Student Employability Pack

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					Student Employability Pack
An ‘Employability Pack’ designed by the School of Psychology to
aid students choosing a personal career path

Psychology Careers
Other Careers
Statistics                                ce r
                                   n Of fi                                   gist
                          Probatio                                      cholo
Services                                                        a  l Psy
Education/Occupationic Psyc
Action Plan
Useful Links & Materials                                   se
                                                              a   rch

                                    our Analyst                                  gist
                     Applied Behavi                                        cholo

                                       l Psychologis
                                                    t    Social Worker

1	                              .
      Careers	and	Employability		 ............... 	 4-7                5.6	    Occupational	Psychology	
      1.1	    Introduction                                             5.7	    Sport	and	Exercise	Psychology
      1.2	    What	is	‘Employability’                                  5.8	    Past	University	of	Ulster	Graduates
      1.3	    The	change	in	the	market                                 5.9	    Pod	casts	from	Professional	
      1.4	    Generic	skills,	attributes	and	qualities
      1.5	    Psychological	skills,	attributes	and	
              qualities                                          6	    Other	Careers	.................................... 	52-56
      1.6	    Skills,	attributes	and	qualities	                  	     6.1	    Other	Careers
              employers	want/expect/value
                                                                               a		Teaching
                                                                               b		Social	Work
	2	   Employability	Statistics		 .................... 	 8-9
                               .                                               c		Careers	(Training	and	Recruitment)
                                                                               d		Occupational	Therapy
      2.1	    General	UK	Graduate	Employment                                   e		Psychotherapy
      2.2	    Employment	in	Psychology                                         f		Speech	Therapy
      2.3	    Career	Destinations	of	Past	                                     g		Nursing	
              University	of	Ulster	Students                                    			(Psychological	or		Specialist)
      2.4	    Career	Destinations	of	Psychology	                       6.2	    Management	&	Finance
              Graduates	(UK)                                           6.3	    Marketing	&	Sales
      2.5	    Long	Term	Employability                                  6.4	    Psychology	Involved	Roles
                                                                       	       a		Technician
3	                       .
      Services	Available		 ............................ 	10-16         	       b		Secretary
                                                                       	       c		Researcher
      3.1	    The	Careers	Development	Centre	                          	       d		Assistant
              and	the	Personal	Development	
                                                                 7		   Action	plan		........................................ 	57-61
      3.2	    Employability	Modules	at	Ulster
      3.3	    CV	Building	and	Cover	Letters                            7.1	    My	Career?
      3.4	    Interview	Skills                                         7.2	    What	do	I	want?
      3.5	    Job	Applications                                         7.3	    How	do	I	do	that?
      3.6	    Assessment	Centres                                       7.4	    Progress	…
      3.7	    Placement	(DIS)                                          7.5	    Your	C.V	and	Cover	Letter…
      3.8		 School	of	Psychology	(University	of	                       7.6	    Your	Interview...
                                                                 8	    Useful	Links,	Materials	
	4	   Education	or	Occupation		.................. 	        17    	                   .
                                                                       &	References		 .................................... 	 62	
                                                                       List	of	good	web	sites	that	will	be	useful	
      4.1	    Further	Study	                                           for	each	section	e.g.	C.V	building	sites	or	
      4.2	    Employment/work	experience                               descriptions	of	different	careers.
5	                       .
      Psychology	Careers		 ......................... 	18-51
      5.1	    Clinical	Psychology	
      5.2	    Counselling	Psychology	
      5.3	    Educational	Psychology	
      5.4	    Forensic/Criminal	Psychology	
      5.5	    Health	Psychology	
    1     Careers and Employability

    1.1   Introduction                                                                                                              Personal Qualities                                        Process Skills
    	     The	following	‘Employability	pack’	has	been	created	to	aid	decisions	concerning	your	personal	career	                     Malleable self-theory:	belief	that	attributes	are	        Computer literacy: ability	to	use	a	range	of	
          path,	 whether	 that	 is	 as	 a	 Psychologist	 or	 as	 a	 specialist	 in	 another	 related	 field.	 	 It	 is	 designed	   not	fixed	and	can	be	developed.                           software.
          to	 provide	 information	 on	 a	 number	 of	 issues	 regarding	 employment	 and	 what	 you	 can	 do	 to	 best	
                                                                                                                                    Self-awareness: awareness	of	own	strengths	               Commercial	awareness:	understanding	of	
          prepare	yourself	for	the	next	step	of	your	career.	
                                                                                                                                    and	weaknesses,	aims	and	values.                          business	issues	and	priorities.
    	     Therefore	the	main	aims	of	this	pack	are	to	help:
                                                                                                                                    Self-confidence: confidence	in	dealing	with	the	          Political sensitivity:	appreciation	of	how	
          •	     Inform	you	of	the	condition	and	dynamics	of	the	current	employment	market.                                         challenges	that	employment	and	life	throw	up.	            organisations	actually	work,	and	acting	
          •	     Clarify	 what	 skills	 you	 have	 acquired	 and	 what	 skills	 you	 have	 yet	 to	 obtain	 to	 realise	 your	      Independence:	ability	to	work	without	supervision.        accordingly.
                 professional	vision.                                                                                               Adaptability:	ability	to	respond	positively	to	           Ability to work cross-culturally:	both	within	and	
          •	     Highlight	what	support	is	available	and	how	to	access	it	efficiently.                                              changing	circumstances	and	new	challenges.                beyond	the	UK.
          •	     You	decide	what	the	right	career	is	for	you	and	what	these	occupations	encompass.                                  Initiative:	ability	to	take	action	unprompted.            Prioritising: ability	to	rank	tasks	according	to	
          •	     Assist	you	in	planning	and	taking	the	next	steps	of	your	career.                                                                                                             importance.
                                                                                                                                    Reflectiveness:	the	disposition	to	reflect	and	
                                                                                                                                    evaluate	the	performance	of	oneself	and	others.           Planning:	setting	of	achievable	goals	and	
    1.2   What is employability?                                                                                                                                                              structuring	action.

    	     The	term	employability	is	defined	in	different	ways.		For	the	purpose	of	this	composition	the	following	                                                                            Applying subject understanding: use	of	
                                                                                                                                    Core Skills
          definition	has	been	used:                                                                                                                                                           disciplinary	understanding.
                                                                                                                                    Reading effectiveness:	the	recognition	and	
          	      ‘Employability is composed of a set achievements, skills, understandings and personnel                                                                                       Coping with ambiguity and complexity: ability	
                                                                                                                                    retention	of	key	points.
                 attributes that makes graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their                                                                                    to	handle	ambiguous	and	complex	situations.
                 chosen occupations’ (Yorke and Knight, 2006).                                                                      Numeracy: ability	to	use	numbers	at	an	
                                                                                                                                                                                              Problem solving:	selection	and	use	of	
                                                                                                                                    appropriate	level	of	accuracy.
    	     It	should	be	remembered	that	employability	is	not	just	about	getting	a	job,	it’s	about	keeping	it.		It	is	                                                                          appropriate	methods	to	find	solutions.
          about	graduates	developing	malleable	skills	and	qualities	that	will	help	them	maximise	their	potential	in	                Information retrieval: ability	to	access	different	
                                                                                                                                                                                              Influencing:	convincing	others	of	the	validity	of	
          any	workplace	and	enable	them	to	realise	this	potential.		The	range	of	skills	required	in	the	workplace	                  sources.
                                                                                                                                                                                              one’s	point-of-view.
          is	 always	 changing	 due	 to	 multiple	 sets	 of	 complex	 laws	 (e.g.,	 supply	 and	 demand)	 impacting	 the	           Language skills:	possession	of	more	than	a	
          economy.		It	is	therefore	important	to	remember	that	terms,	such	as	knowledge	and	competency,	are	                                                                                  Resolving conflict: both	intra-personally	and	in	
                                                                                                                                    single	language.
          always	evolving	as	new	jobs	which	require	new	skills	and	abilities	are	created.		Therefore	you	must	                                                                                relationships	with	others.
                                                                                                                                    Self-management:	ability	to	work	in	an	efficient	
          adopt	the	same	flexibility	when	evaluating	our	own	employability.                                                                                                                   Decision making: choice	of	the	best	option	from	
                                                                                                                                    and	structured	manner.
                                                                                                                                                                                              a	range	of	alternatives.
                                                                                                                                    Critical analysis: ability	to	‘deconstruct’	a	
    1.3   The change in the market                                                                                                                                                            Negotiating:	discussion	to	achieve	mutually	
                                                                                                                                    problem	or	situation.
                                                                                                                                                                                              satisfactory	resolution	of	contentious	issues.
    	     The	employment	market	is	a	continually	changing	landscape.		The	graduates	of	the	University	of	Ulster	                    Creativity: ability	to	be	original	or	inventive	and	to	
          have	to	compete	more	than	ever	due	to	the	well	publicised	‘recession’	of	the	global	economy.		This	not	                                                                             Team work: can	work	constructively	with	others	
                                                                                                                                    apply	lateral	thinking.
          only	makes	it	harder	for	Psychology	graduates	but	for	all	graduates,	as	students	are	becoming	more	                                                                                 on	a	common	task.
                                                                                                                                    Listening: focused	attention	in	which	key	points	
          diverse,	overlapping	in	the	job	market	and	competing	on	the	same	fronts	more	so	than	ever	before.	    	
                                                                                                                                    are	recognised.
          The	nature	of	employment	is	also	changing	as	individuals	are	more	likely	to	be	employed	on	projects	
          or	temporary	contracts	compared	to	15	years	ago.		                                                                        Written communication:	clear	reports,	letters	
                                                                                                                                    etc	written	specifically	for	the	reader.
                                                                                                                                    Oral presentations:	clear	and	confident	
    1.4   Generic skills, attributes and qualities
                                                                                                                                    presentation	of	information	to	a	group.
    	     There	 are	 numerous	 competencies	 which	 employers	 look	 for	 when	 advertising	 a	 vacancy.	 	 Most	
                                                                                                                                    Explaining:	orally	and	in	writing
          undergraduate	degrees	will	develop	all	of	these,	some	more	than	others.		Some	generic	skills	acquired	
          by	University	graduates,	according	to	Knight	and	Yorke	and	Knight	(2006),	are	as	follows	(you	may	find	                   Global awareness: in	terms	of	both	cultures	and	
          this	list	useful	when	composing	your	C.V):                                                                                economics

4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5
    1     Careers and Employability

    1.5   Psychological skills, attributes and qualities                                                                             Ability to work in teams:
                                                                                                                                 	   This	 is	 much	 the	 same	 as	 outlined	 previously	 in	 respect	 of	 individual	 abilities.	 However,	 from	 an	
    	     During	 your	 psychology	 undergraduate	 career	 you	 have	 developed	 particular	 aptitudes	 specifically	
                                                                                                                                     employers	perspective,	it	may	also	incorporate	working	well	with	the	entire	work	force	of	that	particular	
          from	your	degree.		A	list	of	these	competencies	is:	(you	may	find	this	list	useful	when	composing	your	
    	     An interest in continuing education and willingness to learn: Interested	in	pursuing	educational	
                                                                                                                                     Cooperativeness	in	this	sense	should	not	be	confused	with	conformity,	but	rather	conducting	oneself	
          opportunities	 to	 keep	 abreast	 of	 new	 research	 and	 other	 developments	 in	 the	 field	 of	 psychology;	
                                                                                                                                     professionally	 with	 the	 company’s	 best	 interest	 in	 my	 mind,	 regardless	 of	 personal	 or	 department	
          commitment	to	ongoing	learning	to	meet	the	needs	of	employment	and	life.
    	     Emotional stability and intelligence:	Sensitivity	to	others’	emotions	and	the	effects	that	they	can	
                                                                                                                                     Desire and ability to learn:
          have	on	different	situations.		Individuals	high	in	emotional	competencies	are	reported	to	have	a	solid	
                                                                                                                                     The	continuing	desire	and	improve	ones	own	knowledge	is	a	very	attractive	quality	to	most	employers.
          emotional	foundation	and	the	ability	to	handle	stress	effectively	under	pressure.
                                                                                                                                     Willingness to gain new, important skills:
    		    Ethical	 sensitivity	 and	 acting	 morally:	 A	 solid	 ethical	 code	 and	 keeping	 consultation	 sessions	 with	
                                                                                                                                 	   This	may	appear	similar	to	the	previous	quality;	however	there	is	a	difference	in	application.	Willingness	
          patients	confidential.	Individuals	appreciate	ethical	aspects	of	employment	and	act	accordingly	within	
                                                                                                                                     to	gain	innovative	skills	within	the	work-place	coneys	commitment,	competiveness,	and	a	willingness	
          their	moral	code.
                                                                                                                                     to	provide	the	best	product/service	available,	thus	improving	the	business	as	a	whole.
    	     Knowledge of laws and regulations:	A	basic	familiarity	with	laws	and	regulations	that	exist	in	the	
                                                                                                                                     Focus on customers/clients:
          industry.		A	knowledge	of	how	to	work	in	the	industry,	professionally	within	the	boundaries	of	the	law.
                                                                                                                                     A	quality	that	may	not	necessary	be	obtained	through	your	undergraduate	career	without	some	sort	
    	     Research methodology/statistics:	The	ability	to	design,	conduct,	and	analyze	research	experiments	                         of	extra	training	(e.g.	employability	modules)	or	experience	(the	DIS/DAS	placement).		However,	the	
          and	studies.                                                                                                               ability	to	compassionately	and	humanistically	conduct	oneself	are	skills	that	most	undergraduates	will	
    	     Behaviour management: The	 ability	 to	 teach,	 supervise	 and	 manage	 behaviour	 through	 personal	                      be	aware	of.		Extending	this	towards	customers	or	clients	can	be	developed	through	postgraduate	
          skills	and	by	monitoring	and	manipulating	relevant	aspects	of	the	immediate	environment.                                   study	or	through	experience.

    	     High aptitudes of decision making and interpersonal skills: Competency	 beyond	 the	 levels	                               Interpersonal relationship skills:
          obtained	through	lesser	person	orientated	sciences.                                                                    	   Relating	and	working	positively	with	colleagues	are	desirable	qualities	sought	by	employers.		

    	     Higher-order analysis: The	ability	to	extract	general	principles	from	immediate	or	concrete	situations.	                   Adaptability to changing situations and environments:
          Psychology	graduates	tend	to	be	better	than	most	people	at	spotting	recurrent	patterns	or	similarities	                	   Employers	prefer	employees	who	can	fulfil	multiple	roles	within	the	company	and	work	in	a	multitude	
          between	situations,	and	at	looking	at	issues	in	terms	of	their	underlying	principles	rather	than	becoming	                 of	settings	without	unreasonably	compromising	performance.
          overwhelmed	with	the	details	of	the	immediate	situation.                                                                   Ability to suggest solutions and criticisms:
    	     Pragmatism:	The	ability	to	make	the	best	of	a	non-ideal	situation.	Psychology	students	know	that	the	                  	   It	is	still	important	to	interact	with	colleagues	in	a	way	that	the	best	possible	outcomes	can	be	achieved,	
          perfect	experiment	is	going	to	be	elusive	and	they	will	have	to	get	on	with	doing	it	as	well	as	possible.	                 whilst	maintaining	interpersonal	relationships	and	working	cooperatively.		This	will	usually	consist	of	a	
          As	graduates,	this	tends	to	give	them	a	pragmatic	orientation.                                                             number	of	employees	voicing	their	different	opinions.		More	significantly,	individuals	accept	criticisms	
                                                                                                                                     and	be	competent	enough	to	fully	execute	any	solutions	proposed	by	his	or	herself.
                                                                                                                                     Independent and team problem solving:
    1.6   Skills, attributes and qualities employers want/expect/value                                                               The	ability	to	solve	problems	on	multiple	fronts	has	been	suggested	in	most,	if	not	all,	required	or	
    	     Some	 of	 the	 most	 common	 aptitudes	 that	 employers	 of	 Psychology	 undergraduates	 are	 looking	                     desired	lists	of	skills	composed	by	researchers	and	employers.		Employers	and	Heads	of	Schools	will	
          for	 are	 outlined	 in	 this	 next	 section.	 	 You	 many	 find	 that	 some	 may	 overlap	 or	 in	 some	 cases	 are	       usually	claim	that	their	apprentices	have	attained	a	good	level	of	problem	solving.
          repeated,	however	it	is	important	too	consider	the	same	variable	from	the	employer’s	point-of-view.	               	
          For	example,	when	an	undergraduate	considers	him	or	herself	to	possess	good	levels	of	teamwork,	it	
          is	usually	in	terms	of	working	well	with	their	immediate	group	on	some	sort	of	group	project.		However,	
          an	 employer	 may	 expect	 a	 more	 evolved	 sense	 of	 teamwork	 which	 involves	 all	 the	 colleagues	 of	
          that	business	which	complies	with	the	views	and	aims	of	that	company.		A	study	by	Landrum	(2001)	
          revealed	 that	 the	 top	 10	 skills	 that	 are	 coveted	 by	 employers	 of	 psychology	 students	 are	 (many	 of	
          these	you	already	possess):
    	     Communication skills:	Communication	that	involves	both	written	and	oral	communication.		Corporate	
          businesses	 increasingly	 use	 the	 internet	 as	 an	 avenue	 of	 communication.	 	 Therefore,	 psychology	
          students	not	only	have	to	employ	their	communication	skills	but	combine	it	with	their	computer	literacy	

6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7
    2     Employability Statistics

    2.1   General UK Graduate Employment                                                                                     Occupation category                                                      % of leavers
    	     In	2007/08,	there	were	200,090	graduates	whose	destinations	were	known.	In	2007/08,	62%	(124,065)	                 Marketing,	Sales	and	Advertising	Professionals	                          4.1%
          were	in	employment,	8%	(15,265)	were	in	a	combination	of	work	and	study,	17%	(33,170)	were	involved	
                                                                                                                             Commercial,	Industrial	and	Public	Sector	Managers	                       7.5%
          in	further	study,	and	8%	(16,835)	were	unemployed.	Of	the	graduates	whose	destinations	were	known	
          and	reported	as	being	in	employment,	96%	(118,920)	were	employed	in	the	UK,	as	reported	by	the	                    Scientific	Research,	Analysis	and	Development	Professionals	             0.4%
          Higher	Education	Statistics	Agency	(HESA	2009).                                                                    Engineering	Professionals	                                               0.2%
                                                                                                                             Health	Professionals	and	Associate	Professionals	                        2.2%
    2.2   Employment in Psychology                                                                                           Education	Professionals	                                                 4.0%
    	     Approximately	 90%	 of	 Psychology	 graduates	 find	 employment	 within	 the	 first	 year	 of	 graduating.	        Business	and	Financial	Professionals	and	Associate	Professionals	        6.3%
          However,	30%	of	these	graduates	do	not	enter	graduate	track	employment.	Kingston	(2003)	reports	
          that	 only	 20%	 of	 Psychology	 graduates	 enter	 professional	 Psychology	 training.	 Therefore	 the	 vast	      Information	Technology	Professionals	                                    0.7%
          majority	 of	 Psychology	 graduates	 gain	 professional	 training	 in	 other	 related	 areas,	 a	 finding	 also	   Arts,	Design,	Culture,	Media	and	Sports	Professionals	                   1.6%
          reported	 by	 University	 of	 Ulster	 Psychology	 graduates	 (University	 of	 Ulster,	 Career	 Development	
          Centre,	2009).                                                                                                     Legal	Professionals	                                                     0.4%
                                                                                                                             Social	and	Welfare	Professionals	                                        13.0%

    2.3   Career Destinations of Past University of Ulster Students                                                          Other	Professionals,	Associate	Professional	and	Technical	Occupations	   3.8%

    	     University	of	Ulster	Psychology	graduates	have	a	strong	representation	in	other	occupational	categories,	          Numerical	Clerks	and	Cashiers	                                           2.8%
          such	as	nursing	and	special	education	in	2009.	Just	under	a	quarter	(22.7%)	of	our	graduates	who	were	             Other	Clerical	and	Secretarial	Occupations	                              17.4%
          employed	in	the	UK,	or	working	and	studying,	entered	these	types	of	jobs.	This,	perhaps,	reflects	the	
                                                                                                                             Retail,	Catering,	Waiting	and	Bar	Staff	                                 11.2%
          need	for	many	Psychology	graduates	to	gain	relevant	experience	prior	to	embarking	on	postgraduate	
          Psychology	study.	A	further	13.5%	of	Psychology	graduates	entered	social	and	welfare	related	work;	                Other	Occupations	                                                       24.3%
          again,	suggesting	a	desire	to	gain	experience	in	this	field	prior	to	embarking	on	further	training.	In	            Unknown	Occupations	                                                     0.1%
          addition,	7.6%	were	employed	as	commercial,	industrial	or	public	sector	managers.	Some	students	
          embarked	on	completely	different	career	paths,	13.5%	of	psychology	graduates	entered	into	social	
          work	and	8%	obtained	teaching	roles.

    2.4   Career Destinations of Psychology Undergraduates (UK)
    	     In	 2007/08,	 of	 the	 graduates	 who	 were	 employed	 in	 the	 UK	 30%	 of	 these	 posts	 were	 classified	
          as	 Associate	 professional	 &	 technical	 occupations,	 27%	 as	 Professional	 occupations,	 12%	 as	
          Administrative	&	secretarial	occupations,	and	11%	as	Sales	&	customer	service	occupations.	These	
          are	 the	 occupational	 groups	 with	 the	 highest	 proportions	 of	 responses.	 Unemployment	 rates	 for	
          degree	graduates	whose	destinations	were	known	varied	between	subjects,	ranging	from	those	which	
          have	traditionally	low	rates	of	unemployment,	such	as	Medicine	&	dentistry	0%	and	Education	3%,	to	
          12%	for	Mass	communications	&	documentation	and	14%	for	Computer	science	(HESA	2009).	

    2.5   Long Term Employability
    	     The	 long-term	 employability	 of	 Psychology	 graduates	 was	 assessed	 in	 a	 longitudinal	 study	 by	 the	
          Higher	Education	Statistics	Agency	using	a	sample	of	graduates	in	2005.	The	follow-up	study	revealed	
          a	vast	array	of	occupations:

8                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9
     3     Services Available

     3.1   The Careers Development Centre and the Personal Development System                                              There	 is	 no	 single	 perfect	 way	 to	 write	 a	 CV,	 but	 there	 are	 general	 rules	 and	 principles	 which	 you	
                                                                                                                           should	 follow.	 One	 size	 does	 not	 fit	 all,	 so	 tailor	 your	 CV	 to	 each	 application.	 You	 will	 use	 most	 of	
     a     The Careers Development Centre (CDC)
                                                                                                                           the	information	on	more	than	one	occasion,	but	you	will	rarely	use	exactly	the	same	CV	twice.	In	any	
     	     The	Coleraine	campus’s	CDC	is	located	on	the	second	floor	(near	the	LRC)	in	room	H214	or	in	room	               case,	 you	 will	 be	 constantly	 updating	 your	 CV,	 adding	 new	 work	 experience,	 recent	 qualifications,	
           MF226E	in	the	Magee	campus	(in	top	floor	of	the	building	to	the	left	of	the	main	building).	The	CDC	            courses,	conferences	or	publications.	You	can	judge	the	effectiveness	and	relevance	of	your	CV	by	
           offers	support	information	and	guidance	to	graduates	up	to	three	years	following	graduation.	The	CDC	           summarising	what	you	have	to	offer	a	particular	employer	in	two	or	three	sentences.	A	careers	adviser	
           offers	a	range	of	services	and	advice	on	a	wide	range	of	career	related	topics	including	postgraduate	          from	the	CDC	will	be	able	to	help	you	identify	your	skills	and	relevant	experience.
           study.	A	full	list	of	all	the	services	provided	by	the	CDC	can	be	found	at
                                                                                                                       b   The Layout
                                                                                                                       	   Employers	will	find	it	quick	and	easy	to	gather	information	about	you	if	your	CV	presents	pertinent	
     b     The Personal Development System (PDS)
                                                                                                                           information	in	a	logical	format.
     	     The	PDS	is	a	online	resource	tool	for	students	of	the	University	of	Ulster.	Through	this	interactive	web	
                                                                                                                       	   These	sections	should	be	included	in	all	CVs
           based	tool	students	can:
                                                                                                                           •	     personal	information	
           •	    Build	an	online	portfolio	of	their	skills	and	experiences.	This	portfolio	can	be	shared	with	other	
                 parties	(e.g.	potential	employers).                                                                       •	     career	goal	or	personal	profile	
           •	    Discover	opportunities	to	develop	their	skills.                                                           •	     education	and	qualifications	
           •	    Set	goals	and	action	plans.                                                                               •	     employment	and	work	experience	
           •	    Build	CV’s                                                                                                •	     achievements	
           •	    Communicate	with	their	programme	team.                                                                    •	     skills	
                                                                                                                           •	     interests	and	activities
     	     Details	of	the	PDS	resource	can	be	found	at	
                                                                                                                           •	     referees
                                                                                                                       	   Also,	if	you	have	sufficient	information,	and	if	they	are	relevant	to	the	position,	you	can	include	the	
     3.2   Employability Modules at Ulster                                                                                 following	sections	(after	skills	and	before	referees).
     	     To	augment	the	many	skills	obtained	throughout	undergraduate	study,	students	can	also	take	modules	             •	     awards/prizes	
           (usually	worth	10	credit	points)	to	enhance	their	employability	prospects.	Such	modules	in	Personal	
                                                                                                                           •	     publications	
           and	Professional	Development	include:
                                                                                                                           •	     languages	
           •	    Work	Experience	
                                                                                                                           •	     professional	organisations	
           •	    Class	Representation
                                                                                                                           •	     other	information	
           •	    Exploring	Your	Career	Options
                                                                                                                       	   Once	you	have	completed	your	CV	you	should	be	able	to	compare	it	favourably	against	this	checklist:
           •	    Developing	Your	Employability	Skills
           •	    Career	Progression	Skills                                                                                 •	     Name	at	the	head	of	the	page	(There	is	no	need	to	write	‘Curriculum	vitae’,	it	should	be	obvious	
                                                                                                                                  what	the	document	is).
           •	    Communication	&	Career	Management	Skills
                                                                                                                           •	     Information	is	accurate	and	truthful.	
     	     For	a	full	list	of	the	additional	modules	which	can	aid	your	career	prospects	please	contact	the	CDC	
                                                                                                                           •	     CV	is	tailored	to	the	job.	
           or	visit
                                                                                                                           •	     Important	facts	are	prioritised	and	the	most	important	supporting	evidence	is	prominent.	
                                                                                                                           •	     It	fits	on	two	pages	(This	is	the	length	that	employers	prefer).
     3.3   CV Building and Cover Letters                                                                                   •	     It	is	clear,	easy	to	read	and	pleasing	to	the	eye.	
     a     What to include                                                                                                 •	     It	creates	the	right	impression	(Use	good	quality	neutral	coloured	paper	and	don’t	fold	or	staple	
     	     A	CV	is	the	primary	means	of	submitting	an	application	to	an	employer.	A	CV	is	also	used	to	apply	                     it).	
           for	placements	and	for	some	postgraduate	courses.	A	CV	is	often	your	first	chance	to	make	a	good	               •	     It	only	includes	relevant	information	that	supports	the	application.	
           impression.	A	focused,	well	presented	CV	will	grab	the	reader’s	attention	and	help	your	application	            •	     It	demonstrates	relevant	skills,	both	transferable	and	subject	related.	
           stand	out.	A	poor	CV	could	mean	no	interview	and	no	further	opportunity	to	impress.	The	purpose	                •	     It	gives	evidence	for	every	claim	made.	
           of	a	CV	is	to	convince	a	potential	employer	that	your	qualifications,	skills	and	experience	make	you	
                                                                                                                           •	     The	CV	is	interesting	to	read,	and	flows	in	a	logical	order.	
           suitable	for	a	particular	job.	It	should	inform	but	also	persuade.	Unlike	an	application	form,	you	can	
           decide	what	to	include	in	your	CV	and	therefore	select	and	highlight	the	most	pertinent	information.	           •	     The	spelling	and	grammar	are	correct	and	have	been	double	checked.	
                                                                                                                           •	     There	are	no	typos.	

