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Quit Claim Deed Cook Il

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					LAND SURVEYING
     CE 362
                 LETTERING
                FIELDBOOKS

 The following is the lettering style to be used
 in all fieldbooks.
 A B C D E F G H I J K L M
 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p
      q r s t u v w x y z
       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
        TYPES OF LEGAL SURVEYS
       1. MORTGAGE INSPECTION:
         Process:
         1. Check latest deeds to property.
         2. Check approx. property line location & location of parcel
             within a block.
         3. Examine for apparent encroachments by fences, driveways, &
             structures.
         4. Locate all permanent structures.
         5. Show platted easements, ROW, & building lines.
         6. Prepare drawing & report (Signed and Sealed by PLS)
        TYPES OF LEGAL SURVEYS
       2. LAND TITLE SURVEYS (ALTA):
         Process:
         1. Acquire copies of tract deed & all abutting tracts.
         2. Establish location of property lines on the ground &
             monument.
         3. Check for encroachments, ROW, & easements.
         4. Determine conformity to zoning regulations.
         5. Complete Surveyor’s Report Form.
     TYPES OF LEGAL SURVEYS
    3. Boundary Surveys
       1. Retracement Rural
       2. Retracement Subdivision
       3. Subdivision




    Must follow in the footsteps of previous Surveyor!
                   U.S. Rectangular System
                          Structure
   Meridians & Baselines:
       35 principal meridians and 32 baselines
            Meridian – line runs straight N-S
            Baseline – line perpendicular to meridian
       Principal Meridian – generally established 1st.
            3 govern land in Illinois
                 2nd - 86°28’00” W long.
                 3rd - 89°10’15” W
                 4th - 90°28’45” W
                               Baseline
   Baselines run @ 90° to P.M.
       Monumented and latitude north of equator.
       2 BL in IL
            BL for 2nd and 3rd P.M. are the same - 38°28’20”N
            BL for 4th P.M. - 40°00’30”N
   Point of intersection (BL&PM) often called Cardinal
    Point.
   Standard Parallels
       E-W lines parallel to baseline at intervals of 24
        miles N and S of the baseline.
   Guide meridians
       Lines running N-S and 24 miles each side of P.M.


This 24 mile square is a Quadrangle and contains
 16 Townships
                     Townships
   Township lines are E-W lines 6 miles apart
    north or south of the baseline.
   Range lines are N-S lines 6 miles apart east or
    west of the principal meridian.
    This 6 mile square is called the Township
   Townships are divided into 36 – 1 mile square
    sections.
       Numbering system called boustrophedonically
                  Error Corrections
   Correction Lines (Standards of Parallel)
       Each acts as a new Baseline for townships to the North.
       Due to the convergence of meridians, compensation is
        needed.
                  B.L.M. Rules
1.   Boundaries of the public lands, when approved &
     accepted are unchangeable.
2.   Original townships, section, and ¼ section corners
     must stand as the true corners which they were
     intended to represent whether in the place shown
     by field notes or not.
3.   ¼, ¼ section corners not established in original
     surveys shall be placed on line connecting section
     & ¼ corner & midway between, except in the
     north and west ½ mile of townships & fractional
     sections.
                   B.L.M. Rules
4.   Center lines of a section are to be straight, running
     from ¼ corner to ¼ corner with center of section at
     the intersection.
5.   In a fractional section where no opposite
     corresponding ¼ corner has been or can be
     established, the center line must be run from
     proper ¼ corner as nearly cardinal as parallelism
     with sectional boundaries allow.
               Principles of Process
1.   Original surveys create boundaries. They must be
     considered in any conveyance made for the purpose of
     identifying land on the ground prior to or as a
     consideration of a conveyance.
2.   Resurveys of original surveys are for the purpose of
     relocating the original surveyor’s lines in the same
     position as they were originally marked and thus they can
     only be conducted by the entity that created the original
     boundaries.
3.   A subsequent surveyor who follows after the original
     surveyor, except one who may be in privity with the
     original surveyor, only conducts a retracement, and such it
     is open to collateral attack.
               Principles of Process
4.   Original surveys which divide land are or may be
     regulated by statute or other legislative action, but once
     conveyance is made according to the land division, the
     location of the land parcels described is to be interpreted
     by the courts.
5.   The boundary surveyor has no judicial authority when
     resurveying or retracing boundaries for clients. The force
     of the property surveyor’s authority is derived from
     reputation and respect. Judicial authority can only be
     granted by and through the courts.
               Principles of Process
6.   The surveyor must uncover sufficient facts about the
     property being retraced: in this sense the surveyor
     becomes a fact finder. The surveyor must then reach
     conclusions from the facts; it is the quality of these
     conclusions that is the mark of a professional.
                    Principles of Process
7.        As a minimum, a boundary surveyor who decides to make
          a survey or a retracement from a written conveyance
          assumes the responsibility of obtaining copies of:
     1.     Necessary adjoiner conveyances called for in the legal
            description furnished.
     2.     All maps called for.
     3.     Pertinent recorded adjoining surveys.
     4.     Public agency maps that are available.
     5.     In GLO states, government township plats and field notes.
              Principles of Process
8.   The final decision of which documents should be used to
     locate a parcel should be made by the surveyor.
9.   The boundary surveyor does not decide who owns land or
     rights in land. The surveyor’s responsibility is only to
     locate land boundaries and, except for special agreements
     with respect to unwritten rights, only to locate land in
     accordance with written documents.
                Principles of Process
10.   Surveyors should never agree to locate all existing
      easements relating to or affecting property; the surveyor
      should merely agree to locate those easements in
      accordance with furnished descriptions and those that are
      visible or of public record.
11.   In a description, no one corner, whether monumented or
      not, is superior to any other corner. Each has equal survey
      and legal weight in retracing a description.
                Principles of Process
13.   The surveyor should hunt and search in the field until the
      best available evidence is found on which to base the
      boundary retracement survey.
      Time should not be a consideration.
14.   Possession may memorialize original survey lines and as
      such may be the best or worst evidence of original lines.
                Principles of Process
12.   Except where a senior right is interfered with, record or
      legal monuments, if called for in a conveyance and if
      found undisturbed, indicate the true intent of original
      parties and as such control.


      If called for, monuments that cannot be found or if
      they are found disturbed, their former position may
      be identified by competent witness testimony or
      acceptable physical indicators of boundaries.
                Principles of Process
15.   An original monument found undisturbed usually
      expresses the intent of the parties of the conveyance, fixes
      the point as between the parties, and as such has no error
      in position. All restored monuments established by
      measurement have some error in position.
16.   The magnitude of permissible uncertainty of
      measurements is always determined by a courts
      interpretation.
               Principles of Process
17.   The error of measurement originally permitted when tying
      original monuments together is independent of the
      accuracy required to reestablish an original lost monument
      position.
18.   In the absence of the owner specifying an unusually high
      precision coupled with an accurate survey, it’s presumed
      that the surveyor will work to that precision consistent
      with the purpose for which it will be used or the standards
      of the profession in that locality.
               Principles of Process
19.   Every property survey should result in the preparation and
      delivery of a report or plat, whether or not it’s to be
      recorded.
20.   The surveyor should conduct each survey as if it will
      ultimately be presented in court.
                      Fact Finding
    There are 4 areas of fact finding:
    1.   Facts furnished by clients
    2.   Searching pertinent written records and public records
         – deeds, adjoining descriptions, maps and old field
         books.
    3.   Fieldwork – searching for monuments, locating
         possession and making measurements.
    4.   Seeking testimony and information from old residents
         and other surveyors.
                    Field Notes
            Items to include in field notes:
1.   Date, name, and address of client.
2.   Names of party personnel, position, and duties.
3.   Weather conditions and observed temperature.
4.   Equipment used (with serial numbers)
5.   North arrow with origin of bearing.
6.   Description of monuments called for, found, not
     found and set.
7.   Measurements actually made.
8.   Corrected distances and angles.
                     Field Notes
9.    Description of monuments set and ties taken to
      features.
10.   Relation of possession to survey lines.
11.   Outline of parcel surveyed (highlighted in pencil).
12.   Sketch of parcel staked, showing important
      features.
13.   Oaths of witness evidence (if applicable).
14.   Names and addresses of adjoiners, old residents.
15.   Reference to any records relied on or called for.
    UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
   Cubit = 18.92”
       Span = 1/2 cubit
       Palm = 1/6 cubit
       Digit = 1/24 cubit
   Foot = 2/3 cubit, about 12.16”
   Inch
   Perch = 16.50’
   Chain = 66’
    UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
   Arpent = 192.50’
       1 sq. arpent = .8507 Ac
            Exceptions: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and NW
             Florida - 1 sq. arpent = .84625 Ac.
   Vera = 2.7778’
       36 veras = 100.00’
            Exceptions: Florida, Mexico, California, Texas
             LAND SURVEYING
             DEVELOPEMENT
1. Started in Egypt 1400 BC to relocate property for
   tax purposes long the Nile River.
2. Babylonians – divided circle into 360°
3. Greeks – developed diopta
4. Romans – refined surveying
    Romans Influence on Surveying
   Corpus Agrimensorum
   Agrimensors
   Groma
   Centuria
   Organized training for surveyors
   Julius Caesar – founder of surveying
    profession due to its wide use in military
    and colonization.
    Formal Surveying Instructions
    Main lines run N-S or
                             Merkhet
     E-W

