out all idea into a clear,logical frame work MIND MAPING develop your theme by writing the central idea on the centre of a page. Draw branches leading from the central idea and develop each section using sub-branches. Used of Organizational Pattern Outlined and presented according to a specific organizational pattern.Some of the difference ways doing this are describe as followed :Chronological Order using time as a framework. Useful for narratives,sequences,processes or series of events. Spatial Order used for describing building,places or locations. Topical Order Useful when you have a number of specific topics or subtopic for your talk,you may begin with the most important topic and lead the least important. Comparison-Contrast Order organize the information according to the similarities and/or difference between the various subject you wish to talk about,as well the positive and negative aspects of subject or topic. Cause-effect Order organizes information according to the cause and effect of anactions or initiative Problem-solution Order your talk will focus on a sequence of problem and their respective solutions. GANTT CHARTS - used for sheculing and tracking the key events and steps that are necessary to complete a project. shows the steps involved in a project and their relationship over time. UNIT 2 : LISTENING AND SPEAKING CHAPTER 3 : DISCUSSION AND MEETING MEETING - usually held to enable people to exchange information,discuss ideas and make decisions. - to ensure that meeting achieves its purpose,every participant has to contribute actively. Items Starting a meeting Languace expressions Well,Ladies and gentlemen,I think we should…. If everyone has here,we can start.. Shall we start? Today , we need to talk about.. Let us look at the first item on the agenda.. The first item on the agenda is.. The purpose of this meeting is…first, to..and secondly.. The main objective of our meeting is… Could you tell us more about.. Shall we continue… Does anyone have anything else to add.. If that‟s all,we can stop here.. Introducting the agenda Starting objectives Keeping the meeting moving Closing the meeting EXPRESSING OPINION Structure of Presentation The structure of presentation involves a number of different aspects of interpersonal communication.The most common of these are describe as follows:a.AUDIENCE AWARENESS an important to remember when giving a talk or presentation is to focus on the needs and temperament of the audience. If the audience is made up of senior organization,such as your superiors,it is important to optimize on your expertise also for this audience,you will have to be well prepared and present an assertive and posoitive front. b.EFFECTIVE OPENING LINES helps to create the right impression and capture attention. Example : Let me begin with a story on computer communication networks. Today I’m going to give a presentation on the computer communication Network in our organization. By the end on my talk you will realize how these new computer save time and money. c. Appropriate Visual Aids The use of appropriate Visual Aids can make your talk more persuasive ,interesting,and professional. help audience follow your ideas more closely ang prevent boredom. add the meaning ang effectiveness of your talk, the audience should not spend a lot of time reading or interpreting the visual. d. Non Verbal-Communication Very often,we rely on non verbal communication cues or non verbal languace to get the message across to our audience. this rfer to our posture,how we move and what we do with our arms feet and eyes during delivering. example :- The way you smiles in response to a question from a member of the Audience may send one of the following messages : friendliness – the audience may think you do not mind being questioned. ridicule – they may think you a making fun of them or assuming the are poorly informed. Some of the rules you may wish to follow is : maintain frequent eyes contact with everyone in the room. smile,nod and move your arms moderately or only when necessary. maintain voice control so that you are neither shouting nor speaking too Softly maintain a reasonable distance from indidual members of the audience, even when you are pointing out to something the have or something they are reading CHAPTER 5 : THE LANGUACE OF BUSINESS WRITING About languace communication tool that expresses meaning and gives form ideas,feeling and event as you transmit them to others. in business writing it is important that your message Icommunicated to receiver without misintrepretasion. encourage,a style that iis reader-friendly and aim to get the message across easily and quickly. selecting appropriate words will contribute to a courteous tone and clarity. appropriate sentence length and proper paragraphing will prevent ambiguity. CHOICE OF WORDS when choosing words,choose words that are familiar to tou reader and be concise and get to the point quickly. avoid using clichés as they are over used and lack impact. the use of jargon is unnecessary unless it is familiar to the reader. in term of gender bias and gender issue,uses non sexiest languace e.g. staff