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           •	    Someone	else	has	checked	for	errors.	                                                                      to	follow	which	will	aid	performance	at	any	interview.	Your	interview	may	feature	one	or	more	types	of	
           •	    Includes	a	covering	letter	which	draws	attention	to	the	impressive	and	relevant	information	in	            question	or	activity.	Preparation	is	vital	if	you	have	to	sit	a	test	or	give	a	presentation,	but	you	can	also	
                 the	CV	(Be	aware,	however,	that	some	companies	will	only	circulate	your	CV,	so	ensure	all	the	             think	in	advance	about	some	of	the	questions	you	might	be	asked	and	how	you	might	answer	them.
                 information	appears	in	the	CV).	

                                                                                                                        b   Types of Interviews and Questions
     c     Do’s and Don’ts
                                                                                                                        	   There	are	many	different	types	of	interviews	such	as:
     	     While	you	are	expected	to	put	‘spin’	on	your	CV,	demonstrating	your	experiences	by	using	positive	
                                                                                                                            •	    A	one-to-one	interview	takes	place	between	the	candidate	and	the	interviewer.	Although	it	can	
           language,	you	are	not	expected	to	include	anything	which	is	deliberately	untrue.	Employers	want	to	
                                                                                                                                  be	relatively	informal,	it	is	best	to	assume	that	it	will	be	formal,	therefore	necessary	to	act	and	
           receive	legible,	clearly	presented	CVs,	demonstrating	care,	endeavour	and	attention	to	detail.	The	way	
                                                                                                                                  dress	accordingly.	In	any	case	it	will	be	more	than	a	casual	conversation,	so	prepare	thoroughly	
           in	which	you	present	your	CV	may	make	the	difference	between	an	employer	reading	it	thoroughly	or	
                                                                                                                                  and	do	your	research.
           not	at	all,	e.g.,	make	sure	you	have	checked	your	spelling	and	grammar.	Using	appropriate	language	
           and	writing	styles	in	your	CV	will	make	it	easy	for	employers	to	understand	the	information	you	send	            •	    First	interviews	can	take	place	face-to-face	or	can	be	conducted	over	the	telephone.	A	recruiting	
           them.	It	will	also	help	create	a	good	first	impression	and	display	effective	communication	skills.	There	              agency	or	occupational	consultant	may	handle	this	stage	on	the	employer’s	behalf.	These	types	
           is	no	right	or	wrong	stylistic	approach	to	use	when	writing	your	CV.	The	only	essential	rule	is	to	be	                 of	interviews	are	usually	structured	and	will	often	comprise	of	general	work	related	questions.
           consistent.	Choose	one	style	of	writing	and	stick	to	it.	Many	individuals	begin	writing	in	one	way	and	          •	    A	 second	 interview	 will	 establish	 which	 candidates,	 successful	 at	 the	 first,	 stage	 have	 the	
           then	switch	to	another.	As	a	result,	the	CV	does	not	read	well	and	may	be	confusing.	Employers	will	                   skills	and	qualities	needed	for	the	job.	Some	second	interviews	are	conducted	by	telephone.	
           only	make	so	much	effort	to	understand	what	you	are	telling	them.	Positive,	active	language	will	grab	                 However,	most	second	interviews	are	the	final	and	more	formal	interview,	and	therefore	held	
           the	reader’s	attention	and	send	a	strong	message	about	you	and	your	capabilities.	Action	verbs	or	                     face-to-face.	
           power	words	will	help	you	explain	what	you	actually	did	in	any	situation	you	give	as	an	example	in	your	         •	    Some	 interviews	 involve	 a	 panel	 of	 assessors.	 This	 may	 seem	 daunting,	 but	 think	 of	 the	
           CV.	Using	power	words	to	begin	sentences	about	your	achievements	can	also	encourage	you	to	think	                      advantages.	It	may	be	easier	and	fairer	than	a	one-to-one	interview.	The	decision	doesn’t	rest	
           positively	about	what	you	have	done	and	can	do	in	the	future.	                                                         with	one	person.	You	have	a	variety	of	people	to	talk	to	and	make	eye-contact	with.	You	should	
     	     Targeting	your	CV	to	the	job	and	organisation	will	quickly	show	employers	that	you	have	what	they	are	                 be	told	in	advance,	or	on	the	day,	who	is	on	the	panel	and	their	area	of	responsibility.	
           looking	for	and	therefore	increase	your	chances	of	being	invited	to	an	interview.	Every	CV	you	write	            •	    Competency-based	interviews	are	focused	on	specific	competencies	which	employers	seek.	
           should	be	targeted	to	a	specific	job	or	organisation,	but	the	format	can	also	vary	according	to	your	                  Research	suggests	that	structured	competency-based	interviews	can	be	one	of	the	most	reliable	
           own	circumstances	and	experience.	You	can	choose	the	most	suitable	from	a	range	of	typical	CV,	                        and	accurate	forms	of	assessing	a	candidate.	Most	interviews	are	competency-based	to	some	
           types	according	to	your	purpose	on	each	occasion.                                                                      extent,	 but	 some	 are	 more	 formal	 than	 others.	 Employers	 will	 outline	 their	 key	 competency	
                                                                                                                                  requirements	in	your	interview	letter	or	direct	you	to	a	web	link.	You	can	expect	a	list	of	six	to	
                                                                                                                                  eight	key	competencies.	On	the	basis	that	past	behaviour	is	a	good	indicator	of	future	behaviour,	
     d     Cover Letters                                                                                                          employers	will	ask	you	to	demonstrate	these	competencies	by	relating	your	experience.	
     	     Employers	increasingly	want	CVs	to	be	accompanied	by	a	covering	letter,	and	your	letter	can	be	a	
           major	determinant	of	whether	you	proceed	to	the	next	recruitment	stage.	It	should	help	an	employer	to	       	   There	is	also	a	range	from	questions	which	interviewers	may	ask:
           decide	how	suitable	you	are	for	a	particular	job	and	persuade	them	to	read	your	CV.	By	demonstrating	
           your	career	interests	 and	highlighting	 your	most	relevant	 strengths	and	 experiences,	 a	well	 written	       •	    Most	interview	questions	will	be	open	for	you	to	answer	in	the	way	you	think	best.	Usually,	there	
           letter	can	say	a	lot	about	your	professionalism	as	well	as	how	you	match	the	requirements	of	the	post.                 are	no	right	or	wrong	answers.	Try	to	give	focused,	relevant	answers	supported	with	evidence	
                                                                                                                                  and	 examples	 of	 your	 skills	 and	 experiences.	 Employers	 rarely	 invite	 candidates	 to	 tell	 them	
                                                                                                                                  everything	 they	 know	 about	 something,	 so	 be	 specific.	 If	 you	 don’t	 understand	 a	 question,	
     3.4   Interview Skills                                                                                                       you	can	ask	the	interviewer	to	repeat	it	or	explain	it	further.	Or	you	may	repeat	it	in	your	own	
                                                                                                                                  words	to	ensure	that	you	have	understood	it	correctly.	In	both	cases	you	will	have	bought	some	
     	     Interviews	are	a	two-way	process.	They	are	an	opportunity	for	employers	to	find	out	more	about	you,	                   thinking	time.	Try	to	answer	what	is	asked	of	you,	not	what	you	wanted	to	be	asked.
           and	for	you	to	find	out	more	about	them.	If	you	have	been	invited	to	an	interview	then	your	application	
                                                                                                                            •	    Presentations	test	a	number	of	skills,	including	planning,	organisation,	and	communication,	as	
           has	been	effective,	and	you	now	have	the	chance	to	talk	directly	to	your	prospective	employers	or	their	
                                                                                                                                  well	 as	 your	 impact	 on	 an	 audience.	 Presentations	 are	 common	 at	 assessment	 centres	 and	
           agents.	Not	all	interviews	will	be	successful,	but	the	experience	will	be	useful	in	helping	you	prepare	
                                                                                                                                  sometimes	feature	as	part	of	the	interview	process.	Presentations	make	many	people	nervous,	
           for	future	applications.
                                                                                                                                  but	interviewers	will	expect	this.	The	adrenaline	which	comes	with	nerves	can	also	prompt	you	
                                                                                                                                  to	give	an	effective	performance	and	stop	you	looking	overly	relaxed	and	casual.	Remember,	
     a     Preparation                                                                                                            that	 this	 is	 the	 one	 time	 when	 you	 control	 the	 proceedings.	 You	 could	 be	 asked	 to	 prepare	
                                                                                                                                  a	 presentation	 on	 a	 specified	 topic,	 or	 one	 of	 your	 choice.	 You	 may	 be	 given	 material	 or	 a	
     	     A	successful	interviewee	demonstrates	planning,	focus	and	enthusiasm.	Researching	the	position	and	                    topic	in	advance	of	your	presentation,	to	focus	your	preparation.	At	an	assessment	centre	you	
           the	company,	and	thinking	in	advance	about	possible	questions	and	answers,	will	help	prepare	you	to	                   might	be	expected	to	conduct	a	presentation	based	on	material	you	are	given	on	the	day.	The	
           perform	well	in	any	interview.	Interview	types	vary	according	to	the	nature	of	the	post,	the	recruitment	              lengths	of	presentations	vary,	but	you	can	expect	to	talk	for	five	to	fifteen	minutes	before	taking	
           stage,	and	the	organisation.	However,	there	are	some	standard	formats,	and	some	basic	principles	

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                  questions	from	the	audience.	This	may	sound	like	a	long	time	but	you	will	be	surprised	how	                       a     Preparation
                  quickly	it	can	go.	Your	presentation	may	be	watched	by	one	or	more	interviewers	or	assessors,	
                                                                                                                                    	     The	key	to	a	successful	application	form	is	preparation.	It	involves	effort,	practice,	reflection,	and	a	
                  and	sometimes	by	staff	related	to	the	post	or	the	department	where	you	will	be	working.	Other	
                                                                                                                                          good	understanding	of	sources	of	information	and	how	to	find	and	use	them.	Preparation	is	the	most	
                  candidates	may	also	watch,	but	this	is	less	common.	Knowing	your	audience	is	important	for	
                                                                                                                                          effective	way	of	doing	yourself	justice	in	your	application	form.	The	level	of	detail	employers	provide	
                  designing	your	content	and	for	anticipating	questions,	so	try	to	find	out	in	advance	who’ll	be	
                                                                                                                                          will	vary.	Public	sector	organisations	often	have	lengthy	job	descriptions	and	person	specifications,	
                  there.	Questions	test	not	only	your	knowledge,	but	also	how	well	you	communicate	information,	
                                                                                                                                          while	private	sector	companies	may	set	out	fewer	criteria.	If	you	are	sent	both	a	job	description	and	
                  think	on	your	feet,	and	react	under	pressure.
                                                                                                                                          a	 person	 specification,	 use	 the	 latter	 as	 the	 basis	 for	 targeting	 your	 form.	 Specifications	 are	 often	
           •	     As	Psychologists	you	are	well	aware	that	some	employers	administer	personality	assessments	                             divided	into	essential	(must	have)	and	desirable	(would	like	you	to	have)	criteria.	The	desirable	criteria	
                  in	the	selection	process.	Personality	assessments	also	occasionally	feature	in	the	recruitment	                         will	be	used	to	narrow	down	a	strong	field	if	a	large	number	of	applicants	meet	the	essential	criteria.	
                  process.	 They	 are	 not	 used	 in	 isolation	 but	 as	 part	 of	 the	 wider	 picture	 of	 evidence	 that	 the	         It	 is	 therefore	 important	 to	 state	 clearly	 if	 you	 meet	 some	 or	 all	 of	 the	 desirable	 criteria	 as	 well	 as	
                  employer	collects	about	you.	Assessments	reveal	information	about	how	you	would	behave	in	a	                            demonstrating	with	evidence	and	examples	how	you	meet	the	essential	criteria.	For	every	candidate	
                  given	situation.	Although	assessors	are	not	looking	for	a	specific	profile,	certain	characteristics	                    that	submits	an	un-researched	application,	there	will	be	many	more	that	send	a	better	one.	Not	doing	
                  will	be	more	or	less	appropriate	for	a	particular	job	or	organisation.	There	are	no	right	or	wrong	                     any	research	will	therefore	put	you	at	a	distinct	disadvantage.	Submitting	an	application	form	when	
                  answers,	and	you	cannot	pass	or	fail.		Employers	may	use	your	results	as	a	starting	point	for	                          you	have	not	researched	the	job	you	are	applying	for	is	like	sending	in	a	note	saying	‘I	am	not	really	
                  discussing	your	experiences	and	interests	in	an	interview,	to	determine	how	you	would	fit	with	                         bothered	whether	I	get	this	job	or	not’.	It	will	be	obvious	to	employers	if	you	have	not	researched	the	
                  the	post	they	are	offering.	                                                                                            job	and	they	will	not	look	on	your	application	favourably.	
           •	     As	 Psychologists	 you	 are	 well	 aware	 that	 some	 employers	 administer	 psychometric	 tests	 in	
                  the	 selection	 process.	 Employers	 are	 using	 psychometric	 tests	 more	 frequently	 to	 assess	
                  candidates’	abilities	and	aptitudes	in	certain	areas.	The	results	are	presented	in	a	standardised	                b     Application Forms
                  way,	which	helps	employers	make	accurate	and	objective	comparisons	between	you	and	other	                         	     Application	 forms	 are	 widely	 used	 in	 response	 to	 advertised	 vacancies	 or	 for	 entry	 to	 graduate	
                  candidates.	 Approximately	 75%	 of	 medium	 to	 large	 employers	 and	 95%	 of	 FTSE	 Top	 100	                        training	schemes.	They	allow	employers	to	decide	what	they	want	to	find	out	about	applicants	and	to	
                  companies	 use	 psychometric	 testing	 for	 selection.	 For	 graduate	 level	 recruitment,	 the	 most	                  obtain	comparable	information	for	each	candidate.	For	example,	employers	may	use	standard	forms	
                  common	tests	are	verbal,	numerical	and	abstract	reasoning	(including	diagrammatic).	The	tests	                          composed	by	recruitment	agencies,	or	employer	specific	forms	which	will	be	very	specific	in	terms	of	
                  vary	from	one	company	to	another	and	will	usually	be	carefully	constructed	to	test	skills	that	are	                     what	the	employer	is	looking	for.	As	well	as	different	types	of	application	form,	there	are	also	different	
                  relevant	to	a	particular	job	or	working	environment.                                                                    types	of	question.	You	may	worry	about	answering	the	longer	more	complex	questions	the	most,	such	
                                                                                                                                          as	‘Why	have	you	applied	for	this	job?’	But	it	is	important	to	get	the	basic	information	right	as	well.	
     c     The Interview                                                                                                                  Most	forms	will	ask	for	your	educational	qualifications	in	reverse	chronological	order,	so	you	should	
                                                                                                                                          start	with	your	current	degree.	If	you	have	yet	to	complete	your	course,	put	the	date	you	are	hoping	
     	     You	have	reached	the	interview	stage.	The	organisation	is	interested	in	you	and	considers	you	able	to	                         to	finish	and	the	grade/award	you	realistically	expect	to	achieve.	Your	personal	information	must	be	
           do	the	job	or	complete	the	course.	You	have	made	a	good	impression	in	your	application	or	telephone	                           accurate.	For	example,	your	name	should	appear	as	it	does	on	your	birth	certificate	(unless	you	have	
           interview.	Final	preparations	for	the	‘big	day’	will	help	you	feel	confident	and	in	control,	and	encourage	                    legally	 changed	 it),	 even	 if	 you	 are	 known	 by	 another	 one.	 You	 may	 feel	 uncomfortable	 answering	
           interviewers	to	look	favourably	on	you.	There	a	few	things	you	must	do	at	an	interview:                                        certain	 personal	 questions,	 but	 not	 only	 are	 honest	 answers	 essential,	 they	 will	 often	 work	 in	 your	
           •	     Present	yourself	professionally                                                                                         favour.	 The	 work	 experience	 or	 employment	 history	 section	 of	 an	 application	 form	 should	 usually	
                                                                                                                                          include	 details	 of	 your	 paid	 and	 unpaid	 work.	 It	 is	 an	 important	 section	 in	 any	 application	 form	 as	
           •	     Be	early
                                                                                                                                          it	 says	much	 about	 you.	 List	your	 jobs	 in	 reverse	 chronological	 order,	starting	 with	 your	current	 or	
           •	     Ask	questions	and	listen                                                                                                most	recent	post.	There	is	no	need	to	list	every	single	temporary	or	part	time	job,	unless	told	to	do	
     	     Thinking	about	recruitment	and	interviews	from	an	employer’s	perspective	will	help	you	to	give	them	                           so,	especially	if	they	were	all	in	the	same	field.	As	with	any	other	part	of	an	application,	it	is	essential	
           what	they	are	looking	for.	Typically	employers	want	to	know	three	things:	that	you	can	do	the	job,	that	                       to	 read	 the	 information	 given	 to	 you.	 Give	 each	 employer	 what	 they	 want,	 and	 demonstrate	 in	 the	
           you	will	do	the	job,	and	that	you	will	fit	into	the	team	or	department.	Employers	will	interview	more	                         process	that	you	can	follow	instructions	and	pay	attention	to	detail.	For	example	employers	may	want	
           people	than	there	are	vacancies,	so	they	inevitably	have	to	reject	some	candidates.	Even	the	most	                             you	to	send	more	than	one	copy,	use	capitals,	black	ink	etc.
           experienced	people	face	rejection	at	the	application	stage	or	at	interview.	The	important	thing	is	to	
           learn	from	the	experience	and	to	look	forward	positively.
                                                                                                                                    3.6   Assessment Centres
                                                                                                                                    	     Most	 large	 scale	 graduate	 employers	 use	 assessment	 centres	 as	 a	 fundamental	 element	 of	 their	
     3.5   Job Applications                                                                                                               recruitment	 process.	 An	 assessment	 centre	 is	 a	 detailed	 examination	 of	 your	 suitability	 for	 a	 job,	
     	     Application	 forms	 are	 widely	 used	 to	 recruit	 staff.	 They	 are	 also	 used	 by	 universities	 to	 recruit	 to	          carried	out	over	half-a-day	to	two	days.	Many	smaller	and	medium	sized	employers	also	use	some	
           postgraduate	courses.	Ultimately,	the	purpose	of	an	application	form	is	to	get	you	an	interview,	whether	                      assessment	or	selection	exercises	within	their	decision	making	process	to	assist	them	in	selecting	
           for	a	job	or	a	course.	Your	application	form	will	often	be	your	first	point	of	contact	with	an	employer	                       the	most	suitable	candidates.	For	you,	the	candidate,	success	at	this	stage	of	the	process	is	critical	to	
           and	it	is	vital	that	you	make	a	good	impression.	Understanding	the	types	of	form	and	question	that	you	                        being	offered	the	job.	Knowing	what	happens	at	assessment	centres,	and	why,	will	help	you	feel	well	
           are	likely	to	encounter,	and	how	you	might	go	about	filling	in	and	answering	them,	will	help	you	make	                         prepared	and	confident	on	the	day.
           accurate	and	effective	applications	which	stand	out.

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     a     What To Expect                                                                                                          4.1   Further Study
     	     If	you	have	been	invited	to	an	assessment	centre,	that	is	very	good	news.	It	means	that	the	employer	                   	     In	many	cases	regardless	if	it	is	a	career	in	professional	Psychology	or	another	field	most	high	profile	
           likes	what	they	have	seen	so	far	and	wants	to	find	out	more	about	you	and	what	you	have	to	offer.	                            occupations	 will	 require	 a	 postgraduate	 level	 qualification.	 In	 these	 instances	 it	 would	 be	 best	 to	
           Understanding	what	assessment	centres	are,	how	employers	use	them,	and	what	they	might	involve,	                              research	the	required	job	specifications	of	these	roles	(see	Section	5	&	6).	Deciding	what	career	is	for	
           will	help	you	perform	at	your	best.	An	assessment	centre	is	not	a	place.	It	is	a	process	designed	to	                         you	will	determine	what	postgraduate	course	you	enroll	for.	Also,	if	you	find	that	the	chosen	career	you	
           assess	whether	candidates	have	the	skills	required	for	a	job	and	the	future	potential	the	organisation	                       wish	to	pursue	is	unattainable	through	the	current	paths	open	to	you,	contact	the	CDC	as	there	are	
           is	looking	for.	It	comprises	a	range	of	activities	or	simulations	designed	to	tests	these	factors.	Some	                      usually	many	options	available.	For	example,	if	you	wish	to	teach	it	is	usual	that	to	enroll	on	a	PGCE	
           elements	 may	 replicate	 the	 tasks	 and	 demands	 of	 a	 particular	 job.	 An	 invitation	 to	 an	 assessment	              you	will	need	another	subject	with	Psychology	in	Northern	Ireland.	A	careers	advisor	can	advise	what	
           centre	 can	 seem	 daunting.	 However,	 while	 you	 will	 never	 know	 the	 actual	 content	 of	 the	 tests	 in	              options	to	take	and	usually	a	compromise	can	be	met,	such	as	completing	a	year	of	study	in	another	
           advance,	there	is	much	that	you	can	do	to	prepare	yourself	for	the	event.	Some	thorough	research	and	                         subject	such	as	English	or	completing	a	work	placement	scheme.	There	are	many	options	available	if	
           some	targeted	practice	will	help	you	to	feel	confident	that	you	can	do	your	best	on	the	day.                                  you	want	to	pursue	further	study	after	graduation.	Any	postgraduate	course	will	bring	with	it	benefits	
                                                                                                                                         and	costs.	Some	of	these	will	be	apparent,	but	others	will	be	less	obvious,	or	perhaps	not	quite	what	
                                                                                                                                         you	imagined.	A	clear	understanding	of	what	postgraduate	study	offers	will	put	you	in	a	good	position	
     b     Individual and Group Activities                                                                                               to	choose	wisely	and	get	the	most	out	of	your	investment.		Exploring	the	range	of	course	types	that	
     	     Assessment	centres	typically	include	a	number	of	selection	tests	and	exercises	that	you	will	do	on	                           are	open	to	you,	including	vocational	and	non-vocational	courses,	can	be	both	exciting	and	confusing,	
           your	own,	rather	than	as	part	of	a	group.	These	include	psychometric	tests,	in-tray	or	e-tray	exercises,	                     but	it	will	always	be	worthwhile.	There	are	many	methods	of	searching	for	a	postgraduate	course	such	
           presentations,	 written	 tests,	 role	 plays	 and	 interviews.	 Knowing	 what	 is	 involved	 in	 each	 of	 these	             as	visiting	your	CDC	or	online.
           exercises,	 and	 what	 employers	 are	 looking	 for,	 will	 help	 you	 approach	 them	 effectively.	 You	 may	
           be	able	to	find	out	by	conducting	a	bit	of	research	what	past	assessment	centres	involved	or	even	
                                                                                                                                   4.2   Employment/Work Experience
           what	activities	are	scheduled	for	your	assessment	day.	Working	as	part	of	a	team	or	group	is	a	major	
           element	of	many	graduate	roles,	and	employers	often	consider	it	a	vital	skill	for	potential	recruits	to	                	     In	 an	 increasingly	 competitive	 job	 market,	 work	 experience	 can	 make	 a	 vital	 addition	 to	 your	 CV.	
           demonstrate.	 An	 important	 element	 of	 most	 assessment	 centres	 is	 one	 or	 more	 group	 exercises,	                    Indeed	in	some	areas	of	employment	it	is	a	necessity.	Work	experience	offers	you	an	opportunity	to	
           where	 you	 and	 the	 other	 candidates	 work	 together	 to	 solve	 a	 problem,	 meet	 a	 challenge,	 or	 work	               develop	your	employability	skills	and	to	gain	valuable	insight	into	potential	areas	of	future	employment.	
           through	a	situation	relevant	to	the	organisation	and	make	some	recommendations.                                               In	many	cases	it	may	be	necessary	for	you	to	gain	some	work	experience	before	you	can	enroll	in	
                                                                                                                                         your	 postgraduate	 degree.	 When	 making	 a	 choice	 of	 what	 to	 do	 next	 after	 your	 degree,	 it	 may	 be	
                                                                                                                                         useful	 to	search	for	employment	 which	 can	better	 prepare	 you	 for	your	desired	 career	 path.	 Many	
     3.7   Placement (DIS)                                                                                                               Psychology	graduates	do	not	enter	into	professional	Psychology,	and	many	graduates	claim	that	a	
     	     Students	who	are	transferring	from	second	to	final	year	have	the	opportunity	to	enrol	in	the	Diploma	                         break	from	study	is	what	they	need.	By	following	the	sections	carefully	in	previous	chapters	you	can	
           in	 Industrial	 Studies	 (DIS)	 in	 order	 to	 prepare	 them	 for	 the	 rigours	 of	 working	 life	 when	 the	 leave	         better	prepare	yourself	for	the	world-of-work.	However,	if	you	wish	to	pursue	a	different	career	path	
           university.	 Students	 are	 placed	 in	 a	 working	 environment	 for	 between	 10	 –	 16	 months,	 which	 may	                (see	Section	6)	it	may	be	best	to	do	more	research	before	committing	yourself	to	one	career	path.	
           be	paid	or	unpaid,	subject	to	availability.	Students	who	successfully	complete	the	DIS	are	rewarded	                          Many	graduates	claim	that	they	are	unsure	what	career	they	want	for	themselves,	and	in	these	cases	
           with	 a	 Diploma	 in	 Industrial	 Studies,	 in	 addition	 to	 their	 Honours	 degree	 at	 graduation.	 Students	              it	is	perfectly	natural	for	an	individual	to	enter	into	employment	for	a	period	of	time	before	deciding	
           who	complete	the	DIS	have	often	reported	it	as	a	very	positive	experience.	If	you	are	interested	in	                          what	to	do.
           completing	a	placement	year	and	would	like	to	know	more,	please	contact	Dr.	David	Shaw	or	Dr.	Liz	

     3.8   School of Psychology (University of Ulster)
     	     Coinciding	with	the	DIS	placement,	PSY334	offers	classes	aimed	at	enhancing	employability.	These	
           classes	involve	lectures	and	workshops	on	topics	such	as	CV	writing,	interview	training,	skills	auditing,	
     	     Over	the	last	three	years,	the	School	of	Psychology	in	conjunction	with	CDC	have	offered	a	customised	
           ‘Exploring	 your	 Career	 Options’	 module	 to	 final	 year	 students	 on	 the	 Coleraine	 campus.	 Invited	
           speakers,	representing	the	popular	psychology	(see	Section	5)	and	non-psychology	(see	Section	6)	
           professions,	deliver	talks	outlining	the	courses	available,	course	selection,	training	requirements,	day-
           to-day	work	activities,	etc	and	take	questions	from	attending	students.