    Methods of
     determining North
              Early Surveying in U.S.
   Early settlements in colonies was by grants and
    patents.
       Descriptions often ambiguous and far reaching.
       Prior to revolutionary war most land was in private hands
        or direct possession of the colony.
       At end of war all lands owned by England went to
        respective colony without description.
       Many of the early surveys consisted of running 2 line on
        the ground with 3 corners witnessed.
         COLONIAL SURVEYS

   VIRGINIA
   ORIGINAL LAND GRANT WAS 400 MILES WIDE CENTERED
    ON OLD POINT COMFORT FROM SEA TO SEA.
   AFTER REVOLUTIONARY WAR 400 AC. TRACTS WERE
    GIVEN AS PAYMENT TO SOLDIERS.
   EARLY SURVEYS WERE POOR, RUN WITH COMPASS AND
    HAD POOR BOUNDARY MARKERS.
CAROLINAS & GEORGIA
   SURVEYS WERE POOR OR DID NOT EXIST.
   CAROLINAS WERE THE FIRST PLACE TO CALL FOR 640 AC.
    TRACTS.
        BETWEEN 1693-1729: NO SURVEYOR ALLOWED TO SURVEY
         MORE THAN 640 AC. INTO ONE TRACT.
CONNECTICUT:
   MUCH OF EARLY SETTLEMENT LANDS TAKEN FROM INDIANS.
   EARLY SURVEY SYSTEM ONE OF THE POOREST WITH RESPECT TO
    RETRACEMENT.
   A SYSTEM OF NON-CONNECTED METES & BOUNDS PARCELS AND
    POSSESSION LINE CLAIMS.
DELAWARE:POOR SURVEYS
MASSACHUSETTS:
    DEVELOPED BY MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONIES.
    ORGANIZED THE LAND INTO GRANTS TO PROMOTE THE
    DEVELOPMENT OF TOWNS.
     ADDITIONAL GRANTS OF “TOWNSHIPS” – 6 TO 8 MILES
    SQUARE.
     IN WHAT IS NOW VERMONT, MUCH OF THE TOWNSHIPS
    WERE DIVIDED INTO 64 – 360 AC. TRACTS
NEW HAMPSHIRE:
    EARLY TITLES VERY HARD TO RETRACE.
    1870: HITCHCOCK MADE A SURVEY OF ENTIRE STATE
     - SURVEY IS ONLY FAIR IN ACCURACY, BUT USABLE.
NEW YORK: ( 1883 RESURVEY)
 MANY DIFFERENT SYSTEMS EXIST, MANY DUE TO PURCHASES
 MACOMB PURCHASE: IRREGULAR TRACT OF 3.6+ MILLION AC ALONG
  THE EAST END OF LAKE ONTARIO.
      BASED UPON A VERY BROAD & GENERAL DESCRIPTION
      NO FIELD NOTES EXIST, ONLY A BASIC MAP
 HOLLAND PURCHASE: IN WESTERN NEW YORK, TIED TO THE NORTH
  LINE OF PENNSYLVANIA.
      LINES RUN NORTH DIVIDING LAND INTO 6 MILE SQUARE
      “TOWNSHIPS”, THEN DIVIDED INTO 64 LOTS.
      SURVEYS MADE BY JOSEPH ELLICOTT STARTING IN 1797.
 LANDS IN CENTRAL NEW YORK USED FOR MILITARY GRATUITY &
  DIVIDED INTO 10 MILE SQUARE TRACTS AND THEN INTO 1 MILE SQ.
MARYLAND:
 ORIGINAL SURVEYS POOR
 COMMISSIONER OF THE LAND OFFICE DEVELOPED RULES
 RELATIVE TO SURVEYS OF ORIGINAL LINES, MUST BE
 FOLLOWED.
 BOUNDARY DISPUTE WITH PENNSYLVANIA – NORTH LINE.

PENNSYLVANIA:
 FAMOUS BOUNDARY LINE DUE TO DISPUTE WITH MARYLAND.
 OVER THE SOUTH BOUNDARY.
    MASON – DIXON LINE: 39TH PARALLEL – CHARLES MASON &
     JEREMIAH DIXON ( ROYAL GEOGRAPHERS)
       SURVEYED FROM 1763 – 1767: 244 MILES MONUMENTED
       ONLY 2” ERROR IN LATITUDE
 EARLY TRACTS POORLY SURVEYED AND IRREGULAR
 STATE SURVEYED ALL LANDS PATENTED SINCE 1779 & HAVE
  GOOD RECORDS.
      3 Rules Established Governing
        Relocation in Pennsylvania
1.   Marks or monuments (natural or artificial) on ground are the best
     evidence of true location.
2.   Calls for adjoining tracts of land as boundaries are the next best
     evidence.
3.   Courses and distances as shown on draft of deputy surveyor are the
     next best evidence, with distance being the weakest.
Most retracement processes follow the “Journal of the
   Engineers Society of Pennsylvania”
ESTABLISHED BY STATE COURTS
TEXAS:
 A SEPARATE NATION FOR A PERIOD OF TIME & UPON
 BECOMING A STATE IT RETAINED ALL RIGHTS TO PUBLIC
 LANDS.
 MANY LAND GRANTS EXISTED FROM SPAIN & MEXICO
  - GRANTS HAD REQUIRED LAND TO BE SURVEYED IN A RECTANGULAR
     FORMAT, BUT MANY WERE NEVER RUN IN THE FIELD.
 AFTER 1879, IT WAS REQUIRED THAT ALL FIELD NOTES
 INCLUDE CERTIFICATION THAT SURVEY WAS RUN.
KENTUCKY & TENNESSEE:
 ORIGINALLY PART OF VIRGINIA & CAROLINAS
 FIRST TOWN CALLED BOONESBOROUGH (DANIAL BOONE)
 1776 – KENTUCKY BECAME COUNTY OF VIRGINIA
  VIRGINIA DID NOT CEDE TO U.S. CLAIMING LAND WAS NEEDED FOR
      REVOLUTIONARY WAR VETS.
  VET. LAND GRANTS HAD POOR DESCRIPTIONS, ALSO GRANTS GIVEN TO
      SETTLERS & LAND SPECULATORS – CAUSED MANY LAND DISPUTES
 TENNESSEE HAD SIMILAR PRACTICES AND MUCH THROUGH
 OCCUPATION
HAWAII:
 WAS A SOVERIGN POWER OF ITS OWN AND MOST LAND WAS
 GIVEN IN THE FORM OF GRANTS PRIOR TO BECOMING A U.S.
 TERRITORY.


