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					    THE NORTH CAROLINA BROWNFIELDS PROGRAM: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF
     FACTORS AFFECTING LENGTH OF TIME REQUIRED TO REACH A FINALIZED
                        BROWNFIELD AGREEMENT

                                                    By

                                 GREGORY PETER MAVRAGANIS




A paper submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the degree Master of Public Administration. The attached paper represents work
done by a University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Master of Public Administration student as a class
      project. It is not a formal report of the Institute of Government, nor is it the work of School of
                                              Government faculty.




                                           Executive Summary

North Carolina's expanding population presents growth management challenges. The North Carolina
Brownfields Program (NCBP) encourages redevelopment of brownfields (properties where the threat of
environmental contamination has hindered re-development). This study examines sites that have
successfully completed the brownfields process, analyzes site characteristics that affect the length of time
required to reach a finalized brownfields agreement, and suggests areas for future research. This study
aims to help NCBP program staff, local governments, and developers to maximize benefits from the
brownfields program.
INTRODUCTION

Brownfield development is a strategy to bring underutilized land back to productive use across the
country. This is especially important in North Carolina as its population continues to grow. Traditional
growth tends to develop greenfields—previously undeveloped land—as sites for commercial, industrial,
and residential development, in part because of concern about liability for past environmental problems at
previously developed sites. The ability to re-develop sites can have many benefits, such as reducing
sprawl and saving capital by using existing infrastructure. The Department of Environment and Natural
Resources (DENR) administers the Brownfields Program in North Carolina. In exchange for approving
the remediation plan, state law authorizes DENR to provide liability protection (under certain conditions)
for prospective developers interested in developing eligible brownfields sites. However, the time it takes
to negotiate and complete a brownfields agreement can be a costly problem for a developer.

BACKGROUND

A brownfield is an abandoned, idled or underused property where the threat of environmental
contamination has hindered its redevelopment1. The North Carolina Brownfields Program (NCBP) was
created in response to the Brownfields Property Reuse Act of 1997, which gave DENR authority to
engage prospective developers to pursue brownfield development. Under the NCBP, a prospective
developer is defined as “any person who desires to buy or sell a brownfields property for the purpose of
redeveloping it and who did not cause or contribute to the contamination at the property”2.

In order to gain the benefits of the NCBP, the prospective developer enters into a brownfields agreement
with DENR. The brownfields agreement requires the prospective developer to “perform those actions
deemed by the department to be essential to make the property suitable for the proposed reuse”3. In
exchange, the statute authorizes DENR to limit the prospective developer’s environmental liability as
specified in the brownfields agreement.

The statute includes several conditions that supersede the brownfields agreement and require the
prospective developer to conduct additional remediation. Examples of these conditions include situations
when:
    • Land use restrictions are violated;
    • The prospective developer provides false information;
    • New information regarding contaminants is reported; or
    • Risk at the site increases to an unacceptable level.

Prospective developers first submit a letter of intent to designate their interest in the NCBP. They must
submit a formal application and work with a project manager throughout the process. There are three
stages of projects: projects pending eligibility, active eligible projects, and finalized brownfield
agreements. The first phase includes applications that are submitted, but have not received an eligibility
determination. DENR project managers make the eligibility determination, which may move the
application forward. If a site application is eligible, its status becomes an active eligible project. In this
phase, DENR project managers work with prospective developers on a brownfield agreement. The
finalized brownfield agreement is the contractual document that guides the development, liability
protection, and future use (and monitoring) of the property. If DENR and the prospective developer agree
on a finalized brownfield agreement, the project may proceed into the development phase. Throughout the
development process and for the future life of the site, the developer must satisfy clauses in the finalized
brownfield agreement, under penalty from DENR. In this sense, the brownfield agreement resides over
the future use of the property to ensure safety and compliance.




                                                                                                            1
PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this study is to analyze sites with finalized brownfield agreements to screen for site
characteristics that may cause delay in reaching an agreement. As the NCBP passes its tenth anniversary,
it is an appropriate time to conduct an initial study of the program’s progress.

This study presents descriptive statistics for the sizes and locations of brownfield sites in North Carolina,
as well as the length of time needed to reach a finalized brownfield agreement. This information is useful
for the staff of the NCBP, private developers interested in pursuing brownfield development, and possibly
local governments considering brownfield development. Brownfield projects are not limited to urban
areas, and because of North Carolina’s rural manufacturing and industrial history, brownfield
development projects offer opportunities for rural communities also.

The NCBP is an important tool for prospective developers to use when considering brownfield
development. It is also an effective program to encourage development of underused property that is often
a visual blight to the surrounding community. Table 1 illustrates the growth of the NCBP since its
inception in 1997. According to the NCBP’s Annual Report to the North Carolina General Assembly, as
of September 2000, it finalized six total brownfield agreements that facilitated $55 million in investment.
At that time the NCBP was staffed by one full-time person. As of October 2005, the NCBP finalized 66
total brownfield agreements that facilitated $1.2 billion in investment. In 2005 the Program’s staff was in
between seven and eight full-time equivalents.4

RESEARCH DESIGN

This study uses site data, obtained from the NCBP, and analyzes it across data sets for site size, site
location, and length of time needed to reach a finalized brownfield agreement. Information about property
size and location was taken from the NCBP’s draft 2008 Report to the North Carolina General Assembly.
Data for the length of time needed to reach a finalized brownfield agreement was compiled from the
publicly available files at the NCBP office. From these data sets, descriptive statistics were generated to
summarize and characterize the sites. This analysis provides insight into the program’s progress and
highlights areas for future research.