16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17
     5     Psychology Careers

     5.1   Clinical Psychology                                                                                                         •	     Band	 8	 roles	 apply	 to	 senior	 experienced	 psychologists,	 possibly	 managing	 departments	 or	
                                                                                                                                              large	specialist	sections	with	responsibility	for	the	psychology	service	and	its	staff.	Salaries	in	
     a     Job Description
                                                                                                                                              these	posts	can	be	in	excess	of	£80,000.
     	     Clinical	psychologists	aim	to	decrease	the	stress	and	enhance	the	psychological	well-being	of	clients.	                     •	     A	London	allowance	is	payable	in	the	NHS.	
           They	 use	 psychological	 methods	 and	 research	 to	 make	 changes	 to	 their	 clients’	 lives	 via	 various	
                                                                                                                                       •	     Salaries	in	private	hospitals	and	private	practice	vary.	
           forms	 of	 treatment.	 Clinical	 psychologists	 frequently	 collaborate	 with	 other	 professionals	 in	 multi-
           disciplinary	teams	in	order	to	tackle	patient	problems.	Clinical	psychologists	work	with	clients	of	all	                    •	     Working	hours	are	generally	nine	to	five,	with	the	possibility	of	extra	hours	in	the	evenings	or	
           ages	on	a	range	of	mental	or	physical	health	problems	including:                                                                   weekends.	Occasionally,	an	on-call	system	covering	emergency	situations	may	be	in	operation.	
                                                                                                                                       •	     Self-employment/freelance	work	is	often	possible.	Opportunities	for	private	or	clinical	practice,	
           •	     depression	and	schizophrenia;	
                                                                                                                                              and	for	industrial	or	commercial	consultancy,	are	growing.	
           •	     adjustment	to	physical	illness;	
                                                                                                                                       •	     In	2008,	82%	of	new	entrants	to	the	profession	were	female,	with	a	slightly	smaller	proportion	
           •	     neurological	disorders;	                                                                                                    within	the	profession	as	a	whole.	This	reflects	the	gender	ratio	of	students	taking	first	degrees	
           •	     addictive	behaviours;	                                                                                                      in	psychology.	
           •	     challenging	behaviours;	                                                                                             •	     Jobs	are	available	in	most	large	towns	and	cities,	with	fewer	opportunities	in	rural	areas.	
           •	     eating	disorders;	                                                                                                   •	     The	work	can	be	stressful	as	it	involves	contact	with	many	different	types	of	people	who	are	
           •	     behaviour	disorders;	                                                                                                       often	distressed	in	some	way.	Supervision	by	colleagues	is	important.	Occasionally,	situations	
           •	     personal	and	family	relationship	problems;	                                                                                 of	potential	personal	risk	may	be	encountered.	

           •	     learning	disabilities.	                                                                                              •	     Local	travel	within	a	working	day	is	common.	Absence	from	home	overnight	may	occasionally	
                                                                                                                                              be	required.	Overseas	work	or	travel	is	uncommon.

     b     Typical Work Activities
                                                                                                                                   d   Entry Requirements
     	     Clinical	psychologists	tend	to	specialise	with	one	particular	client	group,	such	as	children	or	people	
           with	 learning	 disabilities.	 They	 often	 work	 in	 a	 particular	 setting	 like	 a	 hospital	 or	 through	 social	   	   In	 order	 to	 become	 a	 qualified	 clinical	 psychologist	 you	 will	 need	 to	 hold	 a	 British	 Psychological	
           services.	Typical	work	activities	can	include:                                                                              Society	 (BPS)	 accredited	 	 psychology	 degree	 with	 a	 classification	 of	 2:1	 or	 above	 (some	 courses	
                                                                                                                                       will	 accept	 a	 2:2	 and	 a	 Masters	 degree).	 If	 your	 course	 is	 not	 accredited,	 or	 your	 degree	 is	 not	 in	
           •	     assessing	 a	 client’s	 needs,	 abilities	 or	 behaviour	 using	 a	 variety	 of	 methods,	 including	
                                                                                                                                       psychology,	 you	 can	 obtain	 Graduate	 Basis	 for	 Registration	 (GBR)	 by	 several	 means;	 by	 sitting	
                  psychometric	tests,	interviews	and	direct	observation	of	behaviour.	
                                                                                                                                       the	 British	 Psychological	 Society’s	 qualifying	 examination;	 via	 an	 appropriate	 society-accredited	
           •	     working	as	part	of	a	multidisciplinary	team	alongside	doctors,	nurses,	social	workers,	education	                    postgraduate	 qualification;	 taking	 an	 appropriate	 society-accredited	 conversion	 course.	 A	 further	
                  professionals,	health	visitors,	psychiatrists	and	occupational	therapists.	                                          three	 years	 of	 postgraduate	 study,	 leading	 to	 a	 Doctorate	 in	 Clinical	 Psychology	 is	 also	 required	
           •	     devising	and	monitoring	appropriate	programmes	of	treatment,	including	therapy,	counselling	                         which	 then	 leads	 to	 eligibility	 for	 chartered	 status.	 A	 minimum	 of	 six	 to	 twelve	 months	 of	 relevant	
                  or	advice,	in	collaboration	with	colleagues.	                                                                        clinical	work	experience	is	essential	in	order	to	secure	a	training	place.	Some	course	providers	set	
           •	     offering	 therapy	 and	 treatments	 for	 difficulties	 relating	 to	 mental	 health	 problems,	 such	 as	            specific	requirements	or	give	advice	on	how	to	go	about	gaining	experience	(successful	applicants	
                  anxiety,	depression,	addictions,	social	and	interpersonal	problems	and	challenging	behaviour.	                       typically	have	two	years	of	work	experience).	Relevant	experience	may	include	work	as	an	assistant	
                                                                                                                                       psychologist	in	NHS	clinical	psychology	departments,	sometimes	on	a	voluntary	basis.	Work	in	other	
           •	     developing	and	evaluating	service	provision	for	clients.	
                                                                                                                                       areas,	however,	is	also	relevant,	e.g.,	in	nursing,	social	work	or	services	for	individuals	with	disabilities.	
           •	     providing	 consultation	 to	 other	 professions,	 encouraging	 a	 psychological	 approach	 in	 their	                Research	experience,	as	a	research	assistant,	in	a	branch	of	psychology	is	also	considered	relevant,	
                  work.	                                                                                                               particularly	if	the	research	is	clinically	orientated.	It	is	helpful	to	have	a	good	balance	of	experience	in	
           •	     counselling	and	supporting	careers.	                                                                                 both	academic	and	clinical	areas.	It	is	also	beneficial	to	acquire	work	experience,	working	under	the	
           •	     carrying	out	applied	research,	adding	to	the	evidence	base	of	practice	in	a	variety	of	health	care	                  supervision	of	qualified	clinical	psychologist	within	the	NHS.
                  settings.	                                                                                                       	   You	will	need	to	demonstrate	evidence	of	the	following:
           •	     More	 experienced	 clinical	 psychologists	 are	 often	 called	 upon	 to	 write	 legal	 reports	 and	 act	
                                                                                                                                       •	     empathy	and	a	person-centered	approach	to	clients;	
                  as	expert	witnesses.	This	requires	keeping	detailed	client	assessments	in	order	to	monitor	the	
                  progress	of	the	client’s	treatments.                                                                                 •	     tolerance	of	stress;
                                                                                                                                       •	     the	ability	to	recognise	your	own	limitations	and	respond	to	difficult	situations;
                                                                                                                                       •	     the	ability	to	apply	your	knowledge	of	academic	psychology	and	research	to	clinical	problems;
     c     Salary and Conditions
                                                                                                                                       •	     the	capacity	to	be	critical	and	analytical,	and	to	work	in	a	self-motivated	independent	way;
           •	     Trainee	clinical	psychologists	start	at	Band	6	(£24,000).	After	qualification,	salaries	within	the	
                                                                                                                                       •	     excellent	communication	and	interpersonal	skills	appropriate	for	dealing	with	people	in	distress;
                  National	Health	Service	(NHS)	start	at	Band	7.	A	typical	starting	salary	would	be	in	the	region	of	
                  £27,000	                                                                                                             •	     the	ability	to	collaborate	with	colleagues	from	other	disciplines;	
           •	     For	more	experienced	psychologists,	salaries	start	at	Band	8a,	from	£30,000	up	to	£50,000.                           •	     the	determination	to	succeed;

18                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               19
     5   Psychology Careers

         •	     a	strong	understanding	of	the	profession	and	the	role	of	a	clinical	psychologist,	and	an	awareness	                       •	     health	centres;
                of	current	NHS	issues.	                                                                                                   •	     community	mental	health	teams;
     	   As	 posts	 often	 involve	 local	 travel,	 a	 current	 driving	 license	 and	 access	 to	 transport	 is	 a	 definite	            •	     child	and	adolescent	mental	health	services;
         asset.	 Applications	 for	 most	 of	 the	 three-year	 Doctorate	 in	 clinical	 psychology	 courses	 are	 made	
                                                                                                                                          •	     social	services.	
         through	 the	 Clearing	 House	 for	 Postgraduate	 Courses	 in	 Clinical	 Psychology.	 The	 closing	 date	 for	
         courses	is	early	December,	however	it	is	recommended	that	applications	are	made	before	November.	                          	     Most	 clinical	 psychology	 services	 are	 organised	 within	 NHS	 trusts,	 or	 partnerships	 between	 NHS	
         Competition	 for	 entry	 is	 severe,	 with	 just	 one	 in	 four	 applicants	 currently	 gaining	 a	 place;	 it	 is	 not	         trusts	and	local	authorities,	called	‘care	trusts’.	Some	trusts	provide	services	to	other	trusts	through	
         uncommon	for	individuals	 to	apply	 several	times.	 It	 is	 not	usually	 possible	 to	 fund	 yourself,	 or	use	                  service	level	agreements	and	almost	all	have	a	professional	advisory	mechanism	for	guiding	decisions	
         funding	from	sponsorship	or	scholarships	in	order	to	gain	access	onto	a	course	as	the	NHS	provides	                              about	the	provision	of	psychology	services.	Clinical	psychologists	may	also	be	employed	by	schools	
         enough	 funding	 for	 all	 the	 places	 available.	 The	 Clearing	 House	 handbook	 includes	 details	 of	 the	                  and	universities.	Others	work	in	the	private	sector	or	are	self-employed.
         sources	of	funding	for	each	course	and	information	about	each	course’s	entry	requirements.	Entry	on	
         to	accredited	postgraduate	training	courses	is	quite	competitive.	Many	of	the	successful	applicants	
         for	the	doctorate	course	have	a	postgraduate	qualification,	such	as	a	Masters,	and	at	least	two	years	                     5.2   Counselling Psychology
         of	relevant	experience.	It	is	suggested	that	gaining	relevant	experience	will	enhance	your	chances	of	                     a     Job Description:
         getting	on	a	course.	On	average	it	takes	around	three	years	after	graduating	to	get	onto	the	Doctorate	
         course	and	the	average	age	of	applicants	is	26	years	old.                                                                  	     Counselling	 psychology	 is	 a	 branch	 of	 applied	 psychology	 concerned	 with	 the	 integration	 of	
                                                                                                                                          psychological	 principles	 and	 therapeutic	 processes.	 It	 adopts	 a	 reflective	 practitioner	 approach	
                                                                                                                                          combining	understanding	both	from	formal	psychological	enquiry	and	from	the	interpersonal	relationship	
     e   Training                                                                                                                         between	practitioner	and	client.	Counselling	psychologists	work	therapeutically	with	clients	that	may	
                                                                                                                                          have	a	variety	of	problems,	difficulties	and	life	issues.	These	may	include:	bereavement;	the	effects	of	
     	   The	majority	of	those	accepted	onto	the	Doctorate	in	Clinical	Psychology	courses	are	employed	as	                                childhood	sexual	abuse;	relationship	breakdown;	domestic	violence;	major	trauma;	and/or	symptoms	
         trainee	 clinical	 psychologists	 through	 the	 National	 Health	 Service	 (NHS).	 Training	 in	 your	 first	 post	              of	 psychological	 disorder,	 such	 as	 anxiety	 and	 depression,	 eating	 disorders,	 post-traumatic	 stress	
         will	be	mainly	on	the	job	and	will	include	a	range	of	short	courses.	Further	study	is	encouraged	and	                            disorder	or	psychosis.	They	work	collaboratively	with	people,	exploring	underlying	issues	to	empower	
         once	you	have	qualified	there	are	opportunities	to	move	into	different	specialisms,	such	as	clinical	                            them	to	consider	change.	There	are	many	similarities	to	the	work	conducted	by	clinical	psychologists.	
         neuropsychology	 on	 completion	 of	 the	 Division	 of	 Neuropsychology	 Membership	 Qualification	 or	                          The	major	difference	is	within	the	training.	The	training	required	to	become	a	chartered	Counselling	
         forensic	psychology	on	completion	of	the	Diploma	in	Forensic	Psychology.	Upon	qualification,	and	                                Psychologist	is	much	more	focused	on	personal	insight	and	the	relationship	with	the	client.	Another	
         as	soon	as	their	services	are	offered	to	the	public,	chartered	clinical	psychologists	are	obliged	by	the	                        difference	 is	 that	 clinical	 psychologist	 trainees	 are	 paid	 while	 they	 train.	 Counselling	 psychologist	
         British	Psychological	Society	(	to	take	part	in	continuing	professional	development	                              trainees	pay	their	own	fees	and	expenses	and	therefore	have	more	flexibility	in	their	training.
         (CPD)	 in	 order	 to	 maintain	 occupational	 competence	 in	 their	 specialist	 area.	 In	 addition	 to	 general	
         CPD,	clinical	psychologists	may	also	be	required	by	the	relevant	division	of	their	society	to	undertake	
         further	training	each	year	in	their	specialist	area.                                                                       b     Typical Work Activities
                                                                                                                                    	     Counselling	psychologists	aim	to	help	clients	make	decisions	for	themselves,	to	improve	there	sense	
     f   Career Development                                                                                                               of	 personal	 wellbeing	 and	 alleviate	 their	 distress.	 The	 work	 is	 concerned	 with	 the	 application	 of	
                                                                                                                                          psychological	theories	and	techniques	to	help	people	deal	with	everyday	problems	associated	with	
     	   Employment	 prospects	 for	 qualified	 clinical	 psychologists	 are	 generally	 very	 good,	 although	 the	                      life	events.	Contact	is	mainly	in	a	community/social,	health/medical	or	organisational	setting	with	the	
         situation	 varies	 according	 to	 geographical	 region,	 the	 overall	 number	 of	 jobs	 available	 in	 each	                    following	clients:	
         specialist	area,	and	the	popularity	of	particular	fields.	For	all	specialist	areas,	there	is	a	relatively	short	
         promotion	ladder,	both	in	and	outside	the	NHS.	Even	though	the	training	is	the	same,	differences	in	                             •	     individual	adults	or	children;	
         the	organisational	structures	of	the	health	authorities	in	Northern	Ireland	and	Scotland	may	lead	to	                            •	     students	and	young	people;	
         different	career	progression	routes	and	opportunities	for	specialisation.	Some	clinical	psychologists	                           •	     families	and	couples;	
         go	on	to	work	as	trainers,	teachers	or	researchers	in	universities.		Opportunities	to	work	abroad	are	
                                                                                                                                          •	     older	people.	
         limited.	Further	training	is	usually	required	to	practise	in	another	European	country	and	requirements	
         also	vary	from	state	to	state	in	the	USA	and	Australia.
                                                                                                                                    	     Tasks	typically	involve:

     g   Typical Employers                                                                                                                •	     working	 with	 individuals,	 groups	 and/or	 organisations,	 applying	 psychological	 principles	 and	
                                                                                                                                                 understanding,	with	the	objective	of	assisting	clients	to	change,	improve,	understand	or	better	
     	   Clinical	psychologists	are	currently	in	demand	and	will	continue	to	be	required	by	the	National	Health	                                 manage	their	situation;	
         Service	(NHS).	There	are	currently	over	4,000	clinical	psychologists	working	in	the	UK	in	a	wide	range	
                                                                                                                                          •	     building	relationships	with	clients:	‘being	with’	rather	than	‘doing	to’	the	client;	
         of	health	and	social	care	settings,	including:
                                                                                                                                          •	     offering	 advice	 on	 how	 best	 to	 work	 with	 a	 client,	 usually	 when	 employed	 on	 a	 consultancy	
         •	     hospitals;                                                                                                                       basis;	
         •	     psychiatric	units;	

20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             21
     5   Psychology Careers

         •	    undertaking	research,	either	individually,	or	as	part	of	a	team;	                                           	   Entry	 to	 postgraduate	 Counselling	 Psychology	 courses	 is	 becoming	 increasingly	 competitive,	 with	
         •	    performing	assessments,	including	assessment	of	mental	health	needs,	risk	assessment	and	                       courses	requiring	a	good	first	degree,	relevant	paid	or	voluntary	work	experience,	and	often	some	
               psychometric	testing;	                                                                                          counselling	skills	qualifications.	Assistant	counselling	psychologist	vacancies	are	rare	and	competition	
                                                                                                                               is	fierce.	Potential	candidates	should	consider	looking	for	paid	work	and	volunteer	placements	in	a	
         •	    formulating	 psychological	 explanations	 of	 the	 cause	 and	 maintenance	 of	 psychological	
                                                                                                                               supportive	role.	These	types	of	vacancies	can	generally	be	found	in	the	non-profit,	health	and	human	
                                                                                                                               services	sectors.	Evidence	of	long-term	volunteering	is	also	beneficial,	as	this	demonstrates	the	ability	
         •	    planning	and	implementing	therapy,	together	with	the	evaluation	of	the	outcome	of	therapy;	                     to	be	emotionally	robust.
         •	    writing	reports	and	record-keeping;	
                                                                                                                           	   Candidates	will	need	to	demonstrate	evidence	of	the	following:
         •	    overseeing	the	management	of	services	and	staff;	
                                                                                                                               •	     interpersonal	and	psychotherapeutic	skills;	
         •	    managing	ongoing	personal	therapy	and	supervision.
                                                                                                                               •	     a	willingness	to	be	open;	
         •	    supervising	 and	 training	 other	 counselling	 psychologists,	 applied	 psychologists,	 assistant	
               psychologists	and	related	professionals.                                                                        •	     the	ability	to	explore	issues	with	clients;	
                                                                                                                               •	     a	broad,	reasonably	sceptical	view	of	all	theoretical	argument;	
                                                                                                                               •	     a	healthy	curiosity	and	research-minded	approach	to	thinking;	
     c   Salary and Conditions:
                                                                                                                               •	     analytical	skills;	
         •	    Based	 upon	 nationally	 agreed	 scales	 for	 clinical	 psychologists,	 counselling	 psychologists	
                                                                                                                               •	     the	ability	to	look	at	how	and	why	things	are,	or	are	not,	working	with	clients;	
               working	 in	 the	 NHS	 (	 should	 expect	 to	 receive	 a	 starting	 salary	 of	 £28,313	 -	
               £37,326	(Band	7).	                                                                                              •	     independence	and	self-motivation;	
         •	    Salaries	can	rise	depending	on	age,	experience,	specialism	and	level	of	responsibility	to	£75,114	              •	     self-awareness,	self-knowledge,	security	and	self-belief;	
               (Band	8d).	                                                                                                     •	     the	ability	to	work	under	pressure.
         •	    Senior,	experienced	psychologists,	managing	departments	with	responsibility	for	the	psychology	             	   Postgraduate	 training	 is	 likely	 to	 be	 self-financed	 and	 total	 costs	 (including	 fees)	 could	 reach	
               service	and	its	staff,	earn	from	£50,616	-	£75,326.	                                                            approximately	£6,900	per	year.	It	is	usual	for	students	to	pay	for	their	own	personal	therapy	and,	in	
         •	    For	counselling	psychologists	working	as	lecturers,	nationally	agreed	lecturers	scales	apply.	                  certain	 cases,	 also	 to	 pay	 for	 their	 required	 supervision.	 Some	 trainees	 secure	 posts	 as	 assistant	
         •	    Working	hours	are	flexible	and	usually	8.30am	to	5pm	if	working	within	the	NHS.	                                psychologists	first	and	negotiate	part	or	total	funding	towards	their	training,	or	approach	psychology	
                                                                                                                               departments	for	sponsorship.	The	BPS	states	that	the	Division	of	Counselling	Psychology	is	growing.	
         •	    Many	counselling	psychologists	are	self-employed,	or	work	partly	for	the	NHS	and	partly	for	
                                                                                                                               Since	 2006	 membership	 has	 increased	 from	 676	 to	 2334,	 of	 whom	 883	 are	 chartered	 Counselling	
               themselves.	Freelance	salaries	vary	but	hours	of	work	can	be	arranged	to	suit,	although	hours	
               will	be	driven	by	client	requirements,	often	requiring	work	outside	office	hours.	
         •	    Counselling	psychology	is	currently	a	predominantly	female	profession.	
         •	    There	are	good	opportunities	for	part-time	work,	career	breaks	and	job-sharing.	                            e   Training
         •	    Counselling	psychologists	often	work	as	part	of	a	multidisciplinary	team.	                                  	   In	addition	to	the	clinical	placements	provided	and	the	clinical	and	professional	experience	gained	
         •	    Jobs	 are	 available	 throughout	 the	 UK	 but	 are	 concentrated	 in	 larger	 cities.	 Some	 health	           en-route	to	chartered	status,	training,	once	in	post,	is	an	integral	part	of	a	counselling	psychologist’s	
               authorities	prioritise	psychological	therapy,	making	more	jobs	available.	                                      career.	The	opportunity	to	attend	short	courses	or	study	for	further	qualifications	is	usually	available.	
         •	    Due	to	long	waiting	lists	and	the	emotional	demands	of	clients,	the	working	environment	can	be	                 As	psychologists	tend	to	use	a	range	of	techniques	which	are	common	to	all	specialisms,	particular	
               stressful.	                                                                                                     methods	and	skills	can	be	enhanced	and	developed.	Upon	qualification	and	as	soon	as	their	services	
                                                                                                                               are	offered	to	the	public,	Chartered	Counselling	Psychologists	are	obliged	by	the	Health	Professions	
         •	    Travel	 within	 a	 working	 day	 is	 occasionally	 required,	 especially	 once	 a	 reputation	 has	 been	
                                                                                                                               Council	to	take	part	in	continuing	professional	development	(CPD).	Examples	of	relevant	professional	
                                                                                                                               development	include	the	following:
                                                                                                                               •	     post	qualification	courses	which	help	to	develop	a	knowledge	of	different	theoretical	approaches;	
     d   Entry Requirements
                                                                                                                               •	     received	or	conferred	professional	supervision;	
     	   Full	details	about	qualifying	to	become	a	chartered	counselling	psychologist	are	available	from	the	                  •	     presentations;	
         BPS	(	.	Briefly,	you	will	need	the	following	qualifications:
                                                                                                                               •	     attendance	at	conferences;	
         •	    Graduate	 Basis	 for	 Chartered	 Registration	 (GBR),	 achieved	 by	 completing	 a	 BPS	 accredited	            •	     undertaking	topical	research;	
               degree	or	a	conversion	course;
                                                                                                                               •	     developing	expertise	with	a	particular	client	group.
         •	    A	PhD	in	Counselling	Psychology	or	the	BPS	Qualification	in	Counselling	Psychology;
                                                                                                                           	   This	 is	 a	 career	 in	 which	 further	 study	 and	 developing	 specialisms	 are	 usually	 encouraged	 and	
         •	    In	order	to	use	the	title	‘counselling	psychologist’,	you	will	need	to	be	registered	with	the	Health	
                                                                                                                               supported.	Most	counselling	psychologists	continue	to	have	a	supervisor	or	mentor	to	whom	they	can	
               Professions	Council	(HPC).	This	will	involve	completing	a	Doctorate	in	Counselling	Psychology	
                                                                                                                               turn	on	an	ongoing	basis	for	advice,	guidance	and	inspiration	in	dealing	with	challenging	situations,	
               (or	equivalent)	that	has	been	approved	by	the	HPC	(	Contact	the	HPC	for	
                                                                                                                               clients	or	groups.
               more	information	on	the	entry	requirements	for	their	register.