OF ALL COLONIAL AREAS, NEW ENGLAND
 CAME CLOSEST TO DEVELOPING STANDARD
 METHODS OF SURVEYING & LAND GRANTS
  U.S. PUBLIC LAND SYSTEM
IT IS NECESSARY FOR THE SURVEYOR DOING
   RETRACEMENT TO KNOW & UNDERSTAND THE
   DEVELOPMENT OF THE USPLSS TO ALLOW THEM TO
   “FOLLOW IN THE FOOTSTEPS”.
U.S. CONGRESS RESOLUTIONS:
  SEPT., 1780 – COLONIAL STATES ASKED TO CEDE WESTERN
        HOLDINGS TO FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
  OCT., 1780 – RECOMMENDATION THAT CEDED TERRITORY BE FORMED
        INTO STATES
NOV., 1780 – RECOMMENDATION THAT CEDED LAND BE OPENED FOR
  SETTLEMENT & FORMED INTO STATES WITH NO STATE EXCEEDING
  130 SQUARE MILES.
  - LAND SHOULD BE LAID OUT IN 6 MILE SQUARE TOWNSHIPS
U.S. WAS IN DESPERATE NEED OF FUNDS AND HAD AN
   ABUNDANCE OF LAND.
   - RAISE MONEY AND ENCOURAGE SETTLEMENT TO PROTECT
     HOLDING FROM BRITISH AND AMERICAN INDIANS.
CONGRESSIONAL AGREEMENT TO DIVIDE THE NORTHWEST
   TERRITORY INTO NO MORE THAN 5 STATES – OHIO, INDIANA,
   ILLINOIS, MICHIGAN & WISCONSIN.



1784: THOMAS JEFFERSON HEADED COMMITTEE TO DEVELOP
   PLANS FOR USPLSS & IS GENERALLY CREDITED FOR IT.
   - RUFUS PUTNAM PROVIDED MUCH IMPORTANT IMPUT.
   - ORIGINAL PROPOSAL TO DIVIDE LAND INTO SQUARES
     BASED UPON THE NAUTICAL MILE.
   - SECOND PROPOSAL TO DEVELOP INTO TOWNSHIPS 7 MILES
     SQUARE WITH 49 – 640 AC. TRACTS
     An Ordinance for Ascertaining the Mode
     of Locating & Disposing of Lands in the
         Western Territory. May 20, 1785
1.   Position of Geographer of United States
     established to direct surveys.
2.   Land divided into townships 6 mi. square by lines
     run due N-S and other lines crossing at right
     angles. No allowance for convergence. Originally
     N-S lines were true meridians, after May 1786,
     they were allowed to run on magnetic meridians.
               Ordinance of 1785
3.   First line to be N-S starting at Ohio River at a
     point due north from the west end of the south
     boundary of Penn. (Ellicott’s P.M.) and the E-W
     line starts at the same point and runs west across
     territory (Geographer’s line).
4.   Townships and fractions to be numbered from
     south to north always starting with number 1 at the
     Ohio River.
5.   Ranges to be numbered westward from the P.M.
                     Ordinance of 1785
6.    Townships to be divided into 36 lots one mile
      square. Numbered 1 @ SE Cor. and progressing
      south to north.
7.    External boundaries of township marked every
      mile. Lots not surveyed in field.
     1.    No specifications as to equipment, accuracy or
           procedures.
     2.    2 areas of Ohio surveyed under this ordinance
          1.   Seven Ranges (eastern Ohio) 1785-1789
          2.   Western Ohio 1802
     3.    No other rectangular surveys between 1789-1796 and
           as a result six types of survey methods exist in Ohio
           and parts not on PLSS.
              Ordinance of 1788
1.   Provided that township lines be exactly shown on
     a plat.
2.   Must include all mines, salt licks, mill seats,
     watercourses, mountains and other important items
     to be noted.
3.   Quality of the land was also to be noted.
4.   Did not change process, but made record keeping
     requirements more specific.
5.   Plats and field notes required to be submitted.
          Land Act of May 18, 1796
                       5 Major Provisions
1.   Surveyor General replaced Geographer of the U.S. (he
     was to employ deputy surveyors to survey the lands)
2.   Lands to be divided into townships six miles square with
     line run due north/south and others crossing at right angles
     with no allowance for convergence.
3.   Alternate section lines were to be run in alternate
     townships. Thus monuments now exist around a 2 mile
     square tract with monuments set every mile along these
     lines. Every other township still not subdivided.
4.   Sections numbered as today (boustrophedonically).
5.   Records and plats are to be submitted.
      Land Act of June 1, 1796
Provided for special 5 mile square townships
   with monuments set at 2 ½ mile intervals:
   used in -
1. U.S. Military District
2. Connecticut Western Reserve
3. Society of United Brethren
                   all in Ohio
       Land Act of March 1, 1800
Corners regularly set by original government
 surveyors in the field are to be held as the true
 corners even if later surveys show they had been
 placed incorrectly, all other provisions remain the
 same.
        Land Act of May 10, 1800
All discrepancies due to convergence and errors would
  be placed in the north and west tier of sections in a
  township.
 All section lines to be run in the field.

