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					Evans, G., Layzell Ward, P., & Rugaas, B. (2000). Management basics for
                                 Quote                              Page#   Chapter#
Every organization needs someone who keeps operations
functioning smoothly, that is what management is all about.            3       1
Mary Parker Follett: "management is the art of getting things done
through people."                                                       5       1
These seven functions underlie…all management behavior:
Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting,
Budgeting (POSDCORB)                                                   7       1
Bottom: 60-70% technical abilities, 20-30% human relations, balance
on conceptual abilities                                                8       1
Middles: 20-30% technical abilities, 10-50% human relations,
balance on conceptual abilities                                        8       1
Tops: 10% technical abilities, 40-50% conceptual abilities, balance
on human relations                                                     8       1
Harry Mintzberg defined 10 roles in 3 categories:
- Interpersonal
o Figurehead
o Leader
o Liaison
- Information
o Nerve center
o Disseminator
o Spokesperson
- Decisional
o Entrepreneur
o Disturbance handler
o Resource allocation
o negotiator                                                           8       1
Management is an art                                                   8       1
We divide management history into four periods: prescientific (pre
1880), scientific management (1880-1927), human relations (1927-
1950), and synthesis (1950-present).                                   9       1
traditional theory of management:
- A manager can identify, define, and study the basic functions of
management (planning, budgeting, motivating, and so forth)
- There are fundamental “features” about organizations and
management can, by knowing and studying such truths, a manager
may improve managerial practice
- Principles derived from the study of management are the starting
points for management research, and such studies should produce
even more useful management theory.
- In the end, management is an art, not a science; therefore, no
amount of research will completely resolve all of the issues in
managing an organization.                                             18       1
Sheldon…in 1923…suggested management had both a technical
and ethical aspect.                                                   23       1
                               Quote                                     Page#   Chapter#
Chester Barnard's…three universal elements of an organization
were:
- A willingness to cooperate
- Sharing one or more common goals
- communication                                                           24        1
Decision Theory concentrates on rational decision making; the
weighing of alternatives and consequences                                 25        1
Mathematical Approach sees mathematical modes…as a way to
predict results                                                           25        1
Systems Theory is characterized by viewing everything as a part of a
larger system (3 key elements: autonomy, circularity, and self-
reference)                                                                26        1
Contingency Theory holds that there are NO universal answers in
management                                                                27        1
Spontaneity Theory hold(s) that group coordination and effective
behavior automatically emerge around a 'natural leader.'                  28        1

Participative Management attempts to balance the formalistic and
spontaneity approaches in the belief that individuals perform most
effectively when given a chance to participate in decision making         28        1

Challenge-Response Approach allows for individual freedom of
action and decision making; however, it retains a formalized structure    29        1
Directive Method contend(s) that most people both want and need
close supervision, to be told what to do, and how to do it.               29        1
Checks and Balances Approach reflect(s) the idea that an individual
in power inevitably becomes corrupted by it                               30        1
Management Process - in this approach, four elements are common:
planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling                          31        1
Empirical Approach maintain(s) that examing past practice has some
value for managers                                                        31        1
Fundamental rules for managers for developing a personal style:
- Know yourself and how you work with people
- Know the fundamentals of management before you explore new
ideas in the field
- Think twice before trying something new, then think again               33        1
                                  Quote                                     Page#   Chapter#
Fayol's Principles (1916). Fayol identified 14 principles of
management:
- Division of work or specialization
- Authority and responsibility
- Discipline
- Unity of command
- Unity of direction
- Subordination of individual to general interest
- Renumeration
- Centralization
- Lines of command or scalar chain
- Order
- Equity
- Stability of tenure
- Initiative
- Esprit de corps                                                           19-22      1
Libraries and archives were originally created for administrative
reasons to hold the records essential to run an empire.                      38        2

…include the principle that all members of society should have the
right to fully participate in it; if they so wish, and thus they need the
facilities to become informed (Greenlaugh & Worpole 1995:154)                39        2
using the internet and developing intranet services has involved the
use of the librarian's knowledge of information resources and
information technology linked with their understanding of users
needs to provide effective and efficient information                         40        2
the school library has also undergone change as it becomes a center
for the teaching of information skills.                                      40        2
experienced people who possess a fundamental knowledge of
management concepts, theories, and principles can manage almost
any organization, regardless of setting.                                     41        2

until the mid-1930's, most libraries operated under an authoritarian,
paternalistic, or, at least, a directive approach to management              42        2
Scientific Management, 1937-1965…representative of the concern
during this period with efficient operation. Most of the work during
this period tended to focus on activities and objects rather than on
people.                                                                      43        2
Human Relations 1965-1980: …libraries and archives began shifting
away from the director-controlled management approach to one
involving at least the professional staff.                                   43        2
"Human Relations" in libraries usually means democratic
administration, participative administration, use of committees, and
involvement by staff in decision making.                                     43        2
Synthesis 1980-Present: one approach that has been slowly gaining
popularity in the US is Total Quality Management                             44        2
Politics and the political process are part of maintaining a publicly
funded information system - not the politics of partisanship but the
politics of decision making.                                                 47        2
                                   Quote                                Page#   Chapter#
Librarians working in publicly funded units must understand politics
and public administration. Public administration is the process of
carrying out the laws, rules, regulations and policies established by a
relevant legislative body.                                               47        2
another special feature of most libraries is their service and
educational orientation                                                  47        2
every service…is part of a larger organization                           48        2
An effective manager recognizes this part-of-a-part feature and
considers the total library's environment, both internal and external,
in making her/his decisions                                              48        2
not-for-profit organizations…tend to exhibit the characteristics that
Max Weber labeled "bureaucratic."                                        49        2
When run properly, a classic bureaucratic organization provides
effective, efficient, rational, and humane service…it provides a stable
organization even in troubled times.                                     52        2
concern about professional status has a long history in the
information-handling fields                                              53        2
full profession - 5 or more years of professional education              53        2
semi-profession - less than 5 years of professional education            53        2
Etzioni and others…contend that a full professional must have
autonomy of action based on a responsible conscience in order to
perform effective professional work.                                     53        2
information organizations fit the semi-professional definition           54        2
unlike full professionals, most semi-professionals are female            54        2
lack of, or poor, communication is the most frequently identified
organizational problem                                                   57        2
Management ethics deal with right and wrong actions and activities.
The difference between social responsibility and management ethics
is the former's focus on organizational action and activities and the
latter's with personal actions.                                          60        2
One of the ways to help reduce…conflict is to have "codes" of ethics,
both professional and organizational.                                    61        2
Five factors impacting ethical decision making:
- Laws
- Government regulations
- Ethical codes
- Social pressure
- Conflict between personal values & organizational needs                61        2
Normative ethics - three theories:
- Utilitarian Theories – produce the greatest good for the greatest
number
- Moral Rights Theories – everyone has certain rights that should be
respected
- Human Rights – five fundamental rights:
o Free consent
o Privacy
o Freedom of conscience
o Free speech
o Due process                                                            61        2
                                Quote                                     Page#   Chapter#
Human -relationship skills together with social responsibility and
ethics…are fundamental to being an effective manager                       62        2
Positive actions one can take to generate more and better
understanding: (copy list pg 58/59)
                                                                          58-59      2
for libraries…there is a tripartite environment                            69        3
Library…managers have the internal environment…the environment
of the parent organization…and…the environment beyond the parent
organization (external).                                                   69        3