SUMMARY OF SITES IN THE NORTH CAROLINA BROWNFIELDS PROGRAM

As of September 30, 2008, there were 133 sites with finalized brownfield agreements5. Information on
property size, location, and length of time to reach a finalized brownfield agreement was analyzed for
these 133 sites6.

Definition of study terms:
   • Property location: defined by the North Carolina county in which the site is located.
   • Property size: acreage of the site according to the NCBP’s summary of finalized sites, as listed
        in the draft report to the General Assembly (September 30, 2008).
   • Length of time to reach a finalized brownfield agreement: the number of days required from
        the date of the letter of intent (the start of the process) to the date of the finalized brownfield
        agreement.




                                                                                                           2
                                            Property Location

The 133 sites with a finalized brownfield agreement represented 37 different counties. Sixty-three of
North Carolina’s 100 counties do not have a finalized brownfield agreement. With 133 total finalized sites
for the State, the mean number of sites per county is 1.33. However, 37 counties host the 133 finalized
sites. This is an average of 3.59 finalized sites per participating county.

Mecklenburg County, the most populous county in North Carolina7, accounted for 52 of the 133 finalized
brownfield sites, or 39% of all finalized sites8. Mecklenburg County has 42 more sites than the county
with the next largest number of finalized sites (Guilford County, 10 sites). If Mecklenburg County’s 52
sites are excluded, the remaining 36 counties with a finalized brownfield agreement average 2.25 sites per
county.

The four counties with the most finalized brownfield agreements (Mecklenburg 52, Guilford 10, Wake 9,
and Forsyth 8) account for nearly 60% of all finalized brownfield agreements. They also are the four most
populous counties in North Carolina. Of the 13 counties with more than one finalized agreement, eight of
them are in the top 13 in population9.
                                              Property Size

                                         Property size data was available for 91 of the 133 sites with a
Property Size of Brownfield Sites        finalized brownfield agreement10. The acreages ranged from
                                         0.25 acres to 540 acres, with an average of 24.69 acres per site.
Smallest Site    0.25 acres              This average is influenced by the largest site at 540 acres. The
Largest Site     540 acres               average without that site drops to 18.75 acres11.
Median           8.2 acres               The 91 sites represent 2,246 acres (about 3.5 square miles) of
Middle 50%       2.88 – 20.98 acres      redeveloped land. The table to the left displays data about the
                                         sizes of the finalized brownfield sites.

                 Length of Time Needed to Reach a Finalized Brownfield Agreement

Data was available for 119 of the 133 sites regarding
the number of days from the letter of intent date to the                                Mean Time Per
                                                                County         Sites
date of the finalized brownfield agreement. The                                          Site (Days)
median number of days was 586 and the mean was              Mecklenburg         47             692
722. The number of days required to reach a finalized
                                                              Forsyth           8             1052
brownfield agreement ranged from 138 days to 2,702
                                                               Wake              7             440
days. The middle fifty percent of all sites reached a
finalized brownfield agreement in 420 to 899 days. Of         Guilford           7             758
the thirteen counties with more than one finalized           Buncombe            6            1,226
brownfield agreement, nine of them fall within the            Gaston             4             457
middle 50% of the length of time needed to reach a              Nash             3             646
finalized brownfield agreement. The table to the right      New Hanover          3             649
displays the counties with more than one site and the       Rockingham           3             674
number of days required to reach a finalized                  Orange             3             761
brownfield agreement. The sites in bold in are within         Durham             2             428
the middle 50% of all sites with respect to the length       Haywood            2              739
of time required to reach a finalized brownfield
                                                               Iredell           2             996
agreement.




                                                                                                        3
ANALYSIS OF SITES

Statistical tests were conducted to investigate the effects of property size and site location on the length of
time required to reach a finalized brownfield agreement. The sites that required the fewest number of days
to reach a finalized brownfield agreement were examined for similarities among the sites.

Correlating Property Size with Length of Time Needed to Reach a Finalized Brownfield Agreement12

The sites were divided into four groups                                             Correlation between
based on property size (in acres) and                                           property size and length of
property size was correlated with the length                Data Set               time needed to reach a
of time needed to reach a finalized                     (Property Size)              finalized brownfield
brownfield agreement to produce the table to                                               agreement
the right. As the table indicates, some data                                           (r-squared value)
subsets explain more of the variance in
                                                            All Sites                         0.153
length of time required to reach a finalized
brownfield agreement than others. The low             Largest 75% - 100%                      0.381
correlation values indicate that property size
                                                    High Middle 75% - 50%                     0.336
alone does not explain fully the variance in
the length of time required to reach a              Low Middle 25% - 50%                      0.165
finalized brownfield agreement. The                      Smallest 25%                        -0.110
negative correlation value for the smallest
25% of the sites indicates that a horizontal line explains more of the variation in the length of time needed
for a finalized brownfield agreement than property size (for that group). Despite the low explanatory
power of property size alone, there is a trend that correlation decreases as property size decreases.