 Monuments to be set every ½ mile on the north and

  south sides of the section, no provision for ¼ corners
  on the east and west side.
       Land Act of March 3, 1803
Provided for disposal of lands south of Tennessee;
  provided for the appointment of a “SURVEYOR”
  (with the same powers as Surveyor General) for the
  area northwest of the Ohio River.
    Land Act of February 11, 1805
Last of the important amendments of Public Land
   Survey System and related to Illinois, Indiana, and
   other states surveyed later.
1. Provided for completion of townships (alternate
   sections in alternate townships) from Act of 1796.
2. Provided for subdivision of ½ sections purchased
   prior to July 1804 to be surveyed and marked.
              Public Land system by 1814
                       (Review)
1.       Land Divided into townships 6mi2 by running lines due
         north and south and due east and west with no allowance
         for convergence
          Magnetic 1786-1796, astronomic thereafter
2.       Townships divided into 36 parcels, after that sections.
3.       Numbering process of townships and ranges established
4.       Lines monumented every ½ mile
5.       All discrepancies due to convergence and error in N & W
         tier of section
           Public Land system by 1814
                    (Review)
6.    Corners set as original are held as true corners, even if
      found wrong later.
7.    Sections to be divided into quarter sections using straight
      lines between ¼ corners
8.    Record of survey kept in field book and plat – must be
      turned in
9.    Variations permitted from established system allowed
      when necessary
10.   Survey procedures not specified; only equipment specified
      by act was chain; accuracy not prescribed.
             General Instructions to Deputy
                       Surveyors
Jared Mansfield (1804) 2nd Surveyor General
1.  Instruments:
     1.     Ritenhouse Compass
     2.     2 pole chain of 50 links (must be standardized at Surveyor
            Generals office)
2.        When prevented from measuring a course, distance is to
          be obtained by trigonometry or by traverse until true line
          is returned to.
3.        Course of all navigable rivers which bound or pass
          through the area must be surveyed, width to be determined
          in several places and tie all points that cross section lines.
         General Instructions to Deputy
                   Surveyors
4.   Township and section lines to be run as per Land Acts
     with all tree hits having 2 notches on each side and all or
     most of the trees on each side near the line being marked
     with 2 spots or blazes diagonally (quartering toward the
     line).
5.   Posts erected every ½ mile and mile, if tree exists at the
     corner it may be used; post to be at least 3” dia. and rise at
     least 3’ above the ground; all mile posts to have notches
     cut on 2 sides as distance from the starting point (N & W
     side); township posts have 6 notches on each side; post to
     be perpetuated by 2+ bearing trees (blazed facing the post
     with notch in blaze, tree near post mark with section number, above
     it T with township number, above it R with range number, ¼ section
     corners marked with 1/2/S).
        General Instructions to Deputy
                  Surveyors
6.   Carefully mark in field book all courses and distances,
     names and diameter of all corner and bearing trees and
     trees that fall on line (station or line trees); course and
     distance for bearing trees; all rivers, creeks, and springs;
     face of country (terrain) with note as to any special
     features; note any permanent features over which line
     passes; soil quality, location of all mines, salt licks, salt
     springs, and mill seats.
7.   All distances are to be level and horizontal.
        General Instructions to Deputy
                  Surveyors
8.   Lines measured with 2 perch chain, distances recorded in
     4 perch chains; courses and distances placed in left margin
     of field book with remarks noted to the right; date to be on
     the close of each days work; notes along with plats to be
     submitted to Surveyor General.
9.   Plat of each township to be neatly prepared on durable
     paper at a scale of 2”=1 mile; plat must show magnetic
     meridian and variance; exterior lines of plat must show
     courses and lengths.
           Tiffinn’s Instructions:
Edward Tiffin – Surveyor General 1815
These are instructions to Deputy Surveyors for
   Subdividing Townships.
1. When township exterior is complete, begin laying
   out sections at the SE corner of township, proceed
   East to West and South to North with excess or
   deficit falling in the North and West side of the
   township.
             Tiffinn’s Instructions:
2.   Sections to be one mile with ¼ corners set at the ½ mile, if
     closing a section and distance caries from 80 chains, the
     distance is to be split, on North and West side of
     township, establish ¼ corner at ½ mile and measure
     remainder, if you do not hit township corner, set post at
     intersection of township line and measure distance to
     existing corner and note it.
3.   Sections must be made to close by running random line on
     north side and ¼ corner to be set by offset.
4.   Fractional townships along rivers, the sections are laid out
     normally and remainder (fractional sections) are to be
     carefully measured.
             Tiffinn’s Instructions:
5.   North-South lines to be run by true meridian and East-
     West lines to be at right angles to these.
6.   Greatest error is in chaining, keep attention to chainmen to
     ensure they chain horizontally and do not lose talley,
     using only the provided number of pointed talley pins.
7.   When section lines cross rivers, obtain direction of course
     and distance to last corner.
8.   In the field you must check chain against one standardized
     at Standard Chain in the Surveyor General’s office.
9.   All lines (regular or random) are to be noted at time of
     running along with amounts of any variance.
              Tiffinn’s Instructions:
10.   All courses to be measured with compass corrected for
      variation.
11.   No lines to be run by anyone other than the deputy
      surveyor, those under immediate supervision of deputy
      surveyor or authorized by GLO.
12.   Deviation from rules will cause forfeiture of contract.
13.   Take care that posts are well set and a minimum of 1-2
      sight trees are marked every ½ mile.
     General Instructions for Deputies
1.   Good Rittenhouse Compass with nonius divisions and
     moveable sights and a 2 pole chain of 50 links both
     standardized at GLO.
2.   When obstructed, continue by offset or traverse to
     continue line.
3.   Courses of all navigable rivers must be accurately
     surveyed and width taken at points of intersect with
     township or section lines; distance from intersect to
     section corners to be noted; make note of all streams that
     cross lines taking width and course.
     General Instructions for Deputies
4.   Lines to be run and marked according to Acts; all trees cut
     by the line must have two notches on each side and all or
     most trees near line must be marked with 2 spots or blazes
     diagonally toward the line.
5.   Post to be established at mile and ½ mile (tree may
     substitute); township corners have 6 notches; all section
     corners to have notches on 2 sides at distance from
     beginning point; ¼ corner posts to have no notches; post
     to be a minimum of 3” diameter and extend a minimum of
     3’ above ground; 2 bearing trees to be established; section
     corner bearing trees to have R#, T#, S#; at ¼ corners
     bearing trees must have ¼ S.
      General Instructions for Deputies
6.    Note course & distance, diameter, name of all bearing
      trees; note all rivers, creeks, springs, and streams
      including width and course as they cross lines; note terrain
      (mountainous, timber type, swamps, ponds, stone
      quarries, coal beds, peat, other common features (special
      note of mines, salt licks, salt springs and mill seats).
7.    All measurements to be horizontal.
8.    Measure with 2 perch chain and record in 4 perch.
9.    Course and distance at left margin of field book and
      description on right; date each close of days work.
10.   Plat for each township at 2”=1 mile with magnetic
      variance.
      Land Act of February 22, 1817
   This provided that sections 2, 5, 20, 23, 30, 33 in all
    townships could be sold as ¼ sections (160 acres) or
    ½ ¼ sections (80 acres); division of ¼ section made
    by line running North - South
         Land Act of April 24, 1820
   All sections in all townships can be broken into ½ ¼
    sections with division north-south; only exception
    being fractional sections of less than 160 acres must
    be sold entire; remainder covers land sale
    requirements (land @ $1.25/Ac min.)
          Land Act of May 24, 1824
   Allows president to depart from ordinary methods of
    surveying along rivers, lakes, bayou or watercourse;
    must be in publics best interest; can cause land to be
    surveyed into 2 acre wide tracts (Water front) and
    running back a depth of 40 acres (417.42’ x
    8348.41’); must be sold entire.
      General Instructions of 1833
Describes Principal Meridian starting points:
1st-Ludlow’s, north from the mouth of the Great
  Miami River
2nd-Mansfield’s, north through the center of Indiana
3rd-Gallatin’s, north from the mouth of the Ohio
  through Illinois (confluence of Ohio and Mississippi
  Rivers)
4th-North from the mouth of the Illinois river through
  Illinois and Wisconsin territory
   Provided Contract Requirements
Surveying Instruments:
1. Compass with Nonius and movable sight
2. Surveyors chain-33’ with 50 links standardized
   and handles iron or brass at least ¼ inch diameter.
3. Standard chain-used to compare field chain every
   other day.
4. Talley Rods-iron, 12” long with ring and red cloth,
   set of 11 required.
5. Needle variance due to mineral deposits, but often
   carelessness.
            Variations of Compass
   Explains line of no variation & declination of needle
    to line (at time line of no variance ran through
    western Pennsylvania and New York).
   To locate Polaris when it is at elongation, the star
    Alioth (part of big dipper), Polaris and Gamma
    (Cassiopeia) form a horizontal line, when these stars
    form a vertical line Polaris is on the Meridian.
   When Polaris is on the Meridian or at elongation,
    the variance can most easily be computed, however
    at elongation is best because of longer observation
    time due to Polaris movement being vertical.
          Running & Marking Lines
1.   Lines run by true meridian (compass adjusted for
     variance).
2.   Lines marked – 2 notches on each side of station trees,
     line trees, or sight trees; all trees within 10-15 links (6.6’-
     9.9’) marked with 2 spots or blazes, diagonally or
     quartering toward the line.
3.   If course is obstructed, take offsets or traverse or trig to
     pass obstacle.
4.   No lines run by anyone except Deputy Surveyor
     authorized by Surveyor General, no marks made by other
     than Deputy Surveyor or those under immediate direction
     & in presence.
           Exterior Township Lines
1.   Celestial observations to determine variance is made at
     least every 12 miles on east-west lines and at the end of
     18-24 miles on north-south lines.
2.   Method: Township line (baseline) established due east-
     west across south boundary of tract to be surveyed;
     monumented every ½ mile; from township corners run &
     monumented range lines, establishing temporary township
     corner at six miles; at the far corner establish a post and
     run line east-west; township corners established at
     intersection points by running line due east or west to
     close; corner will be the intersection with distance to
     temporary post measured.
          Exterior Township Lines
3.   Surveyor must prepare a map or diagram of lines
     to a scale of 4 miles = 1 inch.
4.   All measurements to be horizontal.
5.   Monuments other than standard post: Mound –
     2½’ high with 4’ base with angles in direction of
     cardinal points with stone of 3-4 lbs in center of a
     few handfuls of charcoal, mound often covered
     with sod.
         Subdivision of Township
   The east tier of sections run, then return to
    south line and run next tier with east tier run
    until the last west tier.
        General Instructions to Deputy
     Surveyors in Illinois & Missouri (1834)
1.       Monuments
          Post: Standard but 2’ in ground
          Stone: 7”-8” deep, 12” wide, 14” long and 3” thick.
          Township corner 5” diameter & section corner 4” diameter.
          Must be squared off at top.
          Place stones so corners correspond to cardinal directions
          Mound: place at least 2 quarts of charcoal at least 3” below
           surface over which mound is placed.
          Township corner mounds: 3’ high, 5’ square at base and 2’
           square at top.
          3 stones (at least 5” square and 3” thick) in top of upper stone at
           least 3” below surface.
     General Instructions of 1843
   Required that section corners on west side of
    township be run and corrected thus eliminating
    double corners on the west side of township,
    but double corners still exist on the north side
    of the township.
     General Instructions of 1846
   Section corners on both west and north side of
    a township were to close on existing corners.

   Required baselines, meridians, correction and
    township lines to be run with instrument which
    operates independently of the magnetic needle.
       General Instructions of 1846
         (Wisconsin and Iowa)
   Section corners on both west and north side of
    a township were to close on existing corners.

