Chapter 16 Strategic Performance Measurement LEARNING OBJECTIVES Chapter 16 addresses the following questions: Q1 What is strategic decision making? Q2 How are financial and nonfinancial measures used to evaluate organizational performance? Q3 What is a balanced scorecard? Q4 How is a balanced scorecard implemented? Q5 What are the strengths and weaknesses of the balanced scorecard? Q6 What is the future direction of cost accounting? These learning questions (Q1 through Q6) are cross-referenced in the textbook to individual exercises and problems. COMPLEXITY SYMBOLS The textbook uses a coding system to identify the complexity of individual requirements in the exercises and problems. Questions Having a Single Correct Answer: No Symbol This question requires students to recall or apply knowledge as shown in the textbook. e This question requires students to extend knowledge beyond the applications shown in the textbook. Open-ended questions are coded according to the skills described in Steps for Better Thinking (Exhibit 1.10): Step 1 skills (Identifying) Step 2 skills (Exploring) Step 3 skills (Prioritizing) Step 4 skills (Envisioning) 16-2 Cost Management QUESTIONS 16.1 Financial measures provide information measured in dollars or ratios of dollars. Examples are ROI, operating margin, total sales, and so on. Nonfinancial measures provide performance information about activities that cannot be measured in dollars. Examples would be defect rates, market share, and employee retention rates. 16.2 Four potential perspectives for a balanced scorecard are financial, customer-related, learning and growth, and internal business processes. These are related because success in learning and growth and internal business processes should increase customer satisfaction and finally financial performance. 16.3 Financial perspective: Operating margin, Cost per mile per ton transported Customer perspective: Customer satisfaction surveys, market share, growth in return customers, growth in new customers Internal business perspective: Percent on-time deliveries, number of complaints about food damage from loading and unloading Learning and growth perspective: Driver safety records (number of tickets or accidents), driver training hours, number of process improvements annually. 16.4 Core competencies are the organization’s strengths relative to competitors. The vision is the purpose of the organization. The strengths should support the purpose and values of the organization. 16.5 The sales force may increase satisfaction by reducing car prices, or directing potential customers to another dealership with lower prices to keep satisfaction ratings high. This would hurt financial performance. In addition, sales representatives might not apply pressure to close a sale when it might be appropriate to do so, because they may worry about the customer satisfaction ratings. 16.6 To implement a balanced scorecard, first clarify vision, core competencies, and strategies. Then these strategies are translated to the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard: financial, customer, internal business, and learning and growth. The scorecard is refined as it is communicated throughout the organization to link department and overall organizational strategies and objectives. At the department level, performance targets and action plans are established. Data is collected over time and performance is monitored using the performance measures selected by departments. Employees are rewarded after results are analyzed. The scorecard is refined for the next period. 16.7 Strategic decision making relates to decisions about the types of goods and services that organizations produce and the long-term methods that are developed to better compete. Strategic decision making relies on developing strategic operating plans and budgets that take advantage of an organization’s core competencies. The balanced scorecard provides a more formal method for managers to incorporate mission, vision, and core competencies into their strategic decision making. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-3 16.8 Information from WENDY’S web site as of September 2004 (vision, mission, core values, or similar attributes):1 Our Mission Our guiding mission is to deliver superior quality products and services for our customers and communities through leadership, innovation and partnerships. Our Vision Our vision is to be the quality leader in everything we do. Our Core Values Our organization has a strategic vision focused on these core values: Quality - Freshly-made products and superior service are our passion; consistent excellence is our goal. Integrity - We keep our promises. All actions are guided by absolute honesty, fairness and respect for every individual. Leadership - We lead by example and encourage leadership qualities at all levels. Everyone has a role to play. People Focus - We believe our people are key to our success. We value all members of our diverse family for their individual contributions and their team achievements. Customer Satisfaction - Satisfying internal and external customers is the focus of everything we do. Continuous Improvement - Continuous improvement is how we think; innovative change provides competitive opportunities. Community Involvement - Giving back is our heritage. We actively participate and invest in the communities where we do business. Commitment to Stakeholders - We serve all stakeholders and, through balancing our responsibilities to all, we maximize value to each of them. Wendy’s also publishes ―Standards of Business Practices,‖ a 58-page document describing company guidelines for ethical behavior. 1 Source: www.wendys-invest.com/main/plan.php. The ―Standards of Business Practices‖ can be downloaded at www.wendys-invest.com/corpgov/wenstandards.pdf. 16-4 Cost Management Information from MCDONALD’S web site as of September 2004 (vision, mission, core values, or similar attributes): Our Values2 McDonald's People Promise For McDonald's to achieve our goal of being the world's best quick service restaurant experience, we must have the best experience for all McDonald's employees. So we formalized our beliefs into our People Vision and our People Promise. McDonald's People Vision Our People Vision defines what we strive to be as an employer. Simply put, we aspire to Be the Best Employer in Each Community Around the World. McDonald's People Promise To the 1.5 million people who work at McDonald's in 119 countries around the world, and to all future employees, we want you to know that: We Value You, Your Growth and Your Contributions. This is our People Promise. McDonald’s Corporate Responsibility Corporate responsibility is an important part of McDonald’s heritage. We have a long track record of industry leadership in community involvement, environmental protection, diversity, opportunity, and work with our suppliers to help improve their practices. We are committed to do still more to earn the trust of our customers and everyone else affected by our business. Note: McDonald’s publishes an annual corporate responsibility report. McDonald's Diversity McDonald's is the world's community restaurant. We are proud of our long-standing commitment to a workforce that is diverse. We believe in developing and maintaining a diverse workforce that will strengthen the McDonald's system. McDonald's World Children's Day Participating McDonald’s restaurants in more than 100 countries worldwide are gearing up for World Children’s Day at McDonald's 2003, an annual global fundraiser benefiting Ronald McDonald House Charities® (RMHC®) and local children’s causes. McDonald’s also publishes ―Standards of Business Conduct: The Promise of the Golden Arches,‖ a 24-page document describing company guidelines for ethical behavior. 2 Sources: www.mcdonalds.com/corp/values.html, www.mcdonalds.com/corp/values/ppromise/people_promise.html, and www.mcdonalds.com/corp/values/ppromise/people_vision.html. The corporate responsibility report can be downloaded at www.mcdonalds.com/corp/values/socialrespons/sr_report.html. The Standards of Business Conduct can be downloaded at www.mcdonalds.com/corp/invest/gov/standards_of_business.html. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-5 Similarities between McDonald’s and Wendy’s vision, mission, and core values: Both companies focus heavily on people—employees, customers, and community. Both companies also mention diversity and leadership. In addition, both companies post standards for ethical conduct. Another similarity is that both companies’ statements are quite broad; they describe overall corporate goals and values. Differences between McDonald’s and Wendy’s vision, mission, and core values: A difference is that Wendy’s presents formal statements labeled ―mission,‖ ―vision,‖ and ―core competencies.‖ McDonald’s does not present any statements having these titles. Instead, it refers to its ―People Promise,‖ ―Corporate Responsibility,‖ and ―Diversity.‖ Another difference is in the focus on quality. Wendy’s mission, vision, and core values all emphasize the company’s focus on quality. McDonald’s does not refer explicitly to quality. In addition, McDonald’s mentions its work to improve the practices of suppliers, whereas Wendy’s does not mention its suppliers. 16.9 Student answers to this question will vary depending on the companies chosen. Here is an example of a response for Best Buy and Circuit City. The information shown below is taken from each company’s 2004 annual report. This source was chosen because each company provided information in its annual report about the past year’s successes and goals for the following year. This was the only source of information found on Circuit City’s web site about its strategies. Best Buy provided additional information about its strategies under ―Frequently Asked Questions‖ (FAQs) and under ―Presentations‖ in the Investors Relations section of its web site. Not surprisingly, companies do not always provide significant information about their strategies. For example, Best Buy stated in its FAQs that its marketing strategy could not be publicly disclosed because it is a competitive secret. Information about major strategies from BEST BUY’S 2004 annual report:3 Fiscal 2004 Key Wins: Our company capitalized on many opportunities to increase shareholder value in fiscal 2004. Store, field and corporate teams worked closely together to get the right products to the stores and to sell them successfully. As a result, we gained market share and increased revenue and earnings. We also returned value to our shareholders by instituting our first cash dividend and reactivating our share buyback program. We are very optimistic about the continuing opportunities we see in fiscal 2005. We achieved revenue growth of 17 percent, to $24.5 billion, by opening 78 new stores and increasing comparable store sales by 7.1 percent. We increased earnings from continuing operations by 29 percent through a combination of higher revenue and growth in the operating income rate. This achievement brings the 10-year compound annual growth rate in earnings from continuing operations to 34 percent. 