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Sample Bibliography Format for Books

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					      Bibliography Cards

Finding and recording your sources
       Instructions for the Junior Research Paper
                     Miss Costantini
(Click the up or down arrow or the mouse to move forward and
                 backward in the presentation)
       Bibliography Cards
Your bibliography cards will be your first
graded assignment for the Junior Research
Paper.

Since you will be required to utilize and
cite at least FIVE sources in your paper,
you must present at least five bibliography
cards for evaluation.
               Sources
You are to use authoritative sources for
your paper, sources that have recognized
expertise in the field you are researching
and those that will provide you with a
depth of knowledge.

You may NOT use general sources such as
encyclopedias and text books.
       Identifying Sources
To substantiate the information which you
provide in your paper, you need to be able
to identify the sources in which you found
that information. If your readers want to
check the validity or accuracy of your
facts, they should be able to locate your
sources easily. Therefore you must
provide citations for the information
gathered from your sources.
     Connecting to Sources
In order to cite accurately, you need to
keep track of what information came from
which source. Your bibliography cards
will give you an efficient way to do this.
They are meant to be your “mini card
catalog” of the sources you have used in
your paper.
        Connecting to Sources
• When you have finished drafting your paper, you
  will sort your bibliography cards alphabetically
  and use them to compile a list of all the sources
  which you cited in your paper. This will become
  your References page.

• Therefore, your bibliography cards MUST follow
  the exact format that you will need to follow on
  your References page.
        Elements of the Card
You will need to collect the following information for
each source:

 The author’s name (if given),
 The date of publication
 The title of the source
 The title of the larger work (if applicable) in which the article
  appeared
 The publisher with the city, or the homepage responsible for the
  information.
 The complete and accurate URL for the web site where the
  article/information was found
             Format


These MUST follow a very specific
format and your cards will be graded
on how well you follow the format
given.
                    Format
• Please remember that for this research paper, we
  are using APA format (developed by the
  American Psychological Association).

• DO NOT follow the formatting presented in the
  Writer’s Handbook or in your English grammar
  book. Those directions follow MLA (Modern
  Language Association) format.
                    Format
• MLA format is more appropriate to literature
  studies and other papers for English classes.
• APA format is the format required for papers in a
  wider variety of classes, including social studies,
  psychology, education, science, and business.
• Since you are working on a paper that is
  primarily a historical or topical paper, APA is
  more appropriate.
                 Format
• We will be following the formatting
  guidelines outlined in the booklet APA:
  The Easy Way! By Peggy M. Houghton,
  Ph.D. and Timothy J. Houghton, Ph.D.
  which is being loaned to you.
• You will find proper formatting for all
  types of sources beginning on p. 19 of the
  booklet.
        Fields of Information
• You will place information on your
  bibliography cards in specific fields.

• Each field will need to be “closed” with a
  period so as not to confuse the information.
               Format

This presentation will show you how to do
a bibliography card for a book.

It will also show a sample bibliographic
entry for an electronic source.
     Format for a Book Source
• This presentation will first show you how to do a
  bibliography card for a book by one author.

• There are guidelines for books with multiple
  authors, books with no author, and books with an
  editor, as well as many other author
  configurations. These can be found in the APA
  booklet, but this presentation is meant to give you
  a general idea of the formatting to use.
              Author Field
• The first piece of information to be placed
  on the card is the author’s name, if it is
  available. You should first list the author’s
  Last Name, followed by a comma, and
  then his/her First and Middle initials with
  one space between the initials.
• Do not use the author’s full first name; use
  only initials.
       Author Field


Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial.
        Closing the Fields


The period at the end of the first or middle
initial closes this author field.
           Publication Date
• The next field to be inserted in the
  publication date.
• This is placed in parentheses after the
  author’s name and initials.
• APA style is very concerned with the
  timeliness of the research. The date of
  publication will also appear in the citation.
Publication Date Field

Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
       Publication Date Field

• Notice that this field is closed with a period
  as well. The period follows the closed
  parentheses.
Publication Date Field

Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
               Title Field
• The next piece of information to be placed
  on the card is the title field for the book.
• For a book title, you are to capitalize only
  the first letter and any proper nouns in the
  title.
• You also capitalize any word that follows a
  colon, period, question mark or
  exclamation point in the title.
                  Title Field
• A book title will need to be italicized on your
  References page, so you will need to underline it
  on your bibliography cards to remind you of the
  exact title. However, no underlining will appear
  on your References page.
• You do not need to start a new line to do this, but
  simply use text wrap like a word processing
  program does.
         Title Field


Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
   Title of the book.
                 Title Field
• Again, notice that the field is closed by a
  period.