or workforce,instead of manpower. Suitable word or expression to replace the following unnecessary words or clichés. Unnecessary word/cliches Better expression/word On the occasion When A number of different Various The majority of Most Wise words of wisdom Wise Completely eliminate Eliminate Your good self You At this point Now Reside Live Optimum Best Terminate End Beg to acknowledge recept of terminate SENTENCE STRUCTURE readability and punctuation are important of sentence structure. Short sentence are easier to read and communicate the message more clearly. Long sentence may cause confusion and the point of the letter may be lost to the reader. using a variety of sentences,on the other hand may sound jerk and monotonous to the reader. general rule in business correspondence is to keep sentences within a lent of between 15 and 20 words. PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE The coherence and cohesion of your writing will depend not only on your choice pf words and sentences structure,but also on how well you construct your paragraphs. business writing is considered a specialized type of writing,attention to the order of information will help in paragraphing. Business writing gneraly has three function,namely to inform to instruct…….. to persuade TONE effective business communication depends on choice of word and order information in paragraphs to convey the right tone. in written documents,word become a permanent record and the document cannot be deleted once it has reached the customer. An aggressive and patronizing tone as in ”How could you have allowed a stop payment cheque” “We note that stop payment cheque has been allowed” convey the same idea in a non threatening manner. the use of logical connectors such as while,however,therefore and as will help to make more coherent. GRAMMAR : WORD ORDER IN SENTENCES When contructing different type of sentences,it is important to bear in mind that sentences should be complete. the subject is the person or thing affected by the action or situation. SEVEn CS Characteristics of Description effective communication Clear Readable,coherent and unambiguous Complete Contain all necessary details Concise Has relevant detail only Considerate Aware of the receiver Courteous Tactful and sensitive Concrete Not vague or abstract correct Specific detail,grammar,punctuation & spelling CHAPTER 6 : THE FORMAT OF BUSINESS LETTERS Sucessful business letter is one that elicits the desired response. the style of the letter can be varied to reduce formality depending on familiarity with the receiver. the layout of letter provides the frame for the body of your letter. The essential parts will be details,which would ensure effective communication ,where the message sent by the sender is received by the intended and act on accordingly. PARTS OF A LETTER Part of a Letter explaination gives information on the writer,the organization he/she present the address and telephone number. most business organization use company stationer with a letterhead with include these detail Often the telex,facsimile numbers and email adresss are also included Also provided reference for use when the need arise Letterhead Date Inside Adress Attention Line Greeting Subject Line Body Complimentary Close Signature placed between the letterhead and the inside address. more common way writing the date 4 August 2000. placed after the date and before the greeting or salutation. contains the name of the addressee and/or designation and the company address. Double spacing is recommended between the date and the salutation,. officaildom requires that all letters are addressed to the management but if have information about the specific section or person who would be responsible for resonding,then an attention line would hasten the process. The attention line is added two spaces below the last line of the inside address. placed two line below the inside address or the attention line as the case may be. Dear Madam or Dear Sir – would mean you do not know the receiver‟s name and add to the formality. The name or expression is often precedeby title that distinguish people by gender or marital status. mr and mrs – identify gender. miss and mrs – convey maritial status. ms – reserved for women whose marital status is unknown or if the receiver would prefer to be adressein that manner. identifies the letter‟s subject or purpose. should be no more than 10 words. placed after the greeting. three parts to the body including the opening and closing. The opening paragraph -catch the reader attention,explain the situasition,and state intention. The middle section -refered to as the body of the letter.Contain detail appropriate to the purpose of the communication. -should prompt the reader to take desired action. -the ending indicates specific action the reader has to take and closes courteously to maintain goodwill. should match the form of address used in the greeting. should be close with “ Yours faithfully” followed by the sender signature,name and job title/designation if the received is used in the greeting ,then close with “Your sincerely” refers to