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Purchase and Saleof a Business

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					Ch. 8 - Taxable Corporate
Acquisitions/Dispositions

 Disposition options:
 1) Sale of stock – easy to accomplish; LT capital
     gain treatment to the individual seller; risk
     about unknown corporate liabilities.
 2) Sale of assets – more complicated transfer
     mechanics; concerns about non-assignable
     assets; various tax characterizations, dependent
     upon allocation of the consideration received.


11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng          1




Four Alternatives:
Taxable Dispositions p.364

Possible mechanical alternatives for the taxable
disposition of a corporate business:
         y         p
1. Sale by the corporation of its assets and the
distribution of the proceeds in liquidation.
2. Distribution by the corporation of its assets “in
kind” to the shareholders who then sell the assets.
3. Sale of the stock by the shareholders.
4. Sale of the assets at the corporate level and no
liquidation of the corporation.
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Taxable Asset Acquisitions
Consideration Paid  p.365

Sale of its assets by the target corporation to a
purchaser for cash, notes, etc. (but not for stock -
                                       tax-free
which exchange could be eligible for tax free
corporate reorganization treatment).
Various types of consideration might be paid for
these assets: cash, promissory notes, bonds & other
property (e.g., stock of other than the purchaser
corporate entity).

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                                                        1
   Possible structures for the
   asset acquisition     p.365

  1) Forward cash merger of Target into Acquirer
  for cash (or merger into subsidiary of Acquirer).
  Equivalent to a sale of assets and liquidation by the
  acquired corporation. Rev. Rul. 69-6.
  2) Liquidation of the Target followed by the
  shareholder sale of the assets to Acquirer.
  3) Sale of the assets by Target with subsequent
  distribution of the proceeds to shareholders.
  4) Sale of assets, with the proceeds retained
                            level gain).
  (avoiding shareholderWilliam P. Streng
  11/5/2010             (c)                          4




Issues Upon Retention of
Proceeds & Corporate Status

“Lock-in” effect because of retention of stock until
  death to enable §1014 basis step-up.
Possible personal holding company status risk –
  requiring current distributions of income to the
  shareholders to avoid the PHC penalty tax.
Possible conversion of the corporation to S
  corporation status (but note S Corporation
  provision limitations, e.g., too much investment
  income after being a C corp).

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   Allocation of the Purchase
   Price for Tax Purposes

   §1060 requires an allocation of the purchase price
   paid for the assets acquired for cash.
   Cf., William v. McGowan case re sale of separate
      ,                                       p
   assets and not the sale of the "business" enterprise
   as one unit.
   Cf., the sale of shares of a corporation.
   This fragmentation approach requires a purchase
   price/tax basis allocation among the various assets
   acquired by purchaser.

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                                                               2
 Tax Basis Allocation
 Planning Objectives p.367

Seller: If a tax rate differential exists, a tax planning
objective will be to allocate proceeds to those capital
assets producing LTCG; but, no income tax rate
differential exists for the selling corporation (all
35%; but consider possible NOL & capital loss
carryover utilization).
Buyer: Wants to allocate the purchase price to
inventory and other short lived assets - to enable a
prompt income tax deduction of these costs.
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 Approaches to Allocation
 of the Purchase Price

 1. Proportionate methods, based on the relative fair
 market values of all assets.
 2. Residual method - allocation (in order) to: (1)
 liquid assets, (2) tangible assets, (3) intangible
 assets and, (4) goodwill (i.e., based on the increasing
 difficulty of valuation).
 §1060 implements the residual method.
 Also, an allocation is made to a "covenant not to
 compete,” treated as an acquired asset.
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 Amortization of Intangibles
 p.368

§197 - Intangible assets are amortizable over a 15
year period without regard to their actual "useful
life ”
life.
§197 assets defined: customer lists, patents, know-
how, licenses, franchises, etc., including goodwill and
going concern value; also, “covenants not to
compete” (even though the period of the non-
compete covenant is actually much shorter than 15
years).
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                                                            3
Allocation of Price - §1060
Asset Classes         p.370

 Class 1 assets:   Cash & cash equivalents.
 Class 2 assets:   Marketable securities.
 Class 3 assets:   Accounts receivable.
 Class 4 assets:   Inventory.
 Class 5 assets:   Tangible property.
 Class 6 assets:   Intangibles (§197).
 Class 7 assets:   Goodwill & going concern
                   value (also §197 assets).
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Agreement for Allocation of
the Purchase Price? p.370
1) Should the buyer and seller agree on a purchase
    price allocation?
2) What is the binding nature of such a price
     ll ti               t   th
    allocation agreement on the IRS?
3) Can the taxpayer reject the agreement and
    report another allocation? See the Danielson
    case (p. 367 & 370).
§1060 specifies the binding nature of this agreement
    for the taxpayers.
See IRS Form 8594, “Asset Acquisition Statement.”
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Stock Acquisitions                         p.371

Purchaser buys stock of a corporation from the
shareholders. Structuring options are:
1.                           shareholders
1 Direct purchase from the shareholders.
Similar to a “B” tax-free reorganization.
What about non-consenting shareholders?
Answer: No deal unless super majority is obtained,
followed by a “squeeze-out” merger to eliminate the
remaining shareholders.
continued
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                                                       4
Stock Acquisitions                         p.371
cont.

