SELF TALK by xiuliliaofz

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									  UNDERSTANDING
    SELF TALK
Damon Burton & Bernie Holliday
Vandal Sport Psychology Services
      University of Idaho
  WHAT IS SELF TALK?

The steady stream of on-going
thoughts or internal dialogue that
goes on in our minds constantly
Your self talk influences your moods,
emotions, and ultimately your
behavior
THREE CHARACTERISTICS
    OF SELF TALK…
rationality
   Trained minds learn to think more positively,
    logically, and systematically.
specificity
   Self talk becomes conditioned to success and
    failure events, changing dramatically based on the
    mindset created in particular situations.
automaticity
   Extensive repetition creates highly automatic
    thoughts, called beliefs.
   Automaticity of self talk is a two-edged sword
    when examining its impact on performance.
         SELF TALK ABC’S…
A = Activating Event
   No Inherently stressful situations or events
        “We are not disturbed by things, but by the views of which we take of them” – Epictetus

B = Belief about the Event
   Athletes attach positive or negative meanings to neutral
    events based on their highly automatic belief system
C = Consequences
   Our beliefs about the event lead to positive or negative
    consequences, both emotionally and behaviorally
Thus, the meaning that we attach to events can
positively or negatively impact our emotions,
behaviors, and ultimately our performance
DOES SELF TALK WORK?
Self talk patterns have been shown to be
important predictors of sport success
Positive self talk predominates in more
effective performances, while negative
thoughts more frequently accompany
poorer performances
   Hardy et al. (2005) Self Talk review
Mental training packages that include self
talk training as part of the intervention
promote enhanced performance over 80%
of the time
       REPROGRAMMING
         SELF TALK…
Reactive versus proactive approaches to
enhancing athletes’ self talk
   Most athletes prefer proactive approaches to
    self talk reprogramming, rather than “old
    school” reactive approaches
The key to the proactive approach is to
identify and create positive, facilitating
thoughts (e.g., reprogramming) that can
enhance athletes’ emotions and performance
   Self talk scripts are effective thought
    reprogramming tools
  TYPES OF SELF TALK…
  Positive Affirmations
   thoughts that focus on your desirable
    characteristics and qualities
  Goals
   thoughts that keep your mind positively focused on
    the task-at-hand, promote high effort, and enhance
    persistence
  Appraisals
   thoughts that determine the degree to which a
    situation is perceived as threatening or challenging
   Self talk reprogramming promotes appraising
    problems as challenges or opportunities to learn
    and grow rather than threats and opportunities to
    fail
TYPES OF SELF TALK…