3 Source: Best Buy, ―Fiscal 2004 Annual Report.‖ 16-6 Cost Management Cost savings from our efficient enterprise initiative and gross profit rate gains helped fund the development and testing of our innovative customer centricity strategy in 32 lab stores. Our customer satisfaction rating rose and we gained overall market share, driven by share growth in key product areas including computers, digital televisions, digital imaging products and entertainment software. Closer teamwork among our store, field and headquarters employees and the positive attitude of our workforce helped drive exceptional results throughout the year. Goals for 2005: Build our revenue by 11 to 13 percent through opening approximately 70 new stores and garnering strong comparable store sales gains; increase diluted earnings per share from continuing operations by 15 to 20 percent. Implement customer centricity in up to 110 additional stores in order to improve our service to our best customers; in addition, transform our corporate and field support teams to enable customer centricity. Increase efficiency by expanding our direct sourcing capability and re-engineering our supply chain and customer contact centers to be much more customer-driven. Expand the value-added services we can offer to customers, principally through the roll out of Geek Squad’s® rapid-response, in-store and in-home computer support task force to a total of approximately 45 markets. Create exclusive entertainment content for our customers and offer any format they prefer for enjoying that content. Enhance our capability to let customers enjoy their favorite content throughout their homes, cars and offices. Upgrade and renovate existing stores in key markets to ensure that we remain competitive in customer experience over the next decade. Information about major strategies from CIRCUIT CITY’S 2004 annual report: 4 Fiscal 2004 Accomplishments Superstore openings. We relocated 18 stores, bringing to 38 the number of relocations over the past four years. We also built eight new stores, giving us a total of 50 incremental stores built over the past four years. Our new stores are easier to shop, with powerful and informative product displays, logical product adjacencies, greater product availability and shopping carts on the sales floor, as well as banks of cash registers for fast checkout. They are in vibrant shopping areas with broad consumer bases and high levels of consumer electronics expenditures. 4 Source: Excerpts from Management Letter, ―Building a New Circuit City,‖ Circuit City Stores, Inc. Annual Report 2004. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-7 Sale of the finance operations. We completed the sale of our bankcard finance operation to FleetBoston Financial and announced the planned sale of our private- label finance operation to Bank One Corporation. We expect that the two sales together will generate net cash proceeds totaling more than $600 million, simplify the investment analysis for our shareholders and remove the earnings volatility of these operations. We expect the Bank One relationship will generate an ongoing earnings contribution. Under the terms of a multi-year agreement, Bank One will offer private- label and co-branded credit cards to both new and existing customers. In addition to special financing programs for qualified customers, we expect to jointly develop and introduce new features, products and services. Growth at circuitcity.com. Sales originating from circuitcity.com grew strongly throughout the year. These results reflect in part the tight integration between our Web site and our stores. We expect to take advantage of opportunities that would allow us to further grow Web sales. We took a step in that direction in early fiscal 2005 when we signed an agreement to acquire the assets of MusicNow, Inc. MusicNow gives us the chance to deliver exciting digital content to Web customers. Cost and expense reductions. We also made structural changes focused on bringing costs and expenses in line with our revenues. Through workload elimination, consolidation of activities, process improvements, purchasing enhancements, outsourcing and a variety of other actions, we are making fundamental changes that will allow us to compete profitably. Building a New Circuit City Driving sales. Over the next several years, many of our resources will go towards building stores that can support an industry-leading shopping experience. Since the beginning of fiscal 2001, we have relocated, fully remodeled or newly constructed 131 stores. We believe that approximately one-third of our remaining stores would produce stronger returns if moved to better locations and that we can build approximately 100 stores in newly developed trade areas. We are committed to building in prime real estate locations. With that in mind, we expect to open 60 to 70 new or relocated Superstores during fiscal 2005. We also will continue to refine our merchandise assortment and displays. In fiscal 2004, we refixtured 222 stores, adding space for new video technologies. The flexible fixtures in these stores will facilitate the introduction of new products, as well as other merchandise assortment adjustments. At the end of fiscal 2004, we began to introduce exclusive, private-label merchandise brands, sourced by us directly from the manufacturers. On March 31, 2004, we announced that we signed a definitive agreement to acquire InterTAN, Inc., a leading retailer of both private-label and internationally branded products with headquarters in Canada, in a cash tender offer for $14 per InterTAN common share. We believe this transaction will bring to Circuit City a management team with extensive sourcing experience for private-label merchandise and creative in-store merchandising capabilities and enable us to accelerate the offering of private-label merchandise to our customers. It also allows us to enter Canada with a company that already has a proven retail format. We also 16-8 Cost Management believe the combination of the two companies will create inventory purchasing synergies for both. In fiscal 2004, we continued the move in our Superstores to compensation and staffing models that are consistent with the shopping behavior of today’s consumer. Our new operating model enables consumers to browse the store and shop on their own or receive assistance if they want it. It also helped generate approximately $130 million in labor savings from comparable stores, further positioning us to compete in today’s climate. On the other hand, it meant that our store Associates worked through major changes during the fiscal year. In fiscal 2005, our focus will return to execution and the consistent delivery of outstanding customer service. For many consumers, the Web is an integral part of the shopping experience. Based on a mix of industry research, we believe that in calendar 2003 the percentage of consumer electronics sold online outpaced the average percentage of all retail products sold online. We are redesigning circuitcity.com in fiscal 2005, introducing even better navigation tools, improved merchandise presentations and more Web- tailored promotions. Circuit City is changing, and we want consumers to know. Our research shows that our results are hampered by consumer perception of our stores. In fiscal 2005, our advertising will continue to emphasize the values and solutions we offer. In-store signage will mirror this focus. Improving operating margins. Although we are focused on increasing our sales, we also are developing cost and expense structures that we believe will support reasonable profitability at current sales levels. As we grow revenues, the operating margin would benefit further from these reduced costs and expenses. We believe that efforts such as the introduction of private-label brands, including those available through InterTAN; increased accessory sales; purchasing via reverse auctions and direct imports; and a continued strong focus on the efficiency of our service and distribution organizations will contribute to a more stable gross profit margin. We believe that the structural actions I mentioned earlier can help reduce expenses significantly. We will relentlessly pursue these and other improvements in fiscal 2005. Similarities between Best Buy and Circuit City strategies: Both companies describe strategies to increase sales and decrease costs. They both plan to increase sales through opening new stores, offering new products/services, improving customer services, and increasing sales at individual stores. To reduce costs, both companies plan to increase their gross profit margins and shift to more direct sourcing. Differences between Best Buy and Circuit City strategies: Best Buy’s strategies focus more on incremental improvement to existing operations, while Circuit City’s strategies appear to represent shifts in company vision and core competencies. For example, Best Buy is implementing new strategies to improve its profitability from individual customers and to reduce costs through greater company-wide teamwork. Circuit City is focusing on Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-9 moving stores to better locations, selling its finance operations, consolidating work activities, outsourcing, enhancing its online store, and improving the flexibility of its merchandise offerings. 16.10 As the business environment becomes increasingly competitive and dynamic, demand will increase for relevant and useful information to help organizations succeed. Accountants will need to conduct research using many different sources of information from web sites, libraries, journals, other people, and others. They will also need to develop new internal sources of information that managers can use for decision making. 16.11 Accounting techniques continuously evolve. Sometimes new methods are developed, such as the Balanced Scorecard for strategic management, and sometimes new accounting rules are implemented, such as those issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Other times technological developments facilitate accounting practices. For example, prior to 1990 very few businesses used the reciprocal method (Chapter 8) to allocate support department costs because computers required a great deal of time and memory to perform linear programming. Several spreadsheet programs now offer linear programming capabilities, so now the reciprocal method is commonly used. It is also likely that new accounting techniques will be developed to match technological advances over time. Accountants need to understand their industry and new technologies to help their organizations choose the most efficient accounting and production methods. 