Reverse  cash merger:
1) Purchaser forms a transitory subsidiary which
    merges into Target; and
2) Target shareholders receive cash (and notes) of
    purchaser. Similar to tax-free “Reverse
    Triangular Merger.” Shareholders treated as
    selling stock to P.
3) Purchaser receives Target stock. Target
    thereby becomes a subsidiary of P.
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Stock Acquisitions -
Income Tax Results

Results of a direct stock purchase or a reverse
subsidiary cash merger:
1.
1 Selling shareholders - capital gain treatment
upon sale of shares (& §453?).
2. The purchaser takes a cost basis for the acquired
shares in acquired corporation.
Impact to the Target Corp.? Unaffected, except
should this transaction actually be treated as a
deemed asset acquisition?
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Kimbell-Diamond case
Asset Purchase?    p.372

 Corporation acquired stock of another corporation
 with involuntary conversion proceeds. Objective
 was to acquire assets.
           q
 Issue re tax basis of the assets acquired by the
 corporate transferee in the liquidation.
 Tax basis for assets was higher than asset FMV.
 Was this a tax-free liquidation of wholly owned
 subsidiary into parent corporation, under §332?
 No, held: cash asset acquisition.
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                                                       5
Code §338 - Elective Asset
Purchase Tax Treatment

 Can a corporate shareholder get a tax basis step-up
 for indirectly acquired assets without the
 liquidation of the acquired corporation?
 If treated as a liquidation - therefore, gain
 recognition results as if the appreciated assets had
 been (i) distributed in kind, and
 (ii) re-infused into a new corporation (§351).
 But, the stock basis to the purchasing shareholder
 disappears.
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Code §338 Objectives
in Stock Purchase                           p.374

 1. Same federal income tax effects as if:
  (i) a sale by Target corporation of its assets,
 followed by
  (ii) a corporate liquidation into parent corp.
 2. The buyer gets a cost basis in the assets
 acquired from Target.
 3. Tax attributes of the Target disappear (e.g., the
 e&p account and the holding periods for the
 various assets).
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Share Purchase and Tax
Planning Structural Options

1. No §338 election and the asset tax bases inside
the corporation are unaffected.
2. Not elect §338, but liquidate under §332 - historic
asset tax bases move upstream.
3. Elect §338 and treat the stock transaction as a
taxable asset acquisition (keeping corp).
4. Elect §338, treat the acquisition as an asset
acquisition, and then liquidate the acquired
corporation upstream (under §332).
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                                                         6
 Qualification Requirements
 for §338 Election    p.376

 1. Acquisition by the purchasing corporation of an
 80% interest in another corporation during a 12
 month acquisition period, i.e., a "qualified stock
 purchase” has occurred.
 2. Buyer must make an irrevocable election.
 3. Treated as a hypothetical sale for asset fair
 market values as of the acquisition date. Note: The
 purchasing corporation has the tax payment
 obligation for recognized gain.
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 Defining the Sale Price -
 Deemed Fair Market Value

“Aggregate deemed sale price” (ADSP) - the price
allocable to the assets deemed sold.
Target treated as selling assets for the ADSP.
This deemed sale price includes:
 1) price of acquired stock (as grossed-up, to
approximate the real price if not all stock was held
by the purchaser); and,
 2) the acquired liabilities (Crane case), including
income tax liability incurred in the sale.
Consider the similarity to an asset sale/purchase.
11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng         20




 Adjusted Grossed-up Basis
 of Acquired Assets (AGUB)

Tax basis to new Target for the assets deemed
acquired by Purchaser consists of:
1 Grossed-up price of P's recently purchased stock
1. Grossed up             Ps
(need to gross-up where not all shares have been
acquired).
2. P’s actual basis in non-recently purchased stock
(more than 12 months holding period).
3. Target liabilities, including tax liabilities
resulting from the deemed asset sale.
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                                                       7
Allocation of the Adjusted
Grossed-up Basis         p.379

The objective of determining this basis is to
  determine the amount to be allocated to the
  Target’s various assets after the deemed purchase.
Thi tax basis is allocated to the various assets, as
This t b i i ll t d t th             i        t
  specified in the §338(b)(5) income tax regulations,
  similar to the §1060 approach to allocating
  purchase price.



