# WorkPlaces

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```					Chapter 1 :Tables,Charts and Graph
Graphis Aid in Business Commnuication Tables - Commonly used for presenting data. -Convenient for presenting lot of data -Giving absolute value when precision is very important - not predominantly visual,reader‟s mind must translate each number into relationship with every other number.  Bar Graphs - uses bar of equal witdth in varying length to present  comparison of item at one particular time comparison of item over time. change in one oem over time or comparison of portions of a sinle item - the horizontal and vertical axes represent the two element being ilustrated Such time and quality -extend in either a verticaland horizontal directioncannot represent exact quantities or provide comparison of quantities as precisely as table can. -appear on both sides of the axis to indicate positive and negative quantities --useful for reader who want to understand overall trends and comparison.  Pictographs - a variationmof bar graph that uses sysbols instead of bar to illustrate specific quanties of item. - the symbol should realiscally correspond the item,such as a cow representing milk production. - provide novelty and eyes-catching appeal,particularly in document intended for customers. -Limited,because symbol cannot adequately represent exact figures or fraction.  Line Graphs -uses a line between the horizontal and vertical axes to show change in the relationship between the elements represent by the two axes. -usually plot changes in quantity or in position . - particularly useful for illustrating trends. - three or four line representing different item can appear on the same graph for comparison. -the line mus distinguished by colour or design,and key must identify them  Pie Charts - circle representing in whole unit,with the segments of the circle or pie,representing portion of the whole. - often used to indicated distribution trends, - particularly good at providing a quick visual impression of a particular item - sometime difficult to represent exact quantities. - useful if the whole unit has between three and ten segments. - colours and shading are used to highlight segment of special important,or separate one segment from the pie for emphasis. - start the largest segment at the 12 o„clock position and follow clockwise with the remainding segment in desending order. Graphis Aid Table Type of Data For numbers data  comparison of item at one particular time comparison of item over time. change in one oem over time or comparison of portions of a single item Change in one item over time Change in quantity or in position For showing distributions trends Strength Able to provide very precise data Very good for depicting overall trens and comparisons Weaknesses Difficult to show trends or direction in the data Cannot present exact quantities or provide precise comparison of quantities

 an important part of meeting is asking ang giving opinion.
Items/Expressing Opinion Asking For Opinion Languace expressions Would you mind telling me what you think of.. What do you think about…. What‟s your opinion of….. What your feel about……. What are your views on……. Any comments..? I think that… I feel/believe that… In my opinion/view… My opinion is that… My point of view is..

Giving An Opinion

Expressing Agreement Languace expressions Strong
I quite agree.. Yes,definitely.. I‟m in complete agreement.. Exactly.. Precisely..

Neutral
I agree… You‟re right there.. I think you‟re right. That‟s true. That‟s right.

Expressing Disagreement Languace expressions Strong
I disagree completely. That‟s out of the question. On the contrary. Of course not. That ridiculous.

Neutral

I don‟t agree. That‟s not how I ses it. I wouldn‟t say that, I think you are wrong. I disagree.

Making and Asking for Suggestion Languace expressions
Making request for suggestion I‟d like to hear some of your suggestion. What would you suggest? I‟d like to hear yours ideas on this? Do you have any suggestions? What do you recommend? Any suggestions? What are your view on this? Making suggestion & recommendation Strong : We must.. Neutral: I think we should.. Tentative : It might be a good idea to… I recommended that we should.. I think we should…. I would suggest that we.. We should… It might be a good idea to..

Bar Graphs

CHAPTER 4 : PRESENTATION MAKING A PRESENTATION
 When making a presentation,it is important to note that how you present yourself is as important as what you present. Successful presentation you ought to ask yourself about : why am I giving this presentation what do I hope to achive? how much does the audience already know about the subject? what are some of the visual aid I can use to make point? what kind of audience is going to see and hear the presentation? how can I make my talk interesting?

Pictograph

Novelty and eyes catching appeal Particularly useful for illustrating trend Particularly good at providing a quick visual impression

Line Graph Pie Chart

Cannot adequately represent exact figures or fraction Cannot represent exact quantities Difficult to represent exact quantities

PLANNING PLAN A
Structure of Subject Matter begin by gathering all your thought on the topic. read,do some research,talk to tour colleagues or peers and conduct your own brainstrorming session to get a comprehensive understanding of the topic. sort out all idea into a clear,logical frame work MIND MAPING develop your theme by writing the central idea on the centre of a page. Draw branches leading from the central idea and develop each section using sub-branches. Used of Organizational Pattern  Outlined and presented according to a specific organizational pattern.Some of the difference ways doing this are describe as followed :Chronological Order using time as a framework. Useful for narratives,sequences,processes or series of events. Spatial Order  used for describing building,places or locations. Topical Order Useful when you have a number of specific topics or subtopic for your talk,you may begin with the most important topic and lead the least important. Comparison-Contrast Order  organize the information according to the similarities and/or difference between the various subject you wish to talk about,as well the positive and negative aspects of subject or topic. Cause-effect Order  organizes information according to the cause and effect of anactions or initiative Problem-solution Order  your talk will focus on a sequence of problem and their respective solutions.