22                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 23
     5     Psychology Careers

     f     Career Development
     	     The	NHS,	Prison	Service,	probation	services,	the	Civil	Service	and	local	education	authorities	(LEAs)	               b   Typical Work Activities
           all	provide	clearly	defined	career	paths	for	suitably	qualified	psychologists.	Due	to	a	national	shortage	
                                                                                                                                	   Typical	work	activities	include:	
           of	 Chartered	 Counselling	 Psychologists,	 job	 opportunities	 are	 good,	 although	 the	 situation	 varies	
           according	to	geographical	region,	the	overall	number	of	jobs	in	each	specialism,	and	the	popularity	                     •	    assessing	young	people’s	learning	and	emotional	needs	which	involves	working	directly	with	
           of	 that	 field.	 However,	 due	 to	 the	 higher	 cost,	 authorities	 may	 be	 forced	 to	 replace	 psychological	             them	and	observing	and	consulting	with	multi-agency	teams	to	advise	on	the	best	approaches	
           therapy	with	drug	therapy,	in	times	of	economical	constraint,	which	would	have	a	negative	impact	on	                           and	provisions	to	support	their	learning	and	development;	
           the	number	of	vacancies.	Counselling	psychologists	tend	to	work	fairly	autonomously,	which	gives	                        •	    developing	and	supporting	therapeutic	and	behaviour	management	programmes;	
           them	a	certain	amount	of	choice	in	organising	their	time	and	workload.	After	qualification,	there	is	the	                •	    designing	and	developing	courses	on	topics	such	as	bullying	for	parents,	teachers	and	others	
           opportunity	to	move	into	various	specialisms	and	to	choose	to	work	with	specific	client	groups.	For	all	                       involved	with	the	education	of	children	and	young	people;	
           specialisms,	there	is	a	relatively	short	promotion	ladder	in	the	NHS	and	other	areas,	and	individuals	
                                                                                                                                    •	    writing	 reports	 to	 make	 formal	 recommendations	 on	 action	 to	 be	 taken,	 including	 formal	
           can	move	up	the	salary	scale	by	gaining	qualifications	and	experience.	There	is	also	the	opportunity	
           to	move	into	self-employment	as	you	gain	knowledge	and	experience,	or	to	combine	self-employment	
           with	 part-time	 work	 for	 an	 employer	 such	 as	 the	 NHS.	 With	 experience,	 counselling	 psychologists	            •	    advising,	 negotiating,	 persuading	 and	 supporting	 teachers,	 parents	 and	 other	 education	
           will	also	have	the	opportunity	to	become	involved	in	the	teaching,	supervision	and	training	of	other	                          professionals;	
           counselling	psychologists,	applied	psychologists,	assistant	psychologists	and	related	professionals.                     •	    attending	case-conferences	involving	multidisciplinary	teams	to	determine	how	best	to	meet	
                                                                                                                                          the	social,	emotional,	behavioural	and	learning	needs	of	the	children	and	young	people	in	their	
     g     Typical Employers                                                                                                        •	    prioritising	effectiveness:	the	context	and	environment	that	influences	the	child’s	development	
     	     Counselling	psychologists	work	primarily	in	NHS	in	various	settings.	These	include:	                                           is	seen	as	increasingly	important;	

           •	     departments	of	psychotherapy,	clinical	psychology	or	psychological	therapies;	                                    •	    liaising	with	other	professionals	and	facilitating	meetings,	discussions	and	courses;	

           •	     community	mental	health	teams;	                                                                                   •	    developing	and	reviewing	policies;	

           •	     primary	care;	                                                                                                    •	    conducting	active	research.	

           •	     specialisms,	such	as	child	and	family	services,	older	adults,	and	learning	difficulties.	
     	     Counselling	psychologists	are	also	employed	in	general	and	psychiatric	hospitals,	general	practitioners’	            c   Salary and Conditions
           surgeries,	 private	 hospitals	 and	 independent	 practice,	 schools,	 colleges	 and	 universities,	 and	 a	             •	    Range	of	typical	salaries	for	a	trainee	educational	psychologist:	£21,007	-	£28,693.	
           wide	range	of	voluntary	organisations.	You	could	also	be	employed	by	the	Civil	Service,	the	prison	                      •	    Range	 of	 typical	 salaries	 for	 a	 newly	 qualified	 chartered	 educational	 psychologist	 (Grade	 A	
           service	or	in	occupational	health	departments	and	social	services.	The	National	Probation	Service	is	                          post):	£31,302	-	£41,001.
           another	potential	employer	and	there	may	also	be	vacancies	within	the	Probation	Board	for	Northern	
                                                                                                                                    •	    Senior	or	principal	educational	psychologists	can	expect	to	earn	from	£41,001	-	£55,835.	
           Ireland.	 In	 Scotland,	 criminal	 justice	 teams	 in	 local	 authority	 social	 work	 departments	 carry	 out	
           probation	activities.	Although	fewer	in	number,	opportunities	also	exist	in	the	private	sector,	including	               •	    In	England	and	Wales	pay	and	conditions	are	negotiated	with	Local	Government	Employers	(the	
           providing	 psychological	 therapy	 services	 to	 industry,	 in	 employee	 assistance	 programmes	 (EAPs)	                      Soulbury	Committee)	by	four	trade	Unions:	the	Association	of	Educational	Psychologists	(AEP),	
           and	in	independent	practice.	Within	these	settings,	counselling	psychologists	may	work	directly	with	                          the	Association	of	Professionals	in	Education	and	Children’s	Trusts	(Aspect)	,	the	National	Union	
           individuals,	couples,	families,	and	groups,	or	act	as	consultants	to	other	professionals.                                      of	Teachers	(NUT)	and	the	National	Association	of	Youth	and	Community	Education	Officers.
                                                                                                                                    •	    In	Northern	Ireland	educational	psychologists	are	employed	by	the	Province’s	five	Education	
                                                                                                                                          and	Library	Boards	(ELB)	and	salaries	are	also	negotiated	with	the	Soulbury	Committee.	
     5.3   Educational Psychology                                                                                                   •	    In	 Scotland	 the	 salaries	 are	 negotiated	 through	 the	 Convention	 of	 Scottish	 Local	 Authorities	
     a     Job Description                                                                                                                and	the	Scottish	Negotiating	Committee	for	Teachers	(SNCT)	and	are	typically	the	same	as	the	
                                                                                                                                          Soulbury	scale.	
     	     An	educational	psychologist	is	concerned	with	helping	children	or	young	people	who	are	experiencing	
           problems	 within	 an	 educational	 setting	 with	 the	 aim	 of	 enhancing	 their	 learning.	 These	 problems	            •	    Formal	 working	 hours	 tend	 to	 conform	 to	 the	 nine	 to	 five	 pattern,	 with	 some	 evening	 work.	
           may	 include	 learning	 difficulties	 and	 social	 or	 emotional	 adjustment.	 Educational	 Psychologists	                     Flexibility	is	common	provided	the	job	requirements	are	met.	
           work	directly	with	young	people	as	individuals	or	in	groups	and	also	advise	teachers,	parents,	social	                   •	    Normally	there	is	a	central	office	base	with	time	spent	travelling	to	schools,	clients’	homes	etc.	
           workers	 and	 other	 professionals	 who	 are	 involved.	 Their	 work	 with	 individual	 children	 involves	 an	                as	required.	
           assessment	 of	 the	 child	 using	 observation,	 interviews	 and	 test	 materials.	 They	 offer	 a	 wide	 range	         •	    Work	is	often	in	multidisciplinary	teams.	
           of	 appropriate	 interventions,	 such	 as	 learning	 programmes	 and	 collaborative	 work	 with	 teachers.	              •	    Self-employment/freelance	work	as	a	consultant	is	an	option.	However,	doing	this	does	change	
           Educational	 psychologists	 also	 provide	 in-service	 training	 for	 teachers	 and	 other	 professionals	 on	                 the	range,	nature	and	balance	of	the	work	you	would	undertake.	The	work	is	more	likely	to	be	
           issues,	such	as	behaviour	and	stress	management.	The	work	can	also	involve	advising	on	educational	                            focused	on	individuals,	or	within	certain	sectors,	for	example	independent	schools.	
           provision	and	policies,	and	carrying	out	research.	
                                                                                                                                    •	    Career	breaks	and	part-time	work	are	possible.	

24                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25
     5   Psychology Careers

         •	     The	gender	balance	is	currently	in	favour	of	women.	                                                             e   Training
         •	     The	profession	is	keen	to	increase	its	representation	from	all	sectors	of	the	community	and	to	                  	   After	you	qualify	as	a	Chartered	Educational	Psychologist,	training	and	learning	continue.	There	is	an	
                increase	the	numbers	who	can	offer	another	language.	Because	of	the	nature	of	the	work,	there	                       ongoing	need	for	keeping	up-to-date	with	the	latest	research	and	ideas,	often	concerning	relatively	
                may	be	restrictions	on	ex-offenders	and	active	members	of	political	groups.	                                         new	techniques	or	tools,	such	as	cognitive	behavioural	therapy	or	new	conditions	such	as	dyspraxia	
         •	     Working	with	people	facing	difficulties	and	those	trying	to	help	them	can	be	stressful.	                             or	attention	deficit	hyperactivity	disorder	(ADHD),	or	new	therapeutic	hypnotherapy,	that	could	benefit	
         •	     Local	travel	within	a	region	is	a	normal	feature	of	the	job.	Overnight	stays	are	rare.	                              your	 clients.	 The	 training	 may	 be	 through	 short	 courses,	 reading,	 or	 attending	 conferences	 and	
                                                                                                                                     networking.	Other	training	needs,	such	as	enhanced	IT	skills,	team	working	and	time	management	
         •	     The	training	is	for	the	UK	education	system,	so	overseas	work	or	travel	are	uncommon.	
                                                                                                                                     courses,	are	normally	available	from	your	employing	organisation.	For	promotion	to	more	senior	posts	
                                                                                                                                     where	additional	skills	are	called	for,	e.g.	staff	appraisal	or	supervision	of	trainees,	other	training	is	likely	
     d   Entry Requirements                                                                                                          to	be	forthcoming.	Individuals	aspiring	to	senior	roles	might	find	a	formal	management	qualification	
     	   Full	 details	 of	 training	 to	 become	 a	 chartered	 educational	 psychologist	 are	 available	 from	 the	 BPS	
         (	Briefly,	you	will	need	the	following	qualifications:
         •	     Graduate	Basis	for	Chartered	Membership	(GBS),	achieved	by	completing	a	BPS	accredited	                          f   Career Development
                degree	or	conversion	course.	                                                                                    	   In	local	authority	work,	there	is	a	defined	organisational	structure	and	clear	career	progression	to	the	
         •	     A	 BPS	 accredited	 Doctorate	 in	 Educational	 Psychology	 or,	 for	 Scotland	 only,	 an	 accredited	               roles	of	senior	and	principal	educational	psychologist,	but	there	are	a	limited	number	of	steps	on	the	
                Masters	in	Educational	Psychology	followed	by	the	BPS	Award	in	Educational	Psychology.	                              ladder.	In	a	large	authority,	psychological	services	are	usually	organised	into	districts,	with	individual	
     	   In	 order	 to	 use	 the	 title	 ‘Educational	 Psychologist’,	 you	 will	 need	 to	 be	 registered	 with	 the	 Health	       psychologists	responsible	for	the	majority	of	the	work	in	their	own	area.	Also,	there	are	likely	to	be	
         Professions	Council.	This	will	involve	completing	a	Doctorate	in	Educational	Psychology	(or	equivalent)	                    some	specialist	posts	held	by	experienced	practitioners,	e.g.	working	in	specialist	units	or	with	one	
         that	has	been	approved	by	the	HPC.	In	Scotland,	all	psychologists	employed	by	local	authorities	must	                       particular	condition.	Career	development	can	take	many	forms	and	is	not	limited	to	progression	up	a	
         be	chartered	and	must	also	be	full	members	of	the	Scottish	Division	of	Educational	Psychology	or	                           ladder.	For	some	people	the	option	to	become	self-employed,	undertake	work	on	a	freelance	basis	
         the	Division	of	Educational	and	Child	Psychology.	For	acceptance	onto	a	postgraduate	course,	you	                           or	become	an	active	member	within	the	profession	would	provide	new	challenges	and	be	considered	
         will	 need	 to	 be	 able	 to	 demonstrate	 that	 you	 have	 relevant	 experience	 of	 working	 with	 children	 in	          by	others	as	career	enhancements.	As	your	expertise	and	interests	develop,	your	career	could	move	
         educational,	childcare,	or	community	settings,	which	should	be	at	least	one	year’s	full-time	equivalent.	                   into	 new	 areas	 or	 branches	 of	 psychology.	 Some	 Educational	 Psychologists	 work	 in	 schools,	 and	
         Experience	as	a	teacher	is	very	relevant	and,	although	it	is	no	longer	a	requirement,	teachers	may	be	                      help	 train	 staff	 and	 pupils	 to	 better	 manage	 those	 with	 different	 disabilities,	 thus	 being	 translated	
         given	exemptions	from	parts	of	the	doctorate.	Contact	course	directors	for	specific	details	of	these	                       into	the	workplace	by	helping	them	to	better	manage	a	disabled	workforce,	an	area	associated	with	
         exemptions.	Admissions	tutors	for	Doctoral	programmes	will	not	normally	accept	graduates	with	a	2:2	                        occupational	 psychology.	 Vacancies	 are	 not	 evenly	 distributed	 across	 the	 country	 so	 mobility	 will	
         unless	they	have	also	achieved	a	higher	qualification,	such	as	an	MSc/MPhil	in,	ideally,	an	education-                      increase	development	options	and	may	be	required	for	promotion.
         related	area.	However,	candidates	with	a	2:2	and	exceptional	experience	may	be	successful.	Contact	
         admissions	 tutors	 for	 further	 details.	 In	 England,	 the	 Children’s	 Workforce	 Development	 Council	
                                                                                                                                 g   Typical Employers
         (CWDC)			manages	applications	for	courses	and	funding.	Funding	is	only	available	to	applicants	who	
         permanently	reside	in	the	UK	and	intend	to	seek	a	permanent	position	as	an	educational	psychologist	                    	   Most	 educational	 psychologists	 in	 the	 UK	 are	 employed	 by	 local	 authorities	 and	 are	 based	 in	 the	
         with	a	local	authority	in	England	after	successful	completion	of	the	programme.	Funding	is	likely	to	cover	                 psychological	 services	 of	 the	 education	 departments	 working	 in	 schools,	 colleges,	 nurseries	 and	
         fees	for	all	three	years	and	a	bursary	for	the	first	year.	Trainees	will	be	required	to	seek	employment	                    special	units.	In	Scotland,	there	are	32	employing	local	authorities	and	job	opportunities	are	good.	
         in	a	trainee	post	with	a	Local	Authority	for	their	second	and	third	years.	Failure	to	undertake	this	may	                   Most	newly	qualified	educational	psychologists	will	be	employed	by	the	local	authority	or	educational	
         result	in	the	recovery	of	all	or	part	of	the	grant.	In	Scotland,	Wales	and	Northern	Ireland	applications	                   psychology	services	(EPs).	In	Northern	Ireland,	employers	are	the	Education	and	Library	Boards	(ELB)	
         are	made	directly	to	institutions.	These	are	the	Universities	of	Dundee	and	Strathclyde	in	Scotland,	                       Northern	Ireland.	Other	public	sector	employers	(where	you	might	find	yourself	the	only	educational	
         Cardiff	in	Wales,	and	Queen’s	University,	Belfast	in	Northern	Ireland.	Early	application	is	advisable	                      psychologist)	 would	 be	 in	 regional	 social	 services’	 assessment	 centres,	 hospital-based	 pediatric	
         and	funding	options	are	available;	competition	for	course	places	and	funding	is	fierce.	In	Scotland,	                       assessment	units	or	child	psychiatric	units.	You	might	elect	to	work	in	a	research	establishment	or	in	a	
         the	Scottish	Government	continues	to	make	a	commitment	to	offer	a	training	grant	to	support	people	                         university	and	become	involved	in	teaching	as	well	as	research.	In	most	cases	your	employer	is	likely	
         undertaking	the	MSc.	There	has	been	an	increase	in	local	authorities	in	Scotland	employing	assistant	                       to	be	within	the	public	sector.	An	area	that	is	growing	is	working	independently,	on	a	freelance	basis,	
         educational	psychologists,	and	these	posts	offer	a	useful	way	of	gaining	relevant	experience	for	those	                     as	a	private	consultant	or	within	a	specialised	consultancy.	The	terminology	varies	but	the	work	might	
         who	 wish	 to	 take	 the	 MSc	 Educational	 Psychology	 course.	 There	 are	 approximately	 four	 times	 as	                include	some	or	all	of	the	following:
         many	applicants	for	postgraduate	courses	as	there	are	places.	However,	once	you	are	trained	there	
                                                                                                                                     •	     working	for	charities	and	voluntary	bodies,	such	as	Barnardo’s	or	The	National	Autistic	Society;
         are	 jobs	 available	 and,	 indeed,	 an	 overall	 shortage	 of	 Educational	 Psychologists	 is	 evident.	 Apart	
         from	academic	qualifications,	you	will	need	to	be	an	excellent	communicator	with	sensitivity,	tact	and	                     •	     providing	training;	
         diplomacy,	coupled	with	the	ability	to	be	assertive,	persuasive	and	an	effective	facilitator.	You	must	                     •	     supporting	independent	schools	and	undertaking	private	work	for	families.
         also	possess	strong	negotiating,	administration	and	time	management	skills.                                                 •	     occasionally	there	may	be	full-time	opportunities	within	a	charity.	

26                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          27
     5     Psychology Careers

     5.4   Forensic/Criminal Psychology                                                                                          	   Other	tasks	include:
     a     Job Description                                                                                                           •	     management	and	administration;	
     	     Forensic	 psychologists	 work	 mainly	 in	 the	 prison	 and	 probation	 services	 to	 develop	 intervention	              •	     analysing	local,	area	and	national	policy	to	develop	strategies	for	continuous	improvement;	
           techniques	 and	 treatment	 programmes	 for	 use	 with	 both	 offenders	 and	 people	 under	 supervision.	                •	     casework	notes	and	court	work,	sometimes	including	attendance	and	providing	expert	witness	
           They	develop	one-to-one	or	group	treatment	programmes	to	specifically	address	offending	behaviour	                               testimony.	
           and	 psychological	 well-being,	 for	 example,	 to	 manage	 depression,	 anger	 or	 anxiety.	 Forensic	
           psychologists	 play	 a	 critical	 role	 in	 the	 assessment	 of	 offenders	 and	 the	 provision	 of	 support	 and	
           training	for	other	staff.	Research	is	a	further	element	of	their	work,	as	is	presenting	evidence	in	court	            c   Salary and Conditions:
           and	 advising	 parole	 boards	 and	 mental	 health	 tribunals.	 Using	 expertise	 based	 on	 psychological	               •	     The	 range	 of	 typical	 starting	 salaries	 for	 trainee	 forensic	 psychologists	 in	 the	 prison	 and	
           theory	and	research,	forensic	psychologists	work	closely	with	other	professionals	and	agencies	both	                             probation	service;	£17,285	-	£19,581	(new	entrants	start	at	the	bottom	of	the	training	scale).	The	
           in	 the	 assessment	 and	 treatment	 of	 individuals,	 and	 in	 the	 development	 of	 institutional	 policy	 and	                typical	starting	salary	for	psychological	assistants	is	£14,444.	A	local	pay	allowance	of	between	
           working	practices.                                                                                                               £1,100	and	£4,000	may	be	payable	for	some	locations,	depending	on	category	of	prison.
                                                                                                                                     •	     Chartered	 forensic	 psychologists	 (higher	 grade)	 can	 expect	 to	 earn	 between	 £26,280	 and	
     b     Typical Work Activities
                                                                                                                                     •	     The	 range	 of	 typical	 salaries	 at	 senior	 and	 principal	 grades	 (experienced	 positions	 i.e.	 10-15	
     	     Forensic	psychology	is	often	perceived	as	concerning	criminal	investigation	and	profiling.	While	this	is	                        years	in	the	role);	£29,184	-	£63,535.	
           one	aspect	of	the	work	it	predominantly	relates	to	the	assessment	and	treatment	of	criminal	behaviour.	
                                                                                                                                     •	     Working	hours	are	typically	nine	to	five,	with	some	flexibility	required.	Evening	and	weekend	work	
           Forensic	psychologists	work	not	only	with	prisoners	and	offenders	but	also	with	other	professionals	
                                                                                                                                            (often	for	work	on	accredited	group	programmes)	is	becoming	a	more	common	requirement.	
           involved	in	the	judicial	and	penal	systems.	Much	of	the	work	of	a	forensic	psychologist	focuses	on	
           therapy	in	correctional	settings	where	tasks	typically	involve:	                                                          •	     Job	share	and	part-time	working	options	are	possible.	
                                                                                                                                     •	     Office	accommodation	varies.	In	prisons,	acclimatisation	is	needed	to	noise,	smells	and	lock-
           •	     carrying	 out	 one-to-one	 assessments,	 often	 to	 assess	 the	 risk	 of	 re-offending	 (e.g.	 for	 lifers	
                                                                                                                                            up	procedures.	Category	A	institutions	impose	camera	observation	and	entry	searches.	
                  being	released	into	the	community	or	sex	offenders	after	a	treatment	programme)	or	of	suicide,	
                  self-injury	or	other	high	risk	behaviour;	                                                                         •	     Jobs	 are	 available	 across	 the	 UK.	 Some	 locations	 are	 difficult	 to	 access	 without	 your	 own	
           •	     presenting	findings	from	assessments	to	a	wider	staff	audience;	
                                                                                                                                     •	     Self-employment/freelance	 work	 is	 sometimes	 possible,	 e.g.	 opportunities	 to	 progress	 into	
           •	     advising	prison	governors	on	incidents;	
           •	     developing	and	evaluating	the	contribution	of	assessment	techniques,	such	as	psychometric	
                                                                                                                                     •	     More	than	50%	of	prison	psychologists	are	currently	female.	
                                                                                                                                     •	     Career	breaks	can	be	self-managed.	
           •	     undertaking	research	projects	to	evaluate	the	contribution	of	specific	service	elements,	policy	
                  initiatives	 or	 group	 programme	 developments,	 e.g.,	 exploring	 probation	 ‘drop-out’	 rates,	                 •	     Travel	for	work	and	nights	away	are	occasionally	needed.	Overseas	work	or	travel	is	uncommon.
                  investigating	the	impact	of	bullying	in	the	prison	environment,	or	evaluating	the	effectiveness	of	
                  an	anger	management	group	programme;	                                                                          d   Entry Requirements:
           •	     participating	 in	 the	 delivery	 or	 management	 of	 nationally	 recognised	 cognitive-behavioural	
                                                                                                                                 	   Full	 details	 of	 training	 to	 become	 a	 Chartered	 Forensic	 Psychologist	 are	 available	 from	 the	 British	
                  group	programmes,	e.g.	enhanced	thinking	skills,	or	severe	personality	disorder,	sex	offender	
                                                                                                                                     Psychological	Society	(BPS)	Briefly,	you	will	need	the	following	qualifications:
                  treatment	programmes;	
           •	     checking	and	monitoring	treatment	groups	to	ensure	standards	and	quality;	
           •	     overseeing	the	training	of	prison/probation	service	staff;	                                                        •	     Graduate	 Basis	 for	 Chartered	 Registration	 (GBR),	 achieved	 by	 completing	 a	 BPS	 accredited	
           •	     preparing	risk	assessment	reports;	                                                                                       degree	or	conversion	course.	Entry	is	not	possible	without	a	degree,	except	at	psychological	
                                                                                                                                            assistant	 level	 where	 progression	 will	 be	 limited	 unless	 GBS	 is	 achieved.	 For	 psychology	
           •	     overseeing	the	provision	of	support	during	serious	incidents;	
                                                                                                                                            graduates	entering	at	this	level,	the	post	does	provide	a	strong	foundation	from	which	to	move	
           •	     hostage	negotiation;	                                                                                                     into	a	trainee	forensic	psychology	role.	
           •	     liaising	 with	 and	 providing	 consultancy	 to	 hospital	 staff,	 prison	 officers,	 the	 police,	 social	
                  workers,	 probation	 officers,	 representatives	 of	 the	 judicial	 and	 legal	 systems	 and	 university	
                                                                                                                                     •	     A	BPS	accredited	 Masters	in	Forensic	Science	or	Stage	1	 of	the	 BPS’s	 Diploma	 in	 Forensic	
                                                                                                                                            Psychology.	Courses	are	available	by	distance	learning	or	part-time	for	those	who	start	work	
           •	     attending	team	and	area	meetings.                                                                                         in	an	assistant	or	trainee	capacity	without	a	postgraduate	qualification.	Stage	2	of	the	BPS’s	
                                                                                                                                            Diploma	in	Forensic	Psychology	with	two	years’	supervised	practice,	assessed	by	the	Health	
                                                                                                                                            Professions	Council	(HPC).