   Required baselines, meridians, corrections and
    township lines be run with instrument which
    operates independently of the magnetic needle.
     General Instructions of 1850
   Breakdown of a township: run an east-west
    line between sections 13 & 24 (through center
    of township) and monument, run east tier of
    south ½ then east mile of north ½; proceed
    west one tier at a time.
      Manual of Instructions of 1855
   When needle variations are noticed, Burt’s improved
    solar compass (invented 1836) or equivalent must be
    used.
   First “Official” manual.
   Provided for Standard Parallels: every 4 townships
    (24 miles) north of baseline and every 5 townships
    (30 miles) south of baseline (5 townships not in later
    manuals, all at 4 townships).
   Talley pins (11 in set) up to 14” in length &
    weighted to drop vertically.
               Manual of 1881
   Initial point located astronomically.
   Baseline direction to be tested every 12 miles.



               Manual of 1890
   Prohibited use of magnetic needle on major
    lines, can be used only for subdividing
    township and meander lines if local attraction
    does not exist.
               Manual of 1894
   All surveys independent of needle.


               Manual of 1902
   Initial points to be in conspicuous locations &
    perpetuated by indestructible monuments.


               Manual of 1930
   Error of closure requirement introduced:
    distance to close within 12.5 links/mile &
    latitude / departure to be 1/452 overall.
                    Manual of 1947
   Corners to be set when meridian established every 40
    chains.
   Require 2 sets of measurements (double chain) & must
    agree within 14 links/80 chains.
   Defines a river as 3 chains wide and over as navigable.
   Line trees to be within 50 links of the line.
   Requires monuments to be standard iron post 30” long, 2”
    diameter with brass tablet.
   4 bearing trees (one in each section) (if no trees, mounds or
    stones).
   Instruments: solar transit & steel tape (2-8 chains).
   Distances reduced to horizontal and mean sea level.
                 Manual of 1973
   Permits use of electronic measurement.
   Requires greater accuracy (overall closure 1/905).
               Ordinance of 1787
   1st idea: Boundaries of new states consist of 2°
    of latitude with disregard for natural
    boundaries.

   Changed: Divide N.W. Territory into no more
    than 5 or less than 3 states.
       Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin
         Beginning of Surveys of Public
                    Domain
   Started in area of eastern Ohio – 7 ranges
    (2500 square miles).
   Ohio has as many as 20 different methods of
    surveying.
   West boundary of Pennsylvania is the initial
    reference line with E-W line extended west from
    Ohio River due north of the SW corner of
    Pennsylvania.
   Consists of 6 miles square township with lines in
    cardinal directions.
          Beginning of Surveys of Public
                     Domain
   To be done by 13 surveyors (1 from each state).
   Started in 1784 – extended Mason-Dixon line 24
    miles to the SW corner of Pennsylvania.
       Then north 63 miles to the Ohio River.
   Actual Survey of 7 Ranges started September 1785.
       When completed (42 miles) an error of 1500’ S.
        occurred.
       Large amount of error due to trying to run true meridian,
        after that it was done using magnetic compass.
                          Ohio Territory
   The territory was divided into no fewer than 19
    grants to states, veterans, religious or other groups.
   Boundaries surveyed by Rufus Putnam, but interior
    done by owners.
       Connecticut Reserve – surveyed into squares 5 miles on
        each side (3.5 million acres).
       Virginia Veterans – 4 million acres – surveyed by metes
        and bounds.
            Best land went to 1st claimants, later ones had to fit into their
             tracts.
            Many were odd shapes with some having well over 100 sides.
         Beginning Surveys in Indiana
   1st settled by French in 1671, Vincennes 1690, Ft.
    Wayne 1772.
   Vincennes – on Wabash River
   Early French grants had poor descriptions.
       Most were 2-4 arpents wide x 40 arpents deep containing
        66-132 acres.
   1778 – area captured by George Rogers Clark
    (surveyor) and later ceded by Virginia.
       150,000 acres were held by congress for Clark and his
        men.
       Clark’s Grant.
         Beginning Surveys in Indiana
   1st town surveyed in Indiana – Clarkville 1783
   Indiana Territory formed July, 1800.
   1802 Gov. Harrison ordered survey of Vincennes
    Tract.
       Thomas Freeman ordered to survey exterior boundary .
            Done in 1803 with notes returned to Jared Mansfield.
       Ebenezer Buckingham, Jr. – hired by Mansfield to survey
        control for Vincennes Tract.
         Beginning Surveys in Indiana
   Section 13 of Land Act 1804 – land once surveyed
    is to be divided into survey districts with a district
    surveyor for each.
       To be subdivided into sections, ½ sections and ¼
        sections.
   1805 – William Rector – began survey of baseline to
    control area south of Vincennes Tract.
       Baseline was 24 miles south of Buckingham line.
   Mansfield was aware of problem of convergence in
    1804 and recommended correction lines placed at 6,
    12, 18, or 24 mile intervals.
         Beginning Surveys in Indiana
   Survey of Land North of Vincennes Tract:
       Ten O’clock – One O’clock Line.
       West line of tract was to be distance a man could ride in
        2½ days.
       Indians did not trust compass and used split of shaft
        shadow between 10 and 1.
   Original Survey of West line of Indiana surveyed in
    1824, John McDonald.
       POB on Wabash River, 46 miles due N. of Vincennes.
       Reached Lake Michigan at 159 miles, 44 chains.
                    Surveys in Illinois
   No part of the public lands in Illinois were surveyed in full
    compliance with land acts.
   Surveyor Generals interpreted land acts, deputy surveyors
    also allowed leeway in following instructions.
   Cases exist where up to 4 methods of subdividing sections
    were used with in a township.
   Early section corners monumented with posts.
       Areas which lack trees-mounds erected with charcoal under.
   Many corners found today perpetuated by stones set by
    district or county surveyors.
                      Surveys in Illinois
   1st settlers:
       French – 1674 (Starved Rock); 1690 (Cohokia); 1969
        (Chicago).
       Fall of 1805 due to treaty with Indians, Rector ordered to
        extend system of Indiana and Illinois.
            Began survey of auxiliary baseline (36 miles S.) on Oct. 11,
             1805.
            Reached Mississippi River Oct. 24 at 103 miles, 29.5 ch.
            December 28, 1805 – Rector began Gallatin Meridian (3rd)
             from a post at confluence of Ohio and Mississippi.
                      Surveys in Illinois
   Rector then began surveying the land along the
    south boundary of Section 31, Township 6S, Range
    1E of the 3rd PM.
   The Rector brothers caused Collision Zone (3rd and
    2nd meet).
       Surveying from West to East between Saline and Wabash
        Rivers.
            R11E, 3rd from T5S to T31N.
       Rector has a contract to survey all of the area south of
        auxiliary Baseline.
                  Surveys in Illinois
   Section6, Act 1810; approved location and survey of
    town on the Ohio.
       Shawneetown, began January of 1811 by William
        Dobbins
   1812; Josiah Meigs replaced Mansfield as Surveyor
    General.
       Gave William and Nelson Rector contracts to survey 47
        townships in southern Illinois.
   1814; Nelson Rector was attacked and almost killed
    by Indians near Norris City, IL.
Work to William Rector
1805-1823
                     Surveys in Illinois
   October 1814 – Edward Tiffin, surveyor General
   February 1815 – Jacob May and Robert Cook set true
    Cardinal Point.
       Recovered 1973 by L.E. Chapter
   March 1815 – Tiffin ordered to have 6 million acres of
    military land surveyed.
       2 million each Michigan, Missouri, and Illinois.
   4th PM ordered to be run.
       Area in Illinois to be between Illinois and Mississippi Rivers with
        beginning point to be confluence.
       3 Surveyors (Enoch Moore, J. Milton Moore, and John Messinger).
       Found line crossed to E. side of Illinois River and out of area
        governed.
       Extended line north until Illinois River crossed and established
        Cardinal Point, Baseline, and Meridian.
                         Surveys in Illinois
   April 1816 – William Rector “Surveyor of Public Lands in
    Territories of Illinois and Missouri.”
       Had same authority as Surveyor General
       ¼ lines to be run parallel to sides between which they run.
       Between 1805 and 1813 received contracts for:
            Auxiliary baseline; 3rd PM to aux. baseline; area south of aux. baseline;
             private claims in Kaskaskia District; and 34 additional townships.
            Much of this work was subcontracted, which was made illegal.
       From 1816-1823 issued 713 Township contracts
            213 of these to 5 relatives.
       Removed from office in 1824, no one has been given this level of
        authority again until 1839.
                     Surveys in Illinois
   1817 – 4th PM extended N. to T14 & 15N with standard
    lines run
       Area south of baseline never monumented or marked on ground.
   1821 – 3rd PM extended to Illinois River
   1822 – Standard Parallels established to T31N
       Southern ones at irregular intervals with those in north at normal
        24 mile intervals.
   PM, Baseline, & Standard lines generally not run with any
    more care than other lines
       Variations in compass or closing generally corrected every 6 miles.
       Many problems existed in direction.
   Evidence of instructions in contracts.
       1826-contract contains instructions allowing use of stones.
                      Surveys in Illinois
   1837 – discovered that standard chain (S.G. office)
    was 2” long.
       Correction of 0.004386’/chain/year for areas 1837-1797
        or 0.350880’/mile
            4.91’/mile in 1811   9.82’/mile in 1825
   Last Gov. Contract in Illinois to Alexander Walcott
    T37N, R14E 3rd December of 1877 (Resurvey)
       Most had been completed by 1855-1856
         USPLSS Relevant to Missouri
   Arkansas and Missouri are the only states west of the
    Mississippi River that were surveyed based on Tiffin’s
    instructions
   1815 – 5th PM surveyed from mouth of Arkansas river to
    the Missouri River (317 miles, 35.76 chains) – was later
    continued to the Mississippi River
       Baseline surveyed west from the mouth of the St. Francis River
        with the Mississippi River west to the Arkansas River in 1815, line
        was continued west to Range 19W in 1818 and finally reaches the
        West line of Missouri in 1841.
   Initial point of the 5th PM is 57 miles, 60.5 chains north
    from mouth of Arkansas River and 26 miles, 30 chains west
    of mouth of St. Francis River.
       Position of both river mouths has since changes westward
            Arkansas River site is not Beulah Lake
            St. Francis mouth has moved approx. 1 mile south.
   Township 21 N, Range 28 W, 5th PM is very unusual.
       It contains 54 sections and 12 fractional sections
       Arkansas portion surveyed N from standard section, Missouri
        surveyed S from standard section
       Overall, a difference of more than 3 miles exists
             USPLSS Relevant to Missouri
                      (con’t)
   5th PM established on W. side of Mississippi River
    to avoid having to connect survey systems across
    Mississippi River
       In areas where 5th PM would cross river, (T53N) surveys
        were laid out from Guide Meridian
            Generally 4th and 5th PM are only about 25 miles apart
       Generally Guide Meridian governs surveys of the area of
        Missouri north of Mississippi River
       Guide Meridian
               Procedure of Legal Survey
1.        Obtain legal description of property abstract
2.        Courthouse
     1.      Original government survey
     2.      Past surveys of area and adjoining
     3.      Deeds of adjoining
     4.      Monument record
     5.      Misc. record and ROW records
     6.      Co. Tax Assessor
     7.      Co. Highway Comm.
     8.      Other sources – if adjoining R.R. or power lines – see them
3.        Obtain Photos – map library
4.        Analyze data, plan field work, and talk to property owners
5.        Monument search
6.        Do prelim field work
7.        Calc and analyze field data
8.        Set final points
9.        Prepare final plat and legal description
                       Monument Search
1.        Obtain all available information
     1.     Aerial photos
     2.     Past surveys, field notes
     3.     ROW maps
2.        Compile info and determine place to look
3.        Field search
     a.     Metal detectors
     b.     Probe
     c.     Watch for clues – old fence lines, tree lines, etc.
4.        Talk with elderly in the area
5.        Based on what is found, determine what is to be tied
             Proportionate Measurement
   When comparing original vs. current measurements it is assumed that
    differences occurred in all parts of the line, unless the contrary can be
    proven beyond a reasonable doubt
   Principle of Proportionate Measurement: new values given to several
    parts (by re-measurement) shall bear the same relationship to the
    record lengths as the new measurements of the whole line bear to that
    record.
   Government monuments were set by two methods:
        Single line – township lines and ¼ corners
      Checkerboard fashion with cross ties – section and township corners