Analysis of the Length of Time Needed for a Finalized Brownfield Agreement

The number of brownfield sites in a North Carolina county ranges from zero (for 67 counties) to forty-
seven (for Mecklenburg County)13. This study separated the sites into three groups to identify if one
subset requires a different length of time to reach a finalized brownfield agreement. The subsets are based
on the number of sites with finalized brownfield agreements located in the county. The subsets are:
    • Sites in Mecklenburg County (47 sites)
    • Sites in Counties with two to ten sites (50 sites)
    • Sites in Counties with one site (22 sites)

 The analysis compares two subsets at a         Analysis for the Length of Time Needed for a Finalized
time to determine if their difference is                         Brownfield Agreement
statistically significant.14
                                                                                         Difference between
As the table displays, none of the               Subset A              Subset B
                                                                                               A and B
comparisons between the subsets
produced a significant result.                                   Counties with 2 - 10       Not statistically
                                              Mecklenburg
                                                                 sites                        significant
These results suggest that there are no       Counties with                                 Not statistically
significant differences in terms of time to                      Counties with 1 site
                                              2 - 10 sites                                    significant
reach a brownfields agreement among
                                              Counties with                                 Not statistically
these subsets.                                                   Mecklenburg
                                              1 site                                          significant



                                                                                                                4
Examining Sites in the Lowest Quartile for Length of Time to Reach a Finalized Brownfield Agreement

The thirty sites that required the shortest length of time to reach a finalized brownfield agreement were
examined for possible insights into the factors that placed them in the lowest quartile for the number of
days required to reach a finalized brownfield agreement. No immediate similarities were identified.

The sites represent fourteen different counties, with eight of those counties having more than one site.
Analysis on site size or site location did not reveal any unique similarities among this group.
Mecklenburg County’s twelve sites were the largest number of any single county, accounting for 40% of
the total. However, that is representative of Mecklenburg County’s participation in the overall program,
where it accounts for 39% of all finalized brownfield sites.

CONCLUSION

This study did not find that site size or site location explain the length of time required to reach a finalized
brownfield agreement for the sites in the North Carolina Brownfields Program. Site size ranges from 0.25
acres to 540 acres, but there was not a strong correlation between site size and the length of time required
to reach a finalized brownfield agreement. Site location did not uncover any differences among subsets
with respect to the length of time required to reach a finalized brownfield agreement.

These findings suggest future research and investigation related to the length of time required to reach a
finalized brownfield agreement and the factors affecting it. This study used a quantitative approach to
investigating the length of time required to reach a finalized brownfield agreement. Future research may
shift towards an interview-based approach with NCBP staff. Their experience working with prospective
developers throughout the process could provide valuable insight into the factors affecting the length of
time required to reach a finalized brownfield agreement.

Additionally, information on factors such as the previous use of the property (commercial, industrial,
residential, or agricultural), the intended use of the property, location of contamination at the site (surface
water, ground water, or soil), and type of contamination (metals, petroleum, chlorinated solvents, volatile
organic compounds, etc) would be useful for future studies.

In order to encourage future research, the NCBP should also make more data available to the public in a
useful format. Current access is limited to the hard files, which makes data analysis difficult because of
the extensive effort required to gather data. Data on site location, site size, and the length of time required
to reach a finalized brownfield agreement is a good starting point, but additional information could
encourage future research.




                                                                                                              5
                                                      Endnotes
1
  www.ncbrownfields.org
2
  www.ncbrownfields.org
3
  www.ncbrownfields.org
4
   Refer to the October 2005 NCBP report to the NCGA
   http://www.ncbrownfields.org/pdf/Brownfields_Report_Final_2005.pdf
5
  A complete list of sites with finalized brownfield agreements is listed in the Appendix.
6
  133 sites have finalized brownfield agreements, but not all 133 sites have information for property size, location,
  LOI date, or BFA date.
7
  According to North Carolina’s Office of State Budget and Management Certified County Populations in 2007
8
  http://www.osbm.state.nc.us/ncosbm/facts_and_figures/socioeconomic_data/population_estimates/demog/
9
  Refer to the Appendix for a table listing the counties with more than one finalized brownfield site.
10
   Property size was not available for all 133 sites with a finalized brownfield agreement.
11
   Refer to the Appendix for a table listing counties with finalized brownfield sites totaling more than ten acres.
12
   The Appendix contains the output for the correlation calculations.
13
   Data for 119 of the 133 finalized brownfield sites was available for length of time required to reach a finalized
  brownfield agreement.
14
   Refer to the Appendix for the full statistical model and results.