the writer‟s signature,name and position or job. Except for the signature,the others detail are typewritten. GRAMMAR : SINGULAR AND PLURAL FORM COUNTABLE NOUNS Are individual things : people and places : a diary, a memo,a letter,a photo A receptionist,a factory. are unit of measurement such a metre, a kilo,a pound, a a litre, a gallon. a used with a/an can be used in the plural(diaries,memos, follow word such as many,these,several,few ,a number of UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS Subtance : gas,glass,gold,iron,oil,plastic ,water many abtract idea: health,humour,profitability,progress,relevance,safety verbal noun : branstorming,job-sharing,restructing,shopping,timing. PLURAL NOUNS add –s to form the plural most nouns,if the noun ends in –s,-x,-ch,-sh -letters,minutes,classes,boxes,bunches,crashes if the final consonant of a noun is followed by –y,it changed into –ies industries,deliveries.. LAYOUT helps to create a good impression of the company you are representing. three type of layout:1. full block layout has all the parts of the lettetr aligned against the left-hand margin 2. modified block layout centred the sender‟s address,or align it with the right-hand margin. the date is placed straight underneath and in line with the sender‟s address. inside address (receiver name and address) and the greeting are placed against the left hande margin and so each paragraph. the complimentary close and signature block are centred in line with the writer‟s address and the date. more conservative style of layout 3. modified layout with indented paragraph. use the same format as modified block except that,the first line of each paragraph is indented. PUNCTUATION STYLE There are two style of punctuating a business letter,namely :1. the open style does not use punctuation except in the body of the letter 2. the mixed style places a comma after the greeting and after the complimentary close. CHAPTER 7 : BUSINESS LETTER GOOD BUSINES LETTER should be well planned and not written in haste. it is the responsibility of the sender to impress upon the receiver,the sender‟s professional image and important of communication. poorly written business letter can cause misunderstanding and this puts the company‟s finance and reputation at stake. an effective letter expresses its purpose clearly;well organized and meet the need of the receiver. it is written to match the way the receiver thinks rather than the way the writer thinks. 7 steps as your ckeck list for writing a good business document :7. rewrite if necessary check against the appreciate order of information,detail, Including rammar and spelling. 6. read the letter to ensure that you will achieve the purpose the receiver should be able to respond in the manner Intended. 5. write the first draft,using plain English. avoid jargon,clichés,unfamiliar words and long structure. 4. orderall idea n point form arrange according to the order of information appreciate for Purpose. 3. note down all idea in point form this is to ensure you have included all revelant point and are Not replying on memory alone. 2. decide what you want to say only include information relevant to the purpose 1. decide on purpose of letter ask yourself why you are writing this letter and stayed focused on this purpose. TYPES OF LETTER Letters generally fall into 3 categories.They are 1. Good News Letter 2. Neutral Letters 3. Bad news Letters. Commonly,good news and neutral letter are written for the purpose of giving information or asking for information. -May contain one or more of the following inquiry request reply to an inquiry/request acknowledgement of receipt of letter introduction of self and organization information about organization‟s service and activities granting a loan or extending credit confirming success at an interview special offer for valued customers. GOOD NEWS AND NEUTRAL BUSINESS LETTER. Genarally ,a good news letter will follow the direct order of information as outlined by the following : identify the letter‟s purpose in the subject line or opening paragraph. place the good news in the opening paragraph. state the detail thet support the good news in the middle paragraph close with statement of goodwill. LETTER OF INQUIRY A letter of inquiry is written when we need to ask for more information concerning a product or service that interests us.We may have heard or read about the product or service in an advertisement in the newspaper, amagazine or a commercial on the TVHowever,we often need more information before making a decision about. Purchasing the product. also categorized as a neutral letter is written . uses the good news letter format LETTER OF REPLY TO AN INQUIRY Your choice depends on the purpose of the inqury and the relationship you want to establish between the receiver and the sender. -Useful expression and key phrases you can use when responding to an inqury, a request or writing a letter of acknowledgement :Thank you for your request for information if I can help in any others way,please let me know we thank you for your interest in this couse and wish you well in your career I will be happy to