   Single Proportionate Measurement – applied to a new measurement made on
    a line to determine one or more positions on that line
            Single line corners
       Adjusting new survey to be in proportionate agreement with original survey
       Proportionate measure can not extend beyond a fixed monument and is good only
        between existing monuments
       Corners on standard parallels and E-W township lines were originally set along curved
        lines and this must be taken into account.
        Proportionate Measurement
   Double Proportionate Measurement – applied
    to new measurements made between four
    known corners, two each on intersecting
    meridional and latitudinal lines for the purpose
    of relating the intersection of both
       Checkerboard – township and section corners
       A retracement survey must be made in all four
        directions from corner (lost) to nearest existing
        corners.
                                Legal Search
   Original Government Surveys
       Large book – Township Plat and Field Notes for it are together
       When you copy on one section, copy also any section touching it.
   Past Surveys
       Surveyor’s Record
            Plats of surveys by county surveyors and more recently plat of survey by all R.L.S.’s
            Normally indexed by Township and Range
       Plat Record
            Plats of Subdivision
            Indexed alphabetically, by name of Subdivision, but Section, Township, and Range
             are shown
       Monument Recordation
   Deeds
       Grantor-Grantee Index
            Grantor – person selling      Grantee – person buying
            Indexed by year and then alphabetically
            Explain how to trace back
                       Descriptions
    A description is to furnish the information which is
     necessary to identify the boundaries of a particular
     tract of property.
        Proper composition of a description requires a
         knowledge of both law and surveying.
    Kinds of Descriptions:
    1. Natural objects and adjoiners without numerical data
    2. Metes and bounds
    3. Public Land System
    4. Urban subdivisions
    (Many descriptions contain components of several of these)
                     Descriptions
1.   Natural objects – refer to trees, center line of a road,
     thread of a stream, or a boundary line may be described by
     giving no information except the names of adjoining
     owners (This type no longer used).
2.   Metes and bounds – these include all pieces of land not in
     the first class, which can not be described by the public
     land system or urban subdivision. The description begins
     by carefully describing the point of beginning, then a
     distance and direction are given for each line around the
     tract; the marker at each corner is also described.
3.   Rectangular System – this includes all regular tracts
     within the area covered by the U.S. Rectangular System.
4.   Subdivisions – tract in a platted subdivision.
     Requirements of a Valid Description
In essence, the basic requirements are that is shall be clear,
     accurate, and brief.
1.   Clarity – a legal description should be so clear that it is
     subject to only one interpretation at any time, present or
     future.
          North – used only to indicate due north – this being the direction
           parallel with the reference meridian of the survey.
          Northerly – may be any direction up to 15° from north in the 1st
           or 4th quadrant.
          Punctuation is also very important.
          The “Point of Beginning” shall be a corner of a tract surveyed
           and not the monument to which the tract as a whole is referred.
2.       Accuracy – it is best that a description be preceded by a
         present survey of the tract.
3.       Brevity – this is essential because it enhances clarity.
            Interpretation of Descriptions
         In retracing deeds the surveyor often finds that items may
          have been omitted or it may contain conflicting calls.
                    4 General Rules in Interpretation:
1.        Best interpretation is that which most plainly and
          completely gives effect to the intentions of the parties to
          the deed, as revealed by all the evidence available.
2.        In regards to conflicts between calls the order of
          precedence is:
     a)     Senior rights
     b)     A natural corner or boundary will stand against artificial.
     c)     Artificial corner or boundary that is identifiable, will control
            over calls of direction, distance, or area.
     d)     When a conflict between dimensions and area, the dimensions
            will govern as long as they are consistent with evidence as to
            monuments.
      Interpretation of Descriptions
3.   If a description is faulty due to an obvious error or
     omission of essential data, every attempt is made
     to render it valid rather than void.
4.   If 2 interpretations are possible, the one that most
     benefits the purchaser will be used.
                    General Comments:
    Where a description calls for a certain area, this
     area should be included within four lines forming a
     square, as nearly as possible.
              Definition of words:
1.   Along or upon a road: means to the centerline of
     the road.
2.   More or less: the purchaser accepts approximate
     acreage.