                                                                                                                        6
                                            Appendix: List of Brownfield Sites

                                                                                          BFA
Project Name           Site Address             City          County      LOI Date*                 Days*   Acreage
                                                                                         Date*
301 Fayetteville
                   301 Fayetteville St         Raleigh         Wake       4/24/2006    7/12/2007     444     0.833
Street
                                              Winston
A Great Escape     1806 Funtime Blvd.                         Forsyth     2/24/2005     5/5/2006     435       5
                                              Salem
ABC Engravers
                   724 Montana Dr             Charlotte     Mecklenburg   8/10/2001    12/9/2004    1217
(New PD)
                                              Winston-
Airport Exxon      3305 North Liberty St.                     Forsyth      9/1/2000    1/25/2008    2702     0.56
                                               Salem
Alamac
                   1885 Alamac Rd            Lumberton       Robeson      1/22/2002    2/24/2006    1494
American
Alamac Knit
                   NC Highway 125             Hamilton        Martin      1/23/2001    2/24/2002     397      106
Fabric
Alcan              1600 Westinghouse
                                              Charlotte     Mecklenburg    9/9/2004    4/24/2006     592       9
Packaging Food     Blvd
Almont             Hanover and Cowan                           New
                                             Wilmington                                                      23.37
Shipping           Streets                                   Hanover
Alpha Mills        312 E 12th St              Charlotte     Mecklenburg    5/8/2003    6/15/2005     769     5.77
American
                   Donald Ross Rd             Charlotte     Mecklenburg   5/12/2004    6/12/2007    1126      4.1
Cyanamid
Anchor Mill        404 Church St             Huntersville   Mecklenburg   1/25/2001    11/19/2002    663      32
Andrex
                   180 Deaverview Rd          Asheville     Buncombe      9/10/2003    4/22/2005     590       9
Industries
Archdale
                   5801 South Blvd            Charlotte     Mecklenburg    6/1/2003    1/14/2004     227      13
Marketplace
Arrow Laundry
                   4735 Monroe Rd             Charlotte     Mecklenburg   3/16/2005     3/9/2007     723     16.5
& Cleaners
Asheville Mica
                   75 Thompson St             Asheville     Buncombe       6/6/2005    5/29/2007     722       3
Property
ATS
                   Hwy 321 & Rankin
Manufacturing                                 Gastonia        Gaston      12/5/2006    9/24/2007     293     6.65
                   Lake Road
Facility
Baldor Electric    3821 Barringer Dr          Charlotte     Mecklenburg   4/18/2000    5/31/2002     773
Bendix Heavy
                   727 Bendix Drive           Salisbury       Rowan       10/31/2005   11/16/2007    746     20.96
Vehicle Facility
Bouligny Site      2320 N Davidson St         Charlotte     Mecklenburg    4/2/2003    12/20/2004    628      3.5
Bromma
                   2285 Durham Rd             Roxboro         Person      12/28/2005   11/3/2006     310     11.6
Property II
Brown's Solvent
                   2935 Griffith St           Charlotte     Mecklenburg    3/5/2001    5/13/2004    1165
Co.
Burkhart
                   1703 Dabney Dr.           Henderson        Vance
Carolina
Burlington -
                   6008 High Point Rd        Greensboro       Guilford    2/20/2002    11/21/2003    639      22
Jamestown
Burlington Mills   476 S Main St             Mooresville      Iredell     10/16/2000   6/14/2004    1337
C.C. Dickson       1520 South Blvd            Charlotte     Mecklenburg    9/3/1998    7/7/2000      673
                                                                                     BFA
Project Name          Site Address          City         County      LOI Date*                 Days*   Acreage
                                                                                    Date*
Cal-Tone Paints
                  5115 New Bern Ave        Raleigh        Wake       5/15/2006    2/15/2007     276     2.75
Facility
Camden Road       1600 Camden Rd          Charlotte    Mecklenburg   8/13/2003    12/27/2005    867     0.25
                  127 W Worthington
Camden Square                             Charlotte    Mecklenburg
                  Ave
Camden Square     307 W Worthington
                                          Charlotte    Mecklenburg                                         4.5
Addition          Ave
Camden Square
                  W. Worthington Ave.     Charlotte    Mecklenburg
Amendment
Cannon Village    1 Lake Circle Drive    Kannapolis     Cabarrus     5/24/2005    6/27/2008    1130        154
Carolina Log
                  Howard Gap Rd            Fletcher    Henderson     3/23/2001     8/8/2005    1599        30
Buildings
Carolina
Production        105 Fairview Rd         Asheville     Buncombe     11/18/1997    4/3/2003    1962
Finishing
Celanese DRP      2300 Archdale Avenue    Charlotte    Mecklenburg   5/30/2006    11/9/2007     528    120.41
Central Park                               Winston
                  Salem & S. Main Sts.                   Forsyth     11/1/2002    1/21/2004     446     7.23
Landfill                                   Salem
Charlotte Tank
                  2200 Border Dr          Charlotte    Mecklenburg   10/6/2003     4/5/2007    1277     2.23
Truck
Cherokee Oil      925 S Summit Ave        Charlotte    Mecklenburg   2/20/2002    1/20/2004     699         2
Chester Street
                  N Chester St            Gastonia       Gaston       4/7/2004    8/22/2005     502
Property
Chowan Veneer
                  259 Coke Ave             Edenton       Chowan      10/18/2005   10/19/2006    366     12.4
Company
City of Sanford
                  1351 Douglas Dr          Sanford         Lee        9/6/2002     7/9/2003     306
WWTP
City West
                  1506 West Blvd          Charlotte    Mecklenburg   6/25/1998    8/14/2003    1876
Commons
Conbraco          701 Matthews Mint
                                          Matthews     Mecklenburg   12/17/2004    1/3/2006     382
Facility          Hill Rd
Conitron          3761 Old Glenola
                                           Trinity      Randolph     8/25/2006    1/24/2008     517     54.8
Facility          Road
Costco            2838 Wake Forest Rd      Raleigh        Wake       6/28/2005     7/5/2006     372        2.6
Cotton Mill
                  801 Merrit Dr          Greensboro      Guilford    9/13/2000    3/22/2002     555
Square
Cultural Arts
                  205 Mcdonald St        Rocky Mount      Nash       6/25/2004    8/23/2006     789        3.6
Center
Cumberland
Shopping          709 E Market St        Greensboro    Guilford      3/23/1998    12/19/2001   1367
Center
Dayco Facility    2150 S Main St         Waynesville    Haywood      6/11/2004     4/5/2007    1028    35.942
                  3606 North Graham
Dixie Trucking                            Charlotte    Mecklenburg   3/24/2006    2/19/2008     697     16.25
                  Street




