Bibliography Cards Finding and recording your sources Instructions for the Junior Research Paper Miss Costantini (Click the up or down arrow or the mouse to move forward and backward in the presentation) Bibliography Cards Your bibliography cards will be your first graded assignment for the Junior Research Paper. Since you will be required to utilize and cite at least FIVE sources in your paper, you must present at least five bibliography cards for evaluation. Sources You are to use authoritative sources for your paper, sources that have recognized expertise in the field you are researching and those that will provide you with a depth of knowledge. You may NOT use general sources such as encyclopedias and text books. Identifying Sources To substantiate the information which you provide in your paper, you need to be able to identify the sources in which you found that information. If your readers want to check the validity or accuracy of your facts, they should be able to locate your sources easily. Therefore you must provide citations for the information gathered from your sources. Connecting to Sources In order to cite accurately, you need to keep track of what information came from which source. Your bibliography cards will give you an efficient way to do this. They are meant to be your “mini card catalog” of the sources you have used in your paper. Connecting to Sources • When you have finished drafting your paper, you will sort your bibliography cards alphabetically and use them to compile a list of all the sources which you cited in your paper. This will become your References page. • Therefore, your bibliography cards MUST follow the exact format that you will need to follow on your References page. Elements of the Card You will need to collect the following information for each source: The author’s name (if given), The date of publication The title of the source The title of the larger work (if applicable) in which the article appeared The publisher with the city, or the homepage responsible for the information. The complete and accurate URL for the web site where the article/information was found Format These MUST follow a very specific format and your cards will be graded on how well you follow the format given. Format • Please remember that for this research paper, we are using APA format (developed by the American Psychological Association). • DO NOT follow the formatting presented in the Writer’s Handbook or in your English grammar book. Those directions follow MLA (Modern Language Association) format. Format • MLA format is more appropriate to literature studies and other papers for English classes. • APA format is the format required for papers in a wider variety of classes, including social studies, psychology, education, science, and business. • Since you are working on a paper that is primarily a historical or topical paper, APA is more appropriate. Format • We will be following the formatting guidelines outlined in the booklet APA: The Easy Way! By Peggy M. Houghton, Ph.D. and Timothy J. Houghton, Ph.D. which is being loaned to you. • You will find proper formatting for all types of sources beginning on p. 19 of the booklet. Fields of Information • You will place information on your bibliography cards in specific fields. • Each field will need to be “closed” with a period so as not to confuse the information. Format This presentation will show you how to do a bibliography card for a book. It will also show a sample bibliographic entry for an electronic source. Format for a Book Source • This presentation will first show you how to do a bibliography card for a book by one author. • There are guidelines for books with multiple authors, books with no author, and books with an editor, as well as many other author configurations. These can be found in the APA booklet, but this presentation is meant to give you a general idea of the formatting to use. Author Field • The first piece of information to be placed on the card is the author’s name, if it is available. You should first list the author’s Last Name, followed by a comma, and then his/her First and Middle initials with one space between the initials. • Do not use the author’s full first name; use only initials. Author Field Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. Closing the Fields The period at the end of the first or middle initial closes this author field. Publication Date • The next field to be inserted in the publication date. • This is placed in parentheses after the author’s name and initials. • APA style is very concerned with the timeliness of the research. The date of publication will also appear in the citation. Publication Date Field Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Publication Date Field • Notice that this field is closed with a period as well. The period follows the closed parentheses. Publication Date Field Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title Field • The next piece of information to be placed on the card is the title field for the book. • For a book title, you are to capitalize only the first letter and any proper nouns in the title. • You also capitalize any word that follows a colon, period, question mark or exclamation point in the title. Title Field • A book title will need to be italicized on your References page, so you will need to underline it on your bibliography cards to remind you of the exact title. However, no underlining will appear on your References page. • You do not need to start a new line to do this, but simply use text wrap like a word processing program does. Title Field Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. Title Field • Again, notice that the field is closed by a period. • Just another reminder: Since you cannot print in italics, underline the title on your bibliography cards so you will remember to italicize it on your References page. Title Field • Also notice that the second line of the bibliographic entry is indented. This is called a “hanging indent” and will be the format requirement for your References page. • Be sure to use a hanging indent on your bibliography cards. [Don’t draw the arrows shown; they are merely a guideline in this presentation.] Title Field Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. Publication Field Next, you must provide additional information to identify your source accurately. You need to indicate what publisher is responsible for the book. Your first step is to identify the city of publication, followed by a colon(:). Publication Field Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publication Field • You do NOT put a period after the city and state of publication since you not yet ready to close that field. Publication Field • After the city and state of publication, you need to put the correct name of the publishing house as it appears on the face plate of the book. • You should NOT include Co. or Publishers as part of the name, but you do need to include Press or Books if it is part of the name. Publication Field Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publishing House. Publication Field Notice that, since this is the last piece of information in the publishing field, you close it with a period. (This is the one piece of punctuation that many students forget. Make sure you don’t.) Identifying Information Now you need to add some information that will help you find the source again should you need to do that, and also to connect it with the information you put in your paper. Call Number You need to place the call number for the book in the upper left hand corner. The call number is the number you will find on the spine and lending card of the book. Should you need to get the book again, you already have the call number to identify it. Call Number It will help you locate the book again more easily or you can order a book by its call number from your librarian or any library using the same system. Call Number 940.45 Smi Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publishing House. Call Number For this sample book, I’ve made up a number in the 900s, which is the designation in the Dewey Decimal system for history books. (Dewey Decimal is