Chester Barnard (1956) identified five basic elements that constitute
an organization: size (2 or more people), interdependence (working
together), input (money, material, labor, time), throughput (activities
to create/produce), and output (service or product).                       70        3
As an organization grows and changes, so do its objectives.                70        3
Formal Organizations have three basic characteristics:
- They exist to accomplish specific objectives
- Those objectives will evolve or change over the lifetime of the
organization
- They try to be self-sustaining, changing objectives in response to a
changing environment                                                       70        3
"Conflict Control"…many people see as the central issue for
managers                                                                   71        3
The existence of conflicting goals and objectives is unavoidable (with
so many organizations).                                                    71        3
The external environment is increasingly becoming more and more
important for managers                                                     71        3
The external environment has several major dimensions: socio-
cultural, technological, political/legal, economic, and
institutional…there exist many sub-variables                               71        3
Four organizational environments: placid, placid-random, disturbed,
and turbulent. (Emery & Twist - 1965).                                     72        3
A "disturbed" environment (common in libraries)…has competing
organizations and changing laws, expectations and technologies.            72        3

"Turbulent" environments…: competitors exist, competition is fierce,
and…organizational survival is at stake. Goals tend to be short-term.      72        3
Burns & Stalker (1961) 2 organizational systems:
- Mechanistic: emphasize specialization and a hierarchical
organizational structure
- Organic: emphasize work groups and a flat structure
                                                                           73        3
Some combination of mechanistic/organic systems was most
effective in the disturbed environment                                     73        3
                               Quote                                     Page#   Chapter#

Each organization has a special combination of external variables
(the emphasis/importance assigned to the variable differs):
- Customers
- Competitors
- Funding sources
- Suppliers
- Labor organization
- Educational interests
- Legal/legislative/political
- Economic conditions
- Technology
- Socio-cultural factors                                                  73        3
Monitoring external environment factors is a responsibility of top
management                                                                79        3
Conflict has many sources, and the ability to recognize the major
causes helps a manager to perform more effectively                        81        3
A manager must recognize the resources involved and nature of
each conflict and endeavor to resolve problems                            82        3
Drucker (1973) described four principles of production:
- Unique product
- Rigid mass
- Flexible mass
- “flow” production                                                       83        3
Two basic activities of management: activities and people.                84        3
Successful service is dependent upon accurately determining various
characteristics of the service population, their information wants and
needs, and the way they use information.                                  89        4
Market Analysis, and some of the related methods for assessing
needs that employ similar techniques, can provide managers with
vital data about topics such as:
- Services used; when and how
- Who does and does not use the services
- What new services users desire
- What information is desired
- What formats are desired
- What the library’s image is in the minds of the community               90        4
Kotler (1994) "The marketing concept holds that the key concept
holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists of
determining the needs and wants of target markets and delivering
the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than
competitors"                                                              91        4
                                Quote                                     Page#   Chapter#

There are four key reasons why one should consider developing a
marketing program:
- Almost all libraries face either a decreasing resource base or
stronger competition for existing resources
- As a result, there tends to be a decrease in customer convenience
– such as shorter service hours or fewer public service staff
- Each year [libraries] provide services to a smaller and smaller
percentage of their total service population
- All libraries and information services face competition, and in some
cases, a decrease in the role of transferring information from the
creators/producers to the end-customer                                     93        4
Market intelligence is data one can secure from four broad areas:
environmental, activity type, customers, and competitors (Fine,
1990).                                                                     95        4
When the data collecting becomes part of the operational routine, it
is almost cost-free.                                                       95        4
Marketing strategies…are tactics typically designed to achieve short
term goals                                                                 96        4
Philip Kotler's strategic marketing process has three major elements:
analysis, strategy, and implementation.                                    97        4
A nine-step model:
- Generic product definition
- Target group definition
- Differential marketing analysis
- Customer behavior analysis
- Differential advantages analysis
- Multiple marketing approaches
- Integrated market planning
- Continuous market feedback
- Marketing audit                                                          97        4
Differential marketing analysis: different segments require different
approaches, thus differentiated marketing.                                  99       4
Promotion should be part of the marketing mix                              102       4
The purpose of promotional activities is to communicate, inform,
persuade, and remind.                                                      103       4
Four strategic platforms stand out as having a particularly good fit to
the typical needs of a library.                                            105       4
Positioning is defined by Kotler and Andreasen as "the act of
designing the organization's image and value offer so
that…customers understand and appreciate what the organization
stands for in relation to its competitors"                                 105       4
From an ethical standpoint, the most desireable image is the most
authentic.                                                                 105       4
Segmentation is thep rocess of identifying discrete divisions of
potential customers according ot demographic, geographic,
psychographic, nad psychometric characteristics. This allows a
better use of limited resources.                                           106       4
                                 Quote                                 Page#   Chapter#
Targeting is closely related to segmentation. It is a strategic method
by which an organization sets out to tailor its message so well and
deliver it so close to the prospect's interest and sphere of attention
that the message cannot miss.                                           106       4
Total Quality Management (TQM) continues to demand attention. It
is simply not enough anymore to just meet the expectations of
prospective customers; the organization ought to exceed those
expectations.                                                           106       4
Tactics are the specific actions designed to accomplish objectives
which the strategy has defined.                                         107       4
Evaluation of promotional methods, strategies, and tactics is the last
and, in the long run, the most important part of the institutional
marketing effort.                                                       109       4
Marketing helps libraries and information services to achieve
organizational goals                                                    109       4
General statements about non-customers that apply to libraries:
- The person does not know your product
- The person cannot find your product or it is not available when
needed
- The person does not need your product
- The person prefers a different brand of product
- The person does not understand what your product can do
- The person believes the cost of your product is too high or the
value for the cost is too low
- The person has had difficulty using your product
- The person does not expect good service                              93-95      4
One question that should be considered in creating a marketing
program is, "why is a non-customer a non-customer?"                               4
Beyond the issues of status may be a concern about being able to
perform adequately when the change is in place (reasons for
resistance to change).                                                  117       5
Lack of information or poor communication is another cause of
resistance.                                                             117       5
Open and honest communication is a key component to achieving a
successful change                                                       117       5
Kotter and Schlesigner provided four suggestions for managing
resistance to change:
education plus communication
participation plus involvement
facilitation plus support
negotation and agreement                                                117       5
Organizational Development (OD) attempts to implement individual
and organizational change so that an organization may adapt to the
forces of change.                                                       118       5
Unfreezing is the process of creating a readiness to acquire or learn
new behaviors                                                           118       5
Changing is the period when the staff begin to work with the new
behavior pattern.                                                       118       5
Refreezing takes place when the staff internalizes the new pattern
and the pattern becomes part of the organizational culture.             119       5
                                   Quote                                  Page#   Chapter#
More often than not, a change in one area will have some
implication, if not direct impact, for another                             119       5
Gomulka sees innovation as part of an overall sequence of change
over time: invention > innovation > diffusion.                             122       5

Innovation allows organizations to make productive changes vital to
their existence rather than merely ot react to change after it occurs.     123       5
four basic types of innovative thinking:
logical pragmatic approach
problem solving (greater emphasis on definition of problem)
idea linking
free association                                                           124       5
One way of encouraging original thinking is to increase
decentralization of decision making                                        125       5
One can decentralize by loosening departmental lines and
jurisdictions.                                                             125       5
Three analytical techniques seem to have the greatest potential in a
library situation: attribute listing, input/output, and grid analysis.     127       5
Attribute listing consists of two processes: 1) the group isolates and
lists the major features of a particular problem, and 2) dicussion
takes place regarding changes that could be made in each attribute
on the list in order to solve the problem.                                 127       5




