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					Promoting Quality Universal
Public Education through
Democratic and Strategic
Planning in Naga City

             Leonora C. Angeles
             Claudia Bialostosky
              Alejandra Lopez
                 PLAN 548-H
  UBC Planning Studio Course in Naga City, 2007
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:                          the teachers of Camarines Sur National
                                           High School, particularly Lynn Prilles,
We are highly indebted and grateful to     Irma de Jesus and Mrs Justiniana; the
Wilfredo Prilles, Naga City Planning       principal and teachers of Grandview,
Division Head and former Project           particularly Luis Marasigan (Teacher-in-
Coordinator of ―Reinventing the Naga       Charge), Armi Legarde, Emma Pielago,
School Board‖ and his staff in the         Josefa Ramirez, and Francia Rebellon.
Planning Department; Local School          We also thank Rolando Campillos and
Administrator Roberto Ursua; Local         Roselda T Remoquillo of Pacol, Dr Doris
School Board Members: Nydia Sol,           Doringo of Naga College Foundation;
President of Naga City Teachers and        Rolando Joson, Principal of the Mariano
Employees Association; Dr. Abner C.        Elementary School; Miss Anabel of Naga
Pardinas, President of Parent-Teacher      Central Elementary School, and Minnie
Association League; and Atty. Mila         Sagarbarria and Aldrin Amaro, DepEd
Raqui-Arroyo, City Councilor and           District Administrative Aides. Malu
Chairman of the City Committee on          Barcillano and her staff at the Center
Education.                                 for Local Governance of the Ateneo de
                                           Naga University were always of great
We are indebted to Dr Evangeline           help. We deeply thank them for their
Palencia, DepEd Naga City Division         institutional support and the students
Superintendent and Esther Serra,           of Ateneo de Naga for their kind and
Assistant Superintendent for allowing us   able assistance with translation during
to gather primary data and to interview    field interviews.
many DepEd teachers and principals.
We thank Veronica Villas, Division         We are thankful to Mayor Jesse
Planning Officer, and the various          Robredo, Vice-Mayor Gabby Bordado,
Education Supervisors and Coordinators     Sol and Doods Santos, and Mama Jean
of the DepEd District Promotional Staff,   Llorin for introducing us to the
particularly Priscilla Atutubo, Flor       wonderful learning opportunities Naga
Aureus, Corazon Bergonio, Felomina         City has to offer. Lastly, we thank Dr
Cecilio, Francia Regulto, Agnes Rubio,     Cynthia Banzon-Bautista, whose timely
Salvacion Selga, and Meriam Tandog,        and enthusiastic help in providing us
and Dada dela Rosa of the Naga City        relevant reading materials made a
People‘s Council.                          difference in our research and writing.
We thank Nelly Abad, Principal of
Camarines Sur National High School;

PREFACE                                        designed to be experiential, dialogic,
The report you are about to read was           interactive, and community-based. It was
written by MA-level graduate students and      structured as a mutual learning experiment
submitted to the Naga City Government          for students and the Naga City planners,
and relevant stakeholder groups to             officials, and residents.
partially fulfill the requirements in PLAN
548H – Planning Studio Course in               Thus, the course general learning
Participatory Planning and Governance.         objectives for the twenty Canadian and
This was a graduate program course             international graduate students were to:
offered at the School of Community and              Understand and appreciate the real
Regional Planning (SCARP) at the University           world of planning challenges in a
of British Columbia (UBC), Vancouver,                 developing country;
Canada and conducted in the summer of               Provide meaningful inputs to Naga
2007 in Naga City. The course offering was            City    planning     processes    and
a first in many ways. It was the first field          implementation plans;
studio course at SCARP offered in the               Create a new generation of
Philippines. The course description, outline          planners who bring in their
and schedule of activities were developed             thoughtful analytical skills into
with Naga City Planning Division, other City          creative and practical solutions.
officials, and the Ateneo de Naga Centre            Bring lessons from Naga City and
for Local Governance. It also benefited               the Philippines as a whole to places,
from students‘ feedback and assessment of             sites and cultures in their future
initial interests. The topics of the final            planning work.
group report assignments were decided          More specifically, the students were
after the first class meeting with Naga City   expected to be able to:
Mayor, Hon. Jesse Robredo, who outlined             Provide sustainable, low-cost and
his City‘s strategic planning priorities and          effective     recommendations      to
his hopes of what the UBC students can do             promote good change in Naga City;
as he puts it, in helping ―reinvent City            Demonstrate and apply their
governance.‖                                          interdisciplinary planning skills in
                                                      local governance issues;
Why a Studio Course in Participatory                Write      thoughtful     and     well-
Planning and Governance?                              researched planning reports that
Professional    planners-in-training   need           Naga City officials and staff, as well
exposure and experience in the challenges             as community groups, can use in
that face many developing countries. The              their current and future work.
transnational flows of people, ideas,
services, movements and goods around the       Why a Studio Course in Naga City?
world make those challenges almost             Naga is a mid-size city of 150,000 residents
universal in character, if not in dimension    in Bicol region, central Philippines. It is
and scale. Planning is inextricably and        internationally and nationally renowned as
organically   linked    with    governance.    among the ―best practices‖ in good local
Planning practices depend much on              governance in the Philippines and in the
political institutions, guiding policies,      developing world. Naga City has maximized
procedural rules and programs that are         the opportunities for governance reform,
shaped by governance practices and             local capacity building, and improved
cultures. A studio course design optimizes     delivery of basic services created by
the learning and teaching of lessons           political decentralization under the Local
derived from the real world of planning-       Government Code. Since 1988, Naga City
governance nexus. Hence, the course was        has been creating and implementing

various mechanisms to involve local             spanned only a period of three weeks, from
organized groups, particularly from the         May 17 to June 7. More time and more
marginalized sectors of society, in             consultations would have greatly improved
governing the city. Its City Government         the quantity and quality of our data and
has been working closely with highly            analysis. We did the best that we can
functional People‘s Council and various         under the limited circumstances, and we
other Councils, Committees, Special Bodies,     apologise for any mistakes, gaps in analysis,
and Task Forces to deal with local              and oversights that our reports may have.
governance issues – from social housing for     We      provide    our      insights    and
the poor to creating sustainable social         recommendations without any strings
enterprises, from addressing school board       attached or expectation that they will be
governance to using new information             adopted by the City.
communication technologies in creating
                                                Without pre-empting the acknowledgment
closer relations between the people and
                                                of each of the reports, I join my students
the city government. This long history of
                                                in thanking the Naga City Government,
public engagement and capable leadership
                                                particularly its Planning Division Director
continuity make Naga City an ideal and
                                                Wilfredo Prilles, Jr. and his Staff; Mayor
productive laboratory for examining the
                                                Jesse Robredo; the Directors and Staff of
promises and challenges of democratizing
                                                the City Agriculture, City Environment and
planning in a rapidly growing and complex
                                                Natural Resources, City Engineers, City
city environment.
                                                Health, City Tourism and City Social
                                                Welfare and Development Offices, the
Caveats and Constraints
                                                Local School Board members; the City
The following is one of six Planning Reports
                                                Division of the Department of Education,
submitted to the City Government. The six
                                                the City Investment Board, and the Naga
reports are:
                                                City People‘s Council. We thank all our
    (1) Quality Universal Public Education
                                                guest speakers, guides and key informants
    (2) Youth Development Planning
                                                from the above Offices; Dr Danny Gerona
    (3) Urban Agriculture
                                                and Atty Sol Santos; Mr George Abonal,
    (4) Investment Promotion
                                                Principal of Ateneo de Naga High School; Fr
    (5) Transportation, and
                                                Joel Tabora SJ, President of Ateneo de
    (6) Social Housing for the Urban Poor
                                                Naga University; ADNU Head Librarian Edna
Each of these reports were developed in
                                                and Dr Malu Barcillano, her Staff and
close consultation with the course
                                                student volunteers at Ateneo Centre for
instructor and the relevant City Officials,
                                                Local Governance; the municipal and
as the students went about framing their
                                                barangay officials of Pamplona, Camarines
research questions, identifying their data
                                                Sur; and the staff of the Naga City Youth
needs, doing interviews, leading focus
                                                Centre. We thank all Naga residents for the
groups, collecting and analyzing data, and
                                                warm      hospitality,    generosity    and
writing the final drafts that served as bases
                                                enthusiasm they showed us. Dios mabalos
of the students‘ public presentations to the
                                                po, at mabuhay kayong lahat sa Naga!
City on June 6 and 7. As there are some
groups that have more members than
others, and as each of the groups went                                       Leonora C. Angeles
about developing its own methodological                                      Associate Professor
                                                  School of Community and Regional Planning
and analytical frameworks suited to their
                                                                  University of British Columbia
topics, it is expected that there will be                   Naga City, Philippines, June 7, 2007
some variations and diversity in their final
outputs. The research and writing that
went in the preparation of these reports

Executive summary                           education should become the first
The main purpose of this report is to       priority of a government interested in
contribute to the promotion of quality      the well being of its citizens.
universal public education by taking
advantage of the current enabling laws      The Philippines is not alone in
and      environment      to      further   devolving the management of the
decentralize       and      democratize     schools that the central government
educational     planning     with     the   could no longer finance. In this sense,
involvement of local government units,      decentralization is one of the most
communities,      and    civil    society   important phenomena to have affected
organizations. It hopes to suggest other    education globally in the last two
possible strategies that can build upon     decades. Where the state bureaucracy
those already undertaken by Naga City.      appears unable to respond to such
                                            elemental issues as the hiring of new
The different problems that the             teachers, equipping schools with
Philippines face in providing access to a   instructional materials and properly
good quality education varies from a        maintaining school buildings, the local
very low teacher-high pupil ratio, poor     authorities and communities have been
quality of teacher training, the lack of    playing important roles in providing for
classrooms, to the lack of desks and        such necessities.
textbooks. These very basic obstacles
are reflected in the performance of the     The City of Naga has implemented
students, indicating the poor quality in    several strategies to improve the
the basic universal education. This         quality of education. In 2001, in
leads to poor completion rates.             partnership with Ford Foundation, it
                                            launched a project with the end view
Naga City‘s efforts to improve              of making the Local School Board a
elementary and secondary education          vehicle for enhancing local autonomy in
now face the dilemma of continuing to       the provisions of quality public
provide students with equitable access      education through administrative and
to quality universal public education.      organizational reforms. By shifting
Although the responsibility of providing    away from the conventional practice
instruction in the Philippines rests        where the LSB merely provided
mainly on a key front-line agency of        additional budgeting support to the
the     central     government,       the   Department of Education, the City took
Department of Education (DepEd), Naga       an ―empowerment‖ approach to make
City has taken upon its shoulders this      the LSB more proactive and responsive
Herculean task. By adopting various         to local needs.
strategies and programs, Naga is
already taking successful steps toward      In the course of our brief research
the realization of quality and accessible   period, we encountered passionate
education to more children.                 teachers and people committed to
                                            improve the lives of children through
Yet, the Naga City Government is the        education. During interviews and focus
first to admit that its ―half-full glass‖   groups with parents, teachers and
needs more filling. It recognizes that      supervisors, we recognized their

knowledge of the efforts that the Local      generate solutions. Thus, there is a
Government Unit through the expanded         need to look beyond the school borders
Local School Board is doing to improve       and involve all stakeholders
the quality of education. The strong
support of the Local Government Unit         We discuss promising practices in
under the leadership of Mayor Jesse          democratizing educational planning in
Robredo empowered the LSB to                 other Contexts, other Philippine
allocate not only financial resources        provinces as well as international
but also more human resources and            contexts.
openness to participation and dialogue
make Naga a unique place.                    The educational practices we highlight
                                             here have primarily contributed in the
We will try to reflect on some of our        area of both organizational innovations
findings, given our limited knowledge        that involve new working procedures or
of the existing situation in the Public      techniques, and process innovations
Education System in Naga due to time         that contribute to the improvement of
constraints inability to capture fully the   the quality of public service delivery.
richness of the local context and            Common to all the cases we have
institutions.                                chosen is the use of the school-based
                                             management (SBM) approach, which
Our concern in this report is how to         has demonstrated much promise in
develop a community-owned plan with          improving the quality and reach of
strong citizen participation to improve      public education by democratizing
the quality of education, which              educational planning at the local or
responds to diverse needs of children,       school level.
youth, and adult learners. Schools
should be the centre of community            We provide other recommendations
exchange. They should be places where        complementary to the school based
children,    teachers,    parents   and      management approach. We end the
communities      contribute    to   the      report by explaining some of the risks,
development of their own lives. They         advantages and challenges that Naga
should be a hub for analysis about           City might face in implementing our
social problems and a dialogue to            recommendations.

