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Sample Business Plan Ballpark

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Sample Business Plan Ballpark document sample

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									   Measurement and                                                   D      M      A       I         C

Analysis Interaction (A1)                                                                      YES

                                                                                    Are there new
Study process and plan                        Is there a                             stratification
 for measurement of Y                        stratification                            factors to
       variables                               pattern?              NO                consider?

                                                                                               NO
Hypothesize stratification                            YES
                                                                            Hypothesis Generation for X
        factors                                                              (cause) variables with no
                                                                                   stratification
                                            Any probable
                                            stratifications       NO
        Measure                             within the re-                  Hypothesis Generation for X
                                            focused data                     (cause) variables within
                                                 set?                              stratification
   Compute baseline
       metrics                                        YES
                                                                          NO           More
                                              Measure                              measurements
                                                                                     required?
 Data Exploration: Find
   patterns related to                                                                         YES
 treatment differences
   (i.e. stratification)                    Verify Causes                               Measure

12/2/2003            Six Sigma Green Belt     (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)                    1
 Output of Measurement                                             D      M      A    I   C

     Selection (A1)
   Project Y variable(s) (CTQ) identified and linked
    to problem/goal
   At least one X variable (predictor) to help find
    cause of Y variable
           Start with stratification factor as initial type of X variable
   Plan for making sure you know:
           Where to collect measurements
           Data is available
           It is feasible (time, money, personnel) to collect data
   Exercise: CTQ Tree
   Exercise: Measurement Assessment Tree

12/2/2003            Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           2
 Output of Operational                                             D      M      A    I   C

    Definition (A2)
   Clear, concise, detailed, unambiguous
    description of what is being measured
           Definitions of key terms like defect, product and service
   Guidelines on how to interpret the routine and
    the unusual
   Initial data collection plan for what (sets up the
    when and how)
           Use Operational Definition Worksheet (pg. 169)




12/2/2003            Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           3
    Output of Identifying                                         D      M      A    I   C

     Data Sources (A3)
   Identification of existing data sources that will
    meet some (or all) measurement needs. Criteria
    for acceptable existing data include:
           Used the same operational definitions developed for the project
            collection efforts (especially in agreeing with customer
            definitions)
           Structured to support analysis stage (i.e. has required
            stratification factors)
   Identification of new data sources to needed to
    meet requirements
   Validating of ability to access and sort existing
    data
12/2/2003           Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           4
Prepare Data Collection                                            D      M      A    I   C

and Sampling Plan (A4)
   Identify/confirm stratification factors
           Must begin with some idea of the “end game”
           Data exploration (analysis stage) lives or dies on decisions made
            here
   Develop sampling scheme
   Create data collection forms




12/2/2003            Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           5
Developing the Sampling                                             D      M      A    I   C

    Scheme (A4.2)
   Choice – Population or Process sampling?
           Population sampling: Large (essentially infinite), homogeneous pool of
            data
           Process sampling: Sample taken from a “running process stream”
           Ref: Tables 9-1 and 10-2 and Figures 10-6 to 10-10
   Accounting for “sampling bias”
           Bad sampling processes: convenience sampling and judgment sampling
           Good sampling processes: systematic sampling, random sampling,
            stratified sampling
   Setting the Confidence Interval (CI) (Detailed discussion
    at end of Measure Stage of DMAIC model)
           Typical interval is set at 95% (this is Minitab default)
           Must know something about process to ballpark the sample size for a
            95% CI
   Exercise: Manual Sample size calculation (pg. 171-172)


12/2/2003             Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           6
     Creating Data                                                 D      M      A    I   C

Collection Forms (A4.3)
   Avoiding pitfalls:
           KISS
           Good labeling
           Space for identifying data: date, time, collector
           Have consistent structure
           Include key STRATIFICATION FACTORS
   Types of collection forms:
           Check sheets
           Data sheets
           Travelers: Excellent method to “pair data” when stratification
            factor and Y-variable measurement don’t occur at same place
            and/or time