11/5/2010            (c) William P. Streng              22




   Subsidiary Sale - Possible
   §338(h)(10) Election p.381

  Acquisition of the stock of a corp. subsidiary.
  Parent corporation is the seller of the target
                corp                          alive)
  subsidiary corp. stock (keeping the sub alive).
  Possible §338(h)(10) election - Treat the transaction
  as (1) if it were a sale of T's assets while a member
  of the seller's consolidated group, and, (2) S then
  liquidated tax-free into Acquiring Parent under
  §332. Objective: To avoid two corporate level gain
  tax events.
   11/5/2010         (c) William P. Streng         23




   When Use §338(h)(10)
   Election?          p.383

  1) Large potential gain on the stock, but limited
      gain on the assets (as if (a) an actual §332
      li id ti into parent and then (b) a sale of the
      liquidation i t         t d th             l f th
      subsidiary’s assets).
  2) Consolidated group has losses from other
      operations which can be used to offset the gain
      realized on the deemed asset sale.


   11/5/2010         (c) William P. Streng         24




                                                             8
Comparison of Acquisition
Methods             p.384

Probable alternatives:
   1) Sell stock with no Section 338 election
   2) Make Section 338 election if Target corp. has
   net operating losses to offset recognized gains.
Special treatment where Target corp. is a
   subsidiary of another corporation –
   Code §338(h)(10) election possibility with gain
   reported on Seller’s consolidated tax return.
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Problem (a)              p.386
Asset Sale and Liquidation

T: (1) adopts a plan of complete liquidation,
(2) sells (at the corporate level) its 1.1 mil. non-cash
     t (subject t 300 li biliti ) t        f 800
assets ( bj t to 300x liabilities) to P for 800x cash  h
(corporate level tax on gain),
(3) distributes the after-tax proceeds (how much?)
to the shareholders in proportion to their
stockholdings (A&B have LTCG).
Next question: Basis to P for acquired assets?

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Problem (b)              p.386
Asset Liquidating Distribution

 T (i) adopts plan of liquidation; (ii) transfers all
 assets (& liabilities) to shareholders; and
 (iii) shareholders sell the assets to P.
 Tax effects of the distribution to (i) corporation -
 treatment under §336(a); and
 (ii) Shareholders – treatment under §331.
 Also, income tax basis effects to P? Tax basis of
 assets is $1.1 million (allocated per §1060).
11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng           27




                                                           9
Problem (c)              p.386
Installment Note Distribution

 P paid T $200,000 in cash and $600,000 in notes
 with market rate of interest payable annually and
 the entire principal payable in five years. Issues re
 the availability of installment sale treatment upon:
 (i) T’s asset sale, and (ii) T’s immediate
 distribution of notes.
 Further, may A and B (C having a loss) report
 their §331(a) gain on the installment method upon
 the liquidation of Target? See §453(h).
11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng         28




Problem (d)             p.386
Asset Sale & No Liquidation

 Target sells all its assets to P.
 T does not liquidate but invests the after-tax
 proceeds in publicly traded securities.
 T recognizes $150,000 of ordinary income and
 $350,000 net LTCG.
 Increase to T’s E&P by $325,000 ($500,000 gain
 less 175,000 tax liability on sale).
 No distribution of proceeds and §331 tax is avoided
 at the shareholder level. What tax risks?
11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng         29




Problem (e)            p.386
Stock Purchase- §338 Election

 P purchases all the stock of T for $800 per share
 and makes a Code §338 election.
                    g       p
 Shareholders recognize capital g      (or     )
                                  gain ( loss) on
 their share sales.
 P is eligible to make a §338 election since a
 “qualified stock purchase” has occurred.
 New T treated as a new corporation which
 purchased all the old T assets on the day after the
 acquisition date.               continued
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                                                         10
Problem (e), continued
p. 386

New T’s basis in its acquired assets:
1) $800,000 grossed up basis
   $300,000
2) $300 000 bank loan
3) $175,000 tax paid
Total “adjusted grossed-up basis” is $1,275,000.
This $1,275,000 is allocable among T’s assets under
Code §338(b)(5).
Stock sale & §338 election same as asset sale.
11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng         31




Problem (f)           p.386
Stock Purchase & No §338

  P purchases all the stock of T for cash but does not
  make the Code §338 election.
  T is not deemed to have sold the assets and,
  therefore, recognizes no current gain or loss.
  T's same asset bases and other T tax attributes
  remain as prior to the sale.
  A knowledgeable buyer would not pay $1 million
  for the stock because of the future income tax
  liability upon T’s asset sales.
11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng         32




Problem (g)             p.386
Choice of Sales Method?