• Just another reminder: Since you cannot
  print in italics, underline the title on your
  bibliography cards so you will remember
  to italicize it on your References page.
                  Title Field
• Also notice that the second line of the
  bibliographic entry is indented. This is called a
  “hanging indent” and will be the format
  requirement for your References page.

• Be sure to use a hanging indent on your
  bibliography cards. [Don’t draw the arrows
  shown; they are merely a guideline in this
  presentation.]
         Title Field



Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
   Title of the book.
         Publication Field
Next, you must provide additional
information to identify your source
accurately.
You need to indicate what publisher is
responsible for the book.
Your first step is to identify the city of
publication, followed by a colon(:).
   Publication Field


Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
   Title of the book. City of Publication, State
   Abbreviation:
           Publication Field

• You do NOT put a period after the city and
  state of publication since you not yet ready
  to close that field.
           Publication Field
• After the city and state of publication, you
  need to put the correct name of the
  publishing house as it appears on the face
  plate of the book.
• You should NOT include Co. or Publishers
  as part of the name, but you do need to
  include Press or Books if it is part of the
  name.
   Publication Field


Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
   Title of the book. City of Publication, State
   Abbreviation: Publishing House.
         Publication Field

Notice that, since this is the last piece of
information in the publishing field, you
close it with a period. (This is the one
piece of punctuation that many students
forget. Make sure you don’t.)
    Identifying Information

Now you need to add some information
that will help you find the source again
should you need to do that, and also to
connect it with the information you put in
your paper.
            Call Number
You need to place the call number for the
book in the upper left hand corner. The call
number is the number you will find on the
spine and lending card of the book.

Should you need to get the book again, you
already have the call number to identify it.
           Call Number

It will help you locate the book again more
easily or you can order a book by its call
number from your librarian or any library
using the same system.
                Call Number
940.45
Smi

         Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
            Title of the book. City of Publication, State
            Abbreviation: Publishing House.
             Call Number
For this sample book, I’ve made up a number in
the 900s, which is the designation in the Dewey
Decimal system for history books. (Dewey
Decimal is the system we use here at Central’s
library; other libraries use the Library of
Congress system with different numbers.)
The Smi indicates the first three letters of the
author’s last name, which, in this case, is
supposed to be Smith.
          Source Library
At the bottom right hand corner of the
card, you will want to indicate in which
library you found this book. This will be
the library you walked into in order to get
the book. If you ordered the book through
Schiappa, that is the name that should
appear at the bottom of the card - not the
member of the library consortium that sent
the book to Schiappa.
           Source Libary

Again, this will be helpful if you need to
go back to the source after you have
returned it to the library. This can happen
if you need to check a quote or a fact for
accuracy.
              Source Library
940.45
Smi


         Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
            Title of the book. City of Publication, State
            Abbreviation: Publishing House.




                                  Schiappa
       Bibliography Cards



You are almost done with the card.
        Lettering the Cards
You need to be able to connect the information
you place on your note cards to the sources that
you used.
Your bibliography cards make that connection.
You need to identify each and every bibliography
card with a different letter.
This is how you will connect your notes with
your sources.
          Lettering the Cards
940.45                                               A
Smi

         Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
            Title of the book. City of Publication, State
            Abbreviation: Publishing House.

                                  Schiappa
       Lettering the Cards

Each note card you take from this source
will be designated with an A to link it to
this source.

Your note card from this source will look
like this next card.
         Sample Note Card
Aspect                      A-1


–   Notes
–   “Quotes”
–   Facts
–   Etc.
             Note Cards
We will be discussing the various parts of
the note card later.

At this point, you just need to remember
that your bibliography cards must be linked
to your note cards with the letter
designation you assign.
               Spacing
That completes the format for your
bibliography cards for books.

Once again, notice that the first line is
bulleted out and each line after is indented.
This is important since this is the format
you MUST use on your References page.
            Bibliography Cards
940.45                                                 A
Smi
         Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
              Title of the book. City of Publication,
              State Abbreviation: Publishing House.




                                    Schiappa
Grading the Bibliography Cards
• Your bibliography cards will be graded
  according to how well you follow the
  format for each of the fields as well as the
  inclusion of the additional information you
  are to provide.
• There are nine (9) areas that will be
  evaluated for correct format, which also
  includes correct punctuation.
Grading the Bibliography Cards
940.45                                                 A
Smi
         Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (2008).
              Title of the book. City of Publication,
              State Abbreviation: Publishing House.