Input-Output specifies what the desired result should be.                  128       5
Grid Analysis is attribute listing carred to a finer degree. All of the
attributes go on to a two-dimensional grid - the grid ensures that the
group consider all possible combinations.                                  128       5
Free association techniques:
brainstorming - no specific definition of problem and any comment
welcome
Gordon technique - uses general statement of problem so group
does not fixate on one or two ideas
Phillips 66 Buzz Session - brainstorming with smaller groups - to
large group discussion                                                     129       5
Forced-Relationship techniques:
catalog technique - group member picks random passage from
handbook to generate ideas, continues around circle so each
member picks passage
listing technique - list of concepts, ideas, services by someone who
does not know purpose of the list
focused-object technique - all ideas or concepts related to a specific
problem/issue, then pick random words from dictionary to create
pairs - and discuss resulting pairs                                        130       5
                                  Quote                                 Page#   Chapter#
Two basic types of thought processes are necessary to maintain an
effective, dynamic organization: analytic and inovative.                 131       5
Analytic, scientific thought is essential for problem solving…and
essential in day-to-day operations                                       131       5

Innovative thought is relatively unstructured and unpredictable…this
type of thinking is necessary to keep an organization dynamic.           131       5
decision making occurs at all levels of an organization                  137       6
Most decision making situations consist of a number of variables that
interact in unpredictable ways (dynamic factors)                         138       6
Decision making and problem solving are interrelated                     139       6
Every problem has one built-in alternative: do nothing.                  140       6
A decision maker's task is to provide a better alternative than doing
nothing                                                                  140       6
A major managerial function is to provide the smoothest, most
efficient and effective workflow in the organization                     141       6

There are two broad decision making styles: systematic and intuitive     141       6

Intuitive decisions tend to be made quickly and aren't very complex      141       6
Systematic decisions tend to be thorough and balanced, as this
process considers and carefully analyzes many alternatives               141       6
The problem solving process consists of four steps:
- Situation investigation
o What is the problem
o What are the decision objectives
o What are potential causes/factors in the situation
- Alternative developments
o Seek as many alternatives as possible
o Withhold judgment during the development phase
- Evaluation and selection of best alternative
o Assess pros and cons of each alternative
o Select the one that appears likely to achieve most of the decision
objectives
- Implement and follow-through
o Develop an implementation plan (if necessary)
o Implement decision
o Review outcome of implementation                                       142       6
                                 Quote                                  Page#   Chapter#
Kepner and Tregoe identified seven factors in analyzing a work-
related problem:
- Assume that a standard of performance exists against which one
may compare real performance
- Determine whether a deviation from the standards has occurred
and determine the degree of deviation
- Locate the point of deviation in the sequence of activities or in the
situation
- Ascertain what distinguishes the affected group from the unaffected
group
- Affirm that the problem has been caused by a change that has
taken place in the system
- Analyze all the possible causes that can be deduced from relevant
changes that have taken place in the system
- Take the cause that most exactly explains the facts, correct that
point in the system and test the system to see whether deviation
continues to occur                                                       145       6
Kepner and Tregoe suggested a seven-stage model for making a
rational, logical decision:
- Search for and define the important organizational objectives that
are relevant to the problem
- Classify the objectives according to their relative importance
- Search for and define all the feasible methods of solving the
problem
- Evaluate the solutions one by one in relation to the objectives
- Select the alternatives that meet the most objectives
- Explore the consequences of the tentative choice, particularly the
adverse ones
- Determine how to circumvent adverse effects or at least seek way
to keep them from becoming major issues                                  146       6
Interim solutions buy the manager time while he/she seeks the cause
of the problem.                                                          147       6
Adaptive solutions do not really solve the problem but allow the
organization to continue to function somewhat normally                   147       6
Corrective solutions actually resolve the problem.                       147       6
Preventive solutions involve exploring decision for adverse
consequences.                                                            147       6
Contingency solutions simply involve the establishment of standby or
emergency procedures to help offset the effects of a serious
problem.                                                                 148       6
Many techniques aid the decision maker in selecting the best
alternative:
- Quantitative techniques (data-based)
- Simulation model techniques attempt to carry out a solution in a
controlled environment
- Monte Carlo technique is a form of simulation model in which an
attempt is made to control chance
- Queuing theory deals with the length of time it takes to render a
service, or process something                                            149       6
A wide variety of quantitative methods solve a complex problem           152       6
                                Quote                                     Page#   Chapter#

The material and ideas that come out of a quantitative approach are
valuable, even to managers who are not mathematically inclined.            152       6
A decision tree presents a graphical representation of different
alternative decisions.                                                     153       6
Mintzberg…argues that planning is about analysis and strategy is
about synthesis.                                                           162       7
The planning process has three distinct features:
-it is anticipatory in nature
-planning is a series of related decisions
-planning looks to the future                                              162       7
The purpose of planning is to coordinate organizational activities in
order to achieve previously established objectives in a constantly
changing environment                                                       163       7
Planning involves selecting facts and relating them to a number of
assumptionsconcerning the future.                                          163       7
Planning is a continuous activity that should exist at all levels of a
library or information service.                                            164       7
At the upper levels of management…plans are organization-wide
and general in content. At the lower levels, plans are narrow in
scope and linked to the unit's objectives.                                 164       7
A plan is usually judged on its efficiency in attaining an objective       165       7
Only through a careful evaluation of efficiency, costs, and benefits of
plans can performance be improved.                                         165       7
Sseveral types of plans are necessary in the library: 1) objectives, 2)
policies, 3) procedures, 4) rules, 5) programs, and 6) budgets.            166       7
One danger during the development stage of planning is locking the
organization into a rigid structure with very specific objectives.         166       7
Managers should prepare objectives on two levels: organization-wide
and departmental.                                                          167       7
Objectives ought to represent hopes and desires, but only those that
are realistically obtainable.                                              168       7
Objectives, in addition to being attainable, should provide an
indication of how the library will meet them.                              168       7
Objectives must be sufficiently explicit to be of direct assistance to
management in planning and decision making.                                168       7
Objectives must be compatible with one another.                            169       7
Objectives need to be both short- and long-term.                           169       7
Objectives are of little value unless management communicates
them to all those affected                                                 169       7
Policies are statements intended to guide and channel staff thinking
in making decisions.                                                       171       7
There are several types of policies: originated, appealed, implied,
and imposed.                                                               171       7
Originated policy is the type of policy that information organizations
should attempt to generate. It starts with a proposal from top
management and concerns major issues.                                      171       7

Appealed policy arises from situations where there is no policy.
Lacking a policy, staff will create their own when the need comes up.      171       7
                                 Quote                                    Page#   Chapter#
One way to avoid appealed policy is to spend time developing
originated policies that are clear enough to preclude the need for
appeal and clarification                                                   172       7
Implied policy is the most dangerous type for customer relations.
Such policy arises from staff or customer perception of a policy,
regardless of whether or not the perceived policy contradicts existing
policy.                                                                    172       7
Imposed policy comes from outside agencies and groups with which
the library must work.                                                     173       7
Policies should clearly reflect objectives.                                173       7
Policies should be consistent.                                             173       7
Policies must be flexible and allow room for decision-making.              174       7
Supervisors must teach their staff about existing policies                 174       7
Procedures are guides to action rather than thought.                       174       7
Procedures must serve a useful purpose                                     175       7

First-level supervisors should analyze procedures on a regular basis.
This activity should make operations more effective and efficient.         175       7
Procedures must be controlled                                              175       7
One form of procedure control is the development of a procedures
manual.                                                                    175       7
If the organization has clearly stated policies to guie (and promote)
sound thinking and good procedures to guide actions (yet allow for
individual initiative), then managers have created a favorable work
environment.                                                               176       7
Rules are statements regarding specific actions one is to take (or
not) in a given situation.                                                 176       7
Rules must be clear, easy to understand, and not complex.                  176       7

A good manager will see to it that there are as few rules as possible
and that they enforce those that do exist fairly and evenly.               176       7
Programs consist of policies, procedures, rules, job allocations,
resource requirements, sources of resources, and other elements
necessary to carry out a combination of objectives.                        177       7
anything labeled as a program should outline actions to take (and
when, where and by whom).                                                  177       7