                                      TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. INTRODUCTION: Background and Purpose

II.CONTEXT: The Crisis in Public Education
      1. Philippine Public Education
      2. Naga‘s Public Education Reforms


       1.Addressing access and demand-side constraints
       2.Efforts to improve the quality of learning environments and teacher and
         student performance by reducing class size, hiring locally funded
         teachers, and teacher training yield uneven results
       3. Maximizing current legal and institutional mechanisms for teacher, barangay
         and community participation in community governance pose many challenges.
       4. The institutionalization of mechanisms for constant feedback and continuous
         learning within the public school system requires strategic planning


       1. Promising Practices in Other Philippine Provinces
       2. Promising Practices in Other Countries

       1. First Recommendation
       2. Second Recommendation
       3.Third Recommendation
       4. Fourth Recommendation
       5. Fifth Recommendation
       6. Sixth Recommendation
       7. Seventh Recommendation
       8. Eight Recommendation
       9. Ninth Recommendation
       10. Tenth Recommendation




                                   LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

TABLE 1 TIMMS Results 2003 Trends in International Math

TABLE 2 TIMMS Results 2003 Trends in International Science

TABLE 3. Comparative Performance - 2005 National Achievement Test
(Bicol Region)

TABLE 4.Naga‘s National Achievement Test Gains

FIGURE 1. The Naga City School Board

FIGURE 2. Naga‘s Division Achievement Test Results

FIGURE 3. Correlation: Class Size and NAT Results in Naga Public High


APPENDIX 1: Raw data on class size- NAT result correlation

APPENDIX 2: DEPED – Division Organizational Chart

APPENDIX 3: Percent of Schools Crossing the 60% and 75% Levels by Division, 2002-2005

APPENDIX 4: Percent of Schools Crossing The 75% NAT Mastery And 60% Near Mastery
Levels*, TEEP And Non-TEEP Divisions, 2002-03 To SY2004-05

APPENDIX 5: New Roles, Functions and Competencies of School Heads in SBM

APPENDIX 6: Assessment, Standards, Strategies, and Accountability (ASSA) in TEEP

PROMOTING QUALITY UNIVERSAL PUBLIC                 provision, in order to improve the quality of
EDUCATION THROUGH DEMOCRATIC AND                   education for children and youth in the public
STRATEGIC PLANNING IN NAGA CITY                    education system? How can such goal be
                                                   attained through the use of participatory,
Leonora Angeles                                    democratic and strategic planning in school
Claudia Bialostozky                                management?
Alejandra Lopez
                                                   Our report is based on the premise that the
I. Introduction: Background and Purpose            school-based democratization of educational
                                                   planning with strategic goals and means in
Naga City‘s efforts to improve elementary and      mind is a powerful approach to more effective
secondary education now face the dilemma of        and efficient promotion of quality universal
continuing to provide students with equitable      public education. We agree with Verspoor‘s
access to quality universal public education.      (1992) view that, ―(s)trategic planning is the
Although the responsibility of providing           foundation      of     effective    education
instruction in the Philippines rests mainly on a   management.‖ Borrowing from Peter Drucker
key front-line agency of the central               (1974), we define Strategic Planning as ―The
government, the Department of Education            continuous process of making present
(DepEd), Naga City has taken upon its              entrepreneurial decisions systematically, and
shoulders this Herculean task. By adopting         with the greatest knowledge of their futurity;
various strategies and programs, Naga is           organizing systematically the efforts needed
already taking successful steps toward the         to carry out those decisions; and measuring
realization of quality and accessible education    the results of these decisions against
to more children.        Yet, the Naga City        expectations through organized systematic
Government is the first to admit that its          feedback‖ (emphasis supplied). This type of
―half-full glass‖ needs more. It has become        planning has been developed in response to
and should become the first priority of a          the dominance of deterministic rational
government interested in the well being of its     planning, popularly used by and within public
citizens.                                          educational institutions. This deterministic
                                                   planning is based on specialization of tasks,
The main purpose of this report is to              strict and explicit chains of command, and
contribute to the promotion of quality             highly strict formal rules and procedures. It
universal public education       by taking         has been criticized for being too bureaucratic
advantage of the current enabling laws and         and not suited to the complexity and diversity
environment to further decentralize and            of people, students and communities that
democratize educational planning with the          public education wishes to serve.
involvement of local government units,
communities, and civil society organizations.      Key to strategic planning, from the above
It hopes to suggest other possible strategies      quote, is the timely and effective interplay of
that can build upon those already undertaken       three factors: Decisions, Efforts and Feedback.
by Naga City. In other words, how can Naga         Each of these factors requires systematic
City take further advantage of the                 execution,       targeting,      benchmarking,
opportunities, resources and structures            monitoring and evaluation. They also require
created by the decentralization of social          dense     networks    of    partnerships   and
service delivery, particularly educational         cooperation between government and non-

government actors. As we will demonstrate in       Boards; the Naga City People‘s Council; the
this report, strategic planning works to the       private sector, and other civil society
extent that organizations and institutions as      organizations in working together to raise the
systems are able to make strategic decisions,      quality of public education and build a better
coordinate their efforts, and provide              future for Philippine children.
meaningful        and     timely      feedback
systematically. Our main goal in this report is
to explain some of the principles and              Why decentralization and democratization?
strategies behind the use of decentralization
and democratic and strategic planning in           In the context of limited public resources and
public education delivery and management. It       the increasing demands of a growing
aims to provide some recommendations based         population, many governments around the
on these principles and strategies that have       world have been looking at ways to improve
been tried and tested in other countries as        the efficiency of resource use and allocation
well as other regions in the Philippines.          for public education. Where the state
Improve the quality of education through           bureaucracy appears unable to respond to
decentralization      entails    implementing      such elemental issues as the hiring of new
mechanisms and strategies to share power and       teachers, equipping schools with instructional
responsibilities, and getting superintendents,     materials and properly maintaining school
principals, teachers, students, parents,           buildings,   the     local   authorities    and
alumni, and communities to work together in        communities have been playing important
taking bold steps towards this goal.               roles in providing for such necessities. The
                                                   Philippines is not alone in devolving the
We are confident that after listening at the       management of the schools that the central
inspiring stories of the members of the Naga       government could no longer finance. In this
Public School System, as well as the stories in    sense, decentralization is one of the most
other       developing     countries,       that   important phenomena to have affected
implementing      school-based     management      education globally in the last two decades.
approach based on democratic and strategic
planning principles would help in:                 Decentralization has forced the mobilization
   - increasing the participation of parents       of resources at the local level, through special
       and communities in schools,                 taxes,     cost-sharing,     and     community
   - empowering principals and teachers,           participation. At the same time it has allowed
   - creating new improved and energetic           a faster identification of problems and the
       roles         for       district/division   search for more appropriate responses. It can
       superintendents and supervisors;            further improve the use of resources through
   - building local level capacity, and,           proper mechanisms of transparency and
       perhaps the most important,                 accountability. Such mechanisms should place
   - improving quality and efficiency of           people at the centre of service provision and
       schools and school management.              can go a long way in making service provision
                                                   work more efficiently, and improving
It is our hope that our report will assist the     outcomes by facilitating participation in
City Division of the Department of Local           service delivery. A second aspect of
Government; the Naga City Government,              decentralization, and one that can lead to
particularly its Committee on Education; the       processes of democratization, is allowing local
Local School Board; the School Governance          decision-makers to determine the appropriate

mix of inputs and education policies adapted         the various approaches are of course, not the
to local realities and needs.                        same. Educational decentralization is a
                                                     complex process that deals with changes in
Involving school-level actors in decision-           the way school systems go about making
making and reporting can create incentives           policy, generating revenues, spending funds,
for greater attention to school improvement          training teachers, designing curricula, and
issues. In addition, when decentralization or        managing local schools. Such changes imply
devolution of decision-making is used for            fundamental shifts in the values that concern
purposes of increasing accountability, it gives      the relationships of students and parents to
voice to those who are not heard in the              schools, teachers and principals, the
context of traditional school governance             relationships of communities to central
structures. The World Development Report             government, and in the very meaning and
2004 argues that lack of information weakens         purpose of public education.
beneficiary    power    to   hold    providers
accountable, thus suggesting that the end            II. Context: The Crisis in Public Education
users need to have systems of information
flow that helps them realize the rights they         It is easy to sympathize with the dilemmas
have and the way their service provider fares        facing local government units in improving the
compared to others.                                  quality of public education. Where to
                                                     prioritize the limited public resources and
The     positive    impact   of    community         how to increase the access to a quality
engagement on student performance and                education turns to be a very complex issue.
achievement       has     been     extensively       Quality and access trade-off is an oft-
documented. A supportive local community is          repeated issue in public education. It is
one of the two factors that explain the              commonly       thought    that     continuously
difference between a good and a bad school           expanding access, especially for more
in the Philippines. The other factor is a good       disadvantage children, will lead to decline in
principal. (Bienvenido Nebres, ―Why can‘t we         quality of education delivery as governments
Attract Good Teachers?‖ a Paper Presented            and schools focus on stretching their
before the CEO Roundtable Discussion,                resources to provide more teachers,
February 12, 1998)                                   classrooms, books and materials. This, in turn,
                                                     is viewed as contributing to reduced
Nevertheless it is important to note that there      completion rates. On the other hand, it is also
are a variety of approaches and ways of              thought that providing quality education is
decentralizing.         Strictly        speaking,    often done at the expense of universal access.
decentralization in education means the              Yet, enough evidence has been mustered to
devolution of authority from a higher to a           demonstrate that this strict access-quality
lower level of authority. But this lower level       trade-off does not exist (Gropello 2006: xxxiii).
can be another administrative level within the       Hence, national and local governments and
Ministry of Education, such as a provincial          societies in general should aim and opt for
department        or     a       school     (i.e.,   broad-based (read universal) and learner-
deconcentration). The new authority can be           centred, effective and relevant (read quality)
an elected body at the regional or community         public education at the elementary and
level (i.e., devolution) or it can be the            secondary levels.
transfer of authority to a private firm or
individual (i.e., privatization). The results of

Naga is one of the places in the Philippines      of Human Rights proclaimed in 1948, there
and in the world, where this goal is the          has not been a lot of support to the
explicit commitment of its City Government.       qualitative     learning     dimension.    The
Its willingness to address resource and           Millennium Development Goals signed in 2000
budgetary constraints to improve the quality,     commits UN member countries to alleviate
universal access, and delivery of education       poverty and hunger using different strategies.
opens new spaces and possibilities for public     Societies that invest in human capital,
engagement.                                       especially education and health, are able to
                                                  raise their productivity. Educated, healthy
We share Naga City‘s belief that one of the       girls and boys are more able to engage in
basic human needs is access to a good basic       productive activities, find formal sector
education. Good education leads to the            employment, earn higher incomes and enjoy
fulfillment of human life. Access to education    greater returns to schooling than are
is related to health, nutrition, employment,      uneducated girls and boys who suffer from
security and access to different options for      poor nutrition and health, or are victims of
human development. The lack of basic              domestic violence. Moreover, educated
education for any individual, family,             women give greater emphasis to schooling
household, community, or city is a serious and    their own children, thereby improving the
complex social problem. The relation between      productivity of the next generation. For
poverty, compromised development and              example, children of literate mothers in India
academic failure is well established in the       spend two more hours per day studying than
research literature (Duncan, Brooks-Gunn, &       do the children of illiterate mothers. (Gender
Klebanov, 1994; Hunt, 1961; Scarr-Salapatek,      Equality and the Millennium Development
1971).     Hence,     improving     the   early   Goals, April 2003, pg 6).
environment and experiences should enhance
the child‘s development. Early school success     While the Millennium Declaration has
should improve the chances of later success       committed countries to ensure that all
and eventually lead to higher-paying jobs and     children will be able to complete a full course
other social and cultural rewards (Campbell &     of primary schooling by 2015, it does not
Ramey, 1994). In other words, a primary aim       talking about quality in the delivery of
of early intervention is to place children on a   universal education. Achieving universal
normative developmental trajectory so that        access means little when the quality of
they continue to show optimal development         education is poor. The expectations of parents
after the intervention ends. Hence, education     around the world are for their children to
issues should not be seen as a technical          receive a good quality education. They expect
problem, but rather as integrated social,         that education of their children helps them
institutional and political challenges. Seeing    develop emotionally and acquire the skills to
educational     management       from    purely   lead productive lives and become better
technical lenses also diverts funds and other     persons. The World Declaration on Education
resources from reaching more urgent needs,        for All (1990) and the Dakar Framework for
and prevents stakeholders in education to         Action (2000) – the two most recent United
taking     integrated    and    comprehensive     Nations conference declarations focusing on
approaches.                                       education – recognize quality as a prime
                                                  condition for achieving Education for All. The
Although the right to education has been a        Dakar Framework affirms that quality is ‗at
common topic since the Universal Declaration      the heart of education‘. It commits nations to

provide primary education ‗of good quality‘       quality of teaching in public elementary
and includes commitments to improving ‗all        schools. The teaching force is huge but
aspects of the quality of education and           requires a lot of resources. Structural weak-
ensuring excellence of all.    Against, this      nesses in the country‘s university system
backdrop, we will discuss the context of the      contribute to the poor quality of teacher
myriad issues that concern the Philippine         training and classroom teaching competence.
public educational system.                        Results of the Professional Board Examination
                                                  for Teachers (PBET) show that only 20% of
1. Philippine Public Education                    new graduates passed the exam from 1987 to
                                                  1992. This situation is alarming considering
                                                  the centrality of teachers in the current
The different problems that the Philippines       education system. With inadequate textbooks,
face in providing access to a good quality        students have no other way to learn except
education varies from a very low teacher-high     through the teacher.
pupil ratio, poor quality of teacher training,
the lack of classrooms, to the lack of desks
and textbooks. These very basic obstacles are     Table 1. TIMMS Results 2003
reflected in the performance of the students,     Trends in International Math
indicating the poor quality in the basic
universal education. This leads to poor
completion rates. Only 6 of every 1000 grade
six elementary graduate students are
prepared to enter high school (former
Education Secretary Florencio Abad, 24th
National Educators Congress, 18 October 2004)
leaving the Philippines in place number 41 in
achievement performance among 45 other
Asian countries (see Table 1, 2).