16-10 Cost Management EXERCISES 16.12 China Express From the data given, the following measures could be used for the financial perspective: Operating margin = $522,510 Return on investment = ($10,450,200 – $9,927,690)/$4,180,080 = 12.5% Residual income = $522,510 – (0.15*$4,180,080) = $522,510 - $627,012 = ($104,502) Economic value added = $391,883 – (0.12*$4,180,080) = $109,727 16.13 Financial and Nonfinancial Measures A. N B. N C. F D. F E. F F. N G. F (Could be N if measured in units) H. F I. N J. F 16.14 Flowing Wells High School A. Customer satisfaction because parents are considered the customers and school administrators are measuring how satisfied parents are with the high school’s performance. B. This is an internal business related measure because it measures the performance of the high school. C. Customer satisfaction related because the administrators could consider future employers as customers. Changes in employment rate after graduation measures (with noise) the satisfaction of employers with Flowing Wells students. Economic conditions and other factors affect this rate, so it is an imperfect measure. D The administrators could consider employers as customers, and their satisfaction surveys would then reflect a potential measure of the customer perspective. E. This is not a customer perspective measure because it reflects many other factors in addition to satisfaction of employers with graduates. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-11 F. This measure reflects the performance of the high school but not the customer perspective, even though customers are probably interested in this rate. G. This measures internal performance. H. This measures internal performance I. This measures the learning and growth perspective 16.15 Markman Corporation A. Because so many years are spent in drug development, the results of current research, development, and testing will affect future financial performance, not current performance. If nonfinancial measures are used to reward employees, progress toward blockbuster drugs will be better monitored and rewarded. B. Following is an example of an objective. Students may have thought of others. Objective: To increase new drugs that have been developed, patented, tested and are no on the market compared to drugs in the first phase of research. C. Two measures are: The number of new drugs that are on the market divided by total number of drugs researched. The trend (growth rate) in number of new drugs that are on the market. 16.16 Balanced Scorecard Measures A. I B. L C. F D. L E. F F. C G. I H. I I. I J. F K. F L. L M. I N. C O. L P. I 16-12 Cost Management 16.17 Students Care A. Vision is the purpose of the organization. For Students Care, the purpose is to send scholarship money to orphans in Africa. Core competencies are the organization’s strengths relative to competition. Students Care is a campus based organization run by students to raise funds for students. This is likely an advantage for raising funds from students compared to organizations managed by non-students. Strategies are the student’s long-term goals and include choosing an organizational structure – the number, types, and duties of officers – and the nature of the events that the organization will sponsor. Operating plans are the plans that students make for raising and disbursing funds over the next semester or year. These would include number and times of meetings, types of activities for each meeting, and fund raising events. Operating plans for this organization might include targets for the amount of funds the students hope to raise. B. Below are examples of advantages and disadvantages for each measure. Students may think of others. Tracking volunteer hours per week: Advantages: This measure is easy to track. If students are putting in good effort, funds are likely to increase as hours increase. Volunteers have incentives to put in more hours if they know that measure is being tracked. Disadvantages: Students could spend lots of hours raising funds, with little results. They may count activities that are only peripherally connected to fundraising as part of their hours spent. Does not provide incentives to increase the overall amount of funds raised. Dollars collected per volunteer hour: Advantages: This measure focuses on the amount of funds raised instead of the time spent in fund raising, so students have incentives to focus on projects that result in more funds being raised. Students would be less likely to count peripheral hours as time spent on fund-raising activities, so the measure might be more accurate. Disadvantages: This measure does not track the amount of time students spend in fund raising activities, and so they may minimize time spent, but maximize dollars per hour, but spend very few hours fund raising. It does not provide incentives to increase the overall amount of funds raised. C. Learning and growth measures should reflect both organizational and employee efforts to increase knowledge and develop skills. It is likely to be more difficult to find activities that might increase these within volunteer organizations because student time is limited and measuring changes in knowledge and skills are also difficult. Tracking hours students spend at workshops would be easy to measure and monitor and would not involve the organization’s time to set up. A disadvantage is that the quality of the workshops and the effort of students attending the workshop affect the benefits that the organization receives. It could be possible that some of the workshops address issues that are not relevant to Students Care. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-13 16.18 University of California, Berkeley, Cashier’s Office A and B. Below are possible answers to these questions; students may think of others. 1. Injury/illness rate: Calculation: The injury/illness rate may refer to the absolute number of injuries or illnesses or to the number of injuries or illnesses as a percent of employees, employee-days, or hours worked. Data for this measure might be available from payroll records, which would indicate the number of employees, hours worked, and days taken off for injury or illness. Alternatively, it could be measured as the percentage of time lost because people are away from work due to illness or injury. Advantage: An advantage of tracking this rate is that patterns may be discovered over time and actions might be taken to reduce the number of incidents, especially for injuries. For example, there may be more injuries when students first return to school because the department is much busier. Disadvantage: A disadvantage is that injuries and illnesses are different, and if the measure tracks both at once, managers may not understand the relationship between injuries and congested work conditions, or some other cause of injuries. 2. Expenditures as a percent of budget: Calculation: Expenditures as a percent of budget would be the cashier department’s actual costs divided by budgeted costs. This information should be readily available in the University’s financial accounting system. If this ratio = 100%, the department’s costs exactly equaled its budget. Advantage: An advantage of this measure is that managers will know at the end of the period whether costs are in control relative to the budget. Disadvantage: A disadvantage is the lack of incentive to come in under budget by improving processes. 3. Percent of days that the office balanced within $1: Calculation: This measure assumes that a daily cash reconciliation is prepared, which includes a comparison of calculated cash on hand with actual cash on hand. If this reconciliation is prepared every work day, then the balanced scorecard measure is simply the percent of days in which the difference between actual and expected cash on hand is less than or equal to $1. This measures the accuracy of cash handling and cash recordkeeping. If cashiers are receiving and giving out correct amounts and are recording transactions accurately, their tills will always balance. Advantage: This measure is important from a control standpoint, as well as from a customer satisfaction standpoint. For control, it would be more difficult for cashiers to steal small amounts of cash when this measure is monitored. For customers, receiving the correct change is an important part of being satisfied with cashier services. Disadvantage: A disadvantage is that two tills could be off by similar but opposite amounts, and it would appear that no problem had occurred. 16-14 Cost Management 4. Customer satisfaction survey: Calculation: This measure assumes that a survey had been designed and that customer responses have been obtained. If the survey includes numerical ratings of customer satisfaction, then the measure could be a simple average of the customer responses. The ratings could also be broken down by individual survey question. Advantage: An advantage is that managers can learn quickly whether a customer satisfaction problem exists. Also, this is a direct measure of customer satisfaction—customers are asked about their experiences with the cashier’s office. Disadvantage: A disadvantage is that the sample of customers who complete the survey might not be representative of the average customer. Also, the survey might not be designed to elicit the best information. 16.19 University of California, Berkeley, Physical Plant Director’s Office A and B. Below are possible answers to these questions; students may think of others. 1. Injury/illness rate: Calculation: The injury/illness rate may refer to the absolute number of injuries or illnesses or to the number of injuries or illnesses as a percent of employees, employee-days, or hours worked. Data for this measure might be available from payroll records, which would indicate the number of employees, hours worked, and days taken off for injury or illness. Alternatively, it could be measured as the percentage of time lost because people are away from work due to illness or injury. Objective: Improve employee health and safety The illness and injury rate would directly relate to employee health and safety. If the director wants to improve health and safety, the performance target can be a lower injury/illness rate than the current rate. However, injuries and illnesses are different, and if the measure tracks both at once, managers may not understand the relationship between injuries and congested work conditions, or some other cause of injuries, and not be able to improve performance. 2. Turnover rate: Calculation: Turnover rate could be measured from departmental payroll records as the percent of employees who leave the department compared to the total number of employees at the beginning or end of the year. Objective: Meet and maintain staffing needs If the staff is satisfied with the working environment and the appropriate employees are employed each position, turnover rates should be low and the organization should be able to meet and maintain its staffing needs. The proportion of employees who leave may provide information about the quality of the work environment, the competitiveness of pay rates, and the opportunities for individual growth and advancement. Monitoring this Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-15 measure can improve these factors, which in turn can improve employee satisfaction and performance, and also reduce turnover. In addition, monitoring this measure could encourage human resources recruiters to hire the person who best fits each position so that the probability of employee retention and the quality of work are higher. However, this measure does not provide information about the reasons why employees leave, which weakens its value as a performance measure. The requirements for some positions could change so that the fit between the employee and position is no longer appropriate. 