GANTT CHARTS - used for sheculing and tracking the key events and steps that are necessary to complete a project. shows the steps involved in a project and their relationship over time. UNIT 2 : LISTENING AND SPEAKING CHAPTER 3 : DISCUSSION AND MEETING MEETING - usually held to enable people to exchange information,discuss ideas and make decisions. - to ensure that meeting achieves its purpose,every participant has to contribute actively.
Items Starting a meeting Languace expressions Well,Ladies and gentlemen,I think we should…. If everyone has here,we can start.. Shall we start? Today , we need to talk about.. Let us look at the first item on the agenda.. The first item on the agenda is.. The purpose of this meeting is…first, to..and secondly.. The main objective of our meeting is… Could you tell us more about.. Shall we continue… Does anyone have anything else to add.. If that‟s all,we can stop here..

Introducting the agenda

Starting objectives Keeping the meeting moving Closing the meeting

EXPRESSING OPINION

effective business communication depends on choice of word and order information in paragraphs to convey the right tone. in written documents,word become a permanent record and the document cannot be deleted once it has reached the customer. An aggressive and patronizing tone as in ”How could you have allowed a stop payment cheque” “We note that stop payment cheque has been allowed” convey the same idea in a non threatening manner. the use of logical connectors such as while,however,therefore and as will help to make more coherent. GRAMMAR : WORD ORDER IN SENTENCES When contructing different type of sentences,it is important to bear in mind that sentences should be complete. the subject is the person or thing affected by the action or situation. SEVEn CS Characteristics of Description effective communication Clear Readable,coherent and unambiguous Complete Contain all necessary details Concise Has relevant detail only Considerate Aware of the receiver Courteous Tactful and sensitive Concrete Not vague or abstract correct Specific detail,grammar,punctuation & spelling CHAPTER 6 : THE FORMAT OF BUSINESS LETTERS  Sucessful business letter is one that elicits the desired response. the style of the letter can be varied to reduce formality depending on familiarity with the receiver. the layout of letter provides the frame for the body of your letter. The essential parts will be details,which would ensure effective communication ,where the message sent by the sender is received by the intended and act on accordingly. PARTS OF A LETTER Part of a Letter explaination
gives information on the writer,the organization he/she present the address and telephone number. most business organization use company stationer with a letterhead with include these detail Often the telex,facsimile numbers and email adresss are also included Also provided reference for use when the need arise

Date

Attention Line

Greeting

Subject Line

Body

Complimentary Close

Signature

TYPE OF RESUME
Three type of resume Basic resume Include all normal parts of resume,but it simpler and shorter,suitable for school leaver or those who have little experience. Funcional Resume Uses a different order of presentation to highlight a wide range of skills and work experience.Start with the most recent work experience that match potential employer‟s need,followed by subheadings to highlight job functions,uses advertisement‟s as guide for specific function. specific resume Prepare for specific job,with emphasis on qualification,skill and experience particularly relevant to the job,present experiences in term of criteria advertised.Highlight strength with action words(verbs) such as achieve,adapt,iniate,install,prepare,report,supervise,inpect oor make.

Planning and writing report are important skill which may be expected of most working adults. can serve various purpose.

SHORT REPORT LAYOUT places information on the page in a way that is easy to understand. FORMAL REPORT
contain the following  a title page which includes the title of the report,recipient‟s name, position and/or organizationa,writer name and position and the date. an introduction sections which heading in the body conclusion recommendations ( when required) attachments are included if their information is useful.

SHORT REPORT
 contain the following  a clear indication of your purpose  accurate and objective information  a suitable order oof information which highlight the main point and leads logically to your conclusion appropriate formal short repor,letter or memo formatting.

TYPES OF SHORT REPORT Justification report
Presents a course of action or idea and then uses evidence to explain why something either should or has been done Progress report Used to provide information on a project‟s progress and forecast timetable for the future. Periodic report Used to keep management informed at regular interval by providing information on some aspect to the organization‟s operation over a specific period .

WRITING LONG REPORT Formal report are major document written to provide comprehensive information and expert opinion. first task is to produce the main text-the part which contain an introduction to the findings,the body of your finding,your conclusion and recommendation. PRESENTATION Presentation is the arrangement of information on the page. It create an intial impression of your organization and therefore that layout is given attention to project a professional image. has conventional rules with some flexibility depending on the formality of the communication. has to be st out clearly and well spaced. Presentation of document are :heading underline indentation shading Numberedd list or sections,as inreport spaced between paragraph,left and right margin header and footer PART OF A LONG REPORT The front matter

The body ( Main text)
Introduction Discussion and analysis of finding Development of idea Conclusion Recommendation The end matter References

Appendices Three main part
introductory section begin with the purpose statement that defines the report‟s main task or topic central Section : Body of Text usually investigates and analyses the finding and purpose solution for any problems involved present both advantages and disanvanteges  uses eading and numbering system Final section contain the conclusion and recommendation.(Set as separate sections) conclusion summarizes and evaluates the report‟s main facts.Short.  recommendations are the writter‟s attempt to provide at least some answer.Clearly state the action required.Recommendation are not need if the long report is intended as a database for others who will be responsible for planning and recommendation.

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Description: Short Note For WorkPlaces Communication