Any large-scale program will require that the manager develop a
number of subprograms in order to accomplish the overall program.          177       7

When managers think of policies, procedures, rules, and objectives
as part of a system, they are better able to identity (sic) and isolate
variables upon which the new program may have an impact.                   178       7
Budgets are simply plans of actions expressed in terms of cost.            178       7
Because budgets are control devices, they are legitimate plans.            178       7
Budgets usually address two types of cost: operational expenses
and physical facility costs.                                               178       7
                                 Quote                                   Page#   Chapter#
Shirley stated that there are seven key decisions in developing an
organizational strategy:
-basic purpose and mission
-customer mix
-product mix
-service area
-goals and objectives
-competitive advantages
-outside relationships                                                    179       7
Every organization must develop a purpose, mission, goals, and
objectives - whether or not it decides to prepare a strategic plan.       179       7

The process of developing a strategic plan can be one of four major
types; top-down, bottom-up, mixed method, or team planning.               180       7
The top-down plan formulates strategies and then asks department
or unit heads to prepare a series of plans that will carry out the
strategic plan.                                                           180       7
Bottom-up planning starts with units/department submitting their
strategic plans to top management.                                        180       7

A mixed method is a combination of top-down and bottom-up
planning. One characteristic of this method is an ongoing dialogue
between top administration, middle managers, and unit heads.              181       7
Team planning employs a group of staff members from various
levels of the organization to develop a strategic plan. The team's
plan then goes to all appropriate employees for review and
comment.                                                                  181       7
The team effort also develops a better understanding of what other
units do.                                                                 181       7
One advantage of having a strategic plan is it helps managers with
the process of decision making by highlighting the long-term goals
and objectives of the organization.                                       181       7
The more options one considers when making a decision the better
the decision will be.                                                     181       7
The process of strategic planning must be ongoing.                        182       7
Strategic planning is integral to the way in which the organization
operates, and, in turn, it integrates all of the activities within the
organization.                                                             182       7
Most organizational forecasts are assumptions about future events in
an area of interest to the organization.                                  182       7

Libraries should employ several types of forecasting: technological,
customer, service/society community, and competitive.                     182       7
Forecasters employ both qualitative and quantitative techniques.          183       7
Time is a factor in successful planning.                                  183       7
Good planning helps managers to control the uncertainties of the
future and provide direction to day-to-day operations.                    186       7
Plans need continuous review and revision.                                186       7
Staff members need to be fully briefed about the plans and what
each person needs to do for the plans to be successful.                   186       7
                                  Quote                                   Page#   Chapter#
Planning takes time but is an integral aspect of effective
management.                                                                186       7
Power authority and accountability are reciprocal concepts.                207       8
Organization charts provide a visual representation of how the
organization assigns formal authority and responsibility                   211       9
Delegation encompasses several subfunctions:
-formal delegation of authority and responsibility
-delegation of activities
-establishment of how the activities relate to and coordinate with one
another                                                                    211       9
Delegation's purpose is to help units work together to achieve the
overall objectives of the service                                          212       9
The process of organizing combines both people and resources               212       9
Five Step Cycle for organizing:
1. Determine what activities need to be done
2. Create logical grouping of activities for an individual to perform
(work assignment)
3. Identify combinations as work units (departments)
4. Assure activities are connected to one another to promote
coordinated efforts
5. Monitor the outcomes and re-organization/adjust structure as
necessary                                                                  212       9
Job related experiences give rise to informal groups                       213       9
A manager must remember that nothing will eliminate the informal
organization                                                               213       9

Sherman outlined "degrees of delegation" (highest to lowest"):
- Take action – no further contact with me
- Take action – tell me what you did
- Look into problem, tell me what you intend, do it unless I say
otherwise
- Look into this problem, let me know alternative actions and
recommend one for approval
- Look into this problem, give me all the facts, I’ll decide what to do    213       9

Barriers to delegation:
-lack of trust in others/lack of self-confidence, insecurity
-receiving end: unwillingness to accept responsibility and authority       214       9
Job Design - reduce tedium of some jobs by setting up work
situations that involve a variety of activities                            215       9
Three perspectives to view Job Design:
- Job Depth: degree to which the individual is able to control his/her
work
- Job Scope: relates to how many different activities or operations
the person performs and how often
- Job Characteristics: what is “needed” to do the job (skills,
knowledge, experience, independence of judgment, clientele,
importance of job)                                                         215       9

The manager's primary task is to assign people…to specific tasks           216       9
                                Quote                                       Page#   Chapter#
Departmentation - process of dividing work units into semi-
independent units                                                            218       9
Fuctional Departmentation - (oldest method) functions are:
production, sales, finance                                                   218       9
Territorial Departmentation - branch units for a larger geographical
area                                                                         219       9

Product Departmentation - create little 'institutions" out of larger ones    220       9

Customer Service Departmentation - separate units to better serve
specific populations (young adult, children's, graduate, blind, etc)         221       9
Equipment/Process Departmentation - central location with
necessary equipment (cost-effective)                                         221       9
Matrix organization is another method for putting together work
                                                                             222       9
groups. It combines Product and Functional Departmentation.
One variation of matrix organization is project organizing. It creates
a temporary unit to carry out a specific project or activity by bringing     222       9
together staff with the required skills.
Pure matrix, another variation of matrix organization, is a semi-to-
                                                                             222       9
permanent arrangement of staff.
Matrix organizations have the advantage of bringing together existing
                                                                             223       9
staff with necessary skills to handle a special project.
Pooled interdependence is best when the units do not directly
                                                                             224       9
depend on one another to carry out their day-to-day activities.
Sequential interdependence is best when one unit must perform
                                                                             224       9
certain tasks before another unit can carry out its activities.
Receiprocal interdependence is where there is a "give-and-take" on
                                                                             224       9
a daily basis.
Span of control denotes the degree of sharing (delegation is a
sharing of responsibility). The width of the span (the number of             225       9
subordinates) does not correlate with success.
Subordinates assume more responsibility under a wide span of
                                                                             226       9
control because they have less supervision..
Widening the span of control makes it essential that proper
                                                                             227       9
delegation of authority and responsibility takes place.
Through the careful use of personal contact, a supervisor can
                                                                             227       9
expand her/his span of control.
If a subordinate persists in overextending the workday, the
supervisor should do as much as possible to reduce that person's             227       9
opportunities to work on such an extended basis.
                                                                             228       9
The last step in organizing is to monitor the outcomes of the effort.
Centralization/decentralization discussions are usually addressing
                                                                             228       9
decision-making, not physical location.
Pure centralization or decentralization is impossible in almost any
                                                                             229       9
organizational setting.
Many organizations, including libraries, decentralize some areas and
                                                                             230       9
not others.
Rapidly changing environments (turbulent) tend to generate
                                                                             231       9
decentralized decision making within an overall strategic plan.
                                  Quote                                 Page#       Chapter#
The corellation between the cost of a decision and how high up in
the structure it is made is very positive: the more money involved, the 231            9
higher the position of the person making the final decision.
Size is always a factor in establishing the degree of decentralization
                                                                         231           9
within a library.
                                                                          231          9
As an organization grows, it must become less and less centralized.
If it is kept up to date, the organizational chart can be a useful
                                                                          232          9
management tool.