                                                                                                       8
                                                                                        BFA
Project Name           Site Address          City          County       LOI Date*                 Days*   Acreage
                                                                                       Date*
Don Christian
                   Main St.                Carrboro        Orange       10/9/2003     2/3/2005     483        0.5
Property
Dynatech
                   2213 Toomey Ave         Charlotte     Mecklenburg    3/20/1998    10/17/2003   2037
Industries
East Gannon
                   102 E Gannon Ave         Zebulon         Wake        12/11/2002   10/29/2003    322     1.75
Property
East Park -
                   1607 E 4th St           Charlotte     Mecklenburg    10/24/2002   5/19/2004     573     0.39
Boyer
East Park -
                   1609 Elizabeth Ave      Charlotte     Mecklenburg    8/19/2003    12/14/2004    483     0.65
Craver
East Park -
                   1423 E 4th St           Charlotte     Mecklenburg    5/15/2003    12/10/2004    575        0.8
Dorothy Hall
East Park - Joal
                   1534 Elizabeth Ave      Charlotte     Mecklenburg    10/12/2001   4/10/2003     545        24
Realty
East Park -
                   1515 E 4th St           Charlotte     Mecklenburg    10/12/2001   4/16/2003     551        24
Kossove
                                            Pisgah
Ecusta             1 Ecusta Rd.                          Transylvania   9/11/2003    10/8/2004     393        540
                                            Forest
Electronics
Components         513 S Dudley St          Burgaw         Pender       10/18/2004   2/21/2006     491         5
Corp
Elk Mountain
                   Elk Mountain Rd.         Woodfin       Buncombe       4/7/2003    3/23/2007    1446        156
Landfill
Erwin Square       2211 Hillsborough Rd     Durham         Durham       3/17/2002     1/8/2003     297         6
Ferguson           101 W. Tremont
                                           Charlotte     Mecklenburg    3/23/2006    6/23/2008     823     2.88
Enterprises        Avenue
Fieldcrest
                   206 Warehouse Street      Eden        Rockingham     3/31/2005     6/4/2008    1161    18.439
Blanket Mill
Fishburne
                   Bradley Branch Rd         Arden       Buncombe       10/18/2001   1/10/2006    1545
Equipment
Flemington                                                  New
                   US Highway 421 N       Wilmington                    12/18/2000   7/26/2004    1316
Landfill                                                  Hanover
Florence Mill      186 Mill St            Forest City    Rutherford     1/14/2005    8/25/2006     588        8.2
Flynt Fabrics
                   202 S Nash St          Hillsborough     Orange       12/3/2004    8/11/2005     251
Mill Property
Fontaine 5th
                   3883 S Church St       Rocky Mount       Nash        10/15/2004   12/14/2005    425
Wheel
                   Waughtown &             Winston
Food Lion                                                  Forsyth      12/18/1997   11/9/1999     691
                   Sprague Sts.             Salem
Fulflex, Inc.                              Scotland
                   500 E 7th St                            Halifax      8/23/2004     2/4/2005     165        20
Property                                     Neck
Gateway at Old                             Winston
                   1198 S Broad St                         Forsyth      5/24/2004    3/31/2005     311        51
Salem                                       Salem
General Wood       1901 Wood Treatment
                                            Leland        Brunswick     2/11/2003     5/2/2006    1176        120
Facility           Rd.
Glencoe Mill       2362 River Road         Burlington     Alamance      11/30/2005   3/17/2008     838     7.04