answer any question you may have regarding I appreciate I am pleased to be able to fill this order for you BAD NEWS LETTER A bad news letter communicates unwelcome news to the reader. Difficult letter to write because it must convey bad news to the reader and yet maintain the receiver goodwill. Bad news letter may be written for the following reasons :refuse credit refuse a request decline to speak at a function notify an unsuccessful job applicant explain inability to fulfill an order. INDIRECT ORDER OF INFORMATION The receiver need to be guided through a bad news letter so that he/she reads the explaination for the bad news. Open with courteous,neutral opening that acknowledges the original request.This may followed by the explaination before giving the bad news.You may uses the following :open with courteous opening explain the situasition fully state the bad news close with positive paragraph. PERSUASIVE LETTER A persuasive letter is written to influence the reader in some way.It aims to persuade the reader to buy a product,pay an overdue account,or to consider an application for work. The reader must be interested enough and motivated enough to respond to the letter. Persuasive letter have a specific plan and format of writing so that the reader will be persuaded enough to take the desired action. CHAPTER 8: MEMOS,E-MAIL AND FAXES MEMORANDUM A memo- or memorandum is form of written business communication. Memo are passed internally,within a company, A Memorandummis an internal form of communication that is sent within the organization.It is a means by which managers correspond within employee and vice versa.Memo are filed as a record of announcements,request for action,policies and procedures. They rarely go out to clients.It is less formal than a letter but it still regarded as a serious document and it almost always carefully filled A memo may communicate informationexplain new proceduresannounce changesmakes requestconfirm results offer advise. THE ADVANTAGE OF A MEMO the same message is communicated accurately to many people at the same time. it takes little time to construct because it is informal yet provides a written record for filing and reference. it allow the writer to canvey detailed or difficult information logically and accurately, it can indicate,by a company letterhead,that is an internal piece of communication and part of company procedure. OVERVIEW OF PART OF A MEMO Heading To.. From… Date… Subject Body written in short paragraph,blocked to the left margin. Reference intial ( optional) Attachment notation DISTRIBUTION LIST include when memo is sent to a group rather than an individual. Names list at the bottom o -alphabetical order or rank order -indended to the first tab EMAIL Electronic communication is one of the fastest growing trends in the world. The electronic mail is a facility which enabale an individual to create a message within a mail application on a computer.It sent via intranet (LAN) and via the World Wide World.WWW. Mail application offer a number of options likes, message can be spell-checkked, stored without being sent copied, sent to multiple receivers forward to other user printed have replied automatically generated, delivery confirmed files attached NETIQUETTE -refer to etiquette on the net. -It maintain and promote goodwill between the writer and the receiver. -a professional email message should be courteous and confident. NET ADDRESSES -Net addresses must be accurately written.One incorrect digit or letter will send the mail to the wrong location. -A net address contains the user‟s ID at side or domain. -The domain identifies the organization running the site and the kind of site. -the organization suffix at the end of the email address identifies the type of organization com-commercial business org-non profit organization gov-government organization net-companies or organization thet run large network mil-government and military organization ADDRESSING E-MAIL By pointing and clicking the mouse,or by using arrow keys and then pressing the enter key,one or more names can be selected and automatically enter into the “to” field Your name /date/from also automatically shown. Example – firstname.lastname@example.org LAYOUT The layout of an email message is the frame from your message. Acceptable minimum part for an email message are as follows:receiver name sender‟s name subject Date body e-mail address at least one other way,apart from the sender.. FAXES -Are well-established means of communication in modern business and are widely used because of their speed,convenien and flexibility. -fast as telephone call to send and because of their speed-relatively cheap. -more convenience than email because any sheet of paper can be put through a fax machine and used by companies with no computers or internet connection. CHAPTER 9 : COVER LETTER AND RESUMES The letter of application is the covering letter for your job application. Ideally,the letter should be 1-2 page in length and accompanied by a resume or curriculum vitae. The cover letter serves to :draw attention to relevant qualification and experience listed in the