Factors to consider when choosing a structure:
- Commonality – grouping people who perform same tasks into one
area
- Intimate Association – all activities required to carry out a set of
goals are in one unit – sole responsibility for those goals/objectives
- Frequency of Use – one department accounts for the major share
of the use of a function
- Managerial Interest – assignment of activity to a supervisor who is
interested in it
- Competition – create second unit to perform duties/develop
competitive spirit
- Policy Control – assign work to unit who will do it the way manager
expects                                                                  216-217       9

There are four criteria for determining the degree of decentralization;
companies have a greater degree of decentralization if a greater
                                                                          229-230      9
number of decisions made lower down, more important decisions are
made lower down, more functions are affected by decisions made at
the lower levels, and less checking is required on the decision.
Common mistakes in organizing include the failure to: plan properly
or in enough detail, take individuals and their skills into account,
clarify relationships (within and between units), delegate authority,
balance delegation between units, use lines of authority as lines of      232-237      9
communication, use the staff system well, regard the difficulties
experienced by both supervisors and subordinates in handling
authority and responsibility.
The bottom line in delegation will always be how well the individual
manager or supervisor is able to deal with the problem of delegating
                                                                            237        9
responsibility for an activity while remaining ultimately responsible for
it.
In looking at data and information about performance and quality,
key questions to ask are: what is being measured? What does it              243       10
indicate? What is not being measured?
Planning is an essential part of successfully managing any
                                                                            243       10
organization
Until the late 1960's, academic and public libraries relied on
                                                                            245       10
standards to judge their performance
The definition of effectiveness will depend on the mission of
                                                                            247       10
individual libraries
                                 Quote                                  Page#   Chapter#
The preferred indicators that scored highest in the survey were:
convenience of hours, range of materials, staff helpfulness, services
                                                                         247      10
to the community, materials quality, materials availability, awareness
of services, convenience of location.
A performance indicator is the relationship between two or more
                                                                         248      10
measures of operational performance.
Operational performance indicators relate library inputs to outputs
and relate to resource allocation and the internal efficiency of a       248      10
library.
Effectiveness indicators are concerned with performance from the
                                                                         248      10
perspective of the user, and relate outputs to outcomes.
Cost-effectiveness indicators express the outcomes of investing
                                                                         248      10
resources and relate inputs to outcomes.
Impact indicators compare actual use and potential use as a guide
                                                                         249      10
as to how well the service serves the community.
Sixteen performance indicators and measures were developed under
the umbrellas of operational performance, effectiveness, cost-           249      10
effectiveness and impact indicators.
Defining quality in the service setting is somewhat difficult without a
                                                                         253      10
physical product as the outcome.
Most services, by their very nature, are intangible.                     254      10

Ten dimensions which determine the quality of a service are:
reliability or consistency, responsiveness or timeliness, competence,
                                                                        254       10
access or approachability, coutesy, communication, credibility,
security (confidentiality), understanding the customer needs, and
tangibles (facilities, appearance of personnel, tools or equipment).
A TQM (Total Quality Management) information or library service is a
customer-focused organization which places its emphasis on
continuous, incremental improvements in its serfvices by means of       254       10
staff involvement(both professional and support) and is one that uses
some type of participative form of management.
Susan Barnard's TQM model is a ten-step approach.                       255       10

Areas in which libraries have been less successful in this (TQM)
                                                                        258       10
activity are: assessing total service population needs and exploring
custsomer expectations of service as opposed to what is available
There is a problem of customers not actually knowing what services
are available and a problem they may have expectations for services     259       10
that do not exist.
A problem with focus groups is that they must spend time discussing
                                                                        259       10
the topic, an hour or more
When it comes to customers, all customers what quality.                 260       10
TQM measurement is more than normal statistics.                         260       10
There are a number of tools for TQM measurement ranging from
                                                                        261       10
flow charts to scatter diagrams.
Walter Shewhart's approaches to continuous improvement use a
                                                                        261       10
four-step sequence: plan, do, check, and act.
Benchmarking is a key tool in the "check" phase.                        261       10
                              Quote                                      Page#   Chapter#
Benchmarking is a formalized process for making such (using
                                                                          261      10
comparative data) comparisons.
TQM employs two types of benchmarking: comparative/performance
                                                                          261      10
and functional/process.

In the profit sector, comparative/performance benchmarking is often
based on data collected from organizations that an industry
considers are leaders in quality and efficiency. In academic library
operations, Loyola Marymount University contributes to the National       262      10
ASsocation of College and University Business Officers' annual
benchmarking data collection program. Unlike typical TQM
comparative benchmarking, the institutions involved are volunteers
rather than having been selected as the best in the field.
Functional benchmarking looks for the best practice in an operational
                                                                          262      10
area.
The final step in PDCA (plan, do, check, act) is to act on the results
                                                                          262      10
of experiments and other data collection activities.

It is most unusual for an organization to implement TQM organization-
                                                                          263      10
wide from the very beginning. Most begin in one or two areas with
small-scale projects to gain experience with the process.
Employing teams accomplishes several things for a unit: team
members know ideas matter and they are empowered, members of
the team learn about one another's work areas and about each              263      10
other, and all team members begin to develop skills and abilities that
their regular work might not allow or require.
A few of the typical problems that arise in TQM implementation are:
managers are fearful of losing control, employees are afraid ot
                                                                          264      10
suggest changes, and an unwillingness to accept the fact that TQM
is a long-term ongoing process.
                                                                          266      10
One must monitor service quality as a well as control work activities.

This process consists of four components: establishing standards,
                                                                          266      10
measuring performance, compare/evaluate performance against
standard, and correcting deviations from the standard
By learning and applying work-analysis techniques, managers can
make the work environment much more pleasant and effective for            267      10
everyone while establishing performance standards.
Sampling is part of any work analysis project.                            268      10
A random sample drawn from a normal population will display a
patter that is similar to the pattern displayed in the population from    269      10
which it was drawn.
The block diagram is the most elementary form of work analysis. It
provides a simple overview of the relationships among various units
or activities within an organization. Block diagrams provide a good       269      10
overview and can help identify possible problem areas (where many
lines converse).
                                 Quote                                    Page#   Chapter#
The flow diagram brings a finer level of analyiss into play as it gives a
graphic view of both the work area and the movement of personnel           270      10
or materials.
A flow process chart indicates the movement of an object of study,
                                                                           271      10
but does not relate the movement to a physical space.
The decision flow chart - typically used in systems analysis for
computer application - is a method for analyzing workflows in which        272      10
numerous decisions occur.
Operations analysis is the study of the motions of the hands, eyes,
and feet of an individual who is working on a particular activity in one   274      10
location.
Forms analysis - analyzing the use, movement, storage, necessity,
                                                                           275      10
and retrieval of forms used in an organization.
Man-Machine charts allow studies of the relationship between people
                                                                           275      10
and machines
Scheduling - the assignment of a specific time period for each
component of work and for the total project - gives vitality and           275      10
practical meaning to a plan.
Queuing theory deals with waiting lines and provides models for
                                                                           281      10
operations.
A common way of cost-accounting is to divide costs into three
                                                                           282      10
categories: labor, supplies, and overhead
A system is an set of interacting variables.Each system is part of a
                                                                           283      10
larger system.
System approaches consider the effects of any change on the entire
process or organization rather than the effects of change on a single      283      10
variable.
The application of TQM services indicates that it can have a positive
                                                                           285      10
effect on performance.
Human interaction succeeds or fails as a direct result of our ability to
communicate effectively.                                                   291      11
Effective communication is essential for the success of any
organization.                                                              291      11
Cultural/societal values strongly influence communication.                 291      11
True communication takes place when a person receives the
identical meaning and emotion meant and felt by the person sending
the message.                                                               292      11
Communication consists of three elements:
- Verbal, written-on-paper, and electronic communications
- Listening and reading
- Non-verbal aspects                                                       292      11
Semantics is the study of the origin and effects of communication
habits.                                                                    293      11
Semantic work rests on three premises:
- Words are not the things they represent
- Words can never say everything about anything
- It is possible to use words about words about words to an infinite
level of abstraction                                                       293      11
This abstract and symbolic nature of words causes the greatest
difficulty in the communication process.                                   293      11
                                   Quote                              Page#      Chapter#
The relating of new information to old, unstated preconceptions, and
domination become three pscyhological stumbling blocks to effective
communication.                                                         294         11
As virtual reality develops…the distinction between real and virtual
life (ves) will blur, adding to communication complexities (Turkle
1995).                                                                 295         11
words have more than one meaning, and meanings often change in
relation to the environment in which they occur.                       295         11
Language structure may also create difficulties in communication.      295         11
Syntax and morphology also contribute to problems in
communication.                                                         295         11
The environment in which communication occurs influences listeners'
interpretations of meaning.                                            296         11
The way in which one says something - the emphasis, lack of
emphasis, omissions, and order of presentation - also influences
meaning.                                                               296         11
…varying interpretations of relationships within an organization also
cause many communication problems.                                     297         11