3. Evaluation of training sessions: Calculation: This measure assumes that some type of survey or other questionnaire is used to collect evaluations of training sessions, most likely from students who attend training sessions. However, evaluations could also be collected from instructors and from employee supervisors. If the survey includes numerical ratings, then the measure could be a simple average of the responses. The ratings could also be broken down by individual survey/questionnaire question. Objective: Effective training programs This measure would capture information about the perceived benefit from training, which could help the organization evaluate the effectiveness of its training programs. However, respondent perceptions about the effectiveness of training could be biased measures of the training effectiveness. For example, highly entertaining sessions might receive higher ratings, but do not necessarily provide better training. In addition, the sample of respondents who complete the survey might not be representative. 16.20 Holiday Resorts A. I. a, e, II. c, d, h, i, k III. b, f, i IV. g, j B. a. 4 b. 3, 14 c. 13 d. 11 e. 1 f. 7 g. 9 h. 10 i. 2, 8, 14, 15 j. 12, 5 k. 6 16-16 Cost Management 16.21 Future Career A. The answer to this exercise will depend on the student’s planned career path. The purpose is to encourage students to tie the concepts of financial and nonfinancial measures to their future careers. They should be able to list several financial and nonfinancial measures for any type of work. B. Again, the answer will depend on students’ planned career paths. Students should be able to list methods, such as flexible budgets and benchmark targets, which would be relevant for predicting future operations for their employer or clients. C. All students should list continuing professional education such as increasing the technical knowledge and ability to manipulate data using data bases and spreadsheets. Some students will consider annual education needs for FASB and tax updates. Others might identify learning related to skills that will become more important after the entry level, such as people management. D. As technology enables organizations to quickly manipulate data, the need for innovative data collection and analysis becomes a more central part of work. Bookkeeping responsibilities are now maintained by information systems, but the integrity of the systems needs to be continually monitored and improvements continuously made. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-17 PROBLEMS 16.22 Mark Moreland A. The financial perspective is similar across organizations. Because this is a service industry, any financial measures relating to cost will likely measure the cost of clinical staff members. The customer perspective will relate to the dental patients and possibly also to insurance companies, who pay for dental services. The customer perspective is important to dentists because return business is probably most of their business. Internal business processes would include the ease with which patient appointments are booked, effective scheduling of staff, and effecting accounting practices, especially for billing and managing accounts receivables. Learning and growth would pertain to the dentists, who need to participate in continuing professional education to keep their licenses and dental procedures current, and staff members such as hygienists who are an important part of the patient care team. B. Patients could be surveyed either before they leave the office or by mail after the appointment date. The performance measure could be average patient satisfaction. In addition, the clinic may want to use waiting time as an important measure of customer satisfaction. If patients have to wait extended amounts of time, they will feel frustrated and may find a new clinic. Other measures could include tracking the proportion of patients who return for additional services, the number of patient complaints, and the number of return visits for problems with the original work. C. Financial perspective: Operating margin reflects the overall profitability of the dental clinic and reflects changes in both revenues and costs. Tracking operating margin will alert the dentists to potential problems with revenues or costs before the problems become too large. Bad debts or insurance adjustments. Some patients may not have the ability to pay and if the percentage of patients with these types of problems increases, operating margin will fall. Bad debts and insurance adjustments can also indicate problems with services or with billing processes. Customer perspective is addressed in Part B. Internal business processes: Days in accounts receivable. This measure is important because some customers may be very slow to pay, or unable to pay. The clinic needs to know immediately if there is a problem with receivables because it affects cash flows. Patient throughput, that is, the rate at which patients are treated. Throughput could be measured as an average number of patients treated per day, per week, or other time period. This measure reflects the use of fixed assets, such as the dental 16-18 Cost Management chairs and equipment. Also, staff members are likely paid by salary, so the more patients the dentist can see, the more profits the clinic receives. Learning and growth Number of continuing professional education hours would be a good measure for the dentists, so that they can be reminded to increase hours if they fall behind. Retaining licensure in this industry is extremely important. Training hours for staff members could be measured to keep staff up to date with the latest technology for this field. 16.23 Dyggur Equipment A. I B. C C. C D. F and I E. F F. F and I G. F and C H. C and I I. C and I J. L K. L L. L M. L N. I O. F P. L Q. L R. C S. C T. L and I U. I and C V. 1. I 2. I and C 3. I and C 16.24 Dyggur Equipment (continued) A. Advantages of weekend service: Because heavy equipment is expensive to purchase, contractors probably prefer to use it as often as possible during the week. Therefore, having weekend service would be an attractive alternative for them. It is possible that Dyggur will attract new customers with this strategy. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-19 Disadvantages: If Dyggur currently operates services during the week, customers may have all of their repairs and maintenance done on the weekend instead of during the week so that there will be excess capacity during the week, and service employees may need extra compensation to work weekends. B. Contribution margin per day might be a good financial performance measure because it takes into consideration both sales and variable costs. Nonfinancial measures could include average service time per vehicle, or a measure of labor time used that should encourage speedy service. In addition, a measure that tracks the number of customers with problems or complaints related to service should provide incentive for employees to spend enough time on each vehicle to prevent problems. C. After a year’s worth of data has been collected, operations can be analyzed and correlations developed to determine an optimal average service time per vehicle, or operating practices that help insure high quality service. For example, if quality problems are higher than preferred, a service inspector could be hired that would review all of the procedures used to service the vehicle with the service employee before the vehicle is returned to the owner. Problems that are uncovered during the review could be remedied if the balanced scorecard measures provide enough appropriate information about operations. 16.25 Squeezers Juice and Tea Company A. Here is a possible mission statement: Squeezers Juice and Tea Company produces the highest quality organic juices. We strive to satisfy customers who want organic juices and teas with outstanding taste. The preceding statement attempts to capture the essence of the company in as few words as possible. It used information in the problem to determine the company’s core values. B. The business’ strategies are to be the high quality, high priced juice and tea seller. The core competencies include knowledge of the specific exotic juice and tea drinks that sell well and knowledge of suppliers of unusual gourmet organic ingredients. C. There are many possible performance objectives for each of the four balanced scorecard perspectives. Below are examples. Financial: Maintain and improve operating margins. Increase revenues. Customer perspective: Increase market share. Decrease product returns and complaints. Increase customer satisfaction. 16-20 Cost Management Internal business processes Maintain high standards of cleanliness and quality. Monitor and increase throughput of product while maintaining quality. Continue to appeal to celebrities (could be considered internal business processes – advertising, or customer perspective) Learning and growth: Locate new suppliers continually. Reduce employee turnover to decrease threat of competitors getting information about the beverage recipes. D. There are many possible answers to this question. Below are examples. Financial perspective objective measures: To measure improvements in operating margin, operating margin is monitored. To measure increase in revenues, changes in revenues are reported. Customer perspective objective measures: To measure increases in market share, market share is monitored and reported. To measure decreases in product returns and complaints, number of product returned and number of complaints are tracked and reported. Internal business perspective objective measures: To monitor cleanliness and quality, indices would need to be developed. To measure changes in throughput, the throughput rate would need to be monitored. Learning and growth perspective objective measures: To measure efforts in adding suppliers, the number of suppliers or number of new suppliers should be tracked and monitored. To measure efforts at reducing employee turnover, the turnover rate can be tracked and monitored. E. Operating margins and revenues are usually tracked by the accounting system, but change in revenue may need to be calculated. Market share may not be tracked. Squeezers may need to begin collecting such data by gathering information from industry publications or by hiring a consulting company to conduct surveys. Product returns and customer complaints are probably not tracked, so a new system will need to be put into place to measure this. Managers may need to explore different types of indices for cleanliness and quality, although the health department probably inspects on a regular basis. However, health department standards may be too low for Squeezers. There is probably no way to measure the number of celebrities using Squeezer products. However, the company could keep track of the number of times that Squeezer products appear in TV programs or movies. Employees may need to report such information so that it can be tracked. It is likely that some instances will be missed, so this measure may include considerable measurement error. Purchasing probably has information about suppliers and can track these numbers. Human resources can begin to track turnover rates if they do not already do so. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-21 16.26 China Express A. The advantages of using a combination of measures for the finance and customer perspectives is that no one measure is likely to capture all important aspects of these perspectives. A combination of measures allows managers to track multiple attributes, which might also be associated with specific strategies or performance objectives for employees. Disadvantages are that more measures need to be tracked, and employees could feel confused about the specific measures to which they should pay most attention. B. There are many possible answers to this question; here is an example. Because the health department ratings affect customer perceptions and volumes so strongly, some measure of cleanliness might influence customer satisfaction. For example, a manager might make a spot inspection daily, or weekly using standards similar to the health department’s, and give each outlet a rating. An advantage of this measure is that outlets will maintain a high degree of cleanliness and the health department should always find that the outlets meet its standards. A disadvantage is that employees may spend too much time cleaning when they could be doing other activities that affect customer satisfaction, such as filling salt and pepper shakers or giving customers more attention. C. There are many possible answers to this question; here are two examples. Another performance measure could be the number of return customers. Fast food businesses rely heavily on repeat customers and increasing the number of returning customers is likely to increase revenues and profitability. This measure may be difficult to track, though; cashiers might ask each customer if they had eaten at a China Express outlet before, but customers might not respond honestly. Another performance measure might be the percent change in sales at the store where the employee works. This data is already tracked, and it would encourage employees to focus their efforts on encouraging customers to spend more money. 16.27 Quantum Computers A. Several different functional areas should be discussed during the strategic planning process. This would include product research and development, production, marketing, and administrative support areas. B. Below are six factors that should be considered in a thorough strategic planning process to move a company such as Quantum Computers to another level of product development. Students may think of others. Define the mission of the organization. State the fundamental, unique purpose that sets the company apart from other firms of its type and identify the scope of its operation in product and market terms. 16-22 Cost Management Develop organizational objectives. State the specific aims that management seeks to achieve for the organization within a stated period of time. Objectives improve the effectiveness of the organization by providing direction, serving as standards for evaluating performance, and motivating members of the organization. Objectives can be short and long range, and internal and external. Evaluate current and projected risks and opportunities in the firm’s environment and business culture, including trends in the competitive, economic, demographic, social, technological, and regulatory areas. Assess the organizations’ strengths and weaknesses compared to those of other organizations. Identify the firm’s core competencies. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats (SWOT) analysis is a strategic planning tool that forces managers to identify internal strengths and weaknesses and assess them in relation to external opportunities and threats. Determine the total company resource constraints, including human, physical, and financial. Formulate strategy. Select an appropriate strategy to take advantage of existing and expected external environmental conditions and the firm’s internal strengths and weaknesses. C. Quantum Computers can derive the following benefits from a participatory strategic planning process. Students may think of others. Exchange of ideas between participating managers leads to greater creativity, resulting in a better plan. Participation fosters increased teamwork, cohesiveness, communication, and cooperation among departments and managers. Communication will be improved, leading to better understanding of the overall mission and strategy and the potential contributions of each area to the organizational mission. This should contribute to improved goal congruence between operating areas and the overall goals of the firm. D. The managers who participate in the three-day offsite strategic planning meeting are more likely to do/feel the following. Students may think of others. Feel that they have been part of the process and be positive about the plan Be more motivated and committed to making the plan succeed because they had the opportunity to express their opinions and insights. Be more enthusiastic in communicating the plan to their subordinates. 16.28 Brewster House A. The following are potential benefits and costs of the balanced scorecard for Brewster House. Students may think of others. Benefits: Balanced scorecard performance measures could help Brewster House improve the quality and efficiency of its operations, by helping managers, employees, and Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-23 volunteers focus on key indicators. If the organization operates more efficiently, donors are more confident that their donations are effective. In addition, a balanced scorecard could be used to help communicate the objectives and expectations of the organization to volunteers and donors. Costs: Setting up a balanced scorecard could require the organization to establish new records, which could take time away from the organization’s primary activities. In addition, the measures chosen by the accounting students may not be the best set of measures. Some of them might result in unintended consequences, for example the shelter may lose some of its volunteers if they believe that they cannot meet the organizations’ performance measure targets, or if they do not agree with those objectives and targets. Volunteers may also object to having their performance evaluated. B. There are many potential answers to this question. Below are examples. Financial perspective: Total amount of cash available (government and private grants and subsidies, and donations) per month compared to cash costs per month. If the shelter is using a checkbook approach to financial operations, a spreadsheet or bookkeeping software could be set up to track this information. It is highly likely that it is already being tracked, though. Customer perspective: Several choices can be considered for this perspective. If the Brewster House director views homeless people as customers, she may want to ask a random sample of the people staying overnight to complete a survey or answer some simple interview questions. If she views donors as customers because Brewster House helps them provide a social good for the community, then the director might want to survey donors about their satisfaction with services. These surveys would require the director to write the survey instrument, run a pilot study to determine whether the instrument gathered all of the necessary information for evaluation, and then develop the final instrument, use it, and evaluate the results. Internal business perspective: The director may want to monitor the percentage of funds used for administration compared to the percentage of funds used for providing shelter. This ratio is monitored by external agencies, such as the Better Business Bureau, and donors pay attention to these types of ratios when making decisions about their donations. Learning and growth perspective: The director and the volunteer staff would probably all benefit from further training. The director may want to learn more about fund raising or the business of running an organization. The volunteers may want to learn more about dealing with homeless people who are also mentally ill. Separate measures of training hours per employee/volunteer could be tracked. C. Student answers will vary. The memo should be written in language that would be easily understood by a non-accountant manager, and it should include: Overview of major issues and recommendation 16-24 Cost Management Explanation of the purpose and use of a balanced scorecard Examples of a few key measures that might be used by Brewster House and how those measures might help the organization meet its objectives Description of the costs and benefits of a balanced scorecard for Brewster House Explanation of how factors were weighed in reaching a recommendation Major limitations or risks of the recommendation Identification of next steps 16.29 New Zealand A. There are many possible answers to this question. Here are several ideas for increasing the number of college graduates: The government could offer scholarships to students who might not attend college because of financial need. The government could pressure colleges to reduce their admissions standards so that more students were accepted to their programs. The government could launch an advertising campaign aimed at promoting college education. The government could provide special income tax incentives to individuals and businesses that incur college education costs. B. The answer to this part will depend on the idea chosen. Here is a possible answer for one of the ideas presented in Part A. Action plan: Increase scholarships to financially needy students. Pros: Scholarship money will mean that many needy students who are quite capable will be able to complete their education. This should increase the number of students getting college degrees. Cons: Scholarship money that is provided only to the neediest students might mean that some capable students who do not qualify for scholarships based on need are unhappy with the system and do not apply for admission. This proposal also costs the government the amount of money granted in scholarships, plus the cost of processing applications. C. There are many possible answers to this question. Here are several ideas for increasing the number of high school graduates: High school students may need incentives to stay in school. A program that combines educational information about the benefits of a college education and the offer of college scholarships to students who graduate from high school might increase the graduation rate. Standards could be lowered so that students would stay in school and graduate. Alternative schools could be organized to help students at risk succeed. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-25 D. The answer to this part will depend on the idea chosen. Here is a possible answer for one of the ideas presented in Part C. Action plan: Provide information about the benefits of college and college scholarships to all students who graduate from high school Pros: Direct financial incentives might be successful in encouraging high school students to graduate, and the educational information might help high school students understand why more education is desirable. Cons: This program could be very expensive to the government, and it might not have a large effect on high school graduation rates. E. The purpose of this question is to provide students with an opportunity to explore two major aspects of performance measurement in a real-world setting: (1) uncertainties and issues in setting goals, and (2) difficulties in measuring performance. The setting— establishment of target graduation rates—is familiar to students. This familiarity should improve their ability to identify and discuss issues. However, U.S. students will learn that the school system and terminology in New Zealand are slightly different than in the U.S. College education in New Zealand is often referred to as tertiary education. School in New Zealand is required only for students aged 6 to 16, but most students begin at age 5. Thus, the last required year of schooling is referred to as secondary school Year 11. Year 13 corresponds in student age with the U.S. senior year in high school. During 2002, New Zealand adopted a qualification system called the National Certificate of Education Achievement (NCEA). The country previously used a system in which educational progress during secondary school was identified by ―Forms‖; this terminology is still found in some education reports. Here is a brief summary of secondary school levels for New Zealand.5 Year 9 (Form 3) Year 10 (Form 4) Year 11 (Form 5) Most students sit for NCEA Level 1 Year 12 (Form 6) Most students sit for NCEA Level 2 Year 13 (Form 7) Most students sit for NCEA Level 3 The following publications provide statistics about New Zealand graduation rates in recent years. Students may wish to use these data to help them identify appropriate graduation rates. Statistics New Zealand, ―Learning,‖ available at www.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/nzstories.nsf/Response/Learning. Ministry of Education, ―School Leavers (2003),‖ updated August 17, 2004, available at www.minedu.govt.nz/index.cfm?layout=document&documentid=6894&data=l 5 ―Definition of Education in New Zealand,‖ available at www.wordiq.com/definition/Education_in_New_Zealand. 16-26 Cost Management Ministry of Education, ―Pathways in Tertiary Education 1998-2002, updated July 30, 2004, available at www.minedu.govt.nz/index.cfm?layout=document&documentid=9703&data=l Here are some of the issues and information that students should consider before they attempt to draw conclusions about graduation rates. Uncertainties and issues in setting goals: Before students consider identifying specific graduation rate goals, they need to decide how they would like to define graduation rates. A quick review of the three publications listed above would make it clear that there are at least two major issues to consider in defining the graduation rate goals. First, should the goals be set in terms of full completion, or should different goals be set for different levels of completion? For example, the country could establish one overall goal for completion of Year 13 and the NCEA Level 3 exam, plus one overall goal for completion of an undergraduate tertiary degree program. Alternatively, the country could establish goals for different levels of secondary and tertiary education. Second, should a single goal be established for the country as a whole, or should different goals be established for different subpopulations, such as Maori and Pasifika students or non-traditional- age students? Difficulties in measuring performance: When evaluating educational progress, it is always difficult to define how progress should be measured. For example, in tertiary education a decision must also be made about the timeframe for measuring completion. Some students attend college only part-time; should graduation be defined in terms of number of years of education, number of courses, or some other attribute? Is performance necessarily poor if some students take longer than others to complete a degree? In addition, a typical assumption is that completion of a certain year in school, level exam, or degree is an appropriate measure of educational achievement. However, questions always arise about the appropriateness of any particular exam or program design. Which measures would be most consistent with the country’s overall goals? Once students have clarified desirable types of graduation rates, they need to consider how to set targets. This is the same problem a company faces when establishing targets for performance in a balanced scorecard. One way is to set targets based on some absolute goal. Another way is to seek continuous improvement by beginning with current rates and targeting percentage increases. Still another method is to seek improvement compared to other countries. Students should explain the method they used and link their recommendations to New Zealand’s goals. 16.30 Dane Champions A. Dane Champions’ strategy is product differentiation. The company wants to be known for dogs with outstanding lineage from both health and temperament perspectives. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-27 B. There are multiple answers to this question. Below are examples of answers that take advantage of the data given in the problem. Financial perspective: The operating margin could be used to reflect Champions’ abilities to show and sell dogs so that revenues are maximized while costs are controlled. The current operating margin is: Revenues ($24,000 + $110,000) $134,000 Expenses ($35,000 + $55,000) 90,000 Operating margin $ 44,000 Mark could also track the cost per dog for kenneling or cost per show when he is on the road. In addition, revenues could be tracked separately and monitored for growth. Customer perspective: Puppy owners’ average satisfaction indicates the level of satisfaction for current puppy owners. Satisfied owners will be repeat customers and may tell their friends about the kennels, so sales will likely increase. Number of puppies returned also gives an indication of customer satisfaction. Puppies are only returned when owners are not satisfied. Internal processes: Training time spent to prepare dogs for both homes and shows is a measure of internal processes. For this measure, likely an optimal range exists, whereby puppies are trained well enough to succeed at home and in shows, but excessive training has not been done. Mark may want to analyze correlation statistics for changes in training hours and show results or number of puppies returned to identify the optimal range for training time. Learning and growth perspective: Number of champions compared to number of dogs shown would provide information about the company’s ability to identify and train dogs that will succeed in the show ring. Trips to dog shows may need to be added to this group of measures and number of wins per trip could be monitored to insure that an adequate number of trips are being taken, but that most trips result in wins. C. There are many possible answers to this question; here are examples. Arguments for: The student may respond favorably to a balanced scorecard because it focuses attention on his or her work, and Mark may give praise or a bonus when scorecard results are positive. If Mark is concerned about the number of hours spent in cleaning, he could develop a bonus measure that would encourage quick clean-up while retaining the current level of cleanliness. This may mean that he has to pay a little bit more, so the decision depends on whether the benefits from faster cleanup outweigh the costs. Arguments against: The student could feel that Mark is unfairly monitoring his or her work and either quit or slow down. 16-28 Cost Management 16.31 Hardware Store A. Average sale ...............................................................Financial Average variable cost per sale ...................................Financial Average customer wait time at register .....................Customer Average customer wait time on the floor ...................Customer Shipping cost per order ..............................................Financial or internal Total returns ...............................................................Customer or financial Total revenue .............................................................Financial Total labor cost ..........................................................Financial or internal Utilities cost ...............................................................Financial or internal Number of out-of-stock items ....................................Customer Employee turnover .....................................................Learning and growth B. There are many possible reasons for the changes in performance. Below are examples of reasons; students may think of others. Average sale decreased. This could occur due to a general decline in the economy. It could also occur if sales at the store emphasized low-priced items. Average variable cost per sale remained the same. Average customer wait time at the counter remained the same. Average wait time for help on the floor decreased. This could have occurred because more employees were hired to work the floor, or because of a decline in the number of customers. Shipping cost per order declined. This could occur if fewer items or less heavy items were shipped. Or, the store might have found a shipping company that charged lower prices. Total returns increased. This might not be significant if total sales had also increased, but sales decreased. The increase in returns could have occurred if floor employees were giving poor product advice. It could also occur if the store received an unusual amount of defective products from a particular supplier. Total revenue decreased. This could occur because of a bad economy, increased competition, or a change in consumer preferences. Total labor costs increased. The company hired more workers, increased its pay rates, or incurred more overtime cost. Utilities costs increased. This could be due to higher rates or to relatively more inclement weather that required more heating or cooling. Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-29 Items out of stock increased. This could occur because the stores do not carefully track inventory or have optical character readers that track inventories. Alternatively, maybe the store does have such capabilities but no one has time or takes responsibility for the task of keeping stock up to date and on the shelves. They might also have launched a plan to reduce total inventory levels, increasing the out-of-stock incidence. Employee turnover increased. This could occur if the company had a number of employees close to retirement age or waiting to go to college. Turnover could also increase if the company fails to pay competitive rates or if employees are not properly screened prior to hiring. C. There is no single answer to this question; here is an example of an appropriate answer. Because operating margins depend on revenues, managers may want to investigate the decline in average sale. They may want to know if advertising campaigns were related to this problem or if it was driven by factors external to the firm, such as a bad economy. If there have been changes in advertising, managers will want to determine how best to advertise. If the changes are economy related, there may be little that managers can do. Because the company has been focusing on reducing wait time, manager likely want to examine wait time on the floor to see if changes in wait time affect changes in profitability. Managers may want to investigate the reduction in shipping costs to reward responsible employees and also to check that quality of service has not deteriorated in any way. Managers may want to investigate the increase in labor cost. A labor rate change could explain the variance, and then no further action would be needed. However, it is possible that employees have been overscheduled to reduce waiting time. The turnover rate increase may or may not be important to investigate. If employees are retiring, no problems exist. However, if effective clerks are leaving for better opportunities, future sales could be affected. D. The results suggest that the company has been successful in reducing its wait time. However, these results do not support a belief that decreasing wait time should increase sales. In addition, the managers cannot know for sure the cause of the downturn in revenues. It is possible that revenues would have decreased even more if the average wait had remained at 3 minutes. E. It appears that the hardware store emphasized the strategy of reducing customer wait times. However, labor costs and total returns are higher than last year. It is possible that these are related to increasing the number of employees on the floor to reduce wait time. Perhaps the floor people are not well trained and give poor advice when customers buy products. Or, the floor employees convince customers to buy products that they do not need and later return. By tracking the reasons for returns, these problems can be analyzed and corrected. 16.32 Frieda’s Fizz A. Frieda’s Fizz managers cannot be certain that the set of measures they have chosen is the best set because they cannot know for certain whether the measures accurately reflect the 16-30 Cost Management objectives that were developed. The managers do not know whether their ability to track performance measures leads to accurate measurement, and they do not know whether there would be a better performance measure that has not been considered. In addition, there may be measures that were considered that would be better but are expensive to track. Managers may not have chosen the best measures, but the most convenient measures, or biased measures that demonstrate their strengths rather than weaknesses. Students may have thought of other uncertainties that affect an organization’s ability to select appropriate measures. B.1 and B.2. Financial perspective: Strengths: All three measures reflect some aspect of financial performance. In addition, the level of monitoring goes from more micro (direct and overhead costs per case) to the more macro (return on investment). Weaknesses: The cost measures may be inaccurate if the company’s accounting system fails to accurately assign costs to products. In addition, ROI can be manipulated and includes incentives that may not be good for the long-term prospects of the organization. Conclusion: The set of financial performance measures appears to be reasonable if the managers wish to focus primarily on cost control and are not concerned about possible suboptimal decisions or manipulations from use of ROI. However, economic value added (EVA, see Chapter 15) may be a better measure than ROI because it can be adjusted to minimize incentives that promote suboptimal behavior. In addition, none of these measures analyze sales (except indirectly through operating income), which are also an important part of profitability. The managers might also considering adding a measure for some aspect of sales; however, this might not be needed because a sales growth measure is included in the customer perspective. Customer perspective: Strengths: These measures reflect several aspects relating to customer satisfaction, an important perspective for this organization. These measures also move from micro (customer complaints and a product quality index) to macro (percentage sales growth). As customer complaints fall, sales should increase, increasing profitability. Similarly as the quality index increases, customer complaints should be reduced, although only the complaints regarding freshness and possibly taste. Percentage sales growth should increase profitability and provide evidence that the company is producing a high quality product that meets consumer demands. Weaknesses: Some customers complain in hopes of receiving free products. Some customers do not complain when a problem arises; they just stop buying the product. The quality index may not reflect the taste of the beverage or whether there are foreign objects in the products, both of which greatly affect customer satisfaction translating to sales volumes. Percentage sales growth may not increase profitability if product contribution margins are low. Conclusion: This set of measures is reasonable if the managers wish to focus primarily on product quality and sales growth. However, the managers may wish to focus on additional aspects of the customer perspective, particularly as the Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-31 company begins to expand. For example, the managers may wish to monitor customer satisfaction with the ordering system, delivery, or customer service. Internal business process perspective: Strengths: These measures would be important in cost-efficient production, and also provide an indication of how effectively capacity is being utilized. Weaknesses: The ratio of plant production hours to total available time is designed to measure the extent to which the plant is productive versus idle. However, this measure might encourage inefficient use of productive capacity (although this concern is at least partially offset by the second measure, which addresses volume of output). The throughput measure could encourage overproduction or lower- quality production. A focus on waste and scrap might draw manager and employee attention away from costs that are more significant, such as raw materials and direct labor. Conclusion: This set of measures is reasonable if the managers wish to focus primarily on plant utilization and control of waste and scrap costs. However, other internal process measures may be more important, such as the number of times beverages are back-ordered. In addition, some measures might relate to quality, such as the length of time beverage waits to be shipped or the amount of time spent in shipping. Learning and growth perspective: Strengths: Monitoring injuries would encourage managers and employees to improve workplace safety, which would improve employee well-being as well as reduce costs from health care and lost work time. Monitoring training hours would improve employee abilities to perform their jobs and provide greater opportunities for individual advancement. Monitoring community volunteer hours would encourage employees to participate more actively in projects that benefit the community, enhancing the quality of the community as well as the company’s reputation. Weaknesses: Training hours does not measure the quality or training or results from increased training. Number of community volunteer hours really does not relate to the organization’s vision. Either the vision or the measure needs to be changed. Conclusion: This set of measures is reasonable assuming that the managers do not wish to develop new products or encourage other innovations. C. Pros: By definition, a balanced scorecard is a set of financial and nonfinancial measures relating to the company’s mission, strategies, and critical success factors. When the scorecard is implemented correctly with information relevant to good decision making, measurement of company efficiency and success should be much improved. The company will have a better understanding of what its customers and investors need and want, the business practices at which it excels, and a better understanding of potential internal improvements. When a balanced scorecard is implemented, monitoring will be increased and improved. Every part of the business needs to be examined to ensure that the actual current operating performance aligns properly with long-term strategies 16-32 Cost Management The balanced scorecard helps in evaluating overall performance and can lead to corrective action when needed. If every part of the business is monitored more closely, employees are likely to exert more effort because they know that they are being observed. Cons: If the balanced scorecard is not implemented well, there will be little improvement of operations. Sometimes it may take several years before the full benefits of the scorecard are realized. Because the financial returns are not immediate, people may become frustrated at the perceived lack of results. If the system is not implemented well, then the activities of the company will not be monitored effectively. If performance measures do not relate to the vision, strategies, and objectives, even effective monitoring may not lead to improvements. Employees may resent being more closely monitored. They may feel that managers do not trust them and that they are doing their jobs incorrectly. Some measures may result in unintended consequences, such as an emphasis on customer satisfaction that results in higher costs than benefits. D. The current balanced scorecard is likely to help the managers meet the organizational vision, but a few of the measures do not relate well to the company vision, such as number of community volunteer hours per employee. Either the vision should be changed, or this item may not need to be measured and monitored. There may be other measures more related to maintaining high quality through the upcoming growth phase that would be better for Frieda’s Fizz. The success of the balanced scorecard also depends on the support it receives throughout the organization. E. There is no one answer to this part. Sample solutions and a discussion of typical student responses will be included in assessment guidance on the Instructor’s web site for the textbook (available at www.wiley.com/college/eldenburg). 