The 2000 Philippine Human Development
Report (PHDR) has underscored the link
between poverty and poverty in education.
Estimates show that about 28 to 34 percent of
the country‘s population is education-poor.
Not surprisingly, this number is also close to
the national poverty rates. Education-poor
Filipinos are generally of working age but did
not complete Grade 6. Or, they may have
reached Grade 6 but failed the standard
elementary education examination. Standard
national test results have been generally poor.
A typical Filipino student is only able to
answer correctly less than 50% of the test
questions. Poor test performance is due to
many factors. One often cited factor is the

Table 2. TIMMS Results 2003                       particularly noted to have devastating results.
Trends in International Science Survey            It is one of the causes behind low literacy
                                                  levels and the failure to develop a reading
                                                  culture among Filipino children (Banzon-
                                                  Bautista 2006).

                                                  A weak point in the Philippine educational
                                                  system is the reliance on centralized
                                                  management and interventions that almost
                                                  exclusively emphasize the teacher.       More
                                                  importantly, the system fails to harness the
                                                  assets and strengths of local governments,
                                                  families, communities and other stakeholders
                                                  in the process of education. Despite attempts
                                                  to decentralize educational management
                                                  through the creation of Local School Boards,
                                                  (LSB) as stipulated in the 1991 Local
                                                  Government Code, the Philippines Public
                                                  School System is still highly centralized.
                                                  Curricular   development,     textbook    and
                                                  workbook production as well as test
                                                  instruments are monopolized by the central
                                                  government through DepEd, and their regional
                                                  counterparts. The system effectively limits
                                                  the    community     engagement      in   the
                                                  management and planning of the schools.
As in many other developing countries, the
main reasons for this failure in teacher          Thus, the decentralization of education
training and poor test performance are the        through national and local enabling laws is
lack of resources, the poor allocation of         only the first step towards addressing many
resources, as well the inefficient management     fundamental problems of the educational
of the school system. The 2000 PHDR links         system. Local government units, now tasked
quality to the low national budget for            to raise funds for schools through their fiscal
instruction. Education spending is less than      and taxation power and create Local School
$150 per pupil per year. This amount can          Boards (LSB) to introduce innovative solutions,
neither keep good quality teachers nor            have demonstrated varying capabilities and
provide adequate textbooks and basic              levels of commitment to further decentralize
facilities. A disproportionate share of the       and democratize decision making in schools.
budget actually goes to administrative and        Addressing perennial problems require more
personnel services. This leaves little funding    than the work of local government units. It
to construct new school buildings or renovate     requires more than the cooperation of DepEd,
deteriorating structures to solve the country‘s   its administrators, teachers and staff. It
perennial classroom shortage. Moreover, the       requires more than just the involvement of
budget crunch leaves little resources for         parents, NGOs and communities. These
libraries, laboratories, supplies, books, and     problems need to be tackled from various
instructional materials. Textbook shortage is     angles by different interest groups. It requires

government commitment, more resources,              least in the Bicol region. There has been a
more diversified resource mobilization, more        noticeable decline in private school enrolment
efficient and transparent allocation of             as the perception that the gap in quality
resources, more effective forms of school-          between the private and public schools is not
community engagement, more localized                markedly significant. There is also anecdotal
responsiveness to local needs, and the              evidence that good teachers from Naga
readiness to adopt new working cultures             private schools, where continuous training is
within the educational system. As noted by Dr       emphasized, have flocked to public schools
Cynthia Banzon-Bautista (2006):                     that generally pay slightly higher salaries than
                                                    some private schools. Naga ranks first in the
  ―Breaking down the insularity and                 National Achievement Test (NAT) results in
  hierarchy of the central education                the region, besting all other cities and
  system and making it more accountable             provinces in Bicol. However, their scores and
  to parents, communities and local                 ratings compared to other Philippine cities
  governments, is considered an essential           and other countries are actually low, ranging
  step for other reforms to succeed. Apart          from 44% in Science and 60% in English at the
  from reducing the vulnerability to                High School Level, and 57% in Science and 62%
  corruption by making the process of               in English at the Elementary Level. Hence,
  awards and procurement more                       Naga‘s rank as the second in elementary
  transparent within a school-community             education and first in secondary education in
  partnership, the problem of education             the Bicol region does not mean much as the
  budgets might also be tractable if                average test scores are too low to begin with,
  communities and local governments saw             hovering close to below mastery-level of 60%,
  fit to share in the cost and be                   and way below the 75% competency level. The
  accountable for the results.‖                     lack of awareness of the implications of this
                                                    lack-lustre student performance to the state
But how can insular, hierarchical and               of public education among the stakeholders,
centralized systems, and the people who work        particularly   parents,     leads    to    weak
within those systems, innovate and be made          mechanisms for meaningful local involvement
more accountable to the people they wish to         and parents‘ participation in Naga.
serve? This is perhaps the question that the
Naga City Government has tried to address in        In response to this lack of community
its attempt to introduce educational reforms.       awareness of parents about the state of their
                                                    public education, the Naga City Government
                                                    has launched the ―Reinventing the Naga
2. Naga’s Public Education Reforms                  School Board‖ project, funded by the Ford
                                                    Foundation. The Naga LSB was created based
Naga faces many of the problems that beset          on provisions of the 1991 ―Local Government
the whole country in terms of large class sizes,    Code,‖ which defined the priorities of LSB
shortage of teachers and classrooms, lack of        budget mainly allocated to hard infrastructure.
instructional materials, poor facilities, as well   Naga went beyond to address the weak
as budgetary constraints. Nevertheless, the         support of soft infrastructure like textbooks
perception of Nagueños is that compared to          and continuing professional development that
other places in the Philippines, their public       help improve the learning process.
educational system is relatively performing
better than other cities and provinces, at

Table 3. Comparative Performance                       Parents, teachers and other stakeholders still
2005 National Achievement Test (Bicol Region)          did not have the information and mechanisms
                                                       to raise their concerns and claim for
ELEMENTARY (Grade VI)                                  accountability within the public education
Division        English Science Math    Total   Rank   system. Hence, some re-invention of the roles
Iriga City      71.33% 64.56% 69.41%   68.43%     1    of the LSB and introduction of new programs
Naga City       62.15% 57.12% 61.01%   60.10%     2    was in order.
Catanduanes     61.35% 56.97% 61.44%   59.92%     3
Camarines Norte 60.78% 55.75% 61.49%   59.34%     4    III. Naga’s Innovative       Programs     and
Sorsogon        58.19% 53.65% 55.30%   55.71%     5    Strategies Implemented
Masbate         54.86% 50.08% 56.56%   53.83%     6
Tabaco City     56.34% 49.58% 50.62%   52.18%     7    The City of Naga has implemented several
Camarines Sur   51.80% 48.01% 51.43%   50.41%     8    strategies to improve the quality of education.
Sorsogon City   52.18% 47.90% 50.01%   50.03%     9    In 2001, in partnership with Ford Foundation,
Albay           51.71% 46.67% 49.66%   49.35%    10    it launched a project with the end view of
Masbate City    52.39% 46.38% 47.77%   48.85%    11    making the Local School Board a vehicle for
Legaspi City    50.13% 45.68% 45.94%   47.25%    12    enhancing local autonomy in the provisions of
Ligao City      45.10% 40.83% 40.81%   42.25%    13    quality       public    education      through
                                                       administrative and organizational reforms. By
SECONDARY (4th Year)                                   shifting away from the conventional practice
Division        English Science Math    Total   Rank   where the LSB merely provided additional
Naga City       60.61% 44.28% 58.79%   54.56%     1    budgeting support to the Department of
Catanduanes     55.63% 42.87% 59.70%   52.73%     2    Education, the City took an ―empowerment‖
Sorsogon City   54.00% 48.31% 53.85%   52.05%     3    approach to make the LSB more proactive and
Masbate         47.26% 34.85% 45.51%   42.54%     4    responsive to local needs. It became involved
Tabaco City     49.53% 32.06% 45.26%   42.28%     5    in     facilitating   professional     teacher
Masbate City    47.82% 34.04% 43.81%   41.89%     6    development, enhancing pupil development,
Sorsogon        45.12% 35.68% 44.80%   41.87%     7    increasing community involvement and
Camarines Norte 46.79% 33.63% 44.07%   41.50%     8    building local stakeholdership. As mentioned
Legaspi City    47.59% 34.20% 37.92%   39.90%     9    earlier, the Local School Board created under
Albay           44.69% 33.24% 41.50%   39.81%    10    the Local Government Code of 1991, required
Iriga City      46.20% 31.17% 40.93%   39.43%    11    the Local Government Units (LGUs) to become
Camarines Sur   42.82% 31.98% 40.11%   38.30%    12    more responsible in the delivery of basic
Ligao City      43.45% 29.61% 38.43%             13    education. It is composed of the City Mayor,
                                                       the City Superintendent of Schools, the
                                                       Chairman of the Committee on Education on
Naga‘s City Government under Mayor                     the City Council, representatives coming from
Robredo‘s administration and his city staff            the Naga City Peoples Council (NCPC), private
identified    the    need     of    addressing         schools, business sector, PTA and non
decentralization with their local assets. They         teaching personnel of the DepEd (see Figure 1)
recognized that the Local School Board
budgeting functions was not enough to engage
the community and improve participation.
The process of planning for a quality
education, more competent teachers and a
good learning process was still inefficient.

   Figure 1. The Naga City School Board                                      5.    Purchase/improvement,      repair   and
                                                                             refurbishing    of   machinery,    laboratory,
      City Mayor - Chairman
                                         Evangelina Palencia
                                       Superintendent – Co-Chairman
                                                                             technical    and   similar   equipment     for
                                                                             vocational education;
                                                                             6. Establishment of printing plant for the
                                                                             Department of Education;
   SP EdCom Chair - Member
                                          SOLOMON SALES
                                       NACITEA President – Member            7. Purchase of teaching materials such as
                                                                             workbooks, atlases, flip charts, science and
   ALLEN L. REONDANGA                     ABNER PARDIÑAS
                                                                             mathematics teaching aids, and simple
   City SKF President - Member      City PTA League President – Member
                                                                             laboratory devices for elementary and
                                                                             secondary classes;
   RODRIGO C. BELLEZA                MARY ANN E. MONTALBAN                   8. Implementation of program for citizenship
     City Treasurer - Member     Non-teaching Personnel President – Member
                                                                             development in barrio high schools, folk
                                                                             schools and adult education classes;
The legal basis of the LSB creation are taken                                9. Education research;
from Sections 98-101, Title IV, Book I of                                    10. Granting of government scholarships to
Republic Act No. 7160, The Local Government                                  poor but deserving students;
Code of the Philippines. Based on its                                        11. Promotion of physical education, such as
provisions, the LSB receives a mandated                                      athletic meets.
budget form one percent tax on real property,
known as the Special Education Fund (SEF) tax.                               As a result, Naga City has created at least one
Aiming to empower schools to pursue their                                    new elementary or high school in the last 10
own developmental goals with greater                                         years. It has invested more than 100 million
autonomy, each of the 29 public schools is                                   pesos to promote the following features:
endowed with P100,000.00 Empowerment
Fund to be used on ―soft‖ infrastructure                                        QUALITY in Public Education
projects. It allows the schools to plan for                                      1:1 textbook, workbook-student ratio in
more long term needs.                                                              core subjects bridging DepEd shortfall
                                                                                 Standardization of quality instruction
With the reinvention of the Local School                                           through printed lesson plans
Board, the SEF provides more expansive usage                                     Annual localized pre-testing and post-
to include:                                                                        testing
                                                                                 Transparent recruitment for the best
1. Organization and operation of extension                                         teachers (close to 80 locally funded
classes;                                                                           teachers)
2. Construction and repair of dilapidated                                        Manageable class size (decrease to 45
elementary school buildings, acquisition of                                        students per class)
new sites, construction and repair of                                            IT Programs (CLICK, Youth Tech ACCESS,
workshops and similar buildings;                                                   Computer Achievement Test, Teachers
3. Incentive payment and adjustment of                                             Training)
salaries of public school teachers, including                                   ACCESS
the hiring of new locally-funded teachers to                                     Standardization of school fees
reduce class sizes;                                                              Sanggawadan extends assistance to
4.     Preparation,   printing/purchase    of                                      more than 2,500 children and their
textbooks, teachers' guides, forms and                                             parents to ensure stay in classrooms