Note: a description which fails to identify the county,
   state, ¼ section, township, and range in which the
   property is located is ineffective unless the
   property can still be identified.
                         Private Surveys
   Authority of the surveyor
        In all states surveyor is licensed by statute and it
         enables to surveyor to do certain functions and excludes
         others who are not licensed.
        Basis of Land surveys:
        1.   Every parcel of land whose boundaries are surveyed and
             monumented by a land surveyor should be made conformable
             with the record boundaries of such land.
                The relationship of possession lines and deed lines should be shown
                 on a plat or in a report furnished to the client.
                Clients want to know if possession and title lines are the same.
    2.   It is the obligation of the surveyor to inform the client as to
         what documents are needed for the performance of a land
         survey and he/she should base his/her survey on a satisfactory
         description from a document.
             Includes recorded deed, easements, or other conveyances and the
              research needed to confirm the descriptions exactness.
    Research:
    1.   The surveyor examines all documents called for or implied in
         the client’s conveyance.
    2.   Obtains copies of all maps or drawings called for.
    3.   Obtains copies of available documents and surveys of
         adjoining parcels made by public or private surveyors and
         such other documents that describe interests.
        3 main causes of disagreement between surveyors:
         1.   Failure to locate all of the documents that give essential information
              about the area being surveyed.
         2.   Inadequate field search for monumentation.
         3.   Incorrect interpretation of evidence or the meaning of documents.
   Ownership:
        The surveyor does not decide who owns land or property rights,
         he locates boundaries in accordance with legal descriptions.
   Encroachments:
        The surveyor locates lines of possession that do not coincide
         with the written conveyances and informs clients of such facts
         in writing.
   Search for monuments:
        It is the obligation of the surveyor to search for all monuments
         called for, either directly or indirectly in the description and
         find all available information pertaining to them.
             Search must prove either existence or explain nonexistence.
             Do not place full weight on findings of another surveyor.
             A thorough, diligent, and complete search of all evidence is the
              fundamental essence of land surveying.
   Possession Marking Original Survey Lines:
       Because original lines marked and surveyed by an original
        surveyor control other elements in a deed, the surveyor
        should determine whether or not a line of possession
        represents a line marked by the original survey.
           It is the surveyors responsibility to investigate whether a line of
            possession represents the original line of a so-called survey or whether
            possession cane about for other reasons.
           At times possession may be the best available evidence remaining, but
            such determination should only be made after a complete analysis of
            all evidence.
   Evidence:
       The surveyor locates land boundaries in accordance with the
        available evidence.
           A valid conveyance of land has a definite location on the ground and
            the mere loss of evidence does not invalidate the conveyance..
           The surveyor must have knowledge of the order of importance of
            evidence.
   Setting Monuments:
       All monuments set on a survey should be marked to indicate
        who set the monument.
   Plats:
       A land survey should result in the delivery of a plat to the
        client showing and describing the following:
        a)   All monuments found or set (described in detail)
        b)   The basis of bearings
        c)   The bearings and distances of all boundary lines
        d)   The location of all lines of possession
        e)   The location of encroachments
        f)   The identification and location of easements
   Liability:
        The property surveyor is liable for damages resulting from facts
         not in agreement with his certificate and is liable for failure to
         do what an ordinary prudent surveyor would do under the same
         conditions.
             To reduce liability it is wise for the surveyor to do more than the
              minimum required.
        If the surveyor has actual or implied knowledge for which the
         survey will be used, he/she is responsibility for researching and
         collecting all of the information covering that parcel and
         possibly adjacent contiguous parcels.
        When a surveyor accepts work or a plat of another surveyor,
         he/she assumes all liabilities for any and all errors that may be
         present.
                  Future of PLS
                     At crossroads:
   Regain Professionalism – equal to engineer in public
    eye.
   Become Technicians – working under engineer
   Key is Education – incoming and public
   Key is Pricing – as long as we undercharge for our
    work we will get nowhere.
                            Future of PLS
                                     Needs:
   Survey Authority:
       2 Branches: 1 Chicago area – 1 Rest of state
       2 Major Duties:
            Review all surveys to assure compliance to standards
            Depository for all surveys performed
       Must be independent of political influence
            Funding based upon recording fee
       Additional work on re-monumentation
   Re-Define Profession:
       Clarify what work falls under license
       Broaden scope
       GPS
                             Future of PLS
   GIS
       What is the surveyors role
       Is this going to eliminate the need for L.S.
       L.S. should be “supervisor” (legally required) of GIS work during
        certain phases.
             When tied to control coordinate systems
             When representing cadastre
       California Law; Policy resolution 98-03: any person supervising
        the creation, preparation or modification of a GIS in areas
        connected with the state’s definition of land surveying must be
        licensed as a PLS or registered as a PE authorized to practice land
        surveying.
       Surveyor must prepare to tie all surveys to State Plane Coordinates
        as a basis for GIS.
     Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
   The Bureau of Land Management has control of all
    government surveys
   Resurvey: a reconstruction of land boundaries and
    subdivisions accomplished by rerunning and remarking the
    lines represented in the field notes or on the plat of a
    previous official survey.
   Retracement: merely measures lines and identifies
    monuments or other marks of an established prior survey
    without restoration of lost corners or the reblazing of lines
    in timber.
    Courts hold that original survey of public lands does not
    ascertain boundaries, but creates them.
    Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
    The original survey is the approved survey that creates the
     parcel of land. An original monument is one set or called
     for in an original survey.
        Prior to approval, the government can make a “corrective
         survey”.
        If more than one approved survey for a parcel exists, the most
         recent survey controls.
    When resurveying or dividing federally created sections of
     land, federal rules for resurvey are followed:
    1.   When the final court of adjudication resides in a federal court.
    2.   When the state court has approved the federal rules.
     Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
Types of resurveys
1. Dependent resurvey: first a retracement of all recoverable
   evidence of the original corners and lines and the
   reestablishment of lost or obliterated corners and lines in
   accordance with the best available evidence and
   applicable rules of survey.
          Depends upon recovery of original corners and evidence of lines.
2.       Independent resurvey: casts aside the original survey and
         creates all new monuments and corners and may include
         the establishment of new township lines without reference
         to the original survey.
     Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
   Generally once completed these resurveys replace the
    original.
   Federal Patent: means by which federal government grants
    land to private individuals or corporations by way of a
    release or quit claim without warranty of title.
   Provided that a superior right is not interfered with or a
    fraud committed, the boundaries of the public land, when
    approved, and patented are unchangeable.
       Burden of proof is now on retracement surveyor to locate lines as
        they were actually placed on the ground, not where they should
        have been.
            Must “track in the footsteps” of the original surveyor based on evidence.
     Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
   The original township, section, and ¼ section corners (but
    not closing corners) must stand as the true corner which
    they were intended to represent, whether in the place shown
    by field notes or not.
   The plat and all the original field notes become apart of the
    grant. Errors on a plat are subordinate to the field notes.
       Field notes are the main source of information which the
        descriptive information concerning corners, monuments,
        accessories, and line information can be found.
       Best evidence of how and where lines were run are in the notes.
    Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
    A closing corner not actually located on the line that was
     closed upon will determine the direction of the closing
     line, but not its legal terminus; the correct position is at the
     true point of intersection of the two lines.
        After a line is run and established, it can’t be altered at a later
         date if a closing corner monument was not placed, the line can’t
         be changed to fit the new corner, the closing corner must be
         moved to the line closed upon.
    After making due allowances for natural changes, a
     monument to be identifiable should not differ greatly from
     the following:
    1.   The character and dimensions of the monument in evidence
         should not be widely difference from the record.
    2.   Markings in evidence should not be inconsistent with the record.
    3.   The nature of the accessories in evidence, including size,
         position, and markings, should not vary greatly from record.
     Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
       Make sure appropriate field notes are checked.
       Most common monuments are posts, stones, stone mounds, and
        dirt mounds with pits.
            Many original monuments have been replaced by county surveyors with
             minimal records.
            If monuments different than those called for are found, reputation and
             common usage must be relied on.
            Bearing trees called for have equal dignity with the corner itself.
                  If scribes exist, they must be consistent with notes.