                                                                                                          9
                                                                                      BFA
Project Name           Site Address           City        County      LOI Date*                 Days*   Acreage
                                                                                     Date*
Golden Belt        900 E. Main & 400 E.
                                            Durham        Durham       9/8/2006    3/20/2008     559     5.478
MFG                Elm St.
Griffith Street
                   565 Griffith St          Davidson    Mecklenburg   6/18/2004    12/20/2005    550
Property
Guilford Mills     W Wendover Ave          Greensboro     Guilford    11/18/2001   2/21/2003     460         55
Guilford Mills -
                   5644 Hornaday Road      Greensboro     Guilford    5/26/2006    2/27/2008     642     30.23
Hornaday
Guilford Mills -
                   4925 West Market St     Greensboro     Guilford    4/28/2003    7/18/2005     812      19.8
W. Market St.
Hamilton
                   216 Dunavant St          Charlotte   Mecklenburg   12/3/1997    4/10/2001    1224
Property
Hillsborough
                   3011 Hillsborough St     Raleigh        Wake       3/13/2000     5/1/2001     414
Ventures
Hillsborough       3 Concord St., 24
Ventures           Mcknight Ave., 3101      Raleigh        Wake
Addition           Stanhope Ave
Historic Cotton
                   191 Riverside Dr         Asheville   Buncombe       7/3/2003    6/30/2006    1093      2.63
Mill
Home Depot -
South              4750 South Blvd          Charlotte   Mecklenburg   9/29/2003     6/8/2004     253         12
Boulevard
Industrial
                   4810 Clover Rd          Greensboro     Guilford    1/25/2005     5/5/2007     830     17.77
Plastics Inc.
Kidd Lane
Battery            3607 Kidd Ln             Charlotte   Mecklenburg    4/8/2003    10/25/2005    931         1
Disposal
Lewith Textile     3539 Wilkinson Blvd      Charlotte   Mecklenburg   7/27/2000    12/14/2001    505         50

Lowes of North
                   1430 2nd Street NE       Hickory      Catawba      12/30/2005    3/6/2008     797     13.818
Hickory
Mallard Creek      3021 Driwood Ct          Charlotte   Mecklenburg   2/15/2002     4/3/2003     412         21
Midcal
                   4933 Brookshire Blvd.    Charlotte   Mecklenburg   9/20/2006    4/28/2008     586
Aluminum
                   401 S Independence
Midtown Mall                                Charlotte   Mecklenburg   11/9/2005     2/6/2007     454      10.3
                   Blvd
Model Linen        120 W Lewis St          Greensboro     Guilford
MTE Hydraulics     108 Chickasaw Rd         Gastonia      Gaston      5/10/2005     3/6/2006     300      9.76
National
                   100 Reep Dr             Morganton       Burke                                             32
Textiles
NC Equipment       3101 Hillsborough
                                            Raleigh        Wake       9/27/2006     8/2/2007     309      2.04
Company            Street
North College
                   900 N. College Street    Charlotte   Mecklenburg   6/16/2006    1/22/2008     585      0.85
Street Property
Old Pineville      4928 Old Pineville
                                            Charlotte   Mecklenburg   11/8/2006    12/5/2007     392         3.5
Road               Road
Oxford Printing    8 Industry Dr.            Oxford      Granville    8/21/2000    10/24/2001    429