   STAKEHOLDERSHIP                                 Student Council President. To review the
    School Empowerment Fund                       plans, the LSB has created the Evaluation
    PTCA – School Governance Boards               Committee. The members of this committee
                                                   are two members of the Local School Board
 The Empowerment Fund (EF) was further             and the Physical Plant Supervisor of DepEd.
earmarked by the LSB from the SEF to provide       For the purposes of the Empowerment Fund
financial assistance to all public elementary      the Local School Board has the responsibility
and high schools supervised by the DepEd           to create a Monitoring Committee that will
Naga Division Office. The EF aims to reach         report to the Local School Board the usage of
targeted achievement level of schools,             the Empowerment Fund.
improve the capabilities and competencies of
teachers, and improve learning conditions or       A key City-led project that tries to improve
environment in the schools. Each elementary        access to education is the Quality Universal
and high school receives 100,000 pesos per         Elementary Education in Naga (QUEEN)
calendar year as the Empowerment Fund.             Project. The QUEEN Project is an initiative of
The amount is not adjusted according to the        the Local Government Unit which provides
enrolment size, location, or performance of        funds for the children of low income families
the school. It is further stipulated that 50% of   to enable them to attend school. When the
the EF should go to instructional materials and    parents are targeted to be part of the QUEEN
teaching aids (e.g. school supplies, science       Project, they sign a pledge of commitment to
laboratory equipment, workshop tools,              encourage their participation in their
computer spare parts, audio-visual technology,     children‘s education. First of all, they have to
etc.); 30% to infrastructure and facility          ensure that their children attend school on
repairs not covered by regular LSB funding;        time and in the appropriate grade. They have
and 20% to school operating expenditures,          to commit with the home-based assistance
such as seminars and enrichment training for       necessary to encourage their children to
teachers and students. If absolutely necessary,    complete their schooling, such as homework
the 20% may be used for electricity, water         preparation. They have to participate and
and telephone bills payment.                       support all activities, particularly the annual
                                                   Brigada Eskwela called for by the school
The principal or the head of school has to         administration, barangay council or the PTCA
provide the LSB a School Improvement Plan          in which they clean and prepare the school for
and the Annual Procurement Plan. The School        the school opening, regular classes, and
Governance Board prepares the Procurement          special events.
Plan which is reviewed by the Evaluation
Committee and finally approved by the LSB.         The City Government and the DepEd further
Under its EF Guidelines, the School                collaborated to address the issues of class size.
Governance Board is composed of Barangay           It created a multi-sector Hiring Committee,
Captain and the Principal as Co-Chairs; the        composed mainly of City Government and the
Faculty and Employees Association President;       Department of Education officials, with a
the     Parent-Teacher-Community       (PTCA)      representative from a local Non Governmental
Association President, Treasurer and Parent        Organization. This committee is in charge of
Representative;    the    Barangay   Council       the process to hire locally-funded teachers.
Committee     Chair    on   Education;    the      This Committee aims to increase the quality
Sanggunian ng Kabataaan Chair; the Barangay        of the teaching and learning process while
People‘s Council representative; and the

minimizing the workload for the rest of the      The City and Local School Board in Naga,
teachers.                                        through its various projects and programs,
                                                 resulted in remarkable outcomes, especially
The ―Surog-Adal‖ Project of the School Board     in improving access and quality. The
also known as the ―Alliance for Learning‖        expansion of scholarships and construction of
combines the efforts of different sectors of     new schools have addressed the demand-side
the community to work for the improvement        constraints. Moreover, as shown in Table 3,
of education in the city. The City government,   the initiatives of the City and the multi-
Department of Education and the Parents and      sectoral LSB generated some significant
Teachers Community Association are in charge     improvements both in National Achievement
of this project. An example of the activities    Tests (NAT) in both elementary and high
initiated through this project is the Computer   school levels in the period 1999-2005.
Library and Instructional Center for Kids        Likewise, the Division Achievement Tests (DAT)
(CLICK).    They    provide    computers    to   registered an overall improved performance
elementary schools for computer literacy         over three school years, although there are
programs. Teachers are also trained on Basic     slightly marked variations in the performance
Computer Programs and are required to echo       and gains of various public elementary schools.
the seminars.

There is also the Alternative Learning System
(ALS). The ALS attends to the needs of people    Table 3.Naga’s National Achievement Test Gains
with different capacities, out-of school
children who are left behind so they can         COMPARATIVE NATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT TEST
                                                 Naga City Schools Division, 1999-2005
enroll on their regular years, adult literacy
and with livelihood skills seminars. They have              Level               1999     2000     2004      2005
                                                 Elementary                      32.07    38.10     50.58    60.10
special facilities between the DepEd Regional             % Point Improvement              6.03     12.48     9.51
offices and the Naga Central School. They also   Secondary                       37.26    47.09     48.31    54.56
have an outreach team that gives seminars                 % Point Improvement              9.83      1.22     6.25
and classes in other schools and barangays.

An important project of the LGU in Naga is
the Project INSPIRE (Improved Nutrition
School    Program      Implementation      Re-
engineering and Evaluation). The Project
focuses on the four components of nutrition
program in terms of nutrition education,
nutrition  services,    nutrition   programs/
projects and nutrition linkages. This            Figure 2. Naga’s Division Achievement Test
innovative approach will fast track the          Results
implementation of school nutrition program.
The main objective is to safeguard and
improve the over-all School Nutrition Program
and to reach good health of school children
through proper nutrition.

                            DIVISION ACHIEVEMENT TEST RESULTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Naga City has the enviable position of being
           100                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                able to capitalize on its reform-minded and
                                                                                                                                                NAGA CITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              dynamic City Government and its innovative
            80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                structures for greater citizen participation in
            70                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                both government and school governance. It
            60                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                has many assets and strengths to build upon –

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2003 - 04
            50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2004 - 05   from the dedication of its school teachers and
            40                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2005 - 06   principals, the commitment of its government
            30                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                officials to a solid education agenda, to the
            20                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                mobilization and reallocation of resources,
            10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and the enthusiasm of students and their
             0                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                parents.
                                                                                                                                                                                   NCS II
                                                                                                                                                                           NCS I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 r. v. maramba
                                                                   d. m. abella

                                                                                                                      j. b. meliton
                                                                                                           j. rizal



                                                       d. absede

                                                                                  del rosario

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          san isidro


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  villa corazon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  villa grande
                                      concepcion gde

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       santa cruz

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the course of our brief research period, we
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              encountered passionate teachers and people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              committed to improve the lives of children
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              through education. During interviews and
Still, as mentioned before, these longitudinal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                focus groups with parents, teachers and
improvement gains and high ranking of Naga                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    supervisors, we recognized their knowledge of
City in both the NAT and DAT within the Bicol                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the efforts that the Local Government Unit
region are minor cause for celebrations, as                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   through the expanded Local School Board is
the scores are low to begin with. All Naga                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    doing to improve the quality of education.
public schools‘ test scores in the basic Math,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The strong support of the Local Government
Science and English subjects have not yet                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Unit under the leadership of Mayor Jesse
reached the mastery level of 75%, and most                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Robredo empowered the LSB to allocate not
did not even reach the near-mastery level of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  only financial resources but also more human
60%. The quality of teaching and learning                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     resources and openness to participation and
processes therefore are wanting, and there                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    dialogue make Naga a unique place.
are still children from poor and disadvantaged
families, who because of poverty and lack of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We will try to reflect on some of our findings,
motivation, have to join the ranks of out-of-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 given our limited knowledge of the existing
school youth. In other words, despite its best                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                situation in the Public Education System in
efforts so far, the goal of a real quality                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Naga due to time constraints inability to
universal public education for all Naga                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       capture fully the richness of the local context
children and youth still remain elusive.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and institutions.
Why is this so?      We now turn into our                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1. Addressing access and demand-side
assessment of the strengths and weaknesses                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    constraints: The half-full glass is objectively,
of the current strategies of the City to take                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 still half-empty.
advantage of the decentralization process in
initiating and implementing education reforms.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In 1991 with the establishment of the Local
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              School Board at a national level, the arena for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              inventiveness and possibilities was set. The
IV. Strengths and Weaknesses                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of                             Current
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              national efforts to improve the quality of
Decentralizing Strategies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              public education, then and now, were not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              enough. Poor investments in public education

meant that the different national education        posed by poverty, illiteracy, and lack of
programs are not evenly implemented. Poor          confidence. While exact figures on the
targeting meant that the benefits are not          number of out-of-school children and youth in
reaching the specific needs of each school.        Naga are not available, there are piecemeal
The City of Naga decided to move forward to        accounts and statistical information about
improve the quality of education and increase      their presence. For example, at Grandview
accessibility to a universal public education.     Elementary School based in an urban poor
The initiatives of the Mayor, the City Staff and   community, the number of out-of school
partnerships with the Ford Foundation and          youth was 275 children (175 boys and 100
other organizations, allocated more funds          girls). As out-of-school children and youth
from the Special Education Fund to the             face multiple constraints, only an integrated
augment existing national programs. They also      approach to policy setting can tackle the
implemented many other projects to reach           problem of low participation and completion
the specific needs of the schools.                 rates.

Naga City, unlike remote and depressed areas
in the Philippines, does not have incomplete       2. Efforts to improve the quality of learning
elementary and high schools, save for those        environments and teacher and student
newly created ones whose pupils have not           performance by reducing class size, hiring
moved up to higher grades. It has been able        locally funded teachers, and teacher
to collectively deal with the challenge of         training yield uneven results.
post-disaster reconstruction of its schools
devastated by successive typhoons in the last      A reiterative issue raised by the different
school year. It has clear commitments to           stakeholders is the class sizes and the
hiring more locally funded teachers to             teacher-student ratio. The City has made a
supplement the regular DepEd teachers, to          commitment to the residents of Naga to
reducing     class    sizes, and    harnessing     reduce the class size to 40 students per
community participation for school reforms.        classroom, and yet this goal has not been
Its initiatives are imbued with the ‗can-do‘       achieved. The growing population, coupled
attitude of ―learning by doing,‖ the               with meagre resources, put too much pressure
appreciative inquiry of seeing the ―half-full      on class size reduction and teacher
glass,‖ and the activist spirit of pushing the     recruitment. Despite the City‘s best efforts to
boundaries: ―what the law does not explicitly      hire more locally funded teachers, the
prohibits, it allows.‖                             average class size in Naga public elementary
                                                   schools remain high. Currently the average of
Yet, there is still much room for improvement      children per classroom in elementary level is
when it comes to universal access and quality      39 per teacher, while in some classrooms
improvement. While the access issue has been       there are 57 students. The ratio for high
partly addressed by creating more schools,         schools is 37 students per teacher.
expanding the capacity of existing ones, and
hiring more teachers to fill-in the gaps, there    It is well proven in both academic literature
is still much to be done by the City as a whole    and in practice that the learning process
in addressing the demand-side constraint.          improves if there are fewer children in a
Children and youth from poor families in           classroom and the teacher can pay special
particular have lower rates of demand and          attention to the needs of the children
participation because of multiple constraints      individually. As may be gleaned from the

experience of Naga public schools, there is a                    other subjects, as well as review and update
strong correlation between class size and                        the existing ones.
results in national achievement tests, both at
the elementary and high school levels (see                       Teachers face increasing workloads and they
Figures 3 and 4; ranking and test results data                   have to teach in different groups leaving them
are in Appendix 1). In public schools in North                   without time to prepare their classes and
America, the optimum class size identified for                   their    lesson     plans.   Teachers      have
good learning environment is 23 students.                        specializations but they have to teach all the
Smaller class sizes are well-documented to                       subjects, not having time to update and focus
also have a positive effect on student                           on their expertise.
discipline, motivation, and industry.
                                                                 The initiative of the LSB in Naga to have
                                                                 locally funded teachers helped reduce the
Figure 3. Correlation: Class Size and NAT                        size of children in the classrooms, which is
Results, Naga Public Elementary Schools                          still a constant and very important concern of
                                                                 the teachers and supervisors. However, the
                                                                 working conditions of locally funded teachers
                                                                 are not the most favourable. As they do not
               Correlation: Class Size and Test Results          have permanent positions within the school
                                                                 system, they are hired temporarily for one
                                                                 year and do not have the same benefits and
               50                                                compensations as regular teachers. The City
               40                                                government pays their salary (about 5,000-
  Class size