both time and feedback are necessary for effective communication.          297     11
Two forms of feedback are necessary:
- Direct and immediate (receiver understood the message)
- Let people…know exactly what you want and need to know                   297     11
Any management problem…may generate a communication
problem.                                                                   302     11
The supervisor is the key communicator.                                    302     11
Graham and Valentine (1973)…the act of communicating at all is
inherently manipulative…a degree of hostility is always present.           303     11

All organizations must deal with formal and informal communication.        303     11
At times, it is best to provide written statements and then clarify them
orally.                                                                    304     11

Shared vocabulary is essential for any on-the-job communications.          305     11
The most important aspect of organizational communication is
readability.                                                               307     11
Guidelines and procedures for electronic communication will need to
be developed.                                                              309     11
Knowing the audience is essential for a speaker.                           311     11
A key factor in effective communication is listening.                      311     11
-Leveling: recipient of message omits certain elements…essentially
changes its meaning
- Sharpening: part of a message receives greater emphasis than in
the original message
- Assimilation: retains all of original message and adds elements to
it…expanding the original meaning                                          312     11
                                Quote                                     Page#   Chapter#




Withdrawing attention, daydreaming, or letting boredom take over
are certain to raise barriers to effective communication.                  314      11
Avoid the use of technical owrds or professional jargon in either
sending messages or feedback, unless one is certain the other
person (s) understands the jargon.                                         315      11
Make it clear if the listener has a problem with the physical aspect of
hearing.                                                                   315      11
Three levels of problem customers:
- Confused or upset customer
- Angry customer (controlled, expressed, irrational)
- Disruptive customer (irrationally angry – allow to vent)                 316      11
People communicate in order to achieve goal, to satisfy a personal
need, or to improve their immediate situation with respect to their
personal desires.                                                          321      11
Effective and clear communication is vital in decision making,
planning, delegation, and in the management of innovation and
change.                                                                    321      11
Five key points…clear and effective communication:
- Know what to communicate
- Know who needs to know what
- Know who should communicate with whom
- Know how to time messages
- Know how to listen and read                                              321      11
Your morale infects others whether you like it or not.                     325      12
Expecting the best of the staff, and demonstrating how this can be
achieved, is one step toward increasing motivation                         325      12
Schermerhor: ability x support x effort = performance                      325      12
Performance is an interdependent outcome between supervisors and
employees.                                                                 325      12
The idea of teamwork in the workplace…is essential for successful
performance.                                                               326      12
Motivation Theories:
- Content: provide managers with methods for profiling or analyzing
staff in terms of “needs.”
- Process: provide insights into how people think about, and give
meaning to, organizational “rewards.”
- Reinforcement: provide guidance as to how people learn patterns
of behavior when that behavior is the result of environmental
reinforcements.                                                            326      12

Work motivation has its roots in the personal beliefs, attitudes, and
experiences that induce a particular behavior pattern in a person.         327      12
                                  Quote                                 Page#   Chapter#
Within a society, motives can and will differ…a manager should not
expect that all individuals…have the same motives for doing their
work.                                                                    327      12
Activity is the basic component of behavior                              328      12
Behavior is essentially goal-oriented                                    328      12
Motives and needs are internal; goals are external.                      328      12
Goals (incentives) are the rewards the individual anticipates receiving
as a result of his/her activities                                        328      12
Incentives can be tangible…or…intangible                                 328      12
Classify behavior as either goal-directed or foal activity               329      12
Goal Directed: activities that assist in attaining a certain goal        329      12
Goal Activity: engaging in the sought after goal                         329      12
"Strength of need" increases during goal directed behavior               329      12
"Strength of need" decreases during goal activity                        329      12
Two factors affect strength of need:
-expectancy - affects motives and needs
-availability - affects perceptions of goals and incentives              329      12
Maslow's three propositions about human behavior:
1) humans…always want, and those wants are unending
2) a satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior
3) human needs present themselves in a series of levels…when a
person meets all the needs on one level, needs at the next highest
level will demand attention.                                             330      12
Need Implementation: "wave theory" of needs occurrence                   333      12
Alderfer…retained the concepts of a need hierarchy without the
requirement that it be strictly ordered                                  333      12
Alderfer: ERG Theory:
Existence - physiological and safety
Relatedness - social and esteem
Growth - esteem and self-actualization                                   333      12
the concept of growth needs is especially useful in the workplace.       334      12
McClelland - "acquired needs"
-nAch - need fo rAchivement
-nPower - need for Power
-nAff - need for Affiliation                                             334      12
Needs Motivate Behavior                                                  334      12

Content Theories examine how understanding human needs can
assist the manager in predicting employee attitudes and behavior.      335        12

Process theories examine how people think about work and which
goals will motivate employees to perform to their maximum potential    335        12
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y                                       335        12

Process Theories:
Expectancy = people anticipate what is likely to occur given a
particular behavior pattern
Valence = strength of an employee's desire for a particular outcome    335        12
                                  Quote                               Page#   Chapter#
Theory X - assumes that employee's personal goals are totally
incompatible with the organizational objectives (precludes the use of
motivational techniques))                                              337      12
Theory Y - people have much to offer an organization if only they can
fully accept its objectives (opens door to use of…motivational
techniques)                                                            337      12
A work environment that fails to provide a reasonable level of
satisfaction will usually have a high turnover rate…as well as high
absenteeism                                                            337      12
Libraries tend to lean more toward Theory Y                            338      12
According to Argyris, the formal organization has a built-in need to
keep people in an immature state (1950's & 60's)                       340      12
Herzberg…concluded that the job itself was the most important
motivator in the work environment                                      341      12
Job attitudes directly affect the quality of work.                     342      12