                                                                                                        10
                                                                                      BFA
Project Name          Site Address           City         County      LOI Date*                 Days*   Acreage
                                                                                     Date*
Padgette Lane
                  105 Padgette Lane        Carrboro       Orange      6/29/2004    9/26/2008    1550     0.97
Property
Parker-Hannifin   12415 Capital Blvd      Wake Forest      Wake       10/27/2003   5/30/2006     946         33
Pelton & Crane
                  200 Clanton Road         Charlotte    Mecklenburg   6/24/2004    1/23/2008    1308
Plant
Pilot Mills       1121 Haynes St            Raleigh       Wake
PPD               Harnett St. & North                     New
                                          Wilmington                  8/26/2004    12/8/2005     469         8
Headquarters      Front St.                              Hanover
PTRP – Camel
                                           Winston-
City              401 East Third Street                   Forsyth     4/26/2005     7/1/2008    1162     1.27
                                            Salem
Cleaners/MGP
Quality Metal
                  1111 Oates Rd.           Gastonia       Gaston      7/31/2002     8/3/2004     734         11
Products
R.W.              107 W. Meadowview
                                          Greensboro      Guilford                                           6.5
McCOLLUM          Road
Rea Asphalt
                  2701 Youngblood St       Charlotte    Mecklenburg   3/22/2007     8/7/2007     138     0.768
Addition
Rea Asphalt
                  2701 Youngblood St       Charlotte    Mecklenburg   1/17/2006     2/6/2007     385     8.551
Plant
Redman Homes      Redman Rd                Mebane         Orange
Reeves Site       8900 Research Dr         Charlotte    Mecklenburg   6/22/2004    6/10/2005     353      20
Rusak Property    3331 Griffith St         Charlotte    Mecklenburg                                      1.21
                                           Winston
Salem Uniform     4015 Cherry St                          Forsyth     5/13/2003    6/22/2006    1136     2.53
                                            Salem
Schlage Lock
                  3551 N Wesleyan Blvd    Rocky Mount      Nash        1/6/2004    12/30/2005    724     49.15
Facility
                  US 23/74 & Hyatt
Shuler Property                           Waynesville    Haywood       7/6/2006    9/28/2007     449     4.494
                  Creek Road
Singer
                  357 Amilite Way         Chocowinity    Beaufort     4/28/1998    3/29/2001    1066
Company
Smith Metal &
                  725 W 4th St             Charlotte    Mecklenburg    3/4/2002    11/15/2002    256
Iron
Smith Property    309 Campbell St           Shelby       Cleveland     9/5/2000    1/15/2002     497
Sonoco Flexible
Packaging         2203 Hawkins St          Charlotte    Mecklenburg   8/10/2006    5/10/2007     273
Facility
South Tryon
                  2036 S Tryon St          Charlotte    Mecklenburg    8/7/2003    1/21/2004     167     2.88
Street
Southern
                  1000 Seaboard St         Charlotte    Mecklenburg   12/5/2001     7/2/2003     574         9
Manufacturing
SOUTHSIDE         2208 South Boulevard
                                           Charlotte    Mecklenburg   8/24/2007    4/21/2008     241         4.2
PROPERTIES        #2222
State Farm
                  660 State Farm Rd         Boone        Watauga      4/19/2000     9/4/2001     503
Road
Stoneville
                  525 South Henry St.      Stoneville   Rockingham    6/30/2004     5/6/2005     310     22.5
Furniture Co.




                                                                                                        11
                                                                                        BFA
Project Name          Site Address            City         County      LOI Date*                  Days*   Acreage
                                                                                       Date*
Tar Heel Lift     7055 Albert Pick Road    Greensboro      Guilford                                        7.46
Tartan Marine     S NC Highway 177           Hamlet       Richmond     12/28/1999    3/29/2001     457
Terrell Machine   3030 South Blvd           Charlotte    Mecklenburg
Town &
                  5324 Independence
Country Rent-                               Charlotte    Mecklenburg    3/8/2005     11/13/2007    980         1.6
                  Blvd
a-Car
V F Site          2831 Wilson Park Rd.     Statesville     Iredell      4/26/2004    2/9/2006      654
Vanier Graphics   655 E Meadow Rd            Eden        Rockingham     9/14/2000    3/19/2002     551

                  Properties on N.
                  Broad, W. Fourth, W.
West End                                    Winston-
                  Fifth, North Green, N.                   Forsyth      5/21/2004     8/2/2008    1534         8
Village                                      Salem
                  Spring Streets and
                  Brookstown Avenue

West Morehead 1310 W Morehead St             Charlotte    Mecklenburg 1/19/2000      3/18/2002     789
Willard Lead
                 101 New Bern St             Charlotte    Mecklenburg 9/22/2005       8/2/2007     679         4.5
Facility
Wilmington
                                                              New
Convention       515 Nutt St                Wilmington                   3/27/2007    9/4/2007     161     9.22
                                                            Hanover
Center
Wilson Landfill
                 US Highway 301 E             Wilson         Wilson      9/15/2003   6/28/2005     652         14
WWTP
LOI Date: Date when the letter of intent was signed by the prospective developer
BFA Date: Date of the finalized agreement between DENR and prospective developer
Days: Number of days in between LOI date and BFA date




                                                                                                          12
          North Carolina Counties with More Than One Finalized Brownfield Agreement
               (Ranked by the Number of Finalized Brownfield Sites in the County)



                                                                                 Rank in county
                          Finalized Brownfield          Percent of all
          County                                                                population within
                             Sites in County            Finalized Sites
                                                                                 North Carolina

Mecklenburg                         52                     39.098%                          1
Guilford                            10                      7.519%                          3
Wake                                 9                      6.767%                          2
Forsyth                              8                      6.015%                          4
Buncombe                             6                      4.511%                          7
Gaston                               4                      3.008%                          8
New Hanover                          4                      3.008%                          9
Orange                               4                      3.008%                      22
Nash                                 3                      2.256%                      29
Rockingham                           3                      2.256%                      30

Durham                               2                      1.504%                          6
Haywood                              2                      1.504%                      44
Iredell                              2                      1.504%                      17


              **Data available for all 133 sites with a finalized brownfield agreement.**




                                                                                                    13
North Carolina Counties with Finalized Brownfield Agreements Totaling More Than Ten Acres
                         (Ranked by Total Acreage in the County)