28                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         29
     5    Psychology Careers

          •	     Some	 universities	 offer	 a	 Doctoral	 programme	 that	 covers	 both	 Stage	 1	 and	 Stage	 2	 of	 the	       f   Career Development
                 BPS’s	Diploma	in	Forensic	Psychology.	Previous	experience	may	strengthen	your	application	
                                                                                                                                	   Career	 development	 within	 both	 the	 prison	 and	 probation	 services	 is	 according	 to	 ability	 and	
                 for	an	accredited	Masters	course.	Identify	the	courses	you	are	interested	in	and	then	contact	
                                                                                                                                    experience,	 although	 to	 some	 extent	 mobility	 is	 a	 factor,	 and	 offers	 increased	 managerial	 and	
                 course	tutors	directly	to	find	out	what	sort	of	experience	would	be	valuable.	
                                                                                                                                    supervisory	 responsibility.	 Progression	 is	 through	 trainee/higher	 (qualified)/senior/principal	 grades.	
     	    In	order	to	use	the	title	‘Forensic	Psychologist’,	you	will	need	to	be	registered	with	the	HPC.	This	will	                There	 are	 also	 opportunities	 to	 move	 sideways	 or	 diagonally	 to	 other	 employers	 of	 forensic	
          involve	completing	Stage	2	of	the	BPS’s	Diploma	in	Forensic	Psychology	or	an	equivalent	qualification	                    psychologists,	e.g.	from	the	Prison	Service	to	The	National	Health	Service	(NHS).	Chartered	forensic	
          that	has	been	approved	by	the	HPC.	Pre-entry	experience	is	usually	required	before	you	can	start	                         psychologists	may	be	appointed	to	senior	psychologist	posts,	for	example	in	the	management	of	a	
          working	formally	as	a	forensic	psychologist.	Preference	is	given	to	those	with	experience	of	working	                     sex	offender	treatment	programme	or,	at	principal	level,	with	overall	responsibility	for	the	management	
          in	a	forensic	setting.	This	may	include	experience	gained	with	the	prison,	probation	or	social	services,	                 and	delivery	of	offending	behaviour	programmes.	Openings	within	the	Probation	Service	are	relatively	
          as	a	psychological	assistant,	operational	support	grade	(OSG)	or	as	a	probation	service	officer	(PSO).	                   new	and	provide	exciting	opportunities	for	shaping	the	role.	The	broader	field	of	forensic	psychology	
          Voluntary	 experience	 with	 offenders/victims	 in	 other	 settings,	 such	 as	 the	 National	 Association	 for	          is	dynamic	and	amenable	to	new	initiatives	and	multi-agency	interaction.	The	Dangerous	People	with	
          the	 Care	 and	 Resettlement	 of	 Offenders	 (NACRO),	 bail	 hostels	 of	 the	 National	 Approved	 Premises	              Personality	 Disorder	 (DSPD)	 programme	 is	 one	 example	 of	 this.	 The	 DSPD	 programme	 provides	 a	
          Association	(NAPA)	,	refuges,	drug/alcohol	treatment	centres	and	victim	support	groups	(e.g.,	Victim	                     platform	for	the	Home	Office,	the	Department	of	Health,	HM	Prison	Service	and	the	NHS	to	work	in	
          Support	 and	 the	 Samaritans),	 is	 also	 worth	 considering.	 Health	 care	 roles,	 particularly	 in	 secure	           partnership	in	the	provision	of	treatment	for	highly	dangerous	individuals	detained	under	the	criminal	
          hospitals	or	rehabilitation	units,	and	opportunities	with	young	people’s	services	are	further	valuable	                   justice	 system	 or	 current	 mental	 health	 legislation.	 With	 career	 progression,	 self-employment	 or	
          sources	 of	 experience.	 The	 context	 of	 the	 experience	 is	 critical	 as	 it	 is	 important	 to	 be	 able	 to	       freelance	work	is	sometimes	possible,	e.g.	there	may	be	opportunities	to	progress	into	consultancy	
          demonstrate	an	understanding	of	the	broad	needs	of	offenders.                                                             in	a	forensic	context.	If	you	are	interested	in	eventually	pursuing	this	option,	it	would	be	advisable	to	
                                                                                                                                    start	developing	additional	skills,	such	as	financial	management,	marketing	and	time	management.	
     		   Candidates	should	be	able	to	demonstrate	knowledge	of	current	issues	in	the	prison	and	probation	
          services	and	the	role	of	the	psychologist	in	the	criminal	 justice	system	and	 will	 also	 need	 to	show	
          evidence	of	the	following:
                                                                                                                                g   Typical Employers
          •	     planning	and	reviewing	skills	
                                                                                                                                	   Forensic	psychology	is	one	of	the	fastest	growing	areas	of	employment	for	psychology	graduates.	
          •	     motivation	and	commitment	                                                                                         Forensic	psychologists	work	in	the	criminal	and	civil	justice	field,	mainly	in	the	prison	service	but	also	
          •	     the	ability	to	empower	clients	                                                                                    the	probation	service.	In	England	and	Wales,	recruitment	is	conducted	through	HM	Prison	Service	and	
          •	     problem-solving	ability                                                                                            the	National	Probation	Service.	They	are	separate	employers,	with	some	differences	in	conditions	of	
                                                                                                                                    service,	even	though	both	work	together	under	the	remit	of	the	National	Offender	Management	Service	
          •	     a	systematic	approach
                                                                                                                                    (NOMS),	which	is	a	government	agency.	HM	Prison	Service,	in	England	and	Wales,	is	divided	into	11	
          •	     teamwork	and	leadership	skills	                                                                                    areas	 and	 each	 has	 an	 area	 psychologist.	 Additionally,	 there	 is	 an	 area	 psychologist	 representing	
          •	     rehabilitation	orientation                                                                                         high	 security	 prisons.	 The	 Scottish	 Prison	 service	 and	 the	 Northern	 Ireland	 Prison	 Service	 recruit	
          •	     the	ability	to	establish	a	relationship	with	the	offender	community	                                               independently	of	the	prison	service	in	England	and	Wales.	The	National	Probation	Service	of	England	
          •	     self-awareness                                                                                                     and	Wales	was	launched	in	its	current	form	on	1	April	2001.	It	comprises	a	central	national	directorate	
                                                                                                                                    and	42	local	probation	areas.	Recruitment	is	managed	at	local	level	so	refer	to	individual	probation	
          •	     a	high	level	of	security	awareness	
                                                                                                                                    areas	 for	 vacancies.	 In	 Northern	 Ireland,	 probation	 work	 is	 carried	 out	 by	 the	 Probation	 Board	 for	
          •	     a	non-discriminatory/non-judgmental	approach	                                                                      Northern	Ireland.	The	situation	in	Scotland	is	rather	different	in	that	there	is	no	probation	service;	the	
          •	     the	capacity	to	cope	with	an	element	of	personal	risk.	                                                            equivalent	remit	is	delivered	at	local	level	by	the	Criminal	Justice	Social	Work	Development	Centre	for	
                                                                                                                                    Scotland.	Forensic	psychologists	are	increasingly	being	employed	outside	the	prison	and	probation	
     	    Competition	for	employment	is	growing.	It	is	worth	contacting	Chartered	Forensic	Psychologists	and	
                                                                                                                                    services.	An	emerging	major	employer	is	The	National	Health	Service	(NHS),	where	psychologists	are	
          area	psychologists,	who	have	area	recruitment	responsibilities,	about	work	experience	and	training	
                                                                                                                                    based	in	special	hospitals;	opportunities	also	exist	in	secure	hospitals	in	the	private	sector.	Universities	
          opportunities.	The	BPS	has	an	online	directory	of	psychologists.	Many	posts	are	only	made	available	
                                                                                                                                    provide	 opportunities	 in	 research	 and	 lecturing	 roles;	 opportunities	 also	 exist	 in	 the	 police,	 social	
          to	people	already	working	as	psychological	assistants.	Graduate	and	assistant	psychology	network	
                                                                                                                                    services,	the	Home	Office	and	private	consultancy.	
          groups	are	an	excellent	source	of	contacts,	support	and	vacancies	at	regional	level.

     e    Training
     	    Continuing	 professional	 development	 is	 monitored	 by	 the	 Health	 Professions	 Council	 (HPC)	 and	
          requires	attendance	of	appropriate	courses	provided,	for	example,	by	the	British	Psychological	Society	
          (BPS)	or	the	International	Academy	of	Investigative	Psychology	(IAIP)	and	the	maintenance	of	a	log	of	
          cases,	etc.	Professional	training	is	complemented	with	training	in	specific	aspects	of	service.	There	
          is	also	considerable	emphasis	on	acquiring	accredited	trainer	status	to	deliver	nationally	recognised	
          group	programmes.

30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        31
     5     Psychology Careers

     5.5   Health Psychology                                                                                               	   In	order	to	use	the	title	‘Health	Psychologist’,	you	will	need	to	be	registered	with	the	Health	Professions	
                                                                                                                               Council	(HPC).	This	will	involve	completing	a	Doctorate	in	Health	Psychology	(or	equivalent)	that	has	
     a     Job Description
                                                                                                                               been	approved	by	the	HPC.	Contact	the	HPC	for	more	information	on	the	entry	requirements	for	their	
     	     Health	psychology	is	a	fairly	new	and	evolving	area,	and	can	be	defined	as	the	practice	and	application	            register.	In	Scotland,	all	psychologists	employed	by	local	authorities	must	be	chartered	and	must	also	
           of	psychological	methods	to	the	study	of	behaviour	relevant	to	illness,	disability	and	health	care.                 be	full	members	of	the	Scottish	Division	of	Health	Psychology	or	the	Division	of	Health	Psychology.	
     	     Typical	work	activities	include:                                                                                    For	acceptance	onto	a	postgraduate	course,	you	will	need	to	be	able	to	demonstrate	that	you	have	
                                                                                                                               relevant	experience	of	working	with	people	in	clinical	or	social	setting,	which	should	be	at	least	one	
           •	    using	 psychological	 theories	 and	 interventions	 for	 primary	 prevention	 and	 health-related	            year’s	 full-time	 equivalent.	 Admissions	 tutors	 for	 Doctoral	 programmes	 will	 not	 normally	 accept	
                 behaviour	change	in	community	and	workplace	settings	to	reduce	health	risks	and	damaging	                     graduates	with	a	2:2	unless	they	have	also	achieved	a	higher	qualification,	such	as	an	MSc/MPhil	in,	
                 behaviour;	                                                                                                   ideally,	an	education-related	area.	However,	candidates	with	a	2:2	and	exceptional	experience	may	be	
           •	    encouraging	the	uptake	of	health-enhancing	behaviour	and	psychological	approaches	to	health	                  successful.	Contact	admissions	tutors	for	further	details.
           •	    improving	communication	between	healthcare	professionals	and	patients;	
                                                                                                                           e   Training
           •	    investigating	cognitive	processes,	which	mediate	and	determine	health	and	illness	behaviours;	
           •	    considering	 the	 psychological	 impact	 of	 acute	 and	 chronic	 illness	 on	 individuals	 and	 their	   	   Most	licensed	health	psychologists	hold	a	doctorate-level	(Ph.D.	or	Psy.D.)	degree	in	psychology.	In	
                 families	to	improve	quality	of	life	and	reduce	disability;	                                                   many	cases,	health	psychologists	pursue	an	undergraduate	degree	in	general	psychology	and	then	
                                                                                                                               specialize	 in	 health	 psychology	 at	 postgraduate	 level.	 Some	 programs	 offer	 degrees	 specifically	 in	
           •	    conducting	research	that	may	impact	healthcare	policy.	
                                                                                                                               health	 psychology.	 The	 emphasis	 in	 these	 programs	 can	 vary;	 some	 focus	 on	 preparing	 students	
     	     There	has	been	a	significant	increase	in	the	number	of	lectureships	in	health	psychology	and	growth	                for	 clinical	 careers	 while	 others	 emphasize	 the	 role	 of	 research.	 Those	 who	 want	 to	 be	 licensed	 in	
           in	research	into	social	and	behavioural	factors	in	health	and	health	care.	A	small	number	of	health	                clinical	 or	counseling	 psychology	must	complete	a	minimum	 of	a	one-year	internship	 after	earning	
           psychologist	posts	exist	in	The	National	Health	Service	(NHS)                                                       a	doctorate	degree.	The	American	Board	of	Professional	Psychology	also	offers	board	certification	
                                                                                                                               in	 health	 psychology.	 While	 a	 doctorate	 degree	 is	 usually	 required	 in	 order	 to	 become	 a	 licensed	
                                                                                                                               health	 psychologist,	 there	 are	 some	 employment	 opportunities	 for	 those	 with	 a	 bachelor’s	 degree	
     b     Typical Work Activities                                                                                             or	master’s	degree.	Employment	at	the	bachelor’s	level	is	limited,	but	some	find	work	in	community	
     	     Health	psychologists	work	in	a	wide	variety	of	settings	including	hospitals,	health	care	clinics,	private	          mental	health	offices	or	correctional	facilities.	Those	with	a	master’s	degree	enjoy	more	employment	
           corporations	and	universities.	Some	health	psychologists	work	in	settings	that	specialize	in	a	particular	          opportunities,	although	they	typically	work	under	the	supervision	of	a	licensed	clinical	psychologist.
           area	 of	 health	 care,	 such	 as	 oncology,	 pain	 management,	 women’s	 health	 and	 smoking	 cessation	      	
           programs.	Other	health	psychologists	work	in	government	settings,	often	administering	community	
                                                                                                                           f   Career Development
           health	programs	or	influencing	public	policy.	
                                                                                                                           	   Employment	prospects	for	qualified	health	psychologists	are	generally	good,	although	the	situation	
                                                                                                                               varies	according	to	geographical	region,	the	overall	number	of	jobs	available	in	each	specialist	area,	
     c     Salary and Conditions                                                                                               and	the	popularity	of	particular	fields.	For	all	specialist	areas,	there	is	a	relatively	short	promotion	ladder,	
     	     Salaries	for	health	psychologists	typically	depend	on	a	number	of	factors	including	geographic	location,	           both	in	and	outside	the	NHS.	Even	though	the	training	is	the	same,	differences	in	the	organisational	
           work	setting,	educational	background	and	job	experience.	According	to	the	American	Psychological	                   structures	 of	 the	 health	 authorities	 in	 Northern	 Ireland	 and	 Scotland	 may	 lead	 to	 different	 career	
           Association	 (APA),	 licensed	 psychologists	 working	 within	 direct	 human	 services	 (of	 which	 health	         progression	routes	and	opportunities	for	specialisation.	Some	health	psychologists	go	on	to	work	as	
           psychology	comprises	13-percent)	earned	an	average	of	£40,000	per	year.	Other	estimates	suggest	                    trainers,	 teachers	 or	 researchers	 in	 universities.	 	 Opportunities	 to	 work	 abroad	 are	 limited.	 Further	
           that	 licensed	 health	 psychologists	 typically	 earn	 anywhere	 from	 £40,000	 (entry-level)	 to	 £60,000	        training	is	usually	required	to	practise	in	another	European	country	and	requirements	also	vary	from	
           (advanced-level)	on	the	NHS.	                                                                                       state	to	state	in	the	USA	and	Australia.

     d     Entry Requirements                                                                                              g   Typical Employers

     	     Full	details	of	the	training	to	become	a	Chartered	Health	Psychologist	are	available	from	the	British	          	   Most	health	psychologists	in	the	UK	are	employed	by	the	NHS.	In	Scotland,	there	are	a	number	of	
           Psychological	Society	(BPS)	(	Briefly,	you	will	need	the	following	qualifications:               employing	local	authorities	and	job	opportunities	are	good.	Most	newly	qualified	health	psychologists	
                                                                                                                               will	be	employed	by	the	local	authorities.	Other	public	sector	employers	would	be	in	regional	social	
           •	    Graduate	 Basis	 for	 Chartered	 Registration	 (GBR),	 achieved	 by	 completing	 a	 BPS	 accredited	          services	assessment	centres,	hospital-based	assessment	units	or	psychiatric	units.	You	might	elect	
                 degree	or	conversion	course.	                                                                                 to	 work	 in	 a	 research	 establishment	 or	 in	 a	 university	 and	 become	 involved	 in	 teaching	 as	 well	 as	
           •	    A	BPS	accredited	Doctorate	in	Health	Psychology	or,	for	Scotland	only,	an	accredited	Masters	                 research.	In	most	cases	your	employer	is	likely	to	be	within	the	public	sector.
                 in	health	Psychology	followed	by	the	BPS	Award	in	Health	Psychology.	

32                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   33
     5     Psychology Careers

     5.6   Occupational Psychology                                                                                                •	    improving	companies’	health	and	safety	performance	by	studying	the	causes	of	accidents	and	
                                                                                                                                        their	prevention,	designing	and	applying	behavioural	change	interventions	and	assessing	safety	
     a     Job Description
     	     Occupational	 psychologists	 apply	 psychological	 knowledge,	 theory	 and	 practice	 to	 the	 world-of-               •	    advising	companies	about	stress	prevention	and	stress	management	strategies,	and	training	
           work.	They	aim	to	help	an	organisation	get	the	best	performance	from	their	employees	and	also	to	                            staff	in	techniques.	
           improve	employees’	job	satisfaction.	Occupational	psychologists	apply	expert	knowledge	to	all	levels	
           of	 working	 and	 may	 work	 on	 organisational	 issues,	 such	 as	 culture	 and	 change,	 as	 well	 as	 issues	
           at	an	individual	or	team	level.	They	may	work	in	a	consultancy	role	or	in-house	as	an	employee	of	                 c   Salary and Conditions:
           an	organisation,	in	collaboration	with	management,	human	resources	and	training	specialists,	trade	
                                                                                                                                  •	    The	range	of	typical	starting	salaries	is	£18,000	-	£30,000.	
           union	representatives,	and	with	staff	in	teams	and	individually.
                                                                                                                                  •	    The	range	of	typical	salaries	at	senior	level/with	experience;	£35,000	-	£70,000.	
                                                                                                                                  •	    Management	 consultancies	 and	 the	 private	 sector	 tend	 to	 pay	 significantly	 more	 than	 the	
     b     Typical Work Activities                                                                                                      public	sector	and	academia,	but	require	longer	working	hours.	More	experienced	and	senior	
                                                                                                                                        consultants	may	earn	higher	salaries.	
     	     Both	 organisation	 and	 consultancy-based	 occupational	 psychologists	 carry	 out	 a	 range	 of	 work	
           according	to	the	needs	of	their	clients	or	employing	organisation.	The	British	Psychological	Society	                  •	    Working	hours	and	conditions	often	include	regular	extra	hours	in	large	private	organisations.	
           (BPS)	divides	this	work	into	eight	key	areas:                                                                                This	is	less	likely	in	the	public	sector.	Weekends	and	shift	work	are	rare.	Flexible	working	hours	
                                                                                                                                        operate	in	some	Civil	Service	agencies.	
           •	    human-machine	interaction;	
                                                                                                                                  •	    You	 may	 work	 both	 on	 your	 own	 and	 in	 small	 project	 teams,	 in	 the	 clients’	 premises,	 a	
           •	    design	of	environments	and	work;	including	ergonomics,	health	and	safety,	and	well-being;	                             management	centre	or	your	own	office.	
           •	    personnel	selection	and	assessment,	including	test	and	exercise	design;	                                         •	    Self-employment/freelance	 work	 is	 common.	 Self-employed	 occupational	 psychologists	 are	
           •	    performance	appraisal	and	career	development;	                                                                         likely	to	have	substantial	work	experience	in	a	particular	specialist	area	and	will	have	built	up	a	
           •	    personal	development	and	counselling;	                                                                                 good	client	profile.	
           •	    training	(identification	of	needs,	training	design	and	evaluation);	                                             •	    Both	men	and	women	are	well	represented	throughout	the	profession.	
           •	    employee	relations	and	motivation;	                                                                              •	    Jobs	are	available	throughout	the	UK,	but	major	consultancies	tend	to	be	based	in	the	South	
           •	    organisational	development	and	change.	                                                                                East	of	England	and	larger	cities.	
                                                                                                                                  •	    Consultants	must	respond	to	client	needs.	This	often	means	working	to	tight	deadlines.	Business	
     	     Typical	 activities	 of	 occupational	 psychologists	 working	 in	 the	 area	 of	 organisational	 development	
                                                                                                                                        clients	usually	expect	you	to	maintain	a	professional	appearance.	
                                                                                                                                  •	    Travel	within	a	working	day	is	frequent.	Self-employed	consultants	need	to	be	mobile,	as	they	
           •	    designing/applying	 methods	 to	 understand	 an	 organisation’s	 or	 team’s	 current	 culture	 and	                    will	need	to	travel	to	their	client.	Absence	from	home	at	night	may	be	necessary.	There	may	
                 helping	to	develop	a	new	culture	or	achieve	specific	performance	objectives;	                                          be	occasional	opportunities	in	the	largest	consultancies	for	work	overseas	with	multinational	
           •	    advising	on	new	technologies,	such	as	e-learning,	portfolio	working	and	virtual	team	working;	                         companies.	
           •	    helping	people	to	develop	leadership,	teamwork	and	communication	skills,	working	with	groups	
                 or	individuals;	
                                                                                                                              d   Entry Requirements:
           •	    advising	on	employee	relations	and	schemes	to	motivate	staff.
                                                                                                                              	   The	British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	is	the	main	body	that	represents	psychologists	in	the	UK	and	
                                                                                                                                  accredits	training	leading	to	the	designation	as	a	Chartered	Occupational	Psychologist.	From	1	July	
     	     Activities	of	those	working	in	the	areas	of	assessment	and	training	include:                                           2009,	it	became	a	legal	requirement	for	anyone	employed	as	an	occupational	psychologist	(or	using	
                                                                                                                                  the	title	occupational	psychologist)	and	other	types	of	practitioner	psychologist	to	register	with	the	
           •	    developing,	 implementing	 or	 evaluating	 selection	 procedures,	 including	 psychometric	 tests,	
                                                                                                                                  Health	Professions	Council	(HPC).	It	is	not	obligatory	for	HPC-registered	occupational	psychologists	
                 assessment	centre	exercises	and	structured	interviews;	
                                                                                                                                  to	 be	 BPS	 members	 or	 chartered	 psychologists	 but	 they	 are	 normally	 required	 to	 have	 completed	
           •	    developing	and	evaluating	training	and	appraisal	programmes;	                                                    the	 equivalent	 of	 the	 qualifications,	 training	 and	 supervised	 practical	 experience	 that	 would	 make	
           •	    giving	guidance	and	counselling	to	help	staff	plan	their	career	or	cope	with	redundancy;	                        them	eligible	for	chartered	membership.	There	are	three	stages	involved	in	becoming	fully	qualified	to	
           •	    life	and	career	coaching	for	managers	and	other	staff,	working	collaboratively	with	individuals	                 register	as	a	chartered	psychologist	with	the	BPS	and	with	the	HPC	as	an	occupational	psychologist:
                 to	enable	them	to	reach	their	full	potential.	                                                                   •	    Stage	1	involves	an	accredited	degree	in	psychology	or	equivalent.	
                                                                                                                                  •	    Stage	 2	 involves	 completion	 of	 an	 accredited	 Master’s	 degree	 in	 occupational	 psychology,	
     	     Activities	of	those	working	in	the	area	of	ergonomics	and	health	and	safety	include:                                         which	includes	study,	skills	training	and	research.	
           •	    working	with	engineers,	physiologists	and	ergonomists	to	improve	the	design	of	the	working	                      •	    Stage	3	involves	two	years	of	supervised	practical	experience.	
                 environment	and	equipment;	

34                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  35
     5   Psychology Careers

     	   For	 Stage	 1,	 you	 need	 the	 minimum	 of	 a	 2.2	 honours	 degree	 in	 psychology	 from	 an	 accredited	           required.	Experience	must	provide	breadth	of	practical	application	skills	in	five	of	the	eight	areas	of	
         course	 for	 the	 Graduate	 Basis	 for	 Chartered	 Membership	 (GBC)	 of	 the	 BPS,	 which	 is	 essential	 for	       occupational	psychology	(see	Section	5.6.a	Typical	Work	Activities)	and	in-depth	work	with	clients	in	
         postgraduate	training	and	employment	in	this	field.	Non-psychology	graduates	may	take	a	conversion	                   one	of	the	four	fields	of:
         course	 that	 the	 BPS	 accepts	 as	 equivalent	 to	 a	 degree	 in	 psychology	 for	 GBC.	 For	 Stage	 2,	 you	
                                                                                                                               •	     work	and	the	work	environment;	
         need	 to	 complete	 a	 BPS-accredited	 Master’s	 degree	 course,	 either	 full	 time	 in	 one	 year	 or	 part-
         time	over	two	or	three	years	(by	attendance	or	distance	learning).	There	are	currently	17	universities	               •	     the	individual;	
         offering	a	BPS-accredited	course.	A	small	number	of	candidates	qualify	independently	of	a	university	                 •	     the	organisation;	
         course	by	completing	a	BPS-awarded	postgraduate	certificate	by	examination.	Competition	for	the	                      •	     training.	
         courses	is	moderate	to	high,	depending	upon	the	course.	Many	courses	expect	at	least	a	2.1	degree	
                                                                                                                           	   There	 are	 currently	 around	 900	 people	 registered	 as	 in	 training	 with	 the	 Division	 of	 Occupational	
         classification,	plus	relevant	work	experience.	Most	students	study	part	time,	often	while	working	in	a	
                                                                                                                               Psychology	at	the	BPS.	The	BPS	estimate	that	one-in-four	registered	trainees	subsequently	achieve	
         related	field	and	may	either	receive	some	funding	or	support	from	their	employer	or	pay	their	own	fees.	
                                                                                                                               chartered	 membership.	 A	 small	 minority	 of	 those	 completing	 Master’s	 courses	 may	 gain	 practical	
         Relevant	experience	in	personnel/human	resources	and	business/management	is	a	strong	advantage	
                                                                                                                               experience	whilst	working	in	a	post	as	a	trainee	occupational	psychologist,	but	most	tend	to	gain	it	
         for	both	postgraduate	study	and	employment.
                                                                                                                               whilst	working	in	a	related	field,	such	as	human	resource	management.	It	may	be	necessary	to	carry	out	
                                                                                                                               additional	duties	and	take	short	training	courses	to	ensure	that	all	required	occupational	psychologist	
     	   Candidates	will	need	to	demonstrate	evidence	of	the	following:                                                        competences	are	achieved.	Trainees	will	often	spend	longer	than	two	years	in	employment	to	acquire	
                                                                                                                               sufficient	relevant	experience	for	chartered	status.
         •	    adaptability	and	flexibility;	
         •	    problem-solving	ability;	
         •	    self-confidence,	with	the	ability	to	deal	with	a	variety	of	people;	                                        f   Career Development

         •	    good	communication	and	persuasion	skills,	in	order	to	convince	clients	of	your	abilities,	inspire	          	   In	 general,	 occupational	 psychology	 does	 not	 have	 a	 clear-cut	 career	 path	 and	 it	 is	 often	 down	 to	
               their	trust	and	gain	information;	                                                                              the	 individual	 to	 determine	 how	 their	 career	 progresses.	 Since	 most	 occupational	 psychologists	
         •	    the	 ability	 to	 influence	 other	 professionals,	 managers	 and	 staff,	 who	 may	 be	 sceptical	 or	         are	employed	in	small	units,	opportunities	for	advancement	are	limited.	Progression	is	usually	in	to	
               resistant	about	what	you	are	offering;	                                                                         self-employed	roles	or	other	organisations.	There	may	be	opportunities	to	progress	to	senior	posts,	
                                                                                                                               leading	 a	 team	 or	 project.	 There	 are	 also	 possibilities	 to	 set	 up	 your	 own	 business.	 Occupational	
         •	    resilience	and	a	positive	attitude;	
                                                                                                                               psychologists	work	alongside	other	professionals	and	can	carry	out	similar	work	to:
         •	    the	ability	to	work	under	pressure	-	you	will	need	to	achieve	results	within	fixed	deadlines	whilst	
               working	on	a	number	of	projects;	                                                                               •	     human	resource	managers;	

         •	    pragmatism;	                                                                                                    •	     training	officers;	

         •	    commercial	awareness;	                                                                                          •	     management	consultants;	

         •	    the	ability	to	show	that	your	work	has	practical	and	worthwhile	benefits	over	a	relatively	short	               •	     careers	consultants;	
               timescale.	                                                                                                     •	     career	and	life	coaches.	