    Attributions
     Reasons or explanations of success and failure
     Self talk reprogramming encourages performers to
      attribute success and failure to factors they can
      control and change, such as effort, ability, and degree
      of preparedness
    Cue Words
     Quick reminders used during practice and
      competition
     Keep the mind positively focused on process-
      oriented, present-focused reminders that should
      facilitate performance
    USES OF SELF TALK…
    Elevate Motivation
     Intrinsic motivation occurs when athletes feel
      competent and in control. Self talk reprogramming
      should emphasize these factors
    Enhance Focus/Concentration
     Self talk helps athletes focus on their priorities and
      goals, rather than on distractions
    Manage Stress
     Controlling self talk, particularly limiting negative or
      self-defeating thoughts, helps to minimize the amount
      of stress athletes experience
    USES OF SELF TALK…
Boost Self-Confidence
   Persuasive self talk can convince athletes
    that they possess the competence and
    preparation to be successful
Maximize Skill Development and
Performance
   Cues and goals can help athletes remain
    focused on performance-relevant cues
    while disregarding and avoiding irrelevant
    distracter cues during skill development
    and performance
            “SMART TALK”
           COMMANDMENTS
1.   Be an optimist, not a pessimist
         Self talk is a choice. Choose the “half full”
          option. See situations as challenges rather than
          threats.
2.   Remain realistic and objective
         Think constructively, not just positively
3.   Focus on the present -- “Here-n-now” self talk
         Avoid “woulda, coulda, shoulda’s,” and “what
          if’s”
4.   Appraise problems as challenges rather than threats
      • See problems as opportunities to learn
            “SMART TALK”
           COMMANDMENTS
5. View successes as replicable and failures as
    surmountable
          See success as due to ability and effort not luck
6. Concentrate on process not product
          Process is controllable and product is not
7. Concentrate self talk on “controllables”
      Possibly the single most important factor
      Make a list of what you can control in sport.
      Make a list of what you can’t control
8. Separate performance from self-worth
          We are not our performance
   HOW TO REPROGRAM
      SELF TALK…
 Focus on appropriate positive thoughts and
 repeat those thoughts frequently
 Athletes are urged to develop self talk
   scripts that can target one or more
   specific needs using a variety of self talk
   types as well as the more general
   guidelines outlined by the “Smart Talk
   Commandments”
 Scripts offer athletes a tool that can be
   used to reprogram positive self talk
     CORRECTING
UNPRODUCTIVE THINKING…
Extremely difficult to change
negative thoughts due to their
highly automatic nature.
However, irrational beliefs and
cognitive distortions are learned
behaviors, so they can be
unlearned.
         “THE CRITIC”
“The Critic” is your inner voice that
attacks and judges you.
 The critic blames you when things go
  wrong,
 It negatively compares you to others,
 It sets impossible standards of perfection
  and
 The critic blames you when you fall short
 It maintains an album of your failures but
  ignores your successes
            “THE CRITIC”
“The Critic” has your life planned out in detail and
castigates you whenever you break one of the
unwritten rules you’re suppose to live by.
“The critic” calls you names (e.g., stupid, untalented,
slacker, weak, slow, selfish).
It reads others’ minds and tells you they consider you
wanting because they’re bored, frustrated, threatened
or unhappy.
“The critic” exaggerates the size and impact of your
weaknesses, and uses your values against you (e.g.,
“good players always play hurt.”)
“The critic” is the most negative part of each of us, and
it hits you where it hurts, where your self-esteem is
low.
  DEALING WITH
NEGATIVE THOUGHTS
D1 = Detect
     • Self-awareness of unconscious
       thought patterns
D2 = Disrupt
     • Thought stopping
D3 = Dispute
     • Reframing using counterarguments
E = New & more beneficial effects
 DETECTING NEGATIVE
    THOUGHTS…

cognitive distortions are general
types of faulty thinking
irrational beliefs are more specific,
but highly automated, negative
thoughts that create behavioral and
emotional problems for athletes
 COMMON COMPETITIVE
COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS
Catastrophizing
  expecting the worst
  exaggerating the consequences
Overgeneralization
  forming conclusions based on insufficient information
Blaming
  not accepting responsibility for mistakes
Musturbation
  must’s, should’s, and ought to’s
  a form of concrete, inflexible, and unforgiving thinking
Polarized thinking
  good or bad, right or wrong, succeed or fail, etc.
  leaves little room for mistakes or being human
 COMMON COMPETITIVE
  IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
Fear of Failure
   “It is terrible and unbearable when my game
    is not the way I want it to be”
Social Approval
   “I must win the approval of others and
    impress everyone who sees me perform”
        control-based irrational belief
COMMON COMPETITIVE
 IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
Perfectionism
   “I should be completely competent in every
    aspect of my game at all times, never have
    ups and downs, and never make mistakes”
        The team that makes the most mistakes usually
         wins – Coach John Wooden’s philosophy on
         playing hard and mistakes
        Mistakes are a normal and necessary part of
         learning
   COMMON COMPETITIVE
    IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
Equity
  “Life should be fair and if I diligently work at
   my game, I should improve, play well, and get
   the rewards I deserve”
       Life is not fair!
       Hard work increases your chances of success, but
        there are no guarantees.
Social comparison
  “The behavior and performance of other
   competitors is extremely important to me and
   can destroy my game”
       Cannot control others’ performances nor can they
        control your own performance
    DISRUPTING NEGATIVE
        THOUGHTS…
Thought stopping uses intense internal
cues such as a word, image,
kinesthetic movement (e.g., snapping a
rubber band), or some combination of
cues.
   Stop the stream of negative thoughts as
    quickly as possible so you can begin
    focusing on reframing the situation.
  COUNTERARGUMENTS TO
DISPUTE NEGATIVE THOUGHTS

productive way to view the situation
put your negative thoughts on trial
argue why the negative belief is
irrational and unproductive and
provide a more logical and helpful
view of the situation
Counterarguments are solutions, not
cover-ups!!

								
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