                                                                 6,000 pesos per month), usually much lower
                                                                 than the starting salary of an entry-level
               20                                                teacher (9,939 pesos per month), a level
                                       R2 = 0,0782               which is already way below the 15,000 pesos
                                                                 cut-off amount for a family to be considered
                    0,0   20,0        40,0       60,0     80,0
                                                                 above the poverty-level line. While we laud
                                                                 the City Government for using the SEF to hire
                                 NAT results
                                                                 more locally-funded teachers, it has also
                                                                 inadvertently contributed to further lowering
                                                                 of the dignity of teachers and the creation of
                                                                 yet another hierarchy within the status-
Teachers and supervisors interviewed from
                                                                 conscious pecking order of teachers.
the Division Office of the Department of
                                                                 According to the teachers interviewed, locally
Education in Naga, Grandview Elementary
                                                                 funded teachers are perceived to have a
School, Naga Central School, and Camarines
                                                                 lower standing, largely owing to their lower
Sur National High School believe in the City‘s
                                                                 salary. Fortunately, the job experience gives
efforts to address their needs to improve the
                                                                 some locally-funded teachers the edge when
quality of public education. The City-funded
                                                                 applying for vacant permanent positions, and
textbooks, workbooks and the lesson plans
                                                                 their years of service are counted towards
developed with the participation of teachers
                                                                 their promotion and merit.
and supervisors were really helpful in
improving some of their lessons and reducing
                                                                 3. Maximizing current legal and institutional
their workload. They also suggested that the
                                                                 mechanisms for teacher, barangay and
next step should be to have lesson plans for

community participation in community                mentioned by the interviewees as a successful
governance pose many challenges.                    way to keep children enrolled and encourage
                                                    parents‘ participation. Even though parents
While there are many legal and institutional        commit themselves to participate while
mechanisms available at the national and            registering in the QUEEN Project, there is no
local levels to further decentralize and            active involvement.
democratize      education      planning,   their
structures and provisions are not fully             4. The institutionalization of mechanisms
maximized.       According     to    the   Local    for constant feedback and continuous
Government Code of 1991, the Local School           learning within the public school system
Boards     could     determine      the   annual    requires strategic planning.
supplementary budgetary needs for the
operation and maintenance of public schools         A common and recurrent concern from the
within the province city and municipality.          interviewees      involves     the    difficult
They have the authority to disburse funds           communication between the different levels
from the Special Education, which could be          of hierarchy of the education system. The
spent in the design, implementation and             interviewees expressed how important is for
monitoring of other strategies to engage            the school to have principals and teachers
parents, teachers, students and school              that support each other. In many occasions
authorities to improve the learning process. It     this doesn‘t seem to be the case. The
has the authority to give advice related to         relationship between principals and teachers
educational      matters     such     as    local   is not conducive to participation nor the
appropriations for education purposes but           overall goals of the school. It seems to be a
they could also advice on how to address the        lack of accountability, transparency and
concerns of the people that they are                collaboration.
representing as well as try to institutionalize
strategies in giving their inputs on academic       A critical area of concern is the
matters. They could contribute to the               institutionalization     of    mechanisms  for
academic        content,      incentives     and    constant feedback and continuous learning
performance of teachers, hiring process and         within the public school system. The flow of
management of the school. Using the                 information and the coordination mechanisms
authority, structure and the SEF to encourage       within the DepEd organization remain
these potential contributions, the needs could      hierarchical,     prioritizing   vertical over
be addressed more efficiently and realistically.    horizontal and school-based channels of
In relation to the budget allocation, the LSB       communication (see Appendix 2). In the short
could invest the money directed to sports           period of research work, interviews and focus
activities for arts and culture and to promote      groups, none of the education stakeholders
a reading culture through story telling and         mentioned the existence of a Monitoring
theatre activities. As we will point out in our     Committee that should be created by the LSB.
policy recommendations, there are many              It is very important to define the members
initiatives that the DepEd, the LSB and the         and the functions of a Monitoring Committee
City can do to maximize the SEF through             that could report the weaknesses and
strategic planning and management.                  strengths of the different initiatives and
                                                    projects. Monitoring and evaluating is a good
The QUEEN Project which relieves the parents        way of ensuring the continuity, improvement
from paying for their children‘s education was

and adaptation of the projects according to       Some principles that are at the heart of
the changing needs and realities.                 current global priorities in education reform
                                                  or issues dominating national education
Further democratizing the management and          agenda are: (1) Quality Improvement – The
planning of the learning process requires         aim is to increase improvements in the
acknowledging that political affiliations and     learning achievements of students. (2)
patronage-based political culture could affect    Diversification of Resources – As education is
the     relationship    between    the    local   no longer the responsibility of public sector
government authorities, the DepEd, and the        alone, it is important to mobilize private
schools. The habitual practice of appointing      sector resources, community involvement and
new superintendents who sit in the Board of       NGO participation. (3) Decentralization –
Canvassers shortly before national and local      Greater autonomy in decision-making at the
elections, though frowned upon by many in         local    level   improves     efficiency   and
DepEd, government and non-government              accountability; and the (4) Differentiation of
circles, has the likely consequence of eroding    Programs – This is necessary to respond to and
public confidence and trust in the public         meet the customized needs of different target
school system, and in the democratic political    groups (Verspoor 1992).
institutions and processes as a whole.
Our interviews, though limited in number,         Decentralization offers many avenues and
revealed very significant to understand some      mechanisms to transform educational planning
of the challenges that the City of Naga has to    as a tool of strategic management by
face.                                             developing new and better information
                                                  systems to address the often poor quality,
V. Principles Guiding Our Choice of Best          incomplete and unreliable data on education,
Practices and Recommendations                     given the weakness in national capacity to
                                                  conduct research and the poor capacity for
Our concern in this report is how to develop a    policy analysis and planning. Decentralized
community-owned plan with strong citizen          decision-making and implementation systems
participation to improve the quality of           have the advantage of being able to establish
education, which responds to diverse needs of     context-specific    micro-planning    systems
children, youth, and adult learners. Schools      instead of standardized mass produced macro
should be the center of community exchange.       models do not work.              School-based
They should be places where children,             management       approaches    also    enable
teachers, parents and communities contribute      broadening the stakeholder base of learning
to the development of their own lives. They       communities by going beyond the public
should be a hub for analysis about social         sector, rethinking the role of the state and
problems and a dialogue to generate solutions.    local government, and finding ways on how
Thus, there is a need to look beyond the          private and public sector efforts can best
school borders and involve all stakeholders.      complement each other.
The learning process should be informed by
and cascade to other areas of concern such as:    Through community engagement, local
health, human rights, civil participation,        governments and central government‘s
housing, environment, human development,          educational supervising agencies could
livelihood strategies, gender equality and        promote decentralized decision-making based
reproductive health.                              on shared responsibility and accountability, as
                                                  well as autonomy on curricular and

instructional    decisions.    Popular   social   specialization of tasks, strict and explicit
mobilization is necessary to improve the          chain of command, rigid and formal rules and
quality of education. Local governments,          procedures, which do not suit the complexity
private sector, civil society, the National,      and diversity of people that education wishes
Regional, Division and District DepEd, schools    to serve. As the natural condition of
and     communities      should    engage    in   education systems is diversity rather than
transforming      the      management      and    uniformity,     schools    require    organic
administration of schools as well as in           management system based on flexibility and
promoting the idea that the improvement of        adaptability and relies on participatory
the quality of learning process as the            decision-making and horizontal communi-
responsibility of all. Adopting a school-based    cation (Verspoor 1992).
management framework, similar to some
existing community schools, could develop         Despite its weaknesses in responding to local
supportive programs for school heads,             needs,     centralized,     standardized    and
teachers, parents, students, and district         deterministic education planning still works
administrators. It is a more efficient and cost   for:    space    allocation,    physical  plant
effective to network and use the assets of the    construction, cost analysis, and enrolment
community to address the complex task of          forecasts. In contrast, more interactive
delivering a good universal public education.     localized education planning works for:
Increasing parent‘s participation in school       instructional objectives; curriculum review
management may require ensuring that              and development; teacher performance
parents also have appropriate supports. So,       review;     student      assessment;     quality
while the goal of engaging parents is to          improvement; and reaching equity and
enhance children‘s well being, this cannot be     equality goals (Verspoor 1992).
done without taking into consideration the
needs of parents and the family, within the
context of the society as a whole.
                                                  VI. Promising Practices in Democratizing
                                                  Educational Planning in Other Contexts
At the heart of the success of school-based
management approach is the practice of
                                                  The concept of ―best practices‖ is much
strategic planning. As defined by Drucker
                                                  widely used in development work. Based on
(1974), strategic planning is ―The continuous
                                                  the Report of the Preparatory Committee for
process of making present entrepreneurial
                                                  the United Nations Centre for Human
decisions systematically,      and with the
                                                  Settlements,       ―best    practices‖     are
greatest knowledge of their futurity;
                                                  interventions or innovations that have a
organizing systematically the efforts needed
                                                  demonstrable and tangible impact on
to carry out those decisions; and measuring
                                                  improving quality of life, are the result of
the results of these decisions against
                                                  effective partnerships between the public,
expectations through organized systematic
                                                  private and civil society sectors, and are
                                                  socially, economically and environmentally
                                                  sustainable. In other words, a ―best practice‖
The use of strategic planning in education,
                                                  is an activity or procedure that has produced
however, has yet to come to full bloom. The
                                                  outstanding results and can be adapted to
current practice in most national and local
                                                  improve effectiveness and efficiency in
educational systems is the practice of
                                                  another     situation.   It   contributes   to
deterministic rational planning based on
                                                  accumulating and applying knowledge about

what works and what does not work in              already well articulated in the DepEd 10-year
different situations and contexts. It involves    Master Plan (1995-2005); DepEd Order No. 230
both lessons learned and the continuing           in 1999, which defined decentralization to
process of learning, feedback, reflection and     mean promotion of school based management
analysis.                                         and devolution of education functions; and
                                                  Republic Act 9155 of August 11, 2001 (An Act
In this report, we prefer to use the term         Instituting a Framework of Governance for
―Promising Practices‖ instead of ―Best            Basic Education and Other Purposes.) SBM has
Practices‖ as we do not want to presuppose        been the centrepiece of the Third Elementary
that the practices and innovations we have        Education Project (TEEP), a nine-year
chosen have already been benchmarked              PhP12.7B public investment project (1998-
against similar practices at the national and     2006) of the DepEd, supported financially by
international levels. We also do not claim that   the World Bank and Japan Bank of
there is only one way to do things, as there      International Cooperation. TEEP, a direct
are many other innovative ideas we do not         result of Republic Act 9155, had multiple
know and have not been able to document.          goals: (1) improving learning achievement,
The educational practices we highlight here       completion rates and access to quality
have primarily contributed in the area of both    elementary education (2) building the DepEd‘s
organizational innovations that involve new       institutional capacity to steer reforms through
working procedures or techniques, and             teacher effectiveness and better management
process innovations that contribute to the        at all levels; and (3) involving the community
improvement of the quality of public service      and the local government in a large-scale
delivery. Common to all the cases we have         effort to attain quality education. While the
chosen is the use of the school-based             main goal is to improve school performance
management (SBM) approach, which has              and achievement, the objectives are to: ―(1)
demonstrated much promise in improving the        empower the school heads to lead their
quality and reach of public education by          teachers and students through reforms which
democratizing educational planning at the         lead to higher learning outcomes; (2) bring
local or school level.                            resources, including funds, down to the
                                                  control of schools to spur change, in line with
                                                  decentralization; (3) strengthen partnership
1. Promising Practices in Other Philippine        with communities as well as local government
Provinces                                         units to invest time, money and effort in
                                                  making the school a better place to learn; and
Naga City does not have to look for examples      (4) integrate school management and
in other countries to be convinced of how         instructional reform to make the school.‖
further localization and democratization of       (DepEd-TEEP, 2006: 3).
school planning and management, or a school-
based management approach (SBM) has               The SBM-centred TEEP provided efficient and
improved education quality and access. SBM        effective delivery of education services to
was conceptualized as a catalyst of reform in     about 1.7M Filipino children in about 8,600
education, designed as a social laboratory for    elementary schools in the 23 poorest
decentralization, planning with stakeholders,     provinces outside the autonomous region of
social targeting, and information-based
decision making at the school level. Its
principles, structures and guidelines are