   Where an acceptable map or plat indicates and depicts the
    found location of an original corner, the corner, if
    obliterated, may be relocated from said map. (Co. Surveyor
    Records, Highway Maps)
     Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
   The original location of a corner may be restored at a spot
    pointed out by an old resident, who saw the original corner
    and knows where its former location was.
       The witness evidence no more weight than would be given in court
        and should not be hearsay.
       Obtain signed affidavit by the witness.
       Care should be taken against prejudiced testimony.
       Make sure that statements taken under oath contain facts as to the
        witnesses personal knowledge.
   Under special conditions a corner location can be accepted
    by common usage of position.
       Roads which have been placed on section lines and over a period
        of time have become the accepted line and best evidence of the line
        location.
     Resurveys of Sectionalized Lands
   Identification of Original Lines Run
       Where the direction of a line can be determined from the mean
        position of line trees or blaze markers of the original survey, the
        direction established can be controlling where the corner
        monument is lost. At times a stream or some other natural feature
        may become controlling, especially if the natural feature is in close
        proximity of the corner.
            Many original notes give distances to natural objects as they were crossed by
             the line.
                 Subdivision of Sections
       Protraction is the method of breaking a section down
         Regular sections on plat have dotted lines connecting ¼ corners
          to indicate they are to be subdivided by running straight lines
          between ¼ corners.
         Further breakdown is to be done in the same manner unless
          irregular conditions exist.
             Under irregular conditions, dotted lines exist for breakdown into ¼, ¼
              with distance and areas shown.
                Subdivision of Sections
1.    Where an original ¼ corer was not originally set, place the
      missing corner on the correction, range, or township line at
      a point between the found or relocated closing section
      corners a distance that is proportional to the measurement
      used for the acreage calculations on the original plat.
         The missing corner is usually set midway between closing section
          corners in section six where it is usually 40 chains proportional
          measure from the northeast or southeast closing section corner.
         Applies in the following:
     1.   Sections closing on a correction line
     2.   Sections closing on a range line with double or triple corners
     3.   Sections closing on a township line with double or triple corners
                  Subdivision of Sections
2.       The method to be followed in the subdivision of a section
         into ¼ sections is to run straight lines from the established
         ¼ corners to the opposite ¼ corner; the point of
         intersection is the legal center of the section.
          From 1849-1851, Butterfield, Commissioner of the General
           Land Office issued special instructions which directed that the
           center ¼ corner be located at the midpoint of a line connecting
           the east and west ¼ corners.
              If it can be shown that a corner was set be this method during this period,
               the corner is the true center of section.
          Often the use and possession point and true center of section
           does not agree.
              The surveyor must investigate this difference, the possession point may
               control the property, but is not the true center of section.
                 Subdivision of Sections
3.       Prior to the subdivision of ¼ sections, ¼, ¼ or 16th corners
         will be established at points midway between the sections
         and ¼ section corners and between the ¼ section corners
         and the center of section, except on the last half mile of
         the lines closing on township boundaries.
          In the last ½ mile they are placed at 20 chains counting from the
           regular ¼ section corner.
          When 16th corners are set, lines will be run straight between
           opposite corresponding ¼, ¼ corners. The intersection of the
           lines thus run will determine the legal center of ¼ section.
4.       Center lines of fractional sections where no opposite
         corresponding corner exists or can be relocated, the
         boundary lines shall be run from the established corners
         due north, south, east, or west as needed to the water-
         course, Indian boundary, or other external boundary of
         such fractional township.
                    Subdivision of Sections
5.        Surveyors should always rely on original corners to set or
          position lost corners.
            Never rely on 16th corners to reestablish ¼ corners
            Retracement surveyors should not go from within a section to set
             a corner along the section line.
                Measurements from interior corners should only be used to provide
                 evidence as to the correct location on a section line.
6.        Procedure for Retracement survey:
     a.      Should be planned in advance so nothing is overlooked
     b.      Suggested steps:
            1.   Obtain all necessary original field notes and township plats pertaining to
                 the area being surveyed.
            2.   Search all records for subsequent surveys conducted by private or public
                 parties.
            3.   Contact old residents concerning ancient land boundaries.
                Subdivision of Sections
       4.   Examine all pertinent deeds of landowners long the lines to be surveyed
            and any record documents that may show easements or encumbrances.
       5.   Make a diligent search for all necessary corners and apply the rules of
            evidence to determine whether a corner is original, obliterated, or lost.
               If it is lost, reposition corner using proper rules of survey.
       6.   Set new monuments for new position and replace and deteriorated
            monuments.
       7.   Subdivide the section and set any required subdivision corners according
            to applicable rules of survey.
       8.   Prepare and file a record of survey indicating the dignity of all points
            recovered or set and identify all points
               Furnish client with report of methods used, monuments set, and decisions
                made.
7.   In Illinois – file Monument Record on all original corners.
     IT IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE RETRACEMENT SURVEYOR TO
     FOLLOW IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF THE ORIGINAL SURVEYOR AS NEARLY
     AS POSSIBLE.
                Restoration of Lost Corners
1.        Relocate lost corners
     a)     All lost corners are to be relocated by proportionate measure
            with due regard to the principle of the precedence of one line
            over another of less original importance.
2.        Proportionate Measure or Proration
     a)     In proportionate measure, the new values given to several parts
            as determined by the re-measurement, shall bear the same
            relation to the record lengths as the new measurement of the
            whole line bears to that record.
     b)     Single proportionate measurement – is applied to a new
            measurement made on a line to determine one or more positions
            on that line.
               By court ruling, original monuments, except closing corners, are fixed in
                position and can’t be moved.
               Not all lines are straight lines.
         Restoration of Lost Corners
c)   Double proportionate measurement – are applied to
     new measurements made between four known corners,
     two each on intersecting meridional and latitudinal for
     the purpose of relating the intersection of both.
d)   Importance of on line over another – as between single
     and double proportionate measurement, the principle of
     precedence of one line over another of less original
     importance is recognized, thus limiting the control of
     each method.
        Corners on township line, not those set later
        Order of precedence based on how set, township then interior
         from SE corner.
            Restoration of Lost Corners
3.       Restoration of Lost Standard Corners on Standard
         Parallel, Correction Lines and Base Lines.
          Lost standard corners will be restored to their original position
           by single proportionate measurement on the true line connecting
           the nearest identified standard corners on opposite sides of the
           missing corner. Proper adjustment should be made to secure the
           correct latitude curve.
          Closing corners are not to be used for either direction or
           measurement.
          Standard corners are all corners which were established on the
           standard parallel during the original survey of that line.
          Restoration of Lost Corners
4.   Restoration of Lost Township Corners on Principle
     Meridians and Guide Meridians
        when the principle meridian or guide meridian was
         established by alignment in one direction only, lost
         township corners on such lines shall be restored by
         single proportionate measurement.
        Where guide meridians were established as part of
         original contract, the township corners located thereon
         should be relocated by double proportionate
         measurement.
            Restoration of Lost Corners
5.       Restoration of Lost Township and Section Corners
         Originally established with cross ties in four directions
         will be relocated by double proportionate measurement.
6.       Restoration of lost corners along township lines will be
         restored by single proportionate measurement.
          Exception to this principle will be noted in case of any exterior
           with a record deflection in alignment between township corners
          Township lines were established before subdivision of sections.
7.       Restoration of lost township and section corners where the
         line was not established in one direction.
          The record distance will be used to the nearest identified corner
           in the opposite direction.
        Restoration of Lost Corners
8.   Restoration of lost corners where the intersecting lines
     have been established in only two directions, the record
     distances to the nearest identified corners on those two
     lines will control the position of the temporary points,
     then from the latter the cardinal offsets will be made to fix
     the desired point of intersection.
             Restoration of Lost Corners
9.        QUARTER-SECTION Corners in regular section within
          the township will be restored by single proportionate
          measurement between adjoining section corners, after the
          section corners have been identified or relocated.
           An exception occurs when original lines had angular deflection.
10.       Quarter-section corners where only part of a section was
          originally surveyed will be restored by record bearing and
          distance, counting from the nearest regular course which
          has been identified or restored.
               Restoration of Lost Corners
11.        A lost closing corner on a standard parallel will be reestablished on
           the true line that was closed upon and at the proper proportional
           interval between the nearest regular corners to the left and right.
             The only corners that will control the direction of the line being closed upon
              are:
      a)      Standard township, standard section, and standard ¼ corners.
      b)      Meander corners terminating the survey of the standard parallel
      c)      Closing corners in those cases where they were originally established by
              measurement along the standard line as points from which to start a survey.
12.        Lost North Quarter corner in a closing section which was originally
           set, the lost corner will be reestablished on the closing line at a point
           at the proper proportionate interval between the nearest found or
           relocated corners to the right and left.

				
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