         •	    a	high	level	of	competence	in	psychometrics	or	statistical	analysis	for	particular	posts.                   	   Business	psychology	is	another	possible	area	of	career	development.	Members	of	the	Association	of	
                                                                                                                               Business	Psychologists	(ABP)	have	normally	completed	a	postgraduate	qualification	in	psychology	and	
     	   Competition	is	keen	for	posts	in	both	business	and	the	Civil	Service.	Some	universities	may	offer	short	
                                                                                                                               provide	psychological	services	to	business	or	the	public	sector.	Many	members	may	also	be	eligible	
         courses	in	subjects,	such	as	counselling,	human	resource	management,	careers	guidance,	consultancy,	
                                                                                                                               for	membership	of	the	British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	and	registration	as	chartered	psychologists.	
         disability	 issues	 and	 running	 your	 own	 business,	 which	 may	 give	 you	 the	 edge	 over	 competitors.	
                                                                                                                               Business	psychologists	are	not	required	to	register	with	the	Health	Professions	Council	(HPC).	While	
         Working	for	a	psychometric	test	publisher	is	a	route	into	careers	in	occupational	psychology	for	some	
                                                                                                                               occupational	psychology	provides	a	breadth	of	experience	in	several	areas,	many	related	professions,	
         graduates,	and	a	good	way	of	gaining	some	of	the	relevant	commercial	experience	necessary	for	a	
                                                                                                                               such	as	occupational	health	and	safety	and	human	resources,	have	their	own	qualification	structures	
         more	varied	portfolio.	Given	the	usual	requirement	for	relevant	experience	as	well	as	a	postgraduate	
                                                                                                                               and	 training	 programmes.	 Taking	 further	 related	 qualifications,	 such	 as	 professional	 diplomas	 and	
         qualification,	most	entrants	to	occupational	psychology	are	over	25	years	of	age.	Mature	graduates	
                                                                                                                               short	courses,	may	open	more	doors.	The	Division	of	Occupational	Psychology	at	the	BPS	also	offers	
         with	relevant	experience,	especially	in	business/management,	may	have	an	advantage.	Late	entry,	or	
                                                                                                                               continuing	professional	development	(CPD)	events.	Some	universities	offer	a	professional	doctorate	
         return	after	a	career	break	is	both	possible	and	common.
                                                                                                                               in	 occupational	 psychology,	 involving	 a	 major	 research	 project.	 Some	 occupational	 psychologists	
                                                                                                                               pursue	academic	careers	either	after	a	period	as	a	practitioner	or	by	doing	research	for	a	doctoral	
                                                                                                                               degree	after	a	Master’s	degree	and	gaining	a	post	as	a	university	lecturer	or	researcher.
     e   Training
     	   After	completing	an	accredited	Master’s	degree,	the	third	stage	of	training	to	become	fully	qualified	
         to	register	as	a	Chartered	Occupational	Psychologist	with	the	British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	and	
         with	the	Health	Professions	Council	(HPC)	involves	two	years	of	relevant	work	experience	under	the	
         supervision	of	a	chartered	occupational	psychologist.	You	need	to	complete	a	log	book	of	practical	
         experience	 for	 assessment	 by	 the	 BPS,	 demonstrating	 that	 you	 have	 achieved	 the	 competences	

36                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37
     5     Psychology Careers

     g     Typical employers                                                                                                          some	cases,	also	work	with	athletes,	coaches,	or	athletic	administrators.	They	provide	education	as	
                                                                                                                                      well	as	developing	and	implementing	programs	designed	to	maximize	the	overall	well-being	of	sport,	
     	     The	growth	of	occupational	psychology	in	Britain	over	recent	decades	has	been	driven	by	the	rapid	
                                                                                                                                      exercise,	and	physical	activity	participants.	Other	professionals	may	focus	primarily	on	applying	sport	
           changes	in	work,	which	has	arisen	from	technological	innovation	and	global	competition.	There	are	
                                                                                                                                      psychology	knowledge.	These	individuals	are	typically	more	interested	in	the	enhancement	of	sport,	
           currently	3,500	members	of	the	Division	of	Occupational	Psychology,	of	whom	1,500	are	chartered.	
                                                                                                                                      exercise,	and	physical	activity	performance	or	enjoyment.	They	may	consult	with	a	broader	range	of	
           Typical	employers	tend	to	be	large	organisations	in	the	private	and	public	sectors,	including	government	
                                                                                                                                      clients	and	may	serve	in	an	educational	or	counselling	role.	Activities	vary	between	the	branches	of	
           departments	and	management	training	centres.	Most	occupational	psychologists	are	employed	in	the	
                                                                                                                                      sport	and	exercise	psychology.	Generic	activities	are	likely	to	include:
           business	sector,	mainly	in	private	consultancies.	Most	of	these	consultancies	are	small,	employing	
           no	more	than	a	handful	of	psychologists;	the	largest	UK	consultancies	employ	over	50.	The	second	                          •	    assessing	clients’	needs	and	abilities,	and	monitoring	sporting	performance	and	behaviour;	
           largest	 sector	 of	 employment	 for	 occupational	 psychologists	 is	 the	 Civil	 Service,	 with	 over	 1,000	            •	    implementing	strategies	to	help	the	client	overcome	difficulties,	improve	performance	or	realise	
           psychologists	 currently	 employed	 (October	 2009).	 The	 Department	 for	 Work	 and	 Pensions	 (DWP)	                          potential;	
           and	Ministry	of	Defence	(MoD)	are	the	largest	employing	departments,	with	some	psychologists	also	
                                                                                                                                      •	    working	with	a	multidisciplinary	team	including	other	psychologists,	nutritionists,	GPs,	coaches	
           employed	 in	 the	 Home	 Office	 and	 Cabinet	 Office.	 More	 than	 120	 occupational	 psychologists	 work	
                                                                                                                                            and	physiologists;	
           in	 universities	 in	 teaching	 or	 research	 roles.	 Many	 occupational	 psychologists	 are	 self-employed.	
           Some	 have	 portfolio	 careers	 combining	 several	 aspects	 of	 teaching,	 research	 and	 consultancy.	                   •	    delivering	counselling	and/or	workshops	covering	issues	such	as	goal	setting,	visualisation	and	
           The	increasing	use	of	psychometric	instruments	in	selection,	management	development	and	many	                                    relaxation;	
           different	human	resource	management	processes	means	that	more	people	are	currently	employed	by	                            •	    conducting	and	applying	research	in	sport	or	exercise	psychology.
           psychometric	test	publishers	than	in	any	other	single	business	area	of	occupational	psychology.                        	
                                                                                                                                  	   Activities	more	closely	associated	to	sport	psychology	include:
     5.7   Sport and Exercise Psychology                                                                                              •	    working	with	a	broad	range	of	clients,	including	individual	athletes,	teams,	coaches	and	referees,	
     a     Job Description                                                                                                                  from	amateur	to	elite	professional	level	across	a	wide	range	of	sporting	disciplines;
                                                                                                                                      •	    developing	tailored	interventions	to	assist	athletes	in	preparation	for	competition	and	to	deal	
     	     Sport	and	exercise	psychology	is	a	branch	of	sports	science.	It	is	the	scientific	study	of	the	psychological	
                                                                                                                                            with	the	psychological	demands	of	the	sport;
           factors	that	are	associated	with	participation	in	sport,	exercise	and	other	types	of	physical	activity.	
           The	contribution	made	by	sport	and	exercise	psychologists	is	in	two	areas:                                                 •	    equipping	athletes	with	mental	strategies	to	cope	with	and	overcome	setbacks	or	injuries;
                                                                                                                                      •	    advising	coaches	how	to	improve	squad	cohesion	or	communication;
           •	     helping	athletes,	through	psychological	treatment	methods,	to	achieve	optimum	mental	health	
                  and	therefore	enhance	sporting	performance	(often	involving	techniques	such	as	visualisation	                       •	    delivering	 a	 variety	 of	 group	 workshops,	 which	 may	 include	 self-analysis	 of	 performance	 or	
                  and	relaxation);	                                                                                                         techniques,	to	develop	mental	skills	within	the	sport.	

           •	     conducting	research	to	understand	how	participation	in	sport	and/or	physical	activity	affects	an	
                  individual’s	psychological	health	and	wellbeing	throughout	life.                                                	   Activities	more	closely	associated	to	exercise	psychology	include:
     	     Sport	and	exercise	psychologists	apply	psychological	principles	in	sport	settings	through	experience	                      •	    counselling	 clients	 who	 are	 ill,	 in	 poor	 physical	 or	 mental	 health	 who	 may	 benefit	 from	
           gained	working	with	athletes,	coaches	or	sports	teams	as	clients.	They	also	have	expert	knowledge	                               participation	in	more	regular	exercise;	
           and	 a	 research	 base	 in	 the	 psychology	 of	 sport,	 and	 familiarity	 with	 the	 field	 of	 exercise	 science.	       •	    advising	individuals	about	the	benefits,	both	physical	and	psychological,	that	can	be	derived	
           As	this	is	still	a	comparatively	new	specialism	in	the	UK	(although	it	is	well	developed	in	the	USA),	                           from	exercise;	
           the	 most	 likely	 route	 to	 such	 work	 is	 through	 dual	 involvement	 in	 sport	 and	 relevant	 postgraduate	
                                                                                                                                      •	    working	 with	 individuals	 and	 groups	 in	 a	 wide	 variety	 of	 settings	 including:	 GP	 surgeries;	
           research.	Entry	requirements	will	change	shortly,	however,	and	a	psychology	degree	with	Graduate	
                                                                                                                                            employers’	premises;	the	client’s	home;	clinical	settings;	and	local	fitness	centres;	
           Basis	for	Registration	(GBR)	and	further	accredited	postgraduate	training	will	be	essential	(unless	you	
           have	already	completed	at	least	five	years	full-time	(or	part-time	equivalent)	successful	service	delivery	                •	    devising,	implementing	and	evaluating	exercise	programmes,	based	on	the	needs	of	the	client;	
           involving	the	practice	of	sport	and/or	exercise	psychology).	The	British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	                      •	    providing	counselling	and	consultations	to	a	cross	section	of	the	public	including	people	who	
           has	further	information	on	the	new	chartered	route	to	enter	this	profession.	At	present,	The	British	                            are	depressed,	GP	referrals,	people	in	prison	or	groups	of	employees,	as	part	of	a	workplace	
           Association	of	Sport	and	Exercise	Sciences	(BASES)	provides	an	accreditation	scheme	for	both	sport	                              exercise	programme.	
           and	exercise	psychologists	and	sports	scientists,	and	keeps	a	list	of	members	who	can	offer	these	
           services.	The	majority	of	sports	psychologists	are	currently	employed	as	university	lecturers	or	work	
                                                                                                                                  c   Salary and Conditions
           as	consultants	with	clients	from	sport	and	business/industry.
                                                                                                                                      •	    Many	sport	and	exercise	psychologists	combine	consultancy	work	with	university	or	college	
                                                                                                                                            lecturing,	where	salary	scales	range	from	£27,000	to	£45,000.	
     b     Typical Work Activities
                                                                                                                                      •	    Senior	lecturers	can	earn	between	£35,000	and	£55,000.	
     	     The	 activities	 of	 a	 particular	 sport	 psychology	 professional	 will	 vary	 based	 on	 the	 practitioner’s	           •	    Experienced	consultants	with	around	ten	years	of	experience	could	expect	to	charge	£480	per	
           specific	interests	and	training.	Some	may	focus	primarily	on	conducting	research	and	on	educating	                               day	in	consultancy	fees.	
           others	about	sport	psychology.	Typically,	these	individuals	teach	at	colleges	and	universities	and,	in	

38                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     39
     5   Psychology Careers

         •	    Salaries	vary	if	employed	with	professional	clubs	or	national	governing	bodies.	Starting	salaries	        	   Gaining	practical	experience	in	sports	performance,	or	in	areas	such	as	coaching,	teaching	or	health	
               are	in	the	region	of	£30,000,	whilst	a	lead	psychologist	could	earn	£70,000.	                                 promotion,	can	equip	you	with	practical	skills	and	a	knowledge	base	on	which	to	build	on	the	theory	
         •	    Working	hours	for	practitioners	can	be	varied	and	depend	on	the	client	and	the	nature	of	the	                 studied	 through	 postgraduate	 courses.	 Competition	 for	 postgraduate	 courses	 is	 high	 and	 study	
               sport.	Consultancy	work	could	be	nine	to	five;	however	it	is	equally	likely	that	weekend	work	                can	be	a	long	and	expensive	process.	Applicants	with	life	experience	are	welcomed	and	those	with	
               or	fitting	within	the	timescales	of	specific	sporting	tournaments	will	be	required.	Hours	within	             relevant	experience	may	have	a	distinct	advantage;	however,	it	is	illegal	to	discriminate	on	grounds	of	
               education	or	healthcare	settings	are	mainly	nine	to	five.	                                                    age.
         •	    Work	 environments	 vary	 depending	 on	 the	 client	 and	 could	 include	 an	 office	 base	 within	 a	
               university	campus,	GP	surgery	or	hospital;	or	field	settings	such	as	the	athletes’	village	at	major	
                                                                                                                         e   Training
               sports	events,	the	team	training	base	or	employers’	premises.	
         •	    The	gender	breakdown	for	members	of	the	Division	of	Sport	and	Exercise	Psychology	within	                 	   The	Health	Professions	Council	(HPC)	is	the	independent	regulator	for	sport	and	exercise	psychologists	
               the	British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	is	57%	male	and	43%	female.	                                          and	is	responsible	for	the	monitoring	of	the	continuous	professional	development	(CPD)	of	registrants.	
                                                                                                                             This	involves	maintaining	a	continuous,	up-to-date	record	of	CPD	activities,	utilising	a	mix	of	learning	
         •	    Jobs	are	available	within	universities	and	colleges,	and	with	sports	teams	and	organisations	
                                                                                                                             activities	and	ensuring	quality	of	practice,	service	delivery	and	benefit	to	service	users.	Professional	
               throughout	the	UK	and	the	rest	of	the	world.	Sport	psychology	is	well	established	in	the	USA.	
                                                                                                                             training	opportunities	exist	for	sport	and	exercise	psychologists	through	postgraduate	and	doctoral	
         •	    Travel	 within	 a	 working	 day	 is	 common	 and	 time	 spent	 away	 from	 home	 can	 be	 required,	          courses.	You	may	decide	 to	broaden	 your	expertise	 by	undertaking	 study	in	other	branches,	such	
               depending	on	the	client.	A	sport	psychologist	may	form	part	of	a	support	team	travelling	with	                as	 clinical	 or	 health	 psychology.	 You	 may	 also	 decide	 to	 undertake	 further	 research,	 especially	 if	
               the	client	to	competitions	and	tournaments	locally,	nationally	and	internationally.	                          employed	in	a	lecturing	role,	by	completing	a	PhD.	You	may	also	be	required	to	undertake	professional	
                                                                                                                             training	 or	 short	 courses	 by	 your	 employer,	 governing	 body	 or	 through	 your	 division	 of	 the	 British	
                                                                                                                             Psychological	Society	(BPS)	or	The	British	Association	of	Sport	and	Exercise	Sciences	(BASES).	The	
     d   Entry Requirements
                                                                                                                             opportunity	to	attend	short	courses	or	study	for	further	qualifications	is	usually	readily	available.
     	   There	are	two	training	routes	to	become	a	practising	sport	and	exercise	psychologist:	through	the	
         British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	or	through	The	British	Association	of	Sport	and	Exercise	Sciences	
         (BASES).	See	the	BPS	website	for	information	about	their	route	to	becoming	a	Chartered	Sport	and	               f   Career Development
         Exercise	Psychologist.	Briefly,	you	will	need	the	following	qualifications:
                                                                                                                         	   This	is	a	relatively	new	field	of	psychology	and	is	still	expanding.	Opportunities	for	advancement	exist	
         •	    Graduate	 Basis	 for	 Chartered	 Registration	 (GBR),	 achieved	 by	 completing	 a	 BPS	 accredited	          both	within	professional	practice	and	also	through	research	within	an	academic	environment.	Statutory	
               degree	or	conversion	course	(See	British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	Accredited	Psychology	                   regulation	of	psychologists	through	the	Health	Professions	Council	(HPC)	requires	practitioners	who	
               Courses;                                                                                                      wish	 to	 use	 the	 titles	 ‘Sport	 Psychologist’	 or	 ‘Exercise	 Psychologist’,	 to	 be	 registered	 through	 the	
         •	    A	BPS	accredited	Masters	in	Sport	and	Exercise	Psychology	or	Stage	1	of	the	BPS	Qualification	                HPC.	Within	the	field	of	sport	psychology,	you	may	find	the	opportunity	to	advance	to	private	practice	
               in	Sport	and	Exercise	Psychology;                                                                             as	 a	 consultant,	 or	 move	 to	 senior	 positions	 with	 a	 professional	 club,	 with	 individual	 athletes	 or	 a	
                                                                                                                             governing	 body.	 Elite	 athletes	 work	 for	 many	 years	 to	 reach	 that	 level,	 and	 expect	 the	 same	 level	
         •	    Stage	2	of	the	BPS	Qualification	in	Sport	and	Exercise	Psychology,	consisting	of	two	years’	of	
                                                                                                                             of	expertise	from	their	support	staff.	It	can	take	several	years	for	a	sport	psychologist	to	work	with	
               supervised	practice	assessed	by	the	Health	Professions	Council	(HPC).	
                                                                                                                             clients	at	a	professional	level.	Within	the	field	of	exercise	psychology,	there	may	be	opportunities	for	
     	   To	 train	 to	 become	 an	 accredited	 sport	 and	 exercise	 psychologist	 with	 BASES,	 you	 must	 hold	 an	       advancement	to	a	consultancy	role	or	involvement	in	GP	referral	schemes.	There	is	an	increasing	role	
         undergraduate	degree	in	sport	and	exercise	science	(or	equivalent).	This	will	then	be	followed	by	three	            for	 professional	 staff	 within	 the	 area	 of	 health	 promotion.	 The	 role	 of	 health	 psychology	 within	 the	
         years’	of	supervision	by	a	BASES	accredited	practioner	(or	two	years	if	you	have	an	approved	MSc).	                 NHS	may	also	present	opportunities	for	qualified	exercise	psychologists.	The	issues	faced	by	athletes	
         Entry	with	an	HND	or	Foundation	Degree	alone	is	not	possible,	although	these	qualifications	may	allow	              are	often	similar	to	those	faced	by	the	general	population,	including	depression	or	eating	disorders	
         entry	to	advanced	stages	of	an	appropriate	undergraduate	degree.	Psychologists	offering	services	                   and	 as	 such	 there	 are	 opportunities	 for	 those	 qualified	 in	 other	 branches	 of	 psychology,	 such	 as	
         to	the	public	are	required	to	be	registered	with	the	HPC	to	meet	statutory	regulation.	BPS	chartered	               clinical	psychology,	as	well	as	sport	and	exercise,	to	offer	a	broader	range	of	counselling	services.	
         psychologists	 will	 automatically	 be	 included	 in	 the	 new	 HPC	 register.	 Discussions	 are	 ongoing	          The	British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	provides	further	details	of	other	branches	of	psychology	in	the	
         about	 possible	 registration	 of	 BASES	 accredited	 psychologists.	 There	 are	 transition	 arrangements	         online	article:	So	you	want	to	be	a	Psychologist?	UK	sport	and	the	health	of	the	nation	have	become	
         in	place	for	those	candidates	who	are	BASES	accredited	to	provide	evidence	to	meet	requirements	                    focal	 points,	 with	 issues	 like	 the	 smoking	 ban	 and	 events	 like	 the	 London	 Olympics	 in	 2012	 and	
         for	chartered	 status	with	BPS.	For	further	information	 see	the	statutory	 regulation	 updates	 at	both	           Commonwealth	Games	in	Glasgow	in	2014	raising	both	awareness	and	funding.	This	may	result	in	a	
         the	BPS	and	BASES	websites.	Sport	and	exercise	psychology	candidates	will	need	to	demonstrate	                      rise	in	the	number	of	vacancies	for	health	professionals	as	well	as	support	staff	to	work	with	athletes	
         evidence	of	skills,	such	as:                                                                                        in	preparation	for	these	events.
         •	    highly	developed	communication	and	interpersonal	skills;	
         •	    active	listening	and	reflection	skills;	
         •	    adaptability	to	work	in	a	range	of	settings	with	different	clients;	
         •	    commitment	to	research	and	continuous	professional	development;	
         •	    the	ability	to	work	under	pressure	and	cope	with	stressful	situations.	

40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   41
     5   Psychology Careers

     g   Typical Employers                                                                                                     5.8	   Past	University	of	Ulster	Graduates:
     	   Sport	 and	 exercise	 psychologists	 work	 in	 a	 variety	 of	 settings	 and	 with	 a	 diverse	 range	 of	 clients	
         participating	in	recreational,	amateur	and	elite	levels	of	competition.	Some	opportunities	exist	to	work	
         as	full-time	psychologists,	and	these	are	constantly	increasing.	Most	combine	their	consultancy	work	
                                                                                                                                                                   My name is Dr Marian McLaughlin and I work as a Lecturer within
         with	teaching	and	research,	employed	within	universities	or	colleges	throughout	the	UK	and	abroad.	
                                                                                                                                                                the School of Psychology at the University of Ulster. Within this role I
         Many	sport	psychologists	work	as	private	consultants,	or	hold	full-time	positions	with	professional	
                                                                                                                                                                perform a variety of duties including teaching, supporting and supervising
         sports	 teams	 or	 national	 governing	 bodies	 of	 sport.	 Some	 also	 work	 in	 other	 areas	 of	 psychology	
                                                                                                                                                                undergraduate and postgraduate research projects and conducting and
         such	as	clinical	and	occupational	domains.	Often,	psychologists	can	operate	as	freelance	consultants	
                                                                                                                                                                disseminating research.
         and	have	a	club	or	governing	body	as	a	major	client,	referring	both	young	and	experienced	athletes.	
         Similarly,	exercise	psychologists	tend	to	combine	consultancy	with	teaching	and	research	careers.	                                                    Psychology was an area that always fascinated me and I was
         Exercise	psychologists’	work	might	see	them	involved	in	GP	exercise	referral,	cardiac	rehabilitation	                                              particularly interested in studying human behaviour with a career goal of
         schemes	 or	 work	 within	 the	 NHS	 or	 private	 healthcare	 providers.	 Some	 private	 and	 public	 sector	                                      one day becoming an Educational Psychologist. After taking a gap year
         employers	also	offer	staff	exercise	or	health	programmes	and	may	involve	an	exercise	psychologist	to	                                              after my A-level studies I applied for a place on the BSc Honours Social
         consult	on	the	content	or	to	increase	participation.                                                                                               Psychology Degree programme at the University of Ulster. This provided
                                                                                                                                                            me with a foundation in many core areas of Psychology, including Health,
                                                                                                                                                            Cognitive and Developmental Psychology and the application of various
                                                                                                                                 research designs and methodologies.
                                                                                                                                     The research skills I obtained from my degree were instrumental in my career development as once
                                                                                                                                 I graduated I got a job conducting research in the Institute for Nursing Research within the University
                                                                                                                                 of Ulster. This provided me with the opportunity of conducting health related research in a professional
                                                                                                                                 capacity and involved working with individuals from public and private institutions.
                                                                                                                                     Having gained four year’s research experience I was then awarded a studentship to complete my
                                                                                                                                 PhD which investigated the factors influencing safer sex practices among teenage mothers. This was a
                                                                                                                                 truly rewarding and enjoyable experience as it provided me with the opportunity to attend and present
                                                                                                                                 at a number of national and international conferences and have articles published in peer reviewed
                                                                                                                                     As Psychology is so varied, with many dimensions and specialities, it can open the door to numerous
                                                                                                                                 career opportunities. Contrary to my original career plans I discovered from my undergraduate and
                                                                                                                                 postgraduate studies that Health Psychology was the area that interested me most and lecturing and
                                                                                                                                 research were the avenues that I wanted to pursue as a career. I am very fortunate to have obtained a job
                                                                                                                                 within the department where I formerly studied and I now work alongside individuals who once taught
                                                                                                                                 me. This, fortunately for me and several of my colleagues is characteristic of the School of Psychology
                                                                                                                                 at the University of Ulster, as they like when possible, to advance the careers of their graduates. It is an
                                                                                                                                 amazing place to both work and study as the lecturers are knowledgeable and dedicated to what they
                                                                                                                                    Moreover, there is a friendly and warm atmosphere within the School, making it a very rewarding and
                                                                                                                                 enjoyable place to work. I now hope that, along with my colleagues, I can motivate and inspire current
                                                                                                                                 and future students studying Psychology.