16.33 Corporate Social Responsibility A. The answer to this question will vary. For some students, social responsibility may not enter their consumer decisions. For others, social responsibility may guide their decisions. The purpose of this question is to encourage students to consider their own responsibility for economic support of company behavior. B. Consumers cannot know the conditions under which the products they purchase are manufactured, and it is generally impossible to personally investigate working conditions. Not only would personal investigation be expensive, but access to production facilities Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-33 may be limited and outsiders may not be able to observe everyday practices. Consumers could gain at least some information by clarifying where the products they purchase are manufactured, investigating companies’ outsource practices (such as those published by Nike), and learning about common workplace problems in various parts of the world. They can also determine whether any third parties monitor and report on working conditions where products are manufactured. C. Even the companies that outsource cannot know for certain the conditions in the manufacturing plant. It is likely that when people from corporate headquarters visit, all managers and employees are on their best behavior. False documentation might be provided for working hours, pay, and injury rates. Employees may be reticent to divulge workplace problems because they fear getting fired. D. Compliance monitoring costs are the costs to observe conditions in the manufacturing plants where Nike shoes are produced. When selecting manufacturers for outsourcing, Nike considers the amount of monitoring needed and the costs for that monitoring in their purchasing decisions. In other words, the monitoring costs are added to other purchase costs in evaluating total costs for purchasing from each supplier. Potential outsource partners are likely to be rejected if Nike believes it would be particularly expensive to monitor their operations. E. Here are some measures the company could monitor. Students may have thought of others. Average worker pay: This measure could be used to evaluate whether worker pay meets at least a minimum acceptable level. Average worker benefits: This measure could be used to evaluate whether workers receive at least a minimum acceptable level of benefits such as unemployment insurance, health care, and compensation for time lost due to injury. Average hours per employee per day worked: This measure would indicate whether workers’ hours are reasonable. Average age of workers, and the range of ages (youngest to oldest): These measures would allow evaluation of whether young workers are exploited. Number of injuries: This measure would allow monitoring of the safety of workplace operations. F. There is no one answer to this part. Here are some of the issues that students might discuss: Nike needs to weigh the costs of its social responsibility initiatives with benefits, such as increase consumer sales from customer who care about such factors, aligning corporate actions with corporate values, and so on. The weight placed on social responsibility versus increased profits will depend on the viewpoint of the stakeholder. Some shareholders may prefer increased profits and not value actions taken to protect 16-34 Cost Management workers. Nike manufacturing line employees may want conditions to be similar in all plants that produce Nike products out of a sense of fairness. Nike officers and board of director members may put more weight on profits, or they may put more weight on social responsibility, depending on their viewpoints. Some customers might place pressure on Nike to achieve lower costs, which would encourage the company to purchase from suppliers with less favorable working conditions. Other customers are willing to pay a higher price to cover the costs of more socially acceptable suppliers. Students also need to consider whether it is possible to clearly define the ―best‖ choice from a socially responsibility standpoint. What level of wages, work hours, and benefits is acceptable? Should the level of working conditions vary from country to country? Does it matter whether a supplier provides better working conditions than other employers in a location, if its working conditions are inferior to those in other countries? Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-35 BUILD YOUR PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES 16.34 Focus on Professional Competency: Strategic/Critical Thinking A. Organizational vision is the core purpose of the organization and shapes the current organization and its future. The organizational vision communicates to employees and other stakeholders the overall direction of operations. Core competencies are the strengths of the organization relative to competitors. Core competencies are based partly on existing strengths and partly on strengths that managers choose to develop. Organizational strategies are developed around core competencies. These tactics guide long-term decisions, such as products offered, methods of production, distribution channels used, focus on research and development, and so on. Operating plans put into action the organizational strategies in the short term. (The feedback loops are discussed in Part D.1 below.) B. 1. By definition, an organization’s core competencies are its strengths relative to competitors. Thus, uncertainties about the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats automatically lead to uncertainties about core competencies. For example, managers may believe that their company has a competitive advantage because it sells a market-leading product. However, another company could be developing a new, competing product that could quickly take away market share. New competition could lead the managers to reconsider the company’s strengths and, therefore, its core competencies. 2. Strategic information consists of knowledge, facts, data, or factors that help managers plan, implement, or monitor the organization’s vision, core competencies, and strategies. Examples of strategic information include competitive sales data, reports about strategic actions planned or taken by other companies, analyses of future economic trends, and evaluations of technological feasibility. a. When identifying core competencies, managers need strategic information to help them distinguish their organization’s strengths relative to competitors. b. Before managers choose strategies, they must analyze strategic information about existing conditions as well as future trends and opportunities. c. Balanced scorecard measures should provide managers with information that is strategically important. Therefore, the measures should be developed after considering the types of strategic information that would help managers monitor and improve operations. C. Financial measures provide information in dollars or ratios of dollars, whereas nonfinancial measures provide information that cannot be measured in dollars or ratios of dollars. A combination of financial and nonfinancial measures is usually more consistent with an organization’s long-term goals than financial measures alone, and can often provide information earlier than a financial measure. For example, managers may wish 16-36 Cost Management to increase customer satisfaction, which in the long term is expected to increase product sales. Nonfinancial measures of customer satisfaction such as survey responses or product return rates could be used to monitor progress and identify potential problems. Such nonfinancial measures might also identify problems earlier than a financial measure such as sales or sales growth. At the same time, increases in customer satisfaction may not always lead to improved financial performance for the organization. Thus, the combination of financial and nonfinancial measures provides better information than either type of measure alone. D. 1. The feedback loops in Exhibit 16.1—measuring, monitoring, and motivating—help managers learn whether plans are met or need to be changed to either take advantage of new opportunities or respond to problems. Employees within the organization are motivated to help achieve goals because actual performance is measured and monitored against plans. The feedback loop in Exhibit 16.4 refers to the use of feedback specifically for comparing actual results to plans. The feedback loop in Exhibit 16.9 indicates that an important aspect of balanced scorecard implementation is the use of prior results to refine and improve the process. 2. The process of developing a balanced scorecard is never complete because the business environment continues to evolve, calling for new strategies and operating plans. In addition, the balanced scorecard is based on the idea of continuous improvement. The design and use of the balanced scorecard is never ―perfect;‖ it can always be improved. 16.35 Integrating Across the Curriculum: Management and Marketing A. Wal-Mart has numerous strengths relative to competitors. Here are a few; students may think of others. Wal-Mart is the largest retail company in the world, giving it significant power in negotiations with suppliers. This power allows the company to achieve lower costs than competitors, which in turn allows it to offer lower prices. It also relies less than many other retailers on discretionary goods, giving it an advantage during economic downturns. Wal-Mart uses technology better than most retailers, allowing it to analyze point-of-sale data to more efficiently manager inventories and plan product promotions. The company is nonunion, allowing it to incur significantly lower labor costs than other retailers, who are typically unionized. B. Here are several weaknesses of a family-owned variety store relative to a Wal-Mart; students may think of others. The variety store is most likely be much smaller, so it will be unable to offer the wide variety of merchandise offered at Wal-Mart. Merchandise prices at the variety store will probably be higher than at Wal-Mart because the owners will be unable to buy products at the same low costs. In fact, Wal-Mart is likely to sell products at prices that are below the variety store’s cost. C. Wal-Mart appears to be currently expanding into new countries and into urban locations. It continues to develop new technologies, such as radio frequency identification (RFID). Chapter 16: Strategic Performance Measurement 16-37 The company’s dominant buyer position allows it to continuously negotiate better prices from vendors. D. Wal-Mart faces potentially higher costs as it moves into new locations, experiences renewed unionization attempts, and addresses sex discrimination claims. Negative publicity related to the company’s emphasis on imports and the resulting loss of U.S. jobs could also lead to higher costs through loss of favorable import terms. The company’s managers might also become overly confident in long-term success, which could prevent them from recognizing and responding appropriately to future threats. E. A balanced scorecard can be designed to explicitly measure and monitor an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. In turn, this measuring and monitoring would help managers determine whether the organization is benefiting sufficiently from its strengths and opportunities, and it can also help managers monitor and respond to the effects of weaknesses and threats.