 Method of choice is a purchase of stock without a
 §338 election.
 If (1) Target sells assets and is liquidated,
 or (2) Target shareholders sell stock and a Code
 §338 election is made,
 the transaction generates tax at both the
 shareholder and the corporation level.
 Do not make §338 election and do not pay current
 tax merely to get a tax basis step-up!
11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng         33




                                                         11
Problem (h)            p.386
Target With NOL Carryover

 If T had a NOL carryover of $600,000:
 T could shelter the $500,000 of gain on the deemed
    l b     i th        to ff t the l        i
 sale by using the NOL t offset th sales gain.
 A §338 election enables new T to take a stepped up
 basis to fair market value for assets without any
 income tax cost resulting from the election.
 Could P otherwise use the NOL? Possible §382
 limit?

11/5/2010            (c) William P. Streng          34




Problem (i)                                  p.386
Target as Subsidiary

 Assume T is a wholly owned subsidiary of S, Inc.
 and S has 200x adjusted basis in T stock.
 1) T distributes all of its assets (subject to the
 liability) to S in complete liquidation. Liquidation
 of T is tax-free to S (under §332) and to T (under
 §337).
 2) S then sells the assets to P. On the sale of assets
 S recognizes $150,000 ordinary income and
 $350,000 net LTCG. P has cost basis for the
 various acquired assets.
11/5/2010            (c) William P. Streng          35




Problem (j)              p.386
Acquisition of Target Stock

P insists that the transaction must be structured as
an acquisition of T stock.
T is the subsidiary of corporate Seller (S) and a
member of a consolidated group.
§338(h)(10) permits S and P to jointly elect to treat
the transaction as a deemed sale of T's assets in a
single transaction, rather than as a sale by S of the T
stock. A lesser gain amount realized then.
S recognizes no gain or loss on the stock sale.
11/5/2010            (c) William P. Streng          36




                                                          12
Tax Policy Issues – Stock
vs. Asset Purchases p.387
 Should the repeal of the General Utilities doctrine
    be reversed in the corporate
    liquidation/takeover context?
 D      double tax (corporate and shareholder)
 Does a d bl t (            t    d h h ld )
    encourage a “lock-in effect”?
 Detriment only to closely held businesses?
 How provide any relief? At shareholder or
    corporate level? Integrated treatment?
 15% tax rate on shareholders’ capital gain?

11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng           37




Tax Treatment of
Acquisition Expenses

 Choices for the buyer:
 1) Immediate deduction (ordinarily preferred)
                  (e.g.,
 2) Amortization (e g debt financing)
 3) Frozen in the buyer’s tax basis until the
 disposition of the asset (e.g., stock cost).
 Tax treatment depends on the acquired assets &
 financing arrangements.
 Cf.: Target’s expenses (hostile or friendly?).

11/5/2010           (c) William P. Streng           38




Possible Application of
INDOPCO Decision      p.388

Holding that takeover costs in friendly takeover
    were nondeductible capital expenses – since
                      future benefit
    cost produced a “future benefit.”
Cost need not be related to a specific asset.
Different treatment for fees to prevent a hostile
    tender offer – only seeking to preserve the
    entity - until changing (?) to a friendly
    transaction. Staley (7th Cir) case, p. 389.

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                                                         13
Acquisitions & Cost Recovery
p.390

Failed acquisitions: Costs incurred in investigating
  an acquisition and transaction fails or is
  abandoned – §165 enables a loss deduction.
The       (I d     )    l ti      Costs incurred t
Th §263 (Indopco) regulations - C t i           d to
  complete a transaction must be capitalized and
  amortized. But, current deduction for White
  Knight costs and hostile takeover defense costs.



11/5/2010               (c) William P. Streng                 40




   LBOs – Types of
   Transactions                                 p.391
  Objectives: Reduce equity and increase debt which
     facilitates (1) deductible interest and (2) greater
     income per share (and greater value based on
     the “earnings p share” p
                  g per                          p )
                                 probable multiple).
     - To facilitate a “going private” transaction.
     - To facilitate a “bootstrap acquisition” of
     another enterprise.
     - To facilitate a stock tender offer.
  Recall: Chap. 3 re debt-equity considerations.
  Further benefit available: dividends taxed at low
     15% rate (to individuals) & DRD; cf., interest.
   11/5/2010            (c) William P. Streng            41




   LBOs & Tax Limitations on
   Excessive Debt      p.409

   1) “Junk bond” - Applicable high yield discount (AHYDO)
        obligations - §163(e)(5).
        See §163(e)(5)(F)(iii) –temporary suspension, through
         0 0           of a c a a et crash. Notice 0 0 .
        2010 because o financial market c as . Not ce 2010-11.
        & payment in kind (PIK) bonds
   2) Limit use of an NOL attributable to debt leveraging
        interest expense. §172(h).
   3) Earnings stripping limitation - deductible interest paid
        to foreign lender. Code §163(j). But, carryover of
        excess deduction for future.
   4) Other remedies? Limit on PIK bonds
   5) Classification issues – debt for tax & equity for GAAP?
   11/5/2010            (c) William P. Streng            42




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