                               Sites in County
                                                      Total Acreage in      Average Acreage
           County               (with acreage
                                                          County            Per Site in County
                                  available)
  Transylvania                        1                      540                    540
  Mecklenburg                        35                     433.59                 12.39
  Buncombe                            4                     170.63                 42.66
  Guilford                            7                     158.76                 22.68
  Cabarrus                            1                     154.00                 154.00
  Brunswick                           1                     120.00                 120.00
  Martin                              1                     106.00                 106.00
  Forsyth                             7                     75.59                  10.80
  Randolph                            1                     54.80                  54.80
  Nash                                2                     52.75                  26.38
  Wake                                6                     42.97                   7.16
  Rockingham                          2                     40.94                  20.47
  New Hanover                         3                     40.59                  13.53
  Haywood                             2                     40.44                  20.22
  Burke                               1                     32.00                  32.00
  Henderson                           1                     30.00                  30.00
  Gaston                              3                     27.41                   9.14
  Rowan                               1                     20.96                  20.96
  Halifax                             1                     20.00                  20.00
  Wilson                              1                       14                     14
  Catawba                             1                     13.82                  13.82
  Chowan                              1                     12.40                  12.40
  Person                              1                     11.60                  11.60
  Durham                              2                     11.48                   5.74

   **Data was available for 91 of the 133 possible sites with a finalized brownfield agreement.**




                                                                                                    14
Correlation: Property Size and Length of Time Needed to Reach a Finalized Brownfield Agreement


                                               All Sites
                                      Acreage                       Days
                           Acreage    1
                           Days       0.152503346                   1


                                  Largest 25% (20.96 - 156 acres)
                                    Acreage                    Days
                           Acreage 1
                           Days     0.381197801                1


                                  50% - 75% (8.551 - 20.96 acres)
                                    Acreage                    Days
                           Acreage 1
                           Days     0.335696315                1


                                  25% - 50% (2.88 - 8.551 acres)
                                   Acreage                     Days
                           Acreage 1
                           Days    0.165335052                 1


                                  Smallest 25% (0.25 - 2.88 acres)
                                   Acreage                      Days
                           Acreage 1
                           Days    -0.110472999                 1

(Transylvania County’s 540 acre site was excluded from the calculations because it is an outlier)




                                                                                                    15
                         t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances
                                                                   Counties with more than
              Test 1of 3                   Mecklenburg County      one finalized brownfield
                                                                          agreement
Mean                                    691.5744681              770.12
Variance                                162001.2498              261650.5567
Observations                            47                       50
Pooled Variance                         213399.3134
Hypothesized Mean Difference                0
t Stat                                      -0.836898983
P(T<=t) one-tail                            0.202374843
t Critical one-tail                         1.661051818
P(T<=t) two-tail                            0.404749687**
t Critical two-tail                         1.985250956

                            t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances
                                            Counties with more than
                                                                       Counties with one finalized
                Test 2 of 3                  one finalized brownfield
                                                                         brownfield agreement
                                                    agreement
Mean                                       770.12                     678.0454545
Variance                                   261650.5567                152368.3312
Observations                               50                         22
Pooled Variance                            228865.8891
Hypothesized Mean Difference               0
t Stat                                     0.752279355
P(T<=t) one-tail                           0.227202673
t Critical one-tail                        1.66691448
P(T<=t) two-tail                           0.454405346**
t Critical two-tail                        1.994437086

                              t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances
                                                                       Counties with one finalized
                Test 3 of 3                     Mecklenburg County
                                                                         brownfield agreement
Mean                                        691.5744681               678.0454545
Variance                                    162001.2498               152368.3312
Observations                                47                        22
Pooled Variance                             158981.9768
Hypothesized Mean Difference                0
t Stat                                      0.131349344
P(T<=t) one-tail                            0.447946291
t Critical one-tail                         1.667916115
P(T<=t) two-tail                            0.895892581**
t Critical two-tail                         1.996008331

**P-value not significant at .01, .05, or .10 levels



                                                                                                     16
                                                             Length of Time to Reach a Finalized Brownfield Agreement for Sites in the North Carolina
                                                                                              Brownfields Program


                                                3000




                                                2500
Number of Days to Reach a Finalized Agreement




                                                2000




                                                1500




                                                1000

                                                                                                                                                     y = -0.2155x + 8873.1
                                                                                                                                                            2
                                                                                                                                                          R = 0.1789

                                                 500




                                                   0
                                                 3/11/1997    7/24/1998    12/6/1999    4/19/2001      9/1/2002        1/14/2004   5/28/2005   10/10/2006     2/22/2008
                                                                                                Date of Letter of Intent
18
Filename:            03-23-09 Mavraganis Draft Capstone
Directory:           M:\MPA RA
Template:            C:\Documents and Settings\mpara\Application
    Data\Microsoft\Templates\Normal.dotm
Title:               STRIVING FOR EQUITY IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE:
Subject:
Author:              Johanna Foster
Keywords:
Comments:
Creation Date:       3/23/2009 9:34:00 AM
Change Number:       9
Last Saved On:       3/27/2009 8:58:00 AM
Last Saved By:       Greg_Mavraganis
Total Editing Time: 15 Minutes
Last Printed On:     4/13/2009 1:51:00 PM
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