                                                                                                                                Academic Psychologist

42                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              43
     5   Psychology Careers

                                            My name is Amanda Crossan and I am a Consultant Clinical                                               My name is Aoife Lyons and I work as an Occupational Psychologist in
                                         Psychologist in Belfast City Hospital. I work with patients who                                        the Public Appointments Service in Dublin. The role of our team involves
                                         have respiratory problems such as cystic fibrosis, difficult asthma                                    bringing the principles of psychology to the area of recruitment and
                                         and COPD. Every day I enjoy the challenges that my job brings                                          selection here in the Public Appointments Service.
                                         applying a psychological approach to assist people cope with                                               I did my Leaving Cert. in 1998, and then went straight on to do my
                                         chronic illness and improve their quality of life. I work with people                                   undergraduate degree in Occupational Psychology in the University of
                                         on a one to one basis and in groups. I am also involved in teaching,                                    Ulster. I did quite a bit of research before deciding on this course, and I
                                         supervision, research and consultation with other psychologists                                         was attracted to it because it seemed a very good mix of psychology and
                                         and professionals.                                                                                      business, both of which I was interested in. I had a great time in Magee
                                            My journey into the area of psychology began when I was                                              and the course was a really good foundation for me. We had a good range
                                         accepted to study Social Psychology and Sociology at the                                                of psychology modules that gave me a good insight into the field. I have
                                         University of Ulster. Whilst studying for my BSc Honours degree,                                        used the research skills that I learned throughout my career, even the
          I became more and more interested in the areas of abnormal psychology, social psychology,              statistics, which I had hoped I would never have to use again!
          psychobiology and research. The knowledge I gained during my degree was the catalyst                      As part of my time in Magee, I took a year out and, as part of the Business Education Initiative, went
          that ignited my desire to learn more about the specific area of Health Psychology. Thus upon           to college in the States, where I did a Diploma in Business Administration it was a brilliant year.
          completing my degree I embarked on a D.Phil at the University of Ulster in the area of Health
          Psychology.                                                                                               As I got closer to the end of my degree I had to decide on my next steps. I really felt occupational
                                                                                                                 psychology this was an area that I wanted to work in so I decided that I should study for a post graduate
             The D.Phil taught me how to develop my own ideas and interests into a thesis on the general         qualification. I did my Masters in Occupational Psychology in the University of Manchester and I felt
          populations’ knowledge of genetic diseases and their attitude towards intervention. Thus I gained      that I had a big advantage, having covered a number of areas in Occupational Psychology as part of my
          the experience and skills needed to carry out a research project from idea to completion. I also       undergraduate degree.
          learned how to do presentations and to take tutorials/lectures. The D.Phil was a very rewarding
          and positive experience in my life. After my D.Phil I accepted an offer of a place on the Doctorate         My first job was as a consultant in Dublin, and that was a great job because I got to work with a range
          in Clinical Psychology training course in Queen’s University at Belfast.                               of organisations in both the public and private sectors. This was a very good opportunity for me because
                                                                                                                 it is always challenging getting a job without experience but at the time, a lot of consultancies offered
             I am very grateful to the Psychology Department in the University of Ulster for the positive,       graduate training programmes. I worked there for two years and learned a huge amount before travelling
          supportive and creative environment in which they teach psychology. The standards of the               around Australia for a year and then joined the Public Appointments Service in Dublin. My current position
          lectures, tutorials and practicals were exceptional. The enthusiasm of the lecturers for their         often consists of analysing a job, understanding what’s required, then designing selection exercises,
          topics was contagious.                                                                                 training assessors and board members. We also do quite a bit of research in the field of recruitment and
              When I started my BSc degree in Coleraine I had an interest in psychology, when I left             selection.
          Coleraine I had a definite passion for Psychology. The University of Ulster provided me with a            A typical day for me would actually be quite hard to describe because the activities are quite varied.
          solid foundation in psychology and I continue to use this knowledge daily. I still retain contact      I might be involved in maybe a full day training session, with the assessors on a particular exercise. I
          with the Psychology Department at the University of Ulster - it is the kind of University that you     might be involved in going off-site to actually observe somebody in the workplace, to try and pull out the
          graduate from but that you never really leave.                                                         key competencies required or I might just spend a day in front of the computer actually analysing data.
                                                                                                                 So really there’s a huge variety in terms of what I might do on any given day. The best part of my role is
                                                                                                                 getting to work with people who are really dedicated, committed and just brilliant at what they do and
                                                                                                                 you get a real buzz out of working with people like that.
                                                                                                                    The advice I’d give to someone interested in psychology is to do your research and understand
                                                                                                                 the branch of psychology you’d be keen on working within. You really have to understand the different
                                                                                                                 specialisms to see which one would suit you best as a person.

          Clinical Psychologist                                                                                  Occupational Psychologist

44                                                                                                                                                                                                                              45
     5   Psychology Careers

                                              My name is Geraldine O’Hare and I am a Chartered Forensic                       During assessment, I am trying to determine what caused an individual to behave in a criminal way.
                                           Psychologist. I am Head of Psychology Services within the Probation            All of my assessments involve face-to-face contact with offenders. Through interviews, the use of clinical
                                           Board for N. Ireland, where I have worked for the last 15 years.               skills and by employing a range of psychological tests, I formulate opinions. These allow me to determine
                                                                                                                          necessary management plans and to make recommendations regarding treatment needs. I can also
                                               I studied Applied Psychology at the University at Jordanstown
                                                                                                                          be called upon by the Courts to act as an expert witness and to assist in criminal investigations. The
                                           before attaining 3 Masters Degree in Psychology from the University
                                                                                                                          psychological assessments I provide for the Court assist the Court pass sentence. In addition, I provide
                                           of Ulster, Queens University Belfast and University of Leicester, and
                                                                                                                          assessments to Parole Commissioners if it is no longer safe for an offender to remain in the community
                                           I also hold a management qualification.
                                                                                                                          and the individual needs to be recalled to prison.
                                              My BSc Honours Degree programme at the University of Ulster
                                                                                                                             I also have senior management responsibility within PBNI for Offending Behaviour Programmes. My
                                           provided me with a foundation in many areas of psychology and my
                                                                                                                          job is to ensure that we have appropriate treatment programmes in place to address offending behaviour.
                                           placement opportunity in my 3rd year at the Institute of Psychiatry,
                                                                                                                          For example, these include sex offender treatment programmes, programmes for violent offenders and for
                                           Maudsley Hospital London was the experience that confirmed my
                                                                                                                          perpetrators of domestic violence. Such programmes are critical in working with offenders to help them
                                           ambition and determination to practice as a psychologist.
                                                                                                                          face up to the harm that they have inflicted and in changing not just their attitudes and thinking, but also
             Forensic Psychology was always an area that interested me. Studying criminal behaviour was a                 their behaviour in the future.
          great opportunity, which I was fortunate enough to experience and achieve my 3rd Masters in from
                                                                                                                             Both the N. Ireland Branch of the BPS and the Psychological Society of Ireland have been great
          the University of Leicester. This was my career decided for me after having worked in a number
                                                                                                                          sources of contacts with other psychologists from other psychology areas, and an important network for
          of clinical and occupational psychology roles both in the South of Ireland and Scotland. After
                                                                                                                          developing Forensic Psychology in Ireland. As Chair of the Division of Forensic Psychology for the NIBPS
          professional Forensic Psychology training, it is necessary to register with the British Psychological
                                                                                                                          and PSI, I have great opportunities to develop local and national links in promoting Forensic Psychology
          Society (BPS) to begin Chartership. This is a minimum of three years further training on the job, an
                                                                                                                          practice and research.
          “apprenticeship” type of experience, whereby you will develop a range of expertise in a number
          of areas, recognised by the BPS, to enable you to practise independently as a Chartered Forensic                   I would have no hesitation in recommending Forensic Psychology as a career choice for psychology
          Psychologist. So really it can take up to eight or nine years to fully qualify. It is a long time, but, given   graduates. It is challenging but rewarding work. It requires a real interest in people’s behaviour and
          the nature of the work, it does give you the confidence, and indeed the competence, you need to                 what can motivate them to commit criminal acts, and more importantly, what can change attitudes and
          work in what is a very exciting field of psychology.                                                            behaviours. It is also hugely varied and provides a truly fulfilling career for those who choose this path.
             As a Chartered Forensic Psychologist, I head up forensic psychology services within the                         Finally, when I reflect upon my career to date, I am always thankful to the Psychology Department at
          Probation Board for N. Ireland. It is one of the fastest growing areas of employment for Psychology             the University of Ulster who provided me with many great opportunities of study, and I am very proud to
          graduates and, in simple terms, is the study of crime and criminal behaviour. My job as a Forensic              be a graduate of the University of Ulster. I am proud that my first experiences of psychology began at the
          Psychologist involves conducting psychological assessments on individuals who have offended.                    University of Ulster. These experiences were firmly shaped and encouraged by the many very dedicated,
          Many of my clients have very complex problems, such as mental health problems, personality                      enthusiastic and committed lecturers within the department at the time, and who continue to advance the
          disorders, addiction issues etc. Many have served life sentences and present with a range of                    careers of their students.
          psychological issues. Requests for assessments will also come through the courts or from the
          Probation Officers with whom I work on a daily basis.

                                                                                                                           Forensic Psychologist

46                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       47
     5   Psychology Careers

                                             My name is Judith Mullineux. I graduated from the University                                       My name is Mairead Graham, I am currently employed as a Research
                                         of Ulster in 1986 with the award of BSc (Hons) Psychology. Unlike                                   Assistant with the Irish Society for Quality and Safety in Healthcare (ISQSH).
                                         many, I began the psychology course with little idea of what I                                      I graduated from the University of Ulster in 2008 having completed a
                                         wanted to do on completion. However, as I progressed through                                        degree in Psychology at the University’s Magee campus.
                                         the course I became increasingly interested in the clinical and
                                                                                                                                              I have always been interested in human emotions and behaviour so
                                         behavioural elements of the course. After graduation I decided to
                                                                                                                                           Psychology was the ideal choice for me. My degree in Psychology gave
                                         gain some experience in the ‘real world’ before making any further
                                                                                                                                           be a broad overview of the discipline and of the many areas within which
                                         decisions. I secured a voluntary position with ‘Save The Children
                                                                                                                                           Psychology graduates work. I also have a keen interest in health and
                                         Fund’ who, at that time, delivered a residential programme offering
                                                                                                                                           how people interact with health care services. In the second year of my
                                         an alternative to Training School for young people in the criminal
                                                                                                                                           degree programme I applied for a research placement with ISQSH and
                                         justice system. The work then evolved embracing adults and
                                                                                                                                           was offered the opportunity to work with them on a study examining ways
                                         offering a replacement to a custody programme. During this time I
                                                                                                                                           of assessing patient satisfaction with health services. I really enjoyed the
                                         was able to utilise the knowledge I had gained through my degree
                                                                                                               project and conducted an additional study with this organisation for my final year dissertation. When I
          and start applying some of the theories to practice in both individual and group therapeutic
                                                                                                               completed my degree I was offered a permanent research post with ISQSH.
          contexts. I completed a foundation course in ‘Personal Construct Psychology’ to inform this
          work further. It was during this time that I began to wrestle with the dilemma of returning to          My day to day work now involves conducting and managing research studies. However I am also
          University either to train as a Clinical Psychologist or a Social Worker. Subsequently, I chose      involved in other ISQSH projects such as the preparation and launch of our medication safety leaflet and
          social work. I completed the Post-graduate Diploma in Social Work together with the Certificate      managing a pilot survey for measuring patient perception of Mental Health services. I am now playing a
          and Qualification in Social Work (CQSW) at the University of Ulster graduating in 1990.              lead role in the management of a major patient satisfaction survey of hospitals in Ireland. My degree in
                                                                                                               Psychology has been invaluable in developing my research skills and also providing me with the skills and
             Following this I secured a position with the Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI) as
                                                                                                               experience of applying psychological research and theories to develop real-life health service projects.
          a Probation Officer. Within this, I have been able to work in a local fieldwork team and in a
          prison environment. In the former, the focus of my work was supervising offenders who were
          subject to community orders. This also involved assessing people in terms of the likelihood of
          re-offending and preparing reports for the courts. I was also able to develop my group work skills
          through co-facilitating programmes such as ‘Anger management’. The foundation to all of this
          work was the knowledge I had attained through my psychology degree. In the prison context I
          was able to develop this further and facilitate the accredited Home Office programme ‘Enhanced
          Thinking Skills’ (ETS). Again, the knowledge I attained through my primary psychology degree
          on cognitive-behavioural approaches underpinned this work. On occasion, I have been required
          to evaluate the programmes I have been involved with and the knowledge and skills acquired
          through the research methods element of my psychology degree have been invaluable.
              In summary, I feel the psychology degree equipped me with a significant knowledge base which
          I have been able to utilise and build upon in the subsequent and varied roles I have undertaken
          in the field of criminal justice. It was and remains the most useful and enjoyable course I have

          Probation Officer

48                                                                                                                                                                                                                            49
     5   Psychology Careers

                                             My name is Dr Katrina Duffy. I am the Educational Director with                                              My name is Denise Clarke. I am an Oncology Social Worker in the
                                         the Saplings School, a position I have held for three years. The                                             Cancer Centre at the Belfast City Hospital. I graduated from the University
                                         Saplings School, in Mullingar is a year round early intervention                                             of Ulster in 2003 with a BSc (Hons) Degree in Applied Psychology. Like
                                         facility for children challenged with autism. The Sapling’s model                                            many others, I did not really know where I wanted my Psychology Degree
                                         of education utilizes the principles of Behaviour Analysis or                                                to take me. The four years equipped me not only with knowledge, theory
                                         Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA), a psychological discipline,                                                and research skills but I also had the fantastic opportunity to experience
                                         which simply stated, is the scientific study of behaviour. ABA is                                            my 6-month placement in the Centre for Children’s Cancer and Blood
                                         recognised as the most comprehensive and effective scientific                                                Disorders, Sydney Children’s Hospital, Australia. This was an invaluable
                                         approach to improving the lives of children/persons with autism                                              experience working alongside a Research Psychologist in both the
                                         and their families. As Educational Director I am responsible for                                             Children’s Hospital and the University of New South Wales, Sydney.
                                         devising individualised teaching programmes for all our children.
                                         I closely monitor their progress and change their programme/s                                                   Following graduation I went travelling for a year before coming back
                                         accordingly.                                                                                                 and applying for the Social Work Degree at Queens University Belfast.
                                                                                                                      Having already gained a Psychology Degree allowed me to fast track the Social Work Degree in 2
              After I did my Leaving Cert I completed a HNC in Health and Social Care. At that time I felt            years. I also found that a significant part of the teaching on the social work course was informed by
          this was where my strengths lay as I always knew I wanted to pursue a career in Psychology                  my knowledge and skills developed during the Psychology degree. I continue to use this in my daily
          so that I could qualify in a professional capacity to assist children with special needs to reach           practice as an Oncology Social Worker. On reflection, I was certainly not ready at 18 to take on the
          their full potential. From there I went on to do my degree in Social Psychology at the University           responsibilities of a social work course and I feel the Psychology Degree not only allowed me to better
          of Ulster at Coleraine. This was an extremely enjoyable experience as, in addition to the more              understand the direction of my career but it also provided me the time to develop as a person and better
          traditional areas of psychology, such as cognition and individual differences, it gave me the               understand my world.
          opportunity to have training and supervision in the principles of behavioural analysis. This
          aroused my interest in this field and once I graduated in 2000 I applied to do my PhD. My thesis               The team at the University of Ulster form a huge part of my positive memories of the course and the
          outlined the application of behaviour analytic procedures in the development of a non-intrusive             personal element to their approach was fundamental to the success of the 2003 graduates. I would
          detection and disclosure technique to determine whether a child had or had not been sexually                recommend the Psychology Degree to any person considering a career involving work with people in
          abused. This was a challenging experience but one which I thoroughly enjoyed.                               any capacity or setting and can guarantee that it will be a worthwhile primary degree.

             The training and skills I obtained from conducting my PhD are essential to my role as
          Educational Director. As Educational Director I must ensure that all practises in the school
          are research based and further supported through the collection and graphical presentation
          of data using the science of ABA. Furthermore, my job requires that I construct, implement                  Social Worker
          and monitor Individual Education Plans (IEP’s), conduct comprehensive functional analysis
          assessments, design, update and ensure appropriate implementation of individual Behavioural
          Support Plans, design and conduct assessments for all junior staff, and supervise training and
          teaching of staff to tutor in 1.1, small group and integration placements and liaise with and
          supervise other professionals, such as Speech and Language Therapist, Music Therapist and               5.9     Pod casts from Professional Psychologists:
          Occupational Therapist.
                                                                                                                  	       To	 view	 the	 podcasts	 from	 a	 selection	 of	 psychologists	 who	 are	 currently	 engaged	 in	 the	 careers	
             Given this, a typical day for me would be hard to describe as every day is different. That’s                 described	earlier	please	go	to:	
          why I love it. Experience has taught me that good communication skills are essential. My job as
          Educational Director is very challenging, but every day is very fulfilling. Having the opportunity to
          see children reach their full potential is very rewarding thus in turn keeps me motivated to ensure   	
          that I provide the most effective scientific approach to improve the quality of the lives of each
          child/persons with autism and their families with whom I work.

         Applied Behaviour Analyst

50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          51
     6     Other Careers

     6.1   Other Careers                                                                                                            d   Occupational Therapy
     a     Teaching                                                                                                                 	   Occupational	 therapists	 (OTs)	actively	 engage	 people	 in	 purposeful	 activities	to	 promote,	 regain	 or	
                                                                                                                                        maintain	 health	 and	 wellbeing,	 using	 occupations	 as	 therapy	 and	 enabling	 individuals	 to	 perform	
     	     A	secondary	school	teacher	teaches	one	or	more	national	curriculum	subjects	to	pupils	aged	11-16,	
                                                                                                                                        such	tasks.	They	work	with	children	and	adults	of	all	ages,	whose	difficulties	may	be	congenital	or	the	
           or	up	to	19	years	in	schools	with	sixth	forms.	Teachers	may	use	creativity,	humour	and	imagination	
                                                                                                                                        result	of	an	accident,	illness,	ageing	or	lifestyle.	The	OT	assesses	patients’	or	clients’	physical,	mental	
           to	develop	schemes	of	work	and	to	plan	lessons	in	order	to	foster	a	healthy	culture	of	learning	within	
                                                                                                                                        and/or	social	challenges	and	devises	treatment	programmes	to	increase	their	ability	to	tackle	their	
           the	 classroom	 and	 to	 generate	 the	 most	 effective	 interactions	 with	 pupils.	 	 Teachers	 encourage,	
                                                                                                                                        difficulties	independently.	Treatment	programmes	vary	greatly	according	to	individual	needs	and	may	
           monitor	 and	 record	 the	 progress	 of	 individual	 pupils,	 and	 devise	 and	 tailor	 resources	 accordingly.	
                                                                                                                                        involve	environmental	modifications.	OTs	review	treatment	periodically,	evaluate	progress	and	modify	
           They	must	also	keep	up	to	date	with	developments	in	their	subject	area,	new	resources,	methods	and	
                                                                                                                                        the	treatment	as	appropriate.
           national	objectives.	Teachers	liaise	and	network	with	other	professionals,	parents	both	informally	and	
           formally.	Newly	qualified	 teachers	in	England,	 Wales	 and	Northern	Ireland	 start	on	the	main	salary	                  	   Jobs	 in	 the	 National	 Health	 Service	 (NHS)	 are	 covered	 by	 the	 Agenda	 for	 Change.	 Occupational	
           scale,	which	rises	incrementally	from	£20,627	to	£30,148	(salary	data	collected	Nov	2008).	The	exact	                        therapists	(OTs)	starting	their	career	as	allied	health	professionals	in	the	NHS	typically	start	at	Band	5	
           starting	point	depends	on	qualifications,	relevant	prior	experience	and	the	responsibilities	of	the	post.	                   (£19,683	-	£25,424),	moving	to	Occupational	Therapist	Specialist	(Band	6,	£23,458	-	£31,779)	and	then	
           In	addition,	there	is	a	Distant	Learning	Allowance	of	£1,536	and	Remote	Schools	Allowance	of	£971	or	                        Occupational	Therapist	Advanced	(Band	7,	£28,313	-	£37,326).	Pay	progression	operates	through	the	
           £1,791.	As	Psychology	is	not	a	qualified	teaching	accredited	degree,	a	full-time,	a	part-time	or	modular	                    Knowledge	and	Skills	Framework	(KSF).	Occupational	therapists	(OTs)	need	a	degree	or	postgraduate	
           Postgraduate	Certificate	in	Secondary	Education	(PGCE)	is	the	required	route	for	individuals	hoping	                         qualification	 in	 occupational	 therapy	 approved	 by	 the	 Health	 Professions	 Council	 (HPC),	 and	 most	
           to	teach	in	Northern	Ireland	or	mainland	Britain.                                                                            providers	are	also	accredited	by	the	British	Association/College	of	Occupational	therapists	(BAOT/
                                                                                                                                        COT).	 This	 should	 ensure	 that	 programmes	 are	 up	 to	 date	 with	 occupational	 therapy	 standards	 of	
                                                                                                                                        practice.	 Check	 that	 degree	 programmes	 are	 accredited	 before	 you	 apply.	 Postgraduate	 courses,	
     b     Social Work                                                                                                                  usually	 two-year	 accelerated	 programmes,	 are	 available	 if	 you	 already	 have	 a	 degree,	 in	 a	 related	
     	     A	social	worker	works	with	people	who	have	been	socially	excluded	or	who	are	experiencing	crisis.	                           subject	such	as	psychology.
           Their	role	is	to	provide	support	to	enable	service	users	to	help	themselves.	They	maintain	professional	
           relationships	with	service	users,	acting	as	guides,	advocates	or	critical	friends.	Social	workers	work	in	
           a	variety	of	settings	within	a	framework	of	relevant	legislation	and	procedures,	supporting	individuals,	
           families	and	groups	within	the	community.	Settings	may	include	the	service	users’	homes,	schools,	
           hospitals	and	the	premises	of	other	public	sector	and	voluntary	organisations.	Qualified	social	work	
           professionals	are	often	supported	by	social	work	assistants,	who	require	similar	training	and	approved	
           courses.	They	also	work	closely	with	other	health	and	social	care	staff.	The	range	of	typical	starting	
           salaries	 is	 £23,500	 -	 £30,000	 (salary	 data	 collected	 Aug	 09).	 Approved	 postgraduate	 courses	 are	
           usually	full	time	and	last	two	years,	although	there	are	some	part-time	courses	available.	A	minimum	
           2:2	honours	degree	is	normally	required	for	entry	to	the	postgraduate	professional	training.	Substantial	
           work	experience	in	a	relevant	area	can	increase	your	chances	of	being	considered	for	training.

     c     Careers (Training and Recruitment)
     	     A	careers	consultant	provides	support	on	all	aspects	of	career	management	and	development,	using	
           guidance,	 counselling,	 coaching	 and	 advisory	 techniques	 to	 assist	 clients	 to	 clarify	 and	 achieve	
           career	and	work	goals.	Many	careers	consultants	work	within	an	organisation,	guiding	and	advising	
           employees,	 often	 individually	 but	 also	 in	 groups.	 A	 large	 number	 of	 careers	 consultants	 work	 on	
           a	 freelance	 basis	 with	 individual	 fee-paying	 clients	 in	 a	 private	 setting.	 The	 role	 overlaps	 with	 that	
           of	 Human	 Resources	 Officer	 and	 Occupational	 Psychologist,	 as	 well	 as	 Careers	 Advisor/Personal	
           Advisor.	 Careers	 consultants	 should	 not	 be	 confused	 with	 Recruitment	 consultants,	 who	 look	 for	
           suitable	candidates	to	fill	their	clients’	vacancies.	The	typical	starting	salary	range	for	a	new	entrant/
           recently	qualified	consultant	is	£23,000	-	£27,000.	Although	this	area	of	work	is	open	to	all	graduates,	
           a	 degree	 in	 a	 social	 science	 related	 subject	 will	 improve	 your	 chances.	 Most	 entrants	 hold	 the	
           Qualification	in	Careers	Guidance	(QCG),	or	the	qualification	it	replaced,	the	DipCG,	awarded	by	the	
           Institute	of	Career	Guidance	(ICG).	QCG	courses	are	available	on	a	full-time	or	part-time	basis	at	14	
           institutions.	This	qualification	combines	study	with	work-based	learning	to	allow	students	to	put	into	
           practice	the	skills	they	learn.	It	is	possible	to	enter	the	course	without	a	degree	if	you	can	demonstrate	
           that	you	have	relevant	experience,	although	the	vast	majority	of	QCG	entrants	are	university	graduates.	
           Essentially,	you	need	to	demonstrate	that	you	have	the	ability	to	manage	postgraduate-level	study.