12/2/2003            Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           7
Output of Data Collection                                    D      M      A    I   C

 and Sampling Plan (A4)
    A list of stratification factors
    Completed sampling plan
    Data collection forms




 12/2/2003     Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           8
Output of Implement/Refine                                          D      M      A    I   C

Measurement Process (A5)
    Review/finalize collection plan
            Perform Measurement System Analysis including Gage R&R, bias
             assessment, stability and linearity testing, and calibration
    Prepare workplace: Let all know what’s going on
    Tested collection procedures:
            KISS and trial run
            Validate collector training
    Collect data
    Monitor measurement accuracy and refine
    Exercise: Gage R&R Assessment (continuous
     and discrete)

 12/2/2003            Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           9
Minitab Gage R&R Example                                                                                                                     D            M                     A               I                C


Gage R&R (ANOVA) for Response L
                                                                                                Reported by :
G age name:                                                                                     Tolerance:
D ate of study :                                                                                M isc:


                                          Components of Variation                                                                                      Response L by Part
                        100                                                           % Contribution     80.00
                                                                                      % Study Var
          Percent




                                                                                                         79.95
                         50
                                                                                                         79.90

                          0                                                                                              1           2           3        4          5          6       7       8        9           10
                               Gage R&R        Repeat       Reprod   Part-to-Part
                                                                                                                                                                         Part
                                            R Chart by Operator
                               1           2            3            4
                                                                                                                                                     Response L by Operator
                        0.10
                                                                                    UCL=0.0895           80.00
        Sample Range




                                                                                                         79.95
                        0.05                                                        _
                                                                                    R=0.0347             79.90

                        0.00                                                        LCL=0
                                                                                                                                 1                            2                     3                        4
                                                                                                                                                                    Operator
                                          Xbar Chart by Operator
                               1           2            3            4                                                                       Operator * Part Interaction
                       80.00                                                                                     80.00                                                                                           Operator
   Sample Mean




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                       Average
                                                                                    UCL=79.9668
                       79.95                                                        _                            79.95                                                                                           2
                                                                                    _                                                                                                                            3
                                                                                    X=79.9312                                                                                                                    4
                                                                                                                 79.90
                       79.90                                                        LCL=79.8957
                                                                                                                             1           2     3      4           5    6        7   8       9       10
                                                                                                                                                                  Part

Worksheet: Gagecolor.MTW; Doug

12/2/2003                                         Six Sigma Green Belt                (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)                                                                                               10
       Minitab Gage R&R                                            D      M      A    I   C

        Session Window
                                          Gage R&R
                                          %Contribution
            Source                          VarComp (of VarComp)
            Total Gage R&R                  0.0011386      98.84
             Repeatability                  0.0004267      37.04
             Reproducibility                0.0007119      61.80
               Operator                     0.0006148      53.37
               Operator*Part                0.0000972       8.44
            Part-To-Part                    0.0000133        1.16
            Total Variation                 0.0011519    100.00
                                            Study Var                 %Study Var
            Source                        StdDev (SD)        (6 * SD)    (%SV)
            Total Gage R&R                0.0337433          0.202460     99.42
             Repeatability                0.0206559          0.123935      60.86
             Reproducibility              0.0266823          0.160094     78.62
               Operator                   0.0247942          0.148765     73.05
               Operator*Part              0.0098586          0.059151     29.05
            Part-To-Part                  0.0036515          0.021909     10.76
            Total Variation               0.0339403          0.203642    100.00
            Number of Distinct Categories = 1

12/2/2003            Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           11
          Calculate Baseline                                       D      M      A    I   C

          Sigma Levels (B1)
   Key definitions
           Unit: Item being processed (focus of the project)
           Defect: Failure to meet customer expectation
           Defect Opportunity: Chance for product/service to be defective
   Guidelines for “defect opportunity” definition
           Focus on “defects that are important to the customer”
           Should reflect “number of places in the process where it can go wrong,
            NOT all the ways it can go wrong”
           Focus on routine defects – i.e. don’t count the “rare event”
           Group similar defects in a single “defect category”
           Be consistent (within defect and across company)
           Don’t change operation definition without compelling reason
   Simple 4-step process
           Exercise: Sigma Calculation Worksheet (pg. 178-179)


