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					 Advancing Utilization of Manure
       Methane Digester




Funding for this project was recommended by the
Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources
 from the Minnesota Environment and Natural
       Resources Trust Fund ($204, 375)
 Haubenschild Dairy Farm Energy
           Production
      Princeton, Minnesota




 Milk Production + Crop Production +
Electrical Production + Future Hydrogen
               Production
                    =
      Farm Income Diversification
Plug-Flow Digester - A small “plug” of slurry is pumped into
one end each day, causing a comparable amount to flow out of
the other end into the storage basin in the background.




Methane Digester: To breakdown organic matter in the
absence of oxygen to biogas, which is primarily
CH4/methane, CO2/carbon dioxide, H2S/hydrogen sulfide,
and water vapor.
View of digester, barn and engine generator building at
time of installation in 1999.
    Engine
Generator set:
    Internal
  combustion
engine with 135
 kW 240 VAC
   electrical
   generator.
Biogas Production Used in Generator

                   90,000
                   80,000
 Biogas Produced




                   70,000
     (ft3/day)




                   60,000
                   50,000
                   40,000
                   30,000
                   20,000
                   10,000
                       0
                      09/17/99   09/16/00   09/16/01   09/17/02   09/17/03   09/17/04

                                                  Date
Comparison of Fuel Cell and a Genset Utilizing Biogas

 Philip R. Goodrich PE, David Nelson PE, Richard Huelskamp, David Schmidt PE*,
         R. Vance Morey from Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering,
         University of Minnesota.

Dennis Haubenschild from Haubenschild Farms, Princeton MN
Matthew Drewitz, Paul Burns, fromMinnesota Department of Agriculture

                 Other participants in this project include:

                 • Amanda Bilik, The Minnesota Project,
                 • Verlyn Johnson and Blanca Martinez, BAE
                 • Henry Fischer, East Central Energy.
                 • Rob Lowen, Plug Power, Inc.
                 • Jamie Tooley, CES-Landtec Engineering
                 • Don White, Donaldson Corp.
    Objective:

To demonstrate the
      feasibility
of converting biogas
to electrical energy
        using
   a commercially
 available fuel cell.
Challenges to using biogas
       for a fuel cell
Hydrogen sulfide removal
   Initial concentration 3000-5000 ppm
   Need concentration < 25 ppb
Moisture removal
   Need dry gas
   Dewpoint < -30 degrees Celsius
Carbon dioxide removal
   Need concentration < 5 ppm
The building at the left houses the 135 kW engine generator and
the building on the right houses the fuel cell and instrumentation.
One barn is to the right rear of the picture
     Fuel Cell:
  Uses hydrogen to
 generate electricity
      without
combustion. Output is
      5 kW at
     120 VAC
                                                              A fuel cell is similar to a car battery
                                                                  in that it produces electricity
                                                                              through
                                                               electrochemical reactions. A fuel
                                                              cell produces electricity as long as
                                                                           the hydrogen
                                                                 fuel source and oxygen passes
                                                                             through it.

                  From Plug Power Fuel Cell Software Screen




Heat is also produced and can be utilized for space heating and hot water needs.

                Electricity conversion efficiency is around 25%


   The energy resources for hydrogen can be biogas, natural gas, propane,
       methanol, ethanol, and other hydrogen based liquids or gases.
           Comparing Electrical Generator Technologies


       Fuel Cell System                   Engine Generator System


 Cost per kilowatt is very high.
                                          Cost per kilowatt is low.
       $10,000 -->20,000 per kW
                                                 $50 -->100 per kW

 Biogas must be cleaned up to
                                          Biogas can be used directly
  strict specifications. Adds cost and
                                         from the digester with no cleanup.
  complexity while consuming
  energy.

 Fuel cell is an emerging
                                          ICE is mature technology.
  technology.
          Comparing Electrical Generator Technologies
       Fuel Cell System                 Engine Generator System

 Greenhouse emissions and             Greenhouse emissions of CO2,
  particulates are very low.          SO2, CO and particulates are
                                      significant.

 System is very quiet.                Noise level is very high and
                                      sound mitigation is necessary.


 Few moving parts.                    Many moving parts, most
                                      moving in a hot environment
                                      needing oil and cooling.

 Cost of maintenance is unknown.      Maintenance is well known.

 Fuel cell technology is              Technology is mature and
  continuously improving at a rapid   changing slowly.
  rate.
Biogas Clean Up
          Emissions from Haubenschild Generator
                 Compared to Plug Power™
         Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell


            Engine Generator               Fuel Cell

CO         ( 799ppmv) 4.18 g/kWh     ( <1 ppmv) 0.014 g/kWh
NOx        (2963 ppmv) 25.5 g/kWh    (<1 ppmv) <.0023 g/kWh
SOX        (277 ppmv) 3.34 g/kWh     (<1 ppmv) <0.030 g/kWh
CX H Y     (2.46 ppmv) 53 g/kWh      (1790 ppmv) 14.5 g/kWh
    Energy Production +

    Organic Fertilizer +

     Net Air Emissions

             =

      $nergy Income +

         $avings +

Environment Impact Reduction
                        Thank you
                      Rich Huelskamp


      Advancing Utilization of Manure Methane Digester
   Funding for this project was recommended by the Legislative
Commission on Minnesota Resources from the Minnesota Environment
                and Natural Resources Trust Fund

				
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