Two sets of stimuli that produce job satisfaction or dissatisfaction:
Motivators - produced improvement in performance and attitude
Hygienic Factors - maintained morale and efficiency                     342     12
Job Content: motivators/satisfiers are a function of
Joe Context - hygiene/dissatisfiers relate to                           343     12
Likert (1958) Two categories of supervisors:
Production-Centered: advocate strict control of the work
environment, view employees as instruments for getting the job
done.
Employee-Centered: consider supervision rather than production to
be their primary task...allow employees to determine individual work
patters and to ask for assistance                                       344     12
Libraries tend to be either System 2 or System 3. A trend toward
System 4 is evident.                                                    347     12
B.F. Skinner: Reinforcement Theories                                    347     12
Operant Conditionin a.k.a. Organizational Behavior Modification         347     12
Four Strategies:
Positive Reinforcement: providing desirable consequence whenever
(wanted) behavior occurs
Negative Reinforcement: providing an undesirable consequence
whenever unwanted behavior occurs
Punishment: providing unpleasant consequences whenever
unwanted behavior occurs
Extinction: removing a desirable consequence whenever (unwanted)
behavior occurs                                                         348     12
                                  Quote                                 Page#     Chapter#
Blake & Mouton (1964) 5 Managerial Styles:
Impoverished - managers use least possible amount of energy to
accomplish required work
Country Club - managers give attention to peoples' needs for
interpersonal relationships but too friendly = poor production
Task - arrange work so human elements produce least amount of
interference
Middle of the Road - balancing the necessity for production with the
maintenance of morale
Team - motivated persons producing for a common goal maintain
both high production and high morale                                     350        12
Participative Management: the entire staff should participate in the
management of the organization (implied: full participation by
customers)                                                               352        12
One major difficulty with the concept of participative management is
accountability. A committee simply is not accountable                    353        12
Flexibility is the key word in a good motivation system                  355        12
If managers treat staff memebers as they wish to be treated, there
will be very few motivation or morale problems in the unit               355        12
A highly motivated staff provides quality service, makes positive
contributions to planning and decision making, and accepts change
and delegation more readily.                                             355        12
Maslow identified 5 levels of need:
-Physiological - bodily origin (eat, breathe, drink)
-Security: or safety: the need for self-preservation
-Social - acceptance by co-workers, friendly relationships
-Esteem: gaining self-esteem and the esteem of others
-Self-Actualization: the need to realize one's own potential            330-332     12

Argyris: 7 changes take place (from immaturity to maturity)
-passive to activity
-dependent to independent
-few ways of behaving to many ways of behaving
-erratic, casual shallow interests to stronger interests
-short time perspective to time perspective both past and future
-subordinate to equal or superior
-lacks self awareness to self aware (able to control this awareness)    338-339     12

Management Styles:
System 1 - management has NO confidence in subordinates
System 2 - a good "master-servant" relationship/condescension
System 3 - substantial but not complete confidence in subordinates
System 4 complete confidence in subordinates                            345-346     12
The second most frequently cited concern was a lack of managerial
leadership                                                               359        13
Effective leadership achieves a balance between a concern for task
and people                                                               360        13
the environment is an important factor to the success or failure of a
leader but not the sole issue                                            361        13
                                  Quote                                  Page#   Chapter#
Fielder identified three major factors that affect an individual's
leadership effectiveness:
-the leader's power or authority is defined by the position held
-the nature of the work being performed by the group
the personal relationship between the leader and the group                361      13
The leader who is liked by his group has a clear-cut task and high
position power…has everything in his favor                                361      13
Management is the process of planning, organizing and controlling
the efforts of the staff and other organizational resources to achieve
stated goals and objectives.                                              362      13
Leadership focuses on how the goals and objectives ought to
change over time in response to changing customer needs and the
external environment                                                      362      13

Successful leaders are those who have a sound vision of the future        362      13
Krech (1962) list of the functions of a leader:
-executive or top coordinator of group activities
-planner for the group
-policy maker within limits
-expert in the field
-example setter
-controller of internal relations
-arbitrator and mediator
-purveyor of rewards and punishments
-substitute for individual responsibility
-symbol of the group
-representative to non-group persons
-scapegoat                                                                364      13
Most successful leaders have vision. Vision is based on a mind that
enjoys the unknown, the new, the different                                365      13
Jeevan outlined ten leadership traits:
- Job competence
- Ability to plan and organize
- Willingness to accept responsibilities
- Self-confidence
- Self-discipline
- Ability to communicate and listen
- Patience
- A strong desire to achieve goals and objectives
- Positive and sincere attitudes towards subordinates and peers
- Genuine interest in the welfare of subordinates and peers               366      13
ACE = Acknowledge, Create, Empower. Leadership use with staff to
empower them and foster creativity                                        366      13
Pelz suggests…the more the leaders helps other members to
achieve their goals, the greater will be the member's acceptance of
the leader                                                                366      13
                                   Quote                              Page#   Chapter#
using A.C.E. paradigm, leader becomes a coach by employing
elements:
- Partnership, mutuality, relationship
- Commitment to producing a result and enacting vision
- Compassion, generosity, non-judgmental acceptance, love
- Speaking and listening for action
- Responsiveness of the play to the coach’s interpretation
- Honoring the uniqueness of each player, relationship or situation
- Practice and preparation
- Willingness to coach and be coached
- Sensitivity to the team as well as to individuals
- Willingness to go beyond what has already been achieved              367      13
Staff commitment to excellence is essential; they must assume
responsibility for their performance and must be encouraged to
develop to their full potential                                        368      13
The A.C.E. leadership paradigm works best in an organization with
structures that are flexible and open to change                        369      13
One earns respect through shared experiences in which staff believe
they have received fair treatment, proper recognition for work well
done, sound advice and firm direction, recognition and fair treatment
of poor performance, and a fair hearing for their interests and
concerns                                                               370      13
Three broad categories of work climate: cooperation, compliance,
hostile compliance                                                     370      13
Most typical is the climate of compliance. People do what they have
to do…no more or no less.                                              371      13
Hostile compliance: keep production to a minimum so "tops" will
notice                                                                 372      13
To develop the climate of cooperation: give authority along with the
delegation so that the staff knows there is trust.                     372      13
People respond to requests more quickly than they respond to
demands in the cooperative and compliance environments                 373      13
Nothing will destroy a supervisor's credibility more quickly than
issuing unreasonable demands                                           373      13
Women hold 40% of all managerial positions (1992)                      374      13
Although women represented 80% of the workforce in libraries, men
hold 80% of the library managerial positions (Murgai 1991).            374      13
Leadership and motivation are clearly related. Some basic points to
keep in mind in terms of staff members: A supervisor…
- Cannot force cooperation
- Communicates as much through action as words
- Should remember sentiment and emotions do count; there are
limits to logic
- Should be certain each staff member understands the
significance/importance of his/her job
- Should make each staff member feel valued and important
- Should show appreciation for jobs well done
- Must learn to listen, and to listen more than talk
- Must be sincerely interested in staff welfare                        375      13
[Treat mistakes] as learning and teaching                                       13
                                  Quote                                 Page#   Chapter#
Spreading orientation out over several days helps make the new
information people and duties less overwhelming                          306      14
Through a sound program of human resource management (HRM),
a manager can often overcome problems such as poor facilities or
inadequate funding.                                                      381      14
An Effective HRM…should consist of the 8 basic steps:
- Determining needs
- Job design
- Recruitment
- Selection
- Orientation and training
- Evaluation
- Coaching and discipline
- Resignation and termination                                            382      14
All steps require thorough understanding of country's employment
laws                                                                     382      14
Equal opportunity employment (EEO) refers to an individual's right to
employment and promotion without regard to race, color, religion,
sex, age, health, or national origin                                     383      14
Testing, evaluation, and selection of new employees must be done in
terms of real job related criteria or bona-fide occupational
qualifications (BROQ)                                                    384      14
Affirmative action - required employers to make an extra effort to hire
and promote people in one of the 'protected minorities.'                 384      14

Any organization receiving federal funds must have such a program      384        14




Assessment of existing staff (to determine staffing needs)             387        14




Budget cuts are a major factor in losing positions                     388        14
Current staff - minus losses - minus no replacements - plus new
positions = staffing needs                                             389        14
Another element in the planning is an assessment of the labor
availability                                                           389        14
knowing how many people/FTE's to assign to a job type is also part
of the process of assessing staff requirements                         389        14
Job Design (JD) asks the question: "what work must be performed to
accomplish organizational goals?"                                      390        14
the goal should be a comprehensive list of all the required tasks      390        14
Divide activity into smaller units = elements (open incoming mail)     391        14
                                Quote                                     Page#   Chapter#

the grouping or regrouping of elements into related actions = tasks
Task = sort e-mail reference questions
Elements = log in, read e-mail questions, decide who can answer,
forward e-mail, log off                                                    391      14
Position = grouping of related tasks performed by one person               391      14
Job = grouping of similar positions                                        391      14