12/2/2003            Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           12
      Calculate Final and                                         D      M      A    I   C

     First-Pass Yield (B2)
   Looks at the internal structure of the process
   Two different ways of looking at yield and
    process sigma: final yield and first-pass yield
   Final yield:
           How many defect-free items emerge at the end of the process
            including those that were successfully reworked
           Internal defects and their costs are hidden
   First-pass yield:
           Number of items that make it through entire process without
            any rework included
           Same as Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)


12/2/2003           Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           13
    Measuring the Cost of                                 D      M      A    I   C

      Poor Quality (B3)
   Cost is connected to, but not the same as defect
    counts or sigma levels
   Translate defect data into Cost of Poor Quality
    (COPQ)




12/2/2003   Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           14
  Output of Calculating the                                D      M      A    I   C

   Performance Baseline
   Well defined units, defects and defect
    opportunity
   Calculated baseline sigma level
   Calculated final and/or first-pass yield for Y
    variable
   Identified labor and material rework costs
   Translated defects into dollars




12/2/2003    Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           15
    Long-Term vs. Short-                                   D      M      A    I   C

       Term Variation
   Short-term variation is less than long-term
   Process shift adjustment of 1.5 sigma
   Short-term capability: The best possible if
    process is centered
   Long-term capability: Sustained reproducibility
    of the process
   The Z calculation and the Z table




12/2/2003    Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)           16
          Histogram and the Normal                                       D      M      A    I    C
Measurement ValueDistribution
  Frequency of a




                    -3S   -1.96S          -S           X            +S           +1.96S         +3S
                           (-2S)                                                  (+2S)
                                            Measurement Value


        12/2/2003          Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)             17
               The “Z” Table
                                                                    D      M      A     I    C



Question 1: How many standard                                                  Distance from yellow
deviations are there between the                                               solid line to the mean
                                                                  Z=
mean and the reference                                                             One Standard
measurement?                                                                        Deviation

          Distance from red                                                  Z = about 1.5
       dashed line to the mean
Z=
              One Standard
               Deviation                                                     From Z Table, a value of
                                                                             1.5 = .0668 or 6.68
         Z = 1 std dev                                                       percent of the area
                                                                             under the curve is to the
                                                     Z                       right of the solid yellow
                                                                             line.

                                                     Z


       -3S       -1.96S         -S            X             +S          +1.96S         +3S
                  (-2S)                     Mean                         (+2S)
  12/2/2003          Six Sigma Green Belt    (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)              18
                                                                        D      M      A      I     C
           “Z” Table Examples
  What percentage of measurements are to                  What percentage of measurements are to
  the left of the red dashed line?                        the right of the solid yellow line?
           Distance from red
        dashed line to the mean
Z=
                 One Standard            .5195                  .5212
                  Deviation
                                                                                           .5212 - .5200
        .5200 - .5195                                                         Z=
Z=                                                                                               .0010
             .0010
                                                                                           Z = 1.2
Z = .5
                                                                                       P = 11.51%
P = 30.85%


          -3S          -2S          -S            X             +S             +2S          +3S
         .5170        .5180        .5190         .5200         .5210          .5220         .5230
                                                 Inches
     12/2/2003           Six Sigma Green Belt    (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)                 19
                                                                  D      M      A    I     C
            “Z” Table Exercise
 What percentage of measurements are to             What percentage of measurements are
 the left of the red dashed line?                   between the dashed and solid lines?


Z=                                                                           Z=
                              .5192                 .5208


Z=                                                                           Z=




          -3S    -2S           -S           X             +S             +2S         +3S
         .5170   .5180        .5190        .5200         .5210          .5220        .5230
                                           Inches
     12/2/2003      Six Sigma Green Belt   (Ref: The Six Sigma Way Team Fieldbook)             20

								
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