                                    Schiappa
    Cards for Other Sources

The types of print sources are many, and
cannot all be listed here, but you can find
the various formats for doing references for
a wide variety of sources, in the APA: The
Easy Way booklet that you will receive.
 Cards for Electronic Sources

Cards for web sources are slightly different, but
you will still need to supply the same basic
information – author, title of article, website
taking responsibility for the information, and the
date of publication.

You will also find models for these in the booklet
APA: The Easy Way!
Cards for Electronic Sources

A bibliography card for information found
on the Department of the Navy – Naval
Historical Center website, entitled “The
Pearl Harbor Attack, 7 December 1941”
would look like this next slide.
     Bibliography Card
                                        B

The Pearl Harbor attack, 7 December 1941.
      Frequently Asked Questions
      page. (2003). Department of the Navy –
      Naval Historical Center. Retrieved from:
      <www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm>
Cards for Electronic Sources


Notice there is no call number on the card
– none is required for an electronic source,
a magazine, or a newspaper
     Bibliography Card
                                        B

The Pearl Harbor attack, 7 December 1941.
      Frequently Asked Questions
      page. (2003). Department of the Navy –
      Naval Historical Center. Retrieved from:
      <www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm>
 Cards for Electronic Sources

Notice that no author has been listed –
none was given for this article.

Also notice that title of the article and the
home page are underlined since you will
need to italicize these on your References
page.
     Bibliography Card
                                        B

The Pearl Harbor attack, 7 December 1941.
      Frequently Asked Questions
      page. (2003). Department of the Navy –
      Naval Historical Center. Retrieved from:
      <www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm>
 Cards for Electronic Sources
An important note here: If you cannot
immediately see at the beginning of the article
what website is taking responsibility for the
information, be sure to use one of the methods
outlined on the site evaluation sheet you will
need to fill out.
Remember that you will need to complete that
form for each and every source you find on the
Internet..
 Cards for Electronic Sources

You must find the homepage or the entity taking
responsibility for the article or you CANNOT use
the information

This is extremely important. Remember that
anyone can post anything to the Internet. You
must make sure that your source is authoritative
and not some fifth grader’s history project. You
must find and evaluate the website.
 Cards for Electronic Sources
The web site or homepage is not the same thing
as the web address, or URL. The web address is
preceded by the “www.” designation, and gives
the exact address of the article.

The website tells you who is responsible for the
article. In this case, it’s the Department of the
Navy, which can be regarded as quite
authoritative on the subject of Pearl Harbor.
Cards for Electronic Sources
Notice that the web address is placed
immediately at the end of the reference and
is preceded by the phrase “Retrieved
from:” followed by the exact address
(URL).

Make sure that you copy the address
accurately and completely.
     Bibliography Card
                                        B

The Pearl Harbor attack, 7 December 1941
      Frequently Asked Questions
      page. (2003) Department of the Navy –
      Naval Historical Center. Retrieved from
      <www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq66-1.htm>
Grading the Bibliography Cards
• Bibliography cards from electronic sources
  will also be evaluated according to how
  well you follow the correct format.
• In general, the nine (9) areas previously
  identified for book format will be
  examined, but some of the areas will
  appropriately be blank, depending upon the
  type of source.
       Bibliography Cards

Again, to check the bibliographic entry for
any other sources, including newspapers,
magazines, websites, videos, interviews, or
the many other types of sources, check
your copy of APA: The Easy Way!
      Bibliography Cards

Just remember that your reader must be
able to verify your sources easily. You
must present enough information on your
References page to provide a “paper trace”
for any information you use in your paper,
and your References page will be formatted
from your bibliography cards.
       Bibliography Cards

The bibliography cards are the first step in
the process of gathering information and
crediting it to the proper source. You must
be very careful at this beginning stage, as
well as every stage, to keep track of where
your information comes from and to assign
credit for it to the correct source.
       Bibliography Cards

You are now ready to do your bibliography
cards. Remember that your bibliography
cards will be graded as a quiz, so be sure to
go back to any part of this presentation or
ask for help if you need to check proper
format.
        Bibliography Cards
This presentation will remain available on my
web page while you are working on your
research paper.



You can refer to the presentation as often as you
wish if you need some assistance with formatting
your bibliography cards
        Bibliography Cards

By now, all of my students should know exactly
how to find my web page. However, just in case
you forgot. Go to Central’s website at
www.steubenvillecatholiccentral.org, click on the
Faculty Directory link and then the link to my
web page. In the table marked Help with the
Research Paper, you will find the link marked
“Bibliography Cards” that will run this
presentation.

				
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