Classification System: group together jobs that require the same skill
sets and provide similar compensation to people in a given class           392      14
Classification systems establish salary ranges                             392      14
Job Success Criterion (JSC) - what distinguishes successful from
unsuccessful performance in the position                                   393      14

Job Skills (JS) are the skills, traits, knowledge base, and experience
that should result in successful performance in a position.                393      14
Selection Instruments (SI) job/position description drawing on JSC &
JS (be clear! Instead of "good speaking ability" use: "make oral
presentaiton of technical material in such a manner as to be easily
understood by a non-technical audience")                                   394      14
Final Selection - basic instruments to assist: application forms,
letters, tests, reference checks, oral presentations. There must be a
clear link from instrument to JCS and JS.                                  394      14
Advertisements for openings should provide the basic information
contained in the job description and indicate where and when a
person should apply                                                        395      14
Verification of an applicant's education and work history                  403      14
Once all the verification work is in, the final decision takes place       404      14
The first day for a new person should be a combination of orientation
and training in the new duties and time with HR                            405      14
Libraries that hire a large number of part-time workers are able to
take advantage of group training as long as they plan the hiring
process                                                                    406      14
Keeping staff current with the (technology) changes is a major
challenge for managers                                                     407      14
Failure to keep staff up-to-date results in a decline of service, which
in turn leads to customer dissatisfaction and, ultimately, less support
at budget request times.                                                   407      14
As more educational institutions and professional bodies extend the
range of distance education programs, training opportunities will
increase - particularly with developments in computer and video-
conferencing                                                               407      14

Library managers face the problem of limited staffing…it becomes
difficult to have existing employees at training programs                  408      14
Performance appraisals are essential to the successful operation of
any organization, including libraries.                                     408      14
the (performance appraisal) process has two goals: administrative
actions relate to the employee while the behavioral relate to actions
the employee takes                                                         408      14
                                  Quote                               Page#      Chapter#
Behavioral goals should help the individual identify areas where
improvement is possible or necessary                                   409         14
The administrative goal…process is highly subjective                   409         14
Gellerman (1976) summarized the features of appraisals:
- Administrative: secret, fixed, bureaucratic
- Behavioral: candid, flexible, individualized                         409         14
Attempting to achieve both sets of purposes in a single process is
almost ludicrous. It would be better to use two separate systems, one
for each set of purposes                                               409         14
To achieve the "comparable" data, organizations usually have some
type of printed appraisal sheet…one of three format types:
Rating Sytem - requires a supervisor to rank each subordinate (no
ties)
Ranking System - most…use a 5-level approach with average in the
middle
Written-Performance Criteria System - least comparable across
organizations                                                          409         14
A performance appraisal is not a universally accepted practice.
Edward Deming listed evaluation by performance…as one of the
seven deadly diseases of an organization (1993).                       410         14
U.S. - heavy emphasis on performance appraisals
U.K. - moderate emphasis
Nordic Countries - no emphasis                                         412         14
One must learn to make the process as useful as possible. A key
factor is that the supervisor/manager must make certain there are no
surprises for the subordinates.                                        412         14
Daily feedback, both immediate praise and correction, is the best
way to assure good work performance.                                   412         14
Supervisors should discuss performance problems as the occur.          413         14
A healthy system provides for a two-way exchange between
supervisor and subordinate. Each should be free to voice satisfaction
or dissatisfaction.                                                    413         14
Whenever it is necessary to take corrective action…there are some
steps a supervisor can take to make the time as productive as
possible:
-state purpose for the session
-speak quietly, let employee talk
-listen to the person
-do NOT set a time limit
-expect employee to be unhappy                                         413         14

Right Technique:
- Directive Sessions: address issues such as rule or policy violations,
corrections of mistakes, control of hostility
- Non-Directive Sessions: restoring a positive attitude or productivity,
strengthening relationships, motivating for greater teamwork               414     14
Supervisors need to be consisten in their evaluations                      414     14
Flexibility needs to be in concert with consistent evaluations             414     14
Think about personal biases one has when it comes to judging
employees and their performance                                            414     14
                                 Quote                              Page#        Chapter#
There will be times when disciplinary action must occur              415           14
Effective supervisors/managers define "good discipline" as employee
self-discipline that develops over time due to careful teaching,
training and guiding.                                                415           14
Good discipline consists of six elements:
- Training and teaching
- Consistency
- Counseling process/action must appropriate to the situation
- Give credit whenever possible
- Purpose is to correct not punish
- Look for opportunities for praise                                  415           14
Progressive Discipline: give employees advance notice of
problems…in order to provide them an opportunity to correct          416           14

Standards of Conduct: identify some examples of types of conduct
that are impermissible and that may lead to disciplinary action          416       14

Grievances: a sitation will arise where reprimand and/or dismissal
are the only choices…expect the employee to file a grievance             419       14
It is important for the supervisor to maintain a solid "paper trail"     419       14
Providing a grievance procedure helps control…by providing a
channel for addressing the issue                                         419       14
Failure to resolve things…results in a "formal hearing" of the case by
a group of individuals who have no association with the parties
involved.                                                                420       14

Even the "objective outsiders'" judgment may not be acceptable to
the grieving party…that situation is very likely to lead to a lawsuit    421       14
Personnel decisions affect every aspect of management                    425       14
Understanding the legal aspects of HR work is essential                  425       14

Six aspects…of any interview process: planning, set of questions,
gather and give information, personal impact (friendly atmosphere
helps - tone of voice, eye contact), how the interviewer responds to
the applicaant, processing the information gathered in a fair and
equitable manner for all of the interviewees                           398-402     14
The "Five R's" of performance counseling:
-Right Purpose: strengthen relationship, motivate, resolve personality
conflicts
-Right time: only when necessary, not when upset, not too far in
advance
-Right Place: private, no calls or intrusions to interrupt
-Right Approach: come to point quickly, state facts, keep calm
-Right Technique: directive or non-directive sessions                  413-414     14
                                Quote                                  Page#      Chapter#
Lawsuit Issues:
- Sexual Harassment/discrimination
- Downsizing/reductions in force
- Discrimination
- Wrongful termination
- Breach of commercial contracts
- Athletic injury
- Sexual assault
- Accidental/vehicular injury
- AIDS                                                                421-425       14
Hard data about past and present workloads and time to complete
various tasks is important in deciding staffing levels                              14

Certainly, it is obvious that the "knowledge explosion" will continue.    528       18
Librarians perfrom a set of generic functions that no other entity
performs for society. Those fuctions are:
-identifying
-selecting
-acquiring
-processing and organizing
-servicing
-storing and preserving information materials                             529       18
Currently, there is no review process for materials on the web.           529       18
Uncertainty about the future is likely to increase, rather than
decrease.                                                                 530       18
With digitization, it seems apparent that information carriers are fast
converging.                                                               531       18
The idea behind the library has basically remained the same: the
handling of information for the benefit of present and future use.        535       18
As computers are getting glatter, fitter, faster, and more flexible
(some would say looking more and more like books), we shall need
librarians with the same qualities.                                       536       18
In the future, managers will increasingly have to accept paradoxes as
part of institutional life.                                               537       18
Currently facing one such paradox, libraries are expected to provide
more and more services with fewer resources.                              537       18
The manager will need to be a synthesizer - a person who deeply
involves herself or himself in integrating the library into a total
system, both internally and externally.                                   538       18
CDNL (Conference of Directors of National Libraries) is now talking
of two main types of documents…the static document…[and] the
dynamic document.                                                       532-533     18
Management is the accomplishment of things with, through, and for
people.                                                                   xvii

				
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