resume. make a match between what you have to offer and the potencial employer‟s need. persuade your potential employer to consider the application carefully introduce yourself and ask for an interview. GUIDELINE FOR WRITING A COVER LETTER Opening paragraph use one of the following to draw the reader‟s attention to what you want to offer and the job applying for: Summarize the opening Name the opening Requset an opening Question the availability of an opening Middle paragraph education work experience ability to work with others and/or alone interest in your field interest in the company responsibilities in previous positions Closing Paragraph in the last paragraph,you can request for an interview stating that you will be happy to come to the employer‟s office when convenient.Make it easy for the reader to follow up by providing your telephone number and e-mail address. USEFUL KEY PHRASES Some useful key phrases I am writing to you in response to yo advertisement for…. I wish to apply for the position of…. Please accept this letter this letter as an expression of interest in the position…. RESUME The resume is a document that contains all your qualifications,experience and achievement . It summary of your personal data,which include your education,skill,qualifications,work experience,refernces,hobby and interest.Also sometime reffered to as curriculum bitae or CV. TYPE OF RESUME Three type of resume Basic resume Include all normal parts of resume,but it simpler and shorter,suitable for school leaver or those who have little experience. Funcional Resume Uses a different order of presentation to highlight a wide range of skills and work experience.Start with the most recent work experience that match potential employer‟s need,followed by subheadings to highlight job functions,uses advertisement‟s as guide for specific function. specific resume Prepare for specific job,with emphasis on qualification,skill and experience particularly relevant to the job,present experiences in term of criteria advertised.Highlight strength with action words(verbs) such as achieve,adapt,iniate,install,prepare,report,supervise,inpect oor make. CHAPTER 10: BUSINESS REPORT Planning and writing report are important skill which may be expected of most working adults. can serve various purpose. SHORT REPORT LAYOUT places information on the page in a way that is easy to understand. FORMAL REPORT contain the following a title page which includes the title of the report,recipient‟s name, position and/or organizationa,writer name and position and the date. an introduction sections which heading in the body conclusion recommendations ( when required) attachments are included if their information is useful. SHORT REPORT contain the following a clear indication of your purpose accurate and objective information a suitable order oof information which highlight the main point and leads logically to your conclusion appropriate formal short repor,letter or memo formatting. TYPES OF SHORT REPORT Justification report Presents a course of action or idea and then uses evidence to explain why something either should or has been done Progress report Used to provide information on a project‟s progress and forecast timetable for the future. Periodic report Used to keep management informed at regular interval by providing information on some aspect to the organization‟s operation over a specific period . WRITING LONG REPORT Formal report are major document written to provide comprehensive information and expert opinion. first task is to produce the main text-the part which contain an introduction to the findings,the body of your finding,your conclusion and recommendation. PRESENTATION Presentation is the arrangement of information on the page. It create an intial impression of your organization and therefore that layout is given attention to project a professional image. has conventional rules with some flexibility depending on the formality of the communication. has to be st out clearly and well spaced. Presentation of document are :heading underline indentation shading Numberedd list or sections,as inreport spaced between paragraph,left and right margin header and footer PART OF A LONG REPORT The front matter Title page Letter of transmittal Table of contents The body ( Main text) Introduction Discussion and analysis of finding Development of idea Conclusion Recommendation The end matter References Appendices Three main part introductory section begin with the purpose statement that defines the report‟s main task or topic central Section : Body of Text usually investigates and analyses the finding and purpose solution for any problems involved present both advantages and disanvanteges uses eading and numbering system Final section contain the conclusion and recommendation.(Set as separate sections) conclusion summarizes and evaluates the report‟s main facts.Short. recommendations are the writter‟s attempt to provide at least some answer.Clearly state the action required.Recommendation are not need if the long report is intended as a database for others who will be responsible for planning and recommendation.