Mindanao 1 at the minimal cost of 809 pesos                management (SBM) pursued in the second and
per child over 8.5 years.2 Hardly any school in            final stages. The three major operational
the National Capital Region (NCR) crossed the              components of TEEP are: (1) Civil Works which
75% overall Mastery level in the elementary                manages the School Building Program (SBP)
NAT in SY2005-2006, compared to 11.0% in the               and a few other construction projects; (2)
non-poor      divisions    classified    under             Finance; and (3) Education. The Education
Pampanga+ 3 and the Social Reform Agenda                   Component in particular, has 5 sub-
provinces where the Department of Education                components:      In-Service Training (INSET),
experimented on decentralized education and                Student     Assessment      (SA),   Curriculum,
school-based management through TEEP. But                  Instructional    Materials     and    Textbooks
the SBM-practicing TEEP schools in poor                    (CIMTEX), Policy Research and Special
division showed phenomenal improvements in                 Programs (for Special Education or SPED,
NAT results, comparable to NCR and some of                 Multigrade Schools, and Curriculum for
the better-off Pampanga+ schools. In the                   Indigenous Peoples), and School Improvement
following account of TEEP, we relied heavily               and Innovation Facility (SIIF). The SIIF was the
on the preliminary assessment of the project               key sub-component in developing creative
led by Dr Cynthia Banzon-Bautista, who                     innovations in learning, management and
generously shared her research findings.                   instruction at the school and classroom
The decentralization of basic education
planning and implementation, administration                The TEEP was later modified and restructured
and fund management to the Division level                  in 2001 for greater efficiency in operational
through the Division Project Implementation                and management. The ―principal-led‖ school
Support Unit (DPISU) was done in the first                 building program (SBP) hastened the 90-day
phase of TEEP, since it was created in 1998.               cycle    for   bidding,   procurement    and
Eventually, such decentralization reached                  construction of schools. The program for
down to the school level through school-based              school-based procurement of furniture (SBPF)
                                                           was created and school-based management
                                                           (SBM) was adopted to integrate all
 SRA or the TEEP provinces: Abra, Agusan del Sur,          components above.
Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Batanes, Benguet, Biliran,
Capiz, Cotabato, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao,
Kalinga, Leyte, Masbate, Mountain Province, Negros
Oriental, Romblon, Southern Leyte, Zamboanga Sibugay,      4
Surigao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur.                          To support and tap into the three components, other
                                                           key units were created. The Procurement Unit,
  The project disbursed P11.5B (or 90.6 % of P 12.7 B in   supervised by the DepEd Bids and Awards Committee,
project allotments). If the total disbursement is spread   assisted all three components by ensuring the provision
over the 8,600 TEEP schools, the implied average           of goods and services. The Information, Education,
disbursement per school is about P 1.3M over the 8.5-      Communication and Advocacy (IECA) group worked in
year period. If the P11.5B is spread over the 1.7M total   all three areas to enhance social mobilization,
enrolment, the implied average disbursement is only        networking and the participation of local governments,
P6,849 per pupil, or about eight hundred pesos (P 806)     communities, civic organizations and the private sector
per pupil per year over 8.5 years (Banzon-Bautista
                                                           in school-community partnership. The Monitoring and
                                                           Evaluation (M and E) Component through its Education
 PAMPANGA+ consists of Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan,          Monitoring and Information System (EMIS) provided
Cavite, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Laguna,        technical assistance and maintained the database for
Misamis Oriental, Pampanga, Pangasinan,         Quirino,   all relevant information on the Project.
Rizal, Tarlac, Zambales and all cities outside NCR

The introduction of SBM as a formal                    individual school sites, uniting school
component nurtured ―radical shifts in mind             heads, teachers, students as well as
frames and practices‖, which depended on               parents, the local government units
―the synergy of incremental and simultaneous           and the community in promoting
inputs carried out on a large scale— in about          effective schools. Its main goal is to
8,600 schools-communities, or 21% of the               improve school performance and
public elementary schools nationwide in an             student achievement, where decision-
almost equal number of barangays, 375                  making is made by all those who are
municipalities, and 23 provinces‖ (Bautista            closely involved with resolving the
2006). At the heart of these inputs are (1) the        challenges of the individual schools so
decentralizing practices of participatory              that the specific needs of the students
governance involving multiple stakeholders,            will be served more effectively. Its
(2) a culture of planning and accountability           objectives were to empower the
for student outcomes, and anchored on (3)              school heads to provide leadership;
consistent efforts to monitor implementation           and 2) to mobilize the community as
and results. As Banzon-Bautista (2006) notes:          well as local government units to
                                                       invest time, money and effort in
    ―SBM lies at the heart of the                      making the school a better place to
    management of education reform. It                 learn, thus improving the educational
    embodies an integrative perspective                achievement of the children.‖ (cited
    for organizing change at the school                in Banzon-Bautista 2006).
    level. It is also a practical approach,
    complete with identifiable milestones          SBM within TEEP was launched with the
    and operational guidelines to help             release and widespread dissemination of the
    various actors at the central, division,       draft SBM Handbook and Operations Manual in
    district and school levels tackle              the 23 school divisions. School heads were
    simultaneous activities on the ground.         trained to assume both instructional
    Interestingly, appreciation of SBM, as         leadership and administrative management
    the integrating framework for the              roles. The SBM in TEEP promoted the
    promotion of quality education at the          following elements:
    school level, did not happen overnight.             Start from where the schools are rather
    It transpired in the course of SBM                    than where they ought to be.
    implementation and the discovery of                 Adapt SBM to the ―terrain‖ or contexts
    its possibilities.‖                                   of the 23 divisions.
                                                        Allow for the diffusion of ideas and
                                                          innovations associated with SBM to
The use of SBM framework, which began in                  schools outside the original targets.
1998, became fully utilized in the first three          Implement SBM even before its
years of the TEEP. It is essentially the forging          dimensions      are    fully     defined,
of strong partnerships between the school and             developed and codified.
its community of stakeholders. By mid-2005,             Learn to institute and develop SBM ―on
TEEP had defined SBM as:                                  the run‖ (for TEEP managers), and
                                                          learning by ―doing‖ or by ―dirtying
    ―the decentralization of decision-                    one‘s hands‖ (for school heads).
    making authority from central,                 Source: Banzon-Bautista (2006)
    regional, and division levels to

The iterative development of SBM as the            A distinguishing feature of TEEP-SBM is the
cornerstone TEEP component led to a more           management and liquidation of government
detailed articulation of its goals, basic          funds in cash. The SBM cash grants were never
principles, and defining characteristics. In its   substantial, for example, P8,000 per year or
year and a half of implementation, the TEEP        P667 per month was given to a school with
also developed and adopted a model of              100 pupils and 4 teachers. Yet, as Banzon-
education quality improvement called the           Bautista (2006) argues:
ASSA Model (Assessment, Standards and
Targets, Strategies and Interventions, and            ―(T)he symbolic value of SBM funds
Accountability for Outcomes), the model of            exceeded their monetary value. The
both      instructional      leadership     and       cash grant, an obvious sign of trust in
administrative management in all SBM-                 school heads, gave them the means to
practicing schools. An accountability system          address real needs (e.g. paper for
was set up to keep SBM on track, while                mimeographed tests, the repair of the
allowing room for individual schools to               mimeographing machine, etc) rather
innovate based on their own needs, capacities         than those pre-determined by division
and aspirations.       SBM development was            or regional officials. Moreover,
marked by six broad milestones by mid-2005:           handling funds has had an empowering
           Formulation of a 5-year School            effect on school heads. It also
              Improvement Plan (SIP) with             improved their stature in the
              corresponding Annual Implemen-          community, enhancing their ability to
              tation Plans (AIP);                     lead SBM and raise resources for the
           Identification of all sources of          school.‖ (Banzon-Bautista 2006).
              school funds and setting up of a
              fund accountability system in the    Moreover, the more substantial School
              school                               Improvement and Innovation Facility (SIIF)
           Implementation of SBM                  enabled SBM-based schools ―to pursue
           Conduct of monitoring and              projects that were school-based, innovative,
              evaluation                           aimed at increasing achievement in specific
           Tracking of improvement in             domains, supportive of decentralization,
              performance outcomes                 sustainable, and replicable.‖ Two-types of
           Reporting to school stakeholders       projects developed under the SIIF. The
                                                   Supply-Side SIIF projects focused on improving
SBM developed phenomenally in the 23 TEEP          school-based learning through pedagogical
provinces after its formal launching in 2003.      approaches and teaching materials, while the
By December 2005, 89% of all schools in the        Demand-side SIIF projects covered assistance
23 divisions had SIP/AIPs and about 83% of         to poor pupils by way of provision of school
TEEP schools had specific SBM fund allocations     supplies and nutritional support, among others.
and 68% actually managed SBM school cash
grants by 2005. Eligibility to receive SBM         Critical to the success of SBM and all SIIF
grants in cash was based on fulfilment of the      projects was the mobilization of all
first two broad milestones mentioned earlier.      stakeholders within the school‘s community,
Another grant was extended in the second           including resources such as counterpart funds
year upon achievement of all 6 milestones in       or labour. It was the Parent-Teacher-
the previous year.                                 Community Associations that became more
                                                   active in the course of SBM implementation.

Besides the now-familiar Brigada Eskwela                  fund management/ transparency
organized to augment the school‘s workforce,               measures and resource generation;
the PTCA initiated volunteer organizations              innovations within and outside SIIF
such as (1) Parent Tutorial brigades to tutor              (e.g. innovations in curriculum and
pupils after school; (2) the WOW Brigado,                  instruction, such as individualized
which clean the school premises everyday so                learning; cooperative learning and
that their children can concentrate on their               peer coaching, multimedia-assisted
school work; (3) the Maintenance Brigade to                instruction; reading remediation
mend, paint and do minor repairs on buildings              strategies; the use of portfolios,
and school furniture and equipment; (4) the                parent-assisted learning)
Instructional Materials Brigade to help                 access to basic inputs (e.g.
develop instructional materials and visual                 classrooms, textbooks, etc)
aides under the teacher‘s supervision and               participative SIP/AIP
guidance; and (5) the Nutrition Brigade to              Focused             teacher-competency
take charge of the supplemental feeding                    development/INSET
program.                                                Support          system      at    the
                                                           district/division levels
With active school-government- community         …At the end of the day, SBM served as
partnership, SBM became not just a               mechanism for tying together the philosophy,
component but the integrating framework of       processes and procedures for reforming basic
TEEP. It created new and more energizing         education on the ground.‖ (Banzon-Bautista
roles for higher school authorities as SBM       2006, emphasis supplied).
managers at the central and division levels
encouraged schools to focus their attention on   SBM-practising TEEP schools not only
targeted performance indicators, which in        promoted higher school participation rates.
turn, led to the integration of efforts in       They have also registered lower drop-out
teachers‘ in-service training (INSET), student   rates and higher completion rates compared
assessment, the use of feedback data on least    to non-TEEP schools and to the national
learned skills, monitoring and evaluation, and   averages. In addition, the TEEP schools
partnership with parents and the community       performed      better   on     the    National
towards improvement of student outcomes.         Achievement Tests conducted by DepEd.
                                                 TEEP schools‘ lead over non-TEEP schools is
As Banzon-Bautista (2006) argues: ―SBM is        striking when compared only to the poor
both a governance mechanism through which        provinces, viz., ARMM, Aklan+, Cagayan+ and
decisions are made and the process of using      Iloilo+. Appendix 3 figures show that TEEP
governance mechanisms to improve the             schools attained mastery level at the same
quality of education….Within a short time,       rate as the non-poor Pampanga+. As to the,
SBM ceased to be a mere TEEP component in        TEEP schools were at par with Pampanga+ and
the consciousness of its implementers. It is     NCR in the 60% near mastery level category
now perceived as a framework that integrates     (See Appendix 3). Comparing TEEP and non-
several micro factors at play, in various        TEEP schools in 2002-03, only 16% of TEEP and
combinations and extent of implementation,       a similar 16% of non-TEEP schools attained the
in SBM schools. These factors include the        60% near-mastery level. In 2004-05, only 41%
following:                                       of non-TEEP schools but 51% of TEEP schools
        leadership                              achieved near-mastery level. While TEEP and
        LGU-school/school-PTCA partnership      non-TEEP started out from the same level in

2002-03, relatively more            TEEP schools               making education work for school
attained near-mastery by            2004-05. (See              children and for the country as a whole
Appendix 4).                                                   (DepEd-TEEP 2006: 5).

The number of TEEP divisions among the Top               2. Promising Practices in Other Countries
Ten divisions in the NAT increased from zero
in SY2002-03 to two (Eastern Samar and                   Many developing countries have already been
Surigao Del Sur) in 2003-04 -- and then to               implementing SBM to improve school
three (Eastern Samar, Surigao del Sur and                governance in the public school system. When
Biliran) in SY2004-05. This is an amazing                attempting to describe international good
achievement considering that there are only              practice in any area of governance, we must
23 TEEP provinces among the 188 divisions in             consider and assess the specific contexts and
the country. Biliran‘s entry into the top ten            circumstances of each country.
divisions in 2004-05 is especially phenomenal:
from an MPS of just 44% in 2002-03 to 72% in             In this section, we draw lessons from two
2004-05, almost achieving the 75% mastery                developing country cases, Mexico and
level (Banzon-Bautista 2006).                            Indonesia, that have been implemented SBM.
                                                         On the Mexican case study, we draw from the
In summary, the SBM within TEEP provided the             work by Paul Gertler, Harry Patrinos, and
following benefits to Philippine schools:                Marta Rubio-Codina, Empowering Parents To
     Opportunity for the school heads to                Improve Education: Evidence From Rural
       shift their roles and functions from              Mexico (2003?). According to Gertler, et. al.
       being     ―pliant    supervisors‖   into          there is Relatively little evidence being
       becoming ―dynamic managers.‖                      produced on outcomes of SBM through there
     Development of a more objective                    are Increasing number of projects with
       performance appraisal system for                  School-Based Management (SBM) components.
       school heads based on merit and                   Their study provides an analysis of large-scale
       performance.5                                     compensatory education program in Mexico
     Opportunity for school heads and                   with SBM component through a retrospective
       teachers to decide on curriculum and              evaluation.
       instructional matters.
     Decentralization of funds to schools.              Supply-side    intervention     within    larger
     Opportunity and mechanisms for                     compensatory programs started in Mexico
       parents and the community to become               1991. It was managed by SEP (Secretariat of
       part of the decision-making process.              Public Education), implemented by CONAFE
     Realization of the principle of shared             (Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educativo, or
       responsibility and accountability for             National Council of Education Promotion). The
                                                         Program channelled resources to the worst
                                                         performing schools to reach the most
  Chapter 1, section 5 of Republic Act 9155 states:      disadvantaged social groups and reduce
―Promotion of School heads shall be based on             schooling inequalities. It had led to increased
educational qualification, merit and performance
                                                         schooling availability and school quality
rather than on the number of teachers/learning
facilitators and learners in the school. The             through localized targeting of rural areas.
qualifications, salary grade, status of employment and   Since 1991, the program has constantly
welfare and benefits of school heads shall be the same   evolved in terms of targets & interventions.
for public elementary, secondary and integrated