the system we use here at Central’s library; other libraries use the Library of Congress system with different numbers.) The Smi indicates the first three letters of the author’s last name, which, in this case, is supposed to be Smith. Source Library At the bottom right hand corner of the card, you will want to indicate in which library you found this book. This will be the library you walked into in order to get the book. If you ordered the book through Schiappa, that is the name that should appear at the bottom of the card - not the member of the library consortium that sent the book to Schiappa. Source Libary Again, this will be helpful if you need to go back to the source after you have returned it to the library. This can happen if you need to check a quote or a fact for accuracy. Source Library 940.45 Smi Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publishing House. Schiappa Bibliography Cards You are almost done with the card. Lettering the Cards You need to be able to connect the information you place on your note cards to the sources that you used. Your bibliography cards make that connection. You need to identify each and every bibliography card with a different letter. This is how you will connect your notes with your sources. Lettering the Cards 940.45 A Smi Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publishing House. Schiappa Lettering the Cards Each note card you take from this source will be designated with an A to link it to this source. Your note card from this source will look like this next card. Sample Note Card Aspect A-1 – Notes – “Quotes” – Facts – Etc. Note Cards We will be discussing the various parts of the note card later. At this point, you just need to remember that your bibliography cards must be linked to your note cards with the letter designation you assign. Spacing That completes the format for your bibliography cards for books. Once again, notice that the first line is bulleted out and each line after is indented. This is important since this is the format you MUST use on your References page. Bibliography Cards 940.45 A Smi Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publishing House. Schiappa Grading the Bibliography Cards • Your bibliography cards will be graded according to how well you follow the format for each of the fields as well as the inclusion of the additional information you are to provide. • There are nine (9) areas that will be evaluated for correct format, which also includes correct punctuation. Grading the Bibliography Cards 940.45 A Smi Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008). Title of the book. City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publishing House. Schiappa Cards for Other Sources The types of print sources are many, and cannot all be listed here, but you can find the various formats for doing references for a wide variety of sources, in the APA: The Easy Way booklet that you will receive. Cards for Electronic Sources Cards for web sources are slightly different, but you will still need to supply the same basic information – author, title of article, website taking responsibility for the information, and the date of publication. You will also find models for these in the booklet APA: The Easy Way! Cards for Electronic Sources A bibliography card for information found on the Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center website, entitled “The Pearl Harbor Attack, 7 December 1941” would look like this next slide. Bibliography Card B The Pearl Harbor attack, 7 December 1941. Frequently Asked Questions page. (2003). Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. Retrieved from: <www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm> Cards for Electronic Sources Notice there is no call number on the card – none is required for an electronic source, a magazine, or a newspaper Bibliography Card B The Pearl Harbor attack, 7 December 1941. Frequently Asked Questions page. (2003). Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. Retrieved from: <www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm> Cards for Electronic Sources Notice that no author has been listed – none was given for this article. Also notice that title of the article and the home page are underlined since you will need to italicize these on your References page. Bibliography Card B The Pearl Harbor attack, 7 December 1941. Frequently Asked Questions page. (2003). Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. Retrieved from: <www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm> Cards for Electronic Sources An important note here: If you cannot immediately see at the beginning of the article what website is taking responsibility for the information, be sure to use one of the methods outlined on the site evaluation sheet you will need to fill out. Remember that you will need to complete that form for each and every source you find on the Internet.. Cards for Electronic Sources You must find the homepage or the entity taking responsibility for the article or you CANNOT use the information This is extremely important. Remember that anyone can post anything to the Internet. You must make sure that your source is authoritative and not some fifth grader’s history project. You must find and evaluate the website. Cards for Electronic Sources The web site or homepage is not the same thing as the web address, or URL. The web address is preceded by the “www.” designation, and gives the exact address of the article. The website tells you who is responsible for the article. In this case, it’s the Department of the Navy, which can be regarded as quite authoritative on the subject of Pearl Harbor. Cards for Electronic Sources Notice that the web address is placed immediately at the end of the reference and is preceded by the phrase “Retrieved from:” followed by the exact address (URL). Make sure that you copy the address accurately and completely. Bibliography Card B The Pearl Harbor attack, 7 December 1941 Frequently Asked Questions page. (2003) Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center. Retrieved from <www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm> Grading the Bibliography Cards • Bibliography cards from electronic sources will also be evaluated according to how well you follow the correct format. • In general, the nine (9) areas previously identified for book format will be examined, but some of the areas will appropriately be blank, depending upon the type of source. Bibliography Cards Again, to check the bibliographic entry for any other sources, including newspapers, magazines, websites, videos, interviews, or the many other types of sources, check your copy of APA: The Easy Way! Bibliography Cards Just remember that your reader must be able to verify your sources easily. You must present enough information on your References page to provide a “paper trace” for any information you use in your paper, and your References page will be formatted from your bibliography cards. Bibliography Cards The bibliography cards are the first step in the process of gathering information and crediting it to the proper source. You must be very careful at this beginning stage, as well as every stage, to keep track of where your information comes from and to assign credit for it to the correct source. Bibliography Cards You are now ready to do your bibliography cards. Remember that your bibliography cards will be graded as a quiz, so be sure to go back to any part of this presentation or ask for help if you need to check proper format. Bibliography Cards This presentation will remain available on my web page while you are working on your research paper. You can refer to the presentation as often as you wish if you need some assistance with formatting your bibliography cards Bibliography Cards By now, all of my students should know exactly how to find my web page. However, just in case you forgot. Go to Central’s website at www.steubenvillecatholiccentral.org, click on the Faculty Directory link and then the link to my web page. In the table marked Help with the Research Paper, you will find the link marked “Bibliography Cards” that will run this presentation.