52                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         53
     6   Other Careers

     e   Psychotherapy
     	   Psychotherapists	work	with	individuals,	couples,	families	and	groups	to	help	them	overcome	a	range	
         of	psychological	and	emotional	issues.	With	the	client	as	an	active	participant,	psychotherapists	use	
         personal	treatment	plans	and	a	variety	of	non-medical-based	treatments.	The	range	of	typical	starting	
         salaries	in	The	National	Health	Service	(NHS)	is	£20,225	-	£26,123.	Most	entrants	are	graduates,	many	
         of	whom	have	previous	experience	from	working	in	a	related	area	such	as	psychology.	A	pre-entry	
         postgraduate	qualification	e.g.	counselling,	is	essential.	The	British	Association	for	Counselling	and	
         Psychotherapy	(BACP)	publishes	the	Training	in	Counselling	&	Psychotherapy	Directory	which	outlines	
         the	main	training	courses.	Courses	are	normally	part	time	and	take	four	to	six	years	to	complete.	They	
         include	theory,	supervised	clinical	work	and	clinical	seminars.	Training	 in	an	established	institution	
         will	almost	always	include	undergoing	personal	therapy.	Not	all	training	programmes	necessarily	give	
         clearance	to	practise	as	a	psychotherapist,	so	check	course	content	and	qualifications	carefully.

     f   Speech Therapy
     	   Speech	and	language	therapists	work	closely	with	infants,	children	and	adults	who	have	various	levels	
         of	speech,	language	and	communication	problems.	They	also	work	with	people	who	have	swallowing	
         difficulties.	Therapists	assess	the	clients’	needs	before	developing	individual	treatment	programmes	              6.2   Management & Finance
         to	enable	each	client	to	improve	as	much	as	possible.	Treatment	plans	often	involve	those	with	whom	
                                                                                                                            	     A	financial	manager	is	responsible	for	providing	financial	advice	and	support	to	clients	and	colleagues	
         the	client	has	a	close	relationship,	for	example	family	members,	carers	or	teachers.	
                                                                                                                                  to	 enable	 them	 to	 make	 sound	 business	 decisions.	 Specific	 settings	 vary	 enormously	 and	 include	
     	   Speech	and	language	therapists	usually	work	as	part	of	a	multidisciplinary	team,	alongside	other	health	                 both	public	and	private	sector	organisations,	such	as	multinational	corporations,	retailers,	financial	
         professionals,	such	as	doctors,	nurses,	psychologists,	physiotherapists	and	occupational	therapists.	                    institutions,	 NHS	 trusts,	 charities,	 small	 manufacturing	 companies	 and	 universities.	 Financial	
         They	may	also	liaise	with	professionals	in	education	and	the	social	services.	The	typical	starting	salary	               considerations	are	at	the	root	of	all	major	business	decisions.	Clear	budgetary	planning	is	essential	
         for	speech	and	language	therapists	in	the	National	Health	Service	is	around	£20,225.	This	can	rise	                      for	future	planning,	both	short	and	long	term,	and	companies	need	to	know	the	financial	implications	
         quickly	to	£24,103	-	£32,653	(salary	data	collected	Jan	09).	Other	employers,	such	as	charities	and	                     of	any	decision	before	proceeding.	In	addition,	care	must	be	taken	to	ensure	that	financial	practices	
         local	education	authorities,	offer	comparable	pay.	To	practise	as	a	speech	and	language	therapist	you	                   are	 in	 line	 with	 all	 statutory	 legislation	 and	 regulations.	 Financial	 managers	 may	 also	 be	 known	 as	
         must	have	a	degree	accredited	by	the	Royal	College	of	Speech	and	Language	Therapists	(RCSLT)	and	                        ‘financial	analysts’	or	‘business	analysts’.	The	range	of	typical	starting	salaries	is	£18,000	-	£29,000.	
         be	a	registered	member	of	the	Health	Professions	Council	(HPC).	There	are	currently	18	universities	                     Average	starting	salaries	in	the	banking	and	finance	sector	are	as	high	as	£27,500	rising	to	£38,000	
         offering	accredited	undergraduate	three-	to	four-year	degree	courses,	and	seven	universities	offering	                   in	the	investment	banking	sector.	A	relevant	postgraduate	course	may	be	useful,	but	is	not	essential.	
         accelerated	two-year	postgraduate	courses	if	you	already	have	a	degree.	Unless	you	are	a	speech	                         In	certain	niche	areas	specialised	knowledge	gained	through	a	postgraduate	programme	may	offer	
         and	language	therapy	graduate,	an	accredited	two-year	diploma/MSc	course	is	necessary	for	entry.	                        you	a	competitive	advantage.	Graduate	schemes	in	finance	and	related	areas	almost	always	require	
         Postgraduate	courses	require	relevant	work	experience.	Applications	should	be	made	directly	to	the	                      further	study	for	professional	qualifications
         relevant	institution.	Closing	dates	vary	between	institutions	but	generally	fall	between	September	and	
                                                                                                                            6.3   Marketing & Sales
                                                                                                                            	     Marketing	 and	 sales	 executives	 are	 involved	 in	 developing	 campaigns	 that	 promote	 a	 product,	
     g   Nursing (Psychological or Specialist)
                                                                                                                                  service	or	idea.	The	role	includes	planning,	advertising,	public	relations,	organising	events,	product	
     	   Mental	 health	 nurses	 work	 with	 children,	 adults	 and	 older	 people	 suffering	 from	 various	 types	 of	          development,	 distribution,	 sponsorship	 and	 research.	 The	 work	 is	 often	 challenging,	 varied	 and	
         mental	health	problems.	As	a	registered	mental	health	nurse	(RMN),	you	may	work	with	clients	in	their	                   exciting.	The	responsibilities	of	a	marketing	or	sales	executive	will	vary	(and	often	interlink),	depending	
         own	homes,	in	residential	units,	in	the	National	Health	Service	(NHS)	or	in	private	specialist	hospital	                 on	the	size	of	the	organisation	and	sector,	and	whether	the	focus	is	on	selling	a	product	or	service	or	
         services	and	secure	units.	The	work	involves	helping	people	to	recover	from	their	illness	or	come	to	                    raising	awareness	of	an	issue	that	affects	the	public.	As	many	organisations	have	marketing	and	sales	
         terms	with	it,	in	order	to	maximise	their	life	potential.	Mental	health	nurses	liaise	with	psychiatrists,	               departments,	executives	can	be	found	in	both	the	private	and	public	sectors,	from	the	financial,	retailing	
         occupational	therapists,	GPs,	social	workers	and	other	health	professionals	to	plan	and	deliver	care	                    and	media	industries	to	voluntary	and	public	sector	organisations.	Executives	may	also	be	known	as	
         using	 a	 multidisciplinary	 client-centred	 approach.	 The	 National	 Health	 Service	 (NHS)	 implemented	              ‘officers’	or	‘coordinators’.	The	range	of	typical	starting	salaries	is	£22,000	-	£27,000,	depending	on	
         a	new	pay	structure	in	2005	called	Agenda	for	Change.	The	nursing	scales	are	as	follows:	Band	5	                         the	sector.	A	postgraduate	qualification	may	improve	your	chances	of	securing	a	position.	However,	
         (newly	qualified	nurses)	£19,683	-	£25,424;	Band	6	(specialist	nurse)	£23,458	-	£31,779;	Band	7	(team	                   although	an	additional	qualification	may	be	useful,	it	will	not	guarantee	a	job	or	replace	the	personal	
         manager)	 £28,313	 -	 £37,326;	 Band	 8	 (A-D)	 A	 £36,112	 -	 £43,335,	 B	 £42,064	 -	 £52,002,	 C	 £50,616	 -	         qualities	and	experience	that	employers	are	looking	for.	Gaining	pre-entry	relevant	work	experience	
         £62,402,	 and	 D	 £60,669	 -	 £75,114.	 Graduate	 entrants	 may,	 where	 available,	 undertake	 a	 two-year	             is	 also	 very	 helpful,	 either	 via	 vacation	 work,	 work	 placements	 or	 shadowing.	 Some	 of	 the	 larger	
         accelerated	 course	 in	 their	 chosen	 branch	 of	 nursing.	 These	 courses	 are	 open	 to	 graduates	 with	            employers	may	offer	students	paid	summer	placements.	Volunteering	is	also	an	effective	way	to	gain	
         degrees	in	a	range	of	subjects,	such	as	psychology.                                                                      valuable	experience.

54                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      55
     6     Other Careers                                                                                                          7     Action plan

     6.4   Psychology Involved Roles                                                                                              7.1   My Career?
     a     Technician                                                                                                             	     Through	reading	the	information	provided	you	should	now	have	gained	some	insight	into	the	available	
                                                                                                                                        career	destinations	open	to	you.	This	next	section	should	be	used	to	help	develop	a	career	path	and	
     	     The	role	mainly	involves	providing	technical	support,	ensuring	that	equipment	is	functioning	properly	
                                                                                                                                        prepare	your	career	ambition.
           and	 is	 ready	 to	 use,	 and	 that	 the	 right	 materials	 are	 available	 for	 particular	 lessons.	 Sometimes	
           laboratory	technicians	work	closely	with	students	to	demonstrate	experiments,	help	teachers	with	a	                    	     Deciding	what	branch	of	Psychology	to	enter	should	be	balanced	somewhat	between	what	skills	you	
           class,	and	support	individual	students	on	research	projects.	The	range	of	typical	starting	salaries	is	                      possess,	 your	 interests	 and	 your	 capabilities.	 However,	 you	 may	 decide	 that	 there	 is	 no	 particular	
           £13,000	-	£16,000.	It	is	possible	to	enter	the	field	with	any	degree,	however	certain	qualifications	and	                    division	of	Psychology	that	you	wish	to	pursue,	and	that	you	would	rather	utilise	the	skills	you	have	
           experience	will	be	useful,	e.g.	a	degree	in	psychology	with	computing.                                                       obtained	 in	 another	 desired	 profession.	 It	 may	 be	 wise	 to	 conduct	 some	 research	 into	 the	 career	
                                                                                                                                        options	that	you	may	be	interested	in	and	the	feasibility	of	entering	such	a	profession.	For	example	if	
                                                                                                                                        you	hope	to	become	a	forensic	psychologist	you	will	first	have	to	obtain	a	relevant	accredited	Masters	
     b     Secretary                                                                                                                    in	forensic	psychology.	There	are	many	different	institutions	which	offer	this	course,	however	you	will	
     	     A	secretary	or	administrator	provides	both	clerical	and	administrative	support	to	professionals,	either	                     have	to	select	which	one	appeals	to	you	and	determine	if	you	can	gain	entry	to	this	course.	Once	this	
           as	part	of	a	team	or	individually.	The	role	plays	a	vital	part	in	the	administration	and	smooth-running	                     has	been	finalised	there	are	other	issues	which	have	to	be	satisfied,	such	as	funding	etc.
           of	businesses	throughout	industry.	Secretaries/administrators	are	involved	with	the	co-ordination	and	
           implementation	of	office	procedures	and	frequently	have	responsibility	for	specific	projects	and	tasks	
                                                                                                                                  7.2   What do I want?
           and,	in	some	cases,	oversee	and	supervise	the	work	of	junior	staff.	Secretarial/administrative	work	has	
           changed	significantly	over	the	years,	and	the	role	varies	greatly	depending	on	sector,	the	size	of	the	                	     Before	deciding	what	to	do	next	you	must	determine	what	career	you	hope	to	pursue,	and	how	you	
           employer	and	levels	of	responsibility.	Most	work	involves	both	written	and	oral	communication,	word	                         are	going	to	achieve	entry	into	that	profession.	A	useful	exercise	is	to	highlight	your	chosen	career	
           processing	and	typing,	as	IT	and	typing	skills,	organisational	and	presentation	skills,	and	the	ability	to	                  and	 identify	 the	 relevant	 key	 stages	 in	 the	 necessary	 path	 you	 must	 take.	 You	 can	 do	 this	 for	 all	
           multi-task	and	work	well	under	pressure,	often	juggling	several	tasks	at	once.	Within	specialist	sectors	                    the	careers	you	are	interested	in.	For	example,	if	you	wish	to	become	a	fully	qualified	occupational	
           such	as	law,	many	secretaries/administrators	are	required	to	have	relevant,	high-level	qualifications	                       psychologist	you	will	have	to	complete	an	BPS	accredited	undergraduate	degree	in	psychology,	then	
           and/or	experience.	The	range	of	typical	starting	salaries	is	£14,000	to	£18,000	for	jobs	outside	London;	                    a	BPS	accredited	masters/postgraduate	qualification	in	occupational	psychology,	and	then	acquire	at	
           £19,000	to	£25,000	in	London.	Jobs	in	the	media,	not-for-profit	sectors	and	small	organisations	are	                         least	two	years	of	supervised	experience	whilst	obtaining	Graduate	Basis	for	Chartered	Membership	
           at	the	lower	end	of	the	pay	scale;	employment	in	banking,	finance	and	law	firms	is	at	the	upper	end.	                        (GBC).
           Requirements	for	formal	qualifications	vary	according	to	employer	and	sector,	and	qualifications	tend	
                                                                                                                                  		    You	will	find	that	in	order	to	become	professional	psychologists	that	most	routes	involve	similar	stages/
           to	be	more	desirable	than	essential.
                                                                                                                                        steps.	However	it	should	be	noted	that	there	are	alternatives	to	such	professions	e.g.	you	may	wish	to	
                                                                                                                                        work	as	an	occupational	psychologist	for	a	number	of	years	(more	than	3)	and	then	take	the	equivalent	
                                                                                                                                        BPS	accredited	exam.	You	can	read	about	the	major	career	professions	in	Sections	5	and	6	in	order	
     c     Researcher
                                                                                                                                        to	help	you	decide	which	careers	that	you	may	be	interested	in.
     	     Researchers	plan,	design	and	manage	social	research	projects.	They	collect	and	analyse	information,	
           using	a	variety	of	computer	software	packages	to	organise	the	data,	which	they	present	in	writing	
           and/or	orally.	A	variety	of	methods,	such	as	interviews,	questionnaires	and	focus	groups,	are	used	to	
           investigate	the	views	of	population	samples	on	specific	issues.	The	range	of	typical	starting	salaries	                           How to become a Chartered Occupational Psychologist
           is	£16,000	-	£24,000,	depending	on	sector	and	level	of	extended	study	or	experience.		It	is	possible	
           to	move	into	a	career	in	social	research	immediately	after	obtaining	a	degree	in	a	relevant	discipline,	
                                                                                                                                                   Step 1                         Step 2                        Step 1
           particularly	if	your	course	includes	social	research	methods	and	statistics.	Although	this	occupation	
           is	open	to	graduates	of	all	disciplines,	most	employers	prefer	a	relevant	social	science	discipline,	such	
                                                                                                                                                   Obtain a BPS                   Obtain a BPS                  Gain two years
           as	psychology.
                                                                                                                                                   accredited                     accredited                    supervised
                                                                                                                                                   Undergraduate                  Postgraduate                  experience               Qualified
     d     Assistant                                                                                                                    START      degree in                      qualification in              to become                Occupational
                                                                                                                                                   Psychology                     Occupational                  a chartered              Psychologist
     	     An	assistant	psychologist	works	with	a	qualified	senior	psychologist	of	a	given	division	of	psychology	                                                                Psychology                    Occupational
           e.g.	 clinical	 psychologists.	 They	 will	 therefore	 assume	 some	 of	 the	 responsibilities	 of	 that	 role,	 at	                                                                                 Psychologist
           the	 supervisory	 psychologist’s	 discretion.	 Referring	 to	 the	 example	 of	 clinical	 psychologist	 a	 job	
           description	 may	 be	 to	 reduce	 psychological	 distress	 and	 enhance	 the	 psychological	 well-being	 of	
           clients.	Many	posts	are	offered	on	fixed,	short-term	contracts,	and	salaries	can	range	from	£10,000	-	
           £18,000.	The	British	Psychological	Society	(BPS)	produces	guidelines	on	the	employment	of	assistant	
           psychologists.	 Entry	 to	 jobs	 is	 very	 competitive	 and	 successful	 applicants	 often	 have	 previous	
           experience	 of	 working	 in	 that	 particular	 division	 of	 psychology.	 It	 is	 common	 for	 those	 hoping	 to	
           secure	senior	status	in	their	preferred	discipline	to	work	at	assistant	level	and	gain	experience	in	a	
           setting	prior	to	commencing	full	training.
56                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             57
     7      Action plan

     7.3    How do I do that?                                                                                                      7.4   Progress …
     	      Once	you	have	identified	each	stage	of	the	career	path,	for	each	of	the	possible	careers	you	may	be	                   	     It	is	usually	a	good	idea	to	start	planning	as	soon	as	possible	for	what	you	want	to	do	next,	as	in	some	
            interested	in,	you	can	now	start	to	plan	for	the	next	stage	of	your	career	path.	In	most	cases	it	will	be	                   cases	applications	for	postgraduate	qualifications	can	close	as	early	as	November.	When	applying/
            necessary	to	gain	a	postgraduate	qualification.	You	will	have	to	research	these	courses	online	as	there	                     researching	careers	it	is	very	helpful	to	keep	a	record	of	your	progress.	This	can	also	serve	as	a	record	
            are	many	postgraduate	courses	and	options	available	(see	Section	8	for	a	list	of	all	the	postgraduate	                       of	when	you	have	applied,	closing	dates	interview	dates	etc.	Functioning	as	a	strategic	manual,	and	
            search	engines).	Once	you	have	highlighted	all	the	courses	that	interest	you,	use	the	following	table	                       giving	food	for	thought	if	your	first	plan	is	not	successful.	Below	is	an	example	(depending	on	desired	
            (filling	in	the	necessary	information)	to	help	decide	what	career	you	want,	and	if	it	may	be	achieved.                       career	path)	which	you	may	find	useful	when	applying	for	Masters	level	degree	courses	(MSc).

             Job	                                                 E.g.	forensic	psychologist     E.g.	Social	worker                       Course                       Msc	in	Health	   Msc	Political	
             Do	you	need	a	postgraduate	                          Yes                            Yes                                                                   Psychology       Psychology
             Can	you	gain	entry	to	the	postgraduate	              Yes                            Yes                                      Identified	Postgraduate	     Yes              Yes
             course	using	your	degree?                                                                                                    degree

             Do	You	need	work	experience	to	gain	                 No                             Yes
             entry?                                                                                                                       Institution                  University	of	   The	Queen’s	
                                                                                                                                                                       Ulster,	Magee    University,	
             Do	you	have	the	relevant	work	                       No                             No                                                                                     Belfast	
                                                                                                                                          Applied	to	Postgraduate	     Yes              Yes
             Can	you	fund	your	study?                             Yes                            No                                       degree	
             Are	you	willing	to	move?                             Yes                            Yes
     	      	 	        	                                                                                                                  Closing	Date                 May	2010         December	
     1)		   First	 of	 all	 identify	 all	 the	 careers	 which	         From	 the	 example	 provided,	 the	 hypothetical	
            interest	you.                                               individual	has	identified	two	career	choices.	Upon	               Interview	and	date           Yes,	12	June	    No
                                                                        assessing	 the	 information	 contained	 in	 the	 table	                                        2010
     2)		   Then	 identify	 whether	 you	 need	 a	
                                                                        the	 individual	 decides	 that	 a	 career	 in	 forensic	
            postgraduate	 qualification,	 and	 if	 you	 can	
                                                                        psychology	is	more	viable.
            gain	entry	to	the	postgraduate	course	based	                                                                                  Place	Gained                 Yes              No
            on	your	psychology	degree	award.
     3)		   It	may	be	necessary	in	some	cases	to	obtain	
            work	 experience	 before	 you	 can	 gain	 entry	                                                                       	     In	some	cases,	you	may	not	wish	to	apply	for	a	job	which	requires	a	postgraduate	 qualification	or	
            to	a	postgraduate	course.                                                                                                    minimum	criteria	of	previous	experience;	therefore	you	may	wish	to	complete	a	CV	and	prepare	for	
     4)		   Most	 postgraduate	 courses,	 e.g.,	 Masters	                                                                                interviews.	Both	these	topics	are	outlined	in	the	next	section.
            are	self-funded,	therefore	it	is	not	uncommon	
            for	 intuitions	 to	 enquire	 how	 you	 intend	 to	
            fund	yourself.
     5)		   Unfortunately,	 opportunities	 in	 Northern	
            Ireland	 are	 scarce	 regarding	 postgraduate	
            study	 in	 psychology;	 therefore	 it	 may	 be	
            necessary	 to	 move	 closer	 to	 an	 institution	
            which	 provides	 your	 desired	 postgraduate	
     6)	    Once	 you	 have	 completed	 the	 table	 for	 all	
            the	 occupations	 that	 interest	 you,	 you	 may	
            find	it	easier	to	make	a	career	choice.	

58                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    59
     7     Action plan

     7.5   Your C.V and Cover Letter…                                                                                                                                                                             	        Example	CV	2
     	     To	complete	a	good	CV	and	cover	letter	see	         	   If	 your	 grades	 aren’t	 excellent	 don’t	 worry,	   John	Smith	
           section	 3.3.	 A	 few	 examples	 are	 presented	        you	 can	 chunk	 them	 to	 save	 room	 and	           Street,	City,	County,	Postcode
           below.                                                  cover	discrepancies	e.g.	8	GCSE’s	grade	A	            Phone:	555-555-5555			
                                                                   -	 D	 in	 Math,	 English,	 Science,	 R.E,	 French,	   Mobile:	555-666-6666				
     	     Example	CV	1	     Your	Name                                                                         
     	     	 	     	         Email	Address                         Computers,	Geography	and	History.
     	     	 	     	         Contact	Number                                                                              Objective:		        Assistant	Professor,	Psychology
     	     	 	     	         Home	Address
                                                               	   KEY	ACHIEVEMENTS/PREVIOUS	
                                                                   EMPLOYMENT                                            Education:		        Ph.D.,	Psychology,	University	of	Minnesota,	2006
                                                                                                                         	                   Concentrations:	Psychology,	Community	Psychology
     	     PERSONAL	STATEMENT                                  	   Provide	a	list	of	your	key	achievements.
                                                                                                                         	                   Dissertation:	A	Study	of	Learning	Disabled	Children	in	a	Low	Income	Community	
     	     Your	 personal	 statement	 is	 perhaps	 the	                                                                  	                   M.A.,	Psychology,	University	at	Albany,	2003
           single	most	important	part	of	you	CV.	Get	it	                                                                 	                   Concentrations:	Psychology,	Special	Education
                                                               	   KEY	SKILLS	GAINED
           wrong	and	your	chances	of	being	invited	to	                                                                   	                   Thesis:	Communication	Skills	of	Learning	Disabled	Children	
           interview	are	drastically	reduced.	                 	   Show	that	you	have	the	relevant	knowledge	            	                   B.A,	Psychology,	California	State	University,	Long	Beach,	CA,	2000
                                                                   required	to	succeed	in	the	position.
     	     Its	 aim	 is	 to	 highlight	 your	 professional	
           attributes	 and	 goals,	 summarising	 why	          	   For	example	include	computer	software	that	           Experience:		       Instructor,	2004	-	2006	
           someone	should	consider	your	application.	              you	are	familiar	with.                                	                   University	of	Minnesota
                                                                                                                         	                   Course:	Psychology	in	the	Classroom

     	     PERSONAL	SKILLS                                     	   PROFESSIONAL	QUALIFICATIONS                           	                   Teaching	Assistant,	2002	-	2003
                                                                                                                         	                   University	at	Albany
           •	    Include	 some	 of	 your	 main	 attributes	    	   Professional	Body	-	Location	-	Course	Title	          	                   Courses:	Special	Education,	Learning	Disabilities
                 that	are	vital	to	the	role.                       -	Grade
           •	    Flexibility,	 problem	 solving	 abilities,	   	   Add	any	professional	associations	of	which	           Research	Skills:		 Extensive	knowledge	of	SPSS	and	SAS	statistical	programs.
                 good	 communication	 and	 creativity	             you	are	a	member
                 are	 qualities	 that	 all	 employers	 look	                                                             Presentations:		    Smith	 John	 (2006).	 The	 behavior	 of	 learning	 disabled	 adolescents	 in	 the	 classrooms.	
                 for.                                                                                                                        Paper	presented	at	the	Psychology	Conference	at	the	University	of	Minnesota.
           •	    If	 you	 are	 changing	 career	 these	        	   PERSONAL	INTERESTS
                 transferable	skills	add	weight	to	your	       	   Outside	interests	enable	a	potential	employer	        Publications:		     Smith,	 John	 (2005).	 The	 behavior	 of	 learning	 disabled	 adolescents	 in	 the	 classroom.	
                 application.                                      to	gain	an	understanding	of	what	motivates	                               Journal	of	Educational	Psychology,	6,	120	-	125.
                                                                   you,	what	personal	skills	you	may	have	and	
                                                                   how	you	will	integrate	into	the	team.                 Grants	and		        RDB	Grant	(University	of	Minnesota	Research	Grant,	2005),	$2000	
     	     CAREER	HISTORY	(chronological	order)                                                                          Fellowships:	       Workshop	Grant	(for	ASPA	meeting	in	New	York,	2004),	$1500	
                                                               	   Look	 at	 how	 job	 advertisements	 stipulate	
           Job	Title	-	Company	Name	-	Dates
                                                                   certain	 personality	 traits	 required	 for	          Awards	and		        Treldar	Scholar,	2005
           Job	Title	-	Company	Name	-	Dates                        positions.	 Identify	 what	 they	 are	 and	           Honours:	           Academic	Excellent	Award,	2003	
           Job	Title	-	Company	Name	-	Dates                        show	 how	 your	 hobbies	 can	 relate	 to	 their	
                                                                   requirements.                                         Skills	and		        Microsoft	Office,	Internet
     	     EDUCATION	HISTORY	(chronological	order)                                                                       Qualifications:		   Programming	ability	in	C++	and	PHP	
                                                                                                                         	                   Fluent	in	German,	French	and	Spanish	
     	     University	Name	-	Location	-	Course	Title	-	        	   REFERENCES
           Grade                                               	   References	are	available	on	request.	                 References:		       Excellent	references	available	upon	request.	
     	     Explain	how	your	course	helped	you	develop	
           your	knowledge	in	the	areas	that	are	relevant	
           to	the	position	you’re	applying	for.
     	     Secondary	 School	 -	 Location	 -	 Courses	 -	                                                                7.6   Your Interview...
           Grades                                                                                                        	     In	order	to	prepare	yourself	for	interviews	see	section	3.4	for	a	comprehensive	overview.

60                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             61
     8   Useful Links, Materials and References

         The	following	links	will	help	you	search	for	a	     The	following	links	provide	more	information	
         postgraduate-related	degree:                        on	psychology	and	some	non-psychology,	
                                                             based	careers:
         UKPASSCourse	                                       Home_page/p!eLaXi

         The	following	links	will	help	you	compose	a	good	   The	following	links	provide	more	information	
         CV	and	cover	letter:                                on	the	skills	you	have	acquired	as	a	
                                                             psychology	undergraduate:
         The	following	links	will	help	you	prepare	for	an	   DegVal/degval.html
                                                             Landrum,	R.	E.	(2001).	I’m	getting	my	
                                                             bachelor’s	degree	in	psychology—What	can	I	
                                                             do	with	it?	Eye	on	Psi	Chi,	6	(1),	20-22.
                                                             Yorke,	M.,	&	Knight,	P.	(2006)	Embedding	
                                                             employability	into	the	curriculum.
                                                             York,	Higher	Education	Academy.

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