Some of the prominent CONAFE Interventions         ways parents can help improve learning.
are:                                               Financial support to AGEs consists of annual
a. Learning Materials Provision- Provision of      grants transferred quarterly to APFs‘ school
school and student supplies                        accounts, from $500-$700 a year, according to
b. Teacher Training                                size of school. Although money cannot be
c. AGES (Programa de Apoyo a la Gestión            spent on wages & salaries for teachers, most
Escolar, or     School Management Support          of the money goes to infrastructure,
Program), which          provides monetary         promoting school-parent cooperation, and
incentives and other support to increase           increasing      school    autonomy      through
parental involvement in school management          participation. AGEs gets parents into the
d. Improved technology and infrastructure          school management, thru formal channel. It
e. Teacher monetary incentives                     allows parents to see teacher show up and can
                                                   observe if their children pay attention in
Through the Learning Materials Provision           school.       Parental     involvement      and
component, 4.5 million primary & lower             participation gives parents power in schools.
secondary students annually receive school         AGES are cheap and effective. While unit cost
materials     (notebooks,   pencils,   rulers,     of compensatory program overall is $50, AGEs
geometry kits); 16,000 primary schools &           are much less costly component. Parents at
telesecundarias      received     educational      each participating school receive $500-$700 a
materials & computers. Construction or             year. It involved some 45,000 schools and 4.5
rehabilitation of educational facilities,          million students. Given the total cost of AGE
including classrooms, toilets, playgrounds         school grants at $26 million a year, the annual
within schools: almost 10,000 works each year.     unit cost is $5.86 per student. Another

Through the Teacher Training component,            Our second case study draws from Indonesia
about 13,400 teachers receive monetary             based on the report by Canadian International
incentives intended to reduce mobility &           Development Agency and the Government of
improve teaching; 122,000 teachers in 40,000       Indonesia. We suggest that the Indonesian
schools receive technical & pedagogical            case study has useful lessons for Naga City‘s
feedback. Parental organizations from more         Local School Board. A common topic in our
than 12,000 kindergartens & 47,000 schools         short experience studying Naga‘s public
receive funds to improve school. Initial           education system is the different and
education component serves almost 0.5              sometimes difficult relationship between
million parents through orientation in early       higher level and lower level school authorities.
stimulation & child-care techniques. Other         Democratizing     school    governance     and
management interventions for multicultural         management enriches the outcomes on the
and indigenous education activities were           quality of education. A lack of understanding,
undertaken based on similar principles.            dialogue and cooperation blocks the efforts to
                                                   build stronger quality and empowered public
Perhaps a key innovation of the program is the     schools.
AGES component or School Management
Support which provided support & finance           In discussions about decentralization generally,
training for Parent Associations (APFs).           the subject of communication is rarely
Parents were trained in school management of       addressed as a concern. It may be that
funds transferred to APFs, participatory skills,   government        officials     think     that
information on achievements of students &          communication does not need special

attention and that it is something                  With assistance from UNICEF and other
commonplace that they have always done.             international     development        agencies,
Precisely here lies the danger that inadequate      Indonesia embarked on the use of the School
communication may frustrate the effective           Based Management approach through its
implementation      of   good    governmental       Learning    Communities.     The    successful
planning for decentralization. When the             replication of the SBM in Indonesian schools
matter of information is addressed, it is           had to do with improving coordination and
usually treated as what lower level officials       communication at different levels of
are obliged to provide to higher level officials    government and school supervisors and the
and legislators, not what the government is         way they related to local communities. Both
obliged to give to stakeholders to help them        the government and the people need to plan
in their assessment of results and in holding       how to communicate. Both need to budget
their elected officials accountable. It is          based their financial resource base, and both
therefore important to highlight that good          need to use effective communication
communication must flow in both directions.         techniques.

This international good practice focuses its        We now turn to our Policy Recommendations
attention in terms of planning for                  for the Naga City Government, the Local
communication, budgeting for communication          School Board, the Department of Education
and     communication      techniques    for        and other stakeholders in promoting quality
information dissemination.                          public education in the City.

In 1999, the Indonesian Ministry of National
                                                    VII. Policy Recommendations
Education (at the time, called the Ministry of
Education and Culture) requested assistance         In this section, we outline some of our
from the national development planning              preliminary policy recommendations that the
agency, Bappenas, to provide policy advice on       Naga City government, the Local School Board,
integrating    the     deconcentrated       and     the District of Naga City‘s Department of
decentralized streams in the regional               Education, and the Naga City People‘s Council
operations of the Ministry. This request came       might want to consider in their future
at the time when the two decentralization           planning and program implementation. These
laws (i.e., Law 22/1999 and Law 25/1999)            recommendations are informed by the
were passed by the DPR. Bappenas in turn            principles guiding our choice of best practices
requested assistance from the Development           in the Philippines and other countries. We do
Planning Assistance (DPA) Project. Bappenas         not consider these recommendations to be
Deputy IV, in association with officials of the     complete nor exhaustive as those that the
National Ministry of Education, requested           Naga-based      stakeholders   in    education
assistance in developing a series of national       themselves would be able to put forward.
policies to support decentralization in the         Instead, we make these recommendations
education sector, specifically: (1) organization;   with the view that our suggestions below
(2) human resources; (3) finance; and, (4)          might lead to planning processes and
communication and socialization. This report        programs that could contribute to the
provides input for communication policies to        promotion of quality and universal public
support education decentralization.                 education in Naga City.

1. For the DepEd Naga Division and the             answer to inefficiency and lack of
Local School Board to more fully implement         accountability. School-based management
a School-Based Management (SBM) approach           approach is known to show significant impacts
by invigorating the roles and functions of         in enhancing efficiency, in improved budget
the School Governance Boards, particularly         generation     and   management,        teacher
the principals, teachers and parents.              management       and   pedagogical/curricular
                                                   decisions, with the end result of higher
As explained earlier, SBM is a proposal to         student test performance scores and lower
decentralize and debureaucratize school            costs. As argued by Di Grapello (2006: lvii)
control. At the heart of SBM is the localized      ―Increased decision making autonomy for
promotion of shared decision-making in             schools can increase efficiency by taking
schools. Participatory decision-making, as the     advantage of the superior knowledge that
foundation of SBM, could enhance the               schools have of conditions, needs and
potential for effective expression of local        preferences of families and students, and of
school preferences and community needs and         their greater accountability to families.‖
strengthen     monitoring,    feedback     and
oversight functions. It can improve the flow       Naga City has already experimented with SBM
and use of information within and between          through the creation of School Governance
units in the educational system, resulting in      Boards and a more empowered Local School
better decisions as well as more effective         Board through its ―Reinventing the LSB‖
implementation of those decisions. Most SBM        Project. However, Naga schools have not
schemes call for establishing school advisory      fully   moved     into   the    direction   of
councils, as in the case of the School             implementing SBM, despite the existence of
Governance Boards laid out in Naga‘s               current enabling guidelines, and its many
Guidelines for the Empowerment Fund. This          innovative interventions. The mechanisms for
local school-based governance is responsible       local school-based governance are already
for obtaining systematic inputs and feedback       existing, but there are no subsequent training
on school decisions from teachers, parents,        of principals, teachers, community members
community residents and students as well.          and School Governance Boards in the
When the people who are most familiar with         operationalization of SBM in their schools and
strengths, weaknesses, and problems of             communities.
schools are involved in the process of devising
solutions, there is a stronger likelihood that     The guidelines of the Empowerment Fund
the schools will be more innovative and            already open the space to the further
responsive to school and students‘ needs and       democratization of school-based planning
adaptive to changing circumstances on a            particularly through the creation of the School
timely basis. Participatory decision-making        Governance Boards. There is a need however
can result in improved principal-teacher-          to fully define and institutionalize within the
community satisfaction, teacher morale, and        guidelines of the EF the roles and functions of
student motivation, which could ultimately         the School Governance Boards, by clearly
enhance individual and school performance.         outlining the ways in which the barangay
                                                   officials, teachers, parents, barangay people‘s
Since     centralized      bureaucracies     are   council, and a broad range of students can
particularly inefficient in allocating resources   give their inputs to the School Improvement
and teachers and holding them accountable,         Plan and the Procurement Plan. Including
school autonomy is increasingly seen as the        more members of the school, faculty, student

body and community in all aspects of school        authority, at the district, division, and
management and decision-making – from              regional level as school heads, teachers and
curricular changes and pedagogy to teacher         communities become more empowered to
training and lesson planning -- will build local   implement more autonomous decision-making
capacity, increase accountability, and address     processes. It should be made clear to all
the specific needs of the school, teachers,        educational      stakeholders      that     the
and students.                                      implementation of SBM is not a ―zero-sum‖
                                                   game but rather a ―win-win‖ solution to
There are certain requirements or conditions       educational problems. The support and
for the SBM to succeed as an approach:             leadership of district, division and regional
                                                   superintendents and other higher-level
a. the freedom to develop and adopt teaching       administrators are necessary for SBM to
and learning strategies appropriate to the         succeed.     The successful implementation
schools‘ local conditions;                         depends on carrying out new roles and
                                                   functions of the school heads and higher
b. identifying and matching targeted focus on      authorities who will need to embrace the
least learned skills, literacy and numeracy in     principles and spirit of shared decision-making
the classroom;                                     and accountability to the community.

c. enhancing teacher effectiveness through         The SBM implementation in other Philippine
training and regular sharing of pedagogical        schools has led to new roles, functions and
experiences;                                       competencies of school heads (see Appendix
                                                   5), from a visionary leader, principal
d. continuing instructional supervision of         motivator, advocate and planner, builder of
school heads to make then accountable for          networks and support system to curriculum
the performance of their schools; and              developer, instructional leader and fiscal
                                                   resource    manager.        Merit-based and
e. strong district and division support.           performance-based criteria will have to be
                                                   used in setting appropriate promotion and
The last two items above will require the          appraisal system. The current system of
reinvention of new roles and functions of the      promoting principals based on number of
district and division superintendents in the       teachers and learners will have to give way to
course of the introduction of SBM.                 appraisal and review systems based on merit
                                                   and performance as SBM is implemented.
2. For the DepEd to take the lead role in          Likewise, promotion and salary increases for
institutionalizing SBM by reinvigorating the       teachers will have to reflect similar merit and
roles and functions of the school heads and        performance-based criteria.
higher     levels    of   authority     (e.g.
superintendents and supervisors) who will          SBM implementation will require new roles
promote SBM, train and supervise SBM               and functions for district, division, regional
promoters, oversee quality of SBM conduct          and central DepEd people who will provide
in schools, etc.                                   the necessary support system, from technical
                                                   assistance, SBM training, documentation,
There are some risks posed by the shift to SBM     integrated monitoring and evaluation, among
and the school autonomy it promotes. One is        others.
the potential resistance by higher levels of

We recommend that the Naga City Local             generation management will require the
School Board and the DepEd move swiftly to        collection of much-needed data to document
take the necessary steps to learn more about      progress and identify needs and solutions.
SBM operations and its support systems. It        This will form the basis of the School Situation
could efficiently do this by contacting the       Analysis that will lead to the School Vision and
TEEP Managers, particularly Dr Yolanda            Mission, its Annual Implementation Plans, and
Quijano, TEEP trainor Mama Jean Llorin and        appropriate     Accountability     mechanisms.
other SBM promoters, so that all the district     Baseline data collection is also critical to the
administrators and school heads could be          training of school heads in (1) Education
trained in SBM before it gets implemented in      Quality     Improvement,     (2)   Instructional
the schools. The Operations Manual on SBM         Leadership, (3) Administrative Management,
and its Support System, revised by the DepEd-     (4) Fund Management, (5) Developing the
TEEP in January 2006, could be widely             School Improvement Plan and the Annual
disseminated and used in the district-wide        Implementation Plan, and others that might
and school-level training. As the promotion       be identified in the Training Needs
and implementation of SBM, particularly the       Assessment. Addressing these training needs
use of SBM Funds, require widespread support      is important to the implementation of SBM,
and network, the Naga City LSB will have to       which in turn, relies on pertinent, detailed
work closely with the DepEd in building the       and updated data base of the students,
necessary city-wide support system and            teachers and schools profile, among others.
coalitions to make SBM succeed. There is a        The data base should include as much
need to raise awareness of the connections        variables as possible to be able to identify
and interrelations of the different agencies as   problems, prevent, build different scenarios
well as the wider community working for the       and plan. With accurate information, schools
same goals and objectives. Information            could measure student achievement as well as
dissemination and better understanding of the     all the different factors that influence
functions and roles between agencies              academic improvement and spend resources
strengthens the possibility to build networks     efficiently.
and cooperation.
                                                  The process of teacher, student and
3. Create systems of continuous profiling,        community participation in the baseline
database development and uptake, research,        assessment and situation analysis to aid
monitoring, feedback and information flows        decision making could be clearly articulated
within and between public schools, and            and operationalized in the practice of SBM.
between School Governance Boards, the             Appendix 6 explains how this process was
District Division of DepEd, and the Local         operationalized in the TEEP‘s Assessment,
School Board.                                     Standards, Strategies, and Accountability
                                                  (ASSA). It shows how baseline data collection
                                                  leads to good information flow, from
Central to the SBM implementation in the          developing the school situation analysis to
Philippines is assessment of where schools and    Annual Plan implementation and decisions
school children are at. The Baseline              that promote accountability through regular
Assessment of school performance, student         reporting of results to the school and
performance, teacher and administrator            community by the school principal. The
development, physical plant development,          process provides mechanisms that define the
school-community partnership, and resource        process of bottom up participation to allow

vertical and horizontal flow of information,       - build confidence in relation to local positive
feedback and contributions. The relationship       practices, while building trust that what is
between supervisors, principals and teachers       being offered from outside is of value;
is of utmost importance to develop                 - share experiences and generate solutions,
collaboration and exchange to propose              while introducing new ideas and innovations
solutions towards the good quality of              that may contradict current practices, beliefs
education.                                         and realities.

4. That the Schools, DepEd and the Local
School Board promote and develop a culture         5. That the LSB and DepEd diversify sources
of capacity-building in strategic planning         of resource mobilization using strategic
and life-long learning among teachers,             planning, taxation incentives, cost-sharing,
principals and superintendents, including an       cost-recovery, and volunteerism.
open culture of sharing, exchange,
continuous learning and a reading culture          SBM-practising schools have the potential to
among students and teachers.                       diversify their sources of funding by tapping
                                                   into sources and networks that we often do
Investing in human resources and capacity          not fully utilize in educational planning and
building is important to promoting quality         capacity-building. By using SBM, Naga City
universal    education.    Besides     excellent   schools can develop their own strategic plans
instructional    materials     and    adequate     on how to tap private and semi-private donors,
infrastructure, the training, nurturing and        enter into private-public partnerships or
mentoring of competent teachers are the best       similar resource mixes. This could be done in
tools to improve the quality of education.         coordination with the DepEd and the LSB that
However, the current breakdown of the EF,          can jointly create a mechanism for matching
allocates the lower amount (20%) for teacher       donors and partners with schools that
training and development, compared to 80%          demonstrate both need and capacity, or meet
for instructional materials, infrastructure and    the stipulated criteria or eligibility of donors
other expenses outside the category of human       and partners.
resource development. The Local School
Board might want to rethink the current            The City Government and the LSB can
breakdown of fund allocation to demonstrate        coordinate public-private partnerships in
its commitment to developing a culture of          education to reduce class sizes, revert back to
life-long     learning,    human        resource   the one-shift/whole day class schedules to
development, and capacity building. It should      optimize learning by further expanding the
consider promoting this culture through the        number of public schools, especially in under-
Empowerment Fund that has the intention to         served poor communities, and by hiring more
augment the School Based Management                locally-funded teachers in the event of freeze
generated funds.                                   hiring policy within the DepEd. More resources
                                                   could be found by working and negotiating
Opening up spaces of opportunity within the        closely with partners and donors, as is already
DepEd requires the ability to:                     being done on some community schools being
- recognize, respect and build on existing         ran by churches, faith-based organizations,
strengths within the traditional hierarchical      and foundations. It has been demonstrated
system, while acknowledging and responding         that community schools run by local or
to the need for access to new information;         religious organizations have an advantage in

soliciting and mobilizing funds from parents      needed to support Naga‘s Alternative Learning
and local businesses (Di Grapello 2006). There    Systems; the development of specialized or
are other possible donors such as shopping        focused high school curricula in Math, Science,
mall and real estate developers who can           Computers, and the Arts; the promotion of
provide donated land and materials for school     special education programs, home-based
buildings in exchange for increased zoning        schooling, multi-grade classes and training of
allowances      and/or      tax     incentives.   multi-grade teachers to address the needs of
International development agencies familiar       gifted learners; and the development of
with Naga City‘s innovative programs could be     revenue-generating     distance     education
logical partners for new projects or program      programs.
                                                  Public schools experiencing perennial fund
School-based management and planning can          shortages can utilize SBM in creating self-
also generate new ideas on how to further         financing    schemes,    and    cost-recovery
expand the role of local school volunteers        initiatives. Some of these schemes might
from various sectors and organizations in         include running school-based businesses like
supporting the DepEd‘s Alternative Learning       the canteen, asking teaching staff to take on
Systems, the QUEEN, Sanggawadan, Nutri-           consulting or short-term advisory positions
Duong and other LSB-initiated program             that provide counterpart funds to schools,
innovations.    Currently, there are a few        leasing school properties and other fund
volunteer programs, such as the Ateneo de         raising activities. However, these initiatives,
Naga High School‘s regular reading brigade for    when not carefully planned, could result in
elementary pupils, and the Universidad de         the trend towards the privatization of public
Santa Isabel‘s and Universidad de Nueva           schools and the increased disparities between
Caceres‘ programs to assist out-of-school         schools that are enterprising and those that
youth and promote adult literacy in public        are not.
schools. The reach and resources of these
volunteer programs could be expanded, and         6. That the Local School Board addresses
more and new volunteer programs, similar to       the    generalized     economic    hardships
the Jesuit Volunteer and the Pahinugod of the     experienced by its teachers. It can
University of the Philippines system, could be    endeavour to use locally- generated funds
created. These school volunteer programs          to augment teachers’ salaries to reach at
could be planned more systematically through      least above poverty level lines, raise
a City-wide effort of data-banking and            salaries of locally funded teachers to make
coordination to match volunteers, resources       them comparable to regular teachers, and
and school needs. Foreign students and young      use SBM and strategic planning for
professionals who can bring in independent        community economic development for
sources of funding can be given adequate          teachers and poor families.
support systems while volunteering in Naga
City. Some of these volunteer programs can        Among the most heart-wrenching stories we
also be supported by the private sector,          have heard while doing our field research
including private universities and colleges,      involve not only the poverty of students from
corporations and philanthropic organizations.     low-income families, but also the poverty of
                                                  teachers and the consequent lowering of
These dense social and partnership networks       teachers‘ status in the eyes of the community.
can also lead to the generation of funds          Teaching, once considered a noble and

distinguished profession, has now been            The Empowerment Fund provides 100,000
perceived as one of the most difficult and        pesos to each of Naga‘s public elementary and
low-paying occupations. As teaching has           high school. While a fixed amount equally
declined in its stature and pay scale, so has     given to all schools sounds fair and equal,
the dignity and social esteem of teachers.        some educators feel that some adjustments in
Poverty among teachers is further influenced      this original formula is needed. There are
by the lack of attractive housing, credit and     some schools that are bigger than others in
loan schemes that make teachers resort to         terms of enrolment and class size, thus
local usurers or take cash advances against       requiring more funding. There are also public
their salaries, which eventually leave them       schools located in the relatively well-off
more cash-strapped than before.                   subdivisions while others are located in known
                                                  urban poor communities. The use of SBM in all
As we noted in Section IV, the Naga City          schools could provide some directions as to
Government has done a lot to expand the use       how EF could be best allocated. While it is our
of the Special Education Fund (SEF) by hiring     humble opinion that the EF could be
more locally-funded teachers to supplement        restructured in such as way that funds are
regular DepEd teachers.        The City-funded    allocated based on need and urgency of
teachers however receive salaries equivalent      situation, and that a bigger percentage of
to only 50-60% of the salaries of regular         funds could be earmarked for teacher training
teachers. One unanticipated consequence of        and instructional enrichment, we also believe
this salary differential is the reproduction of   that the details on how to better allocate the
yet another hierarchy among teachers, which       EF could be decided jointly by the Naga LSB
further demoralize faculty members. The City      and the SBM-practicing schools. The use of
could endeavour to generate more resources        SBM might provide the key to uncovering the
to enable them to pay locally-funded teachers     most appropriate and effective allocation of
salaries that are close to the level of DepEd     the EF. It might also lead to the creation of
salaries. In addition, the City could negotiate   mechanisms for greater school accountability
with the private sector and the non-profit        to the community with regards to the use of
cooperative sector the creation of lending,       the EF in areas that require immediate and
housing and income-generating schemes,            strategic attention by the School Governance
including business skills, financial planning,    Boards.
savings,    and    entrepreneurship    training
especially tailored for teachers.
                                                  8. That the City Government, through the
7. That the Local School Board consider the       LSB monitor, evaluate and restructure
reallocation of the Empowerment Fund              QUEEN and Sanggawadan to expand their
based on identification of strategic needs        access and improve their efficiency, and
and consideration of diversity and equity         introduce other similar programs to increase
issues, by using combined clustering and          demand for schooling and reduce the
targeting of schools, as well as clustering       incidence of child and youth labour.
and targeting of recipients of subsidy
programs within schools, to identify the          Perhaps two of the most ambitious
most needy and to allocate resources more         educational programs in Naga City are the
efficiently.                                      QUEEN and Sanggawadan. Many teachers and
                                                  parents we interviewed laud the QUEEN
                                                  expansion to include all students enrolled in

the public school system, as far as the signing     Universal quality education is the goal of a
of parents‘ pledge of commitment, akin to a         democratic and effective educational system.
parent-school contract, and the provision of        Yet, declining school participation, promotion
subsidy to students from poor families. There       and completion rates still translate into high
are concerns being raised however that the          drop-out rate and out-of-school youth.
QUEEN, and by extension, the Sanggawadan,           Demand-side constraints among the poor and
have been overstretched to the extent that          disadvantaged families could be more fully
even students who may not necessarily come          addressed      by    integrated     school     and
from poorest of the poor families, but part of      community       development      planning     that
the working poor, are also being covered by         includes     livelihood      and     employment
the program. This translates to program funds       opportunities,      health     and     nutritional
wastage that could go to the more needy and         interventions,     and     youth    development
deserving students. These concerns emerge in        programs. More specifically, the Naga City
light of the ―targeting problems‖ associated        Government, the various line agencies,
with the QUEEN and other similar programs,          particularly the City Social Welfare and
especially when the program design relies on        Development, City Health, and the DepEd can
imperfect information. In addition, there are       take the lead role in addressing the low
concerns that the programs may not be really        demand for education among the poor
reaching the urban and rural poor families          through vigorous information dissemination
that may prefer to withdraw their children          programs, parenting skills programs that
from school and put them to work as unpaid          promote sound life and decision-making skills
family hands or occupy the lowest-paying jobs       among parents and children, systematic and
in the service or informal sectors.                 targeted monitoring of deserving clients, as
                                                    well as financial and non-financial incentives
Indeed, the success of any conditional              to enable children to enrol, do well, and
transfer or subsidy programs like the QUEEN         remain in school.
and Sanggawadan relies on a number of
factors, among them: (1) well-designed              10. Lastly, we recommend that the Naga
conditionality; (2) good monitoring and             City People’s Council (NCPC) consider
evaluation system; and (3) sound targeting          programs and projects that will reinvigorate
methodology. In turn, these factors depend on       civil society interest and participation in
good local information systems and feedback         public education issues, starting with the
mechanisms that could be generated locally,         organizing and mobilization of an Education
perhaps by using school-based information           or Academic sector.
and communication systems, and information
exchange networks. As noted earlier, the SBM        Our research on the NCPC revealed an
approach might be able to address                   interesting insight with regards to the lack of
imperfections in information generation and         any formal or informal mechanism whereby
communication flows.                                the NCPC sectoral groups (e.g. farmers,
                                                    workers, health, environment, etc.) could
9. Combine various options/programs to              effectively engage with the various city and
address demand-side constraint among poor           central government line agencies (e.g. City
families, e.g. information dissemination, life      Agriculture Office, Department of Labour and
skills, decision-making skills, parenting skills,   Employment, City Health, City Environment
monitoring, financial incentives, etc.              and Natural Resource Office, etc.). In fact,
                                                    there is a current initiative to create a

project that will precisely address this          The role of the State is critical in applying
weakness. It was also revealed that while         participatory and decentralizing approaches
public education remains a high priority in       to the delivery of such an important social
both the City‘s Executive-Legislative Agenda      service. Hence, one of the most controversial
and the eyes of the general public, there is      points in this debate is the privatization of
still no coherent or well-organized education     education. The role of the private corporate
sector within the NCPC that could connect         sectors     in    developing      multi-sectoral
and coordinate with the Naga District‘s           partnership and collaboration in building a
Department of Education.                          sustainable quality education model is
                                                  significant to consider. There is an urgent
We therefore recommend that the NCPC could        need to improve the quality of public
take the lead role in reigniting the interest     education with the support of the private
and imagination of the public and civil society   sector, but it has to be transparent,
organizations in education issues, starting       accountable, community driven and informed
with the organizing and mobilization of an        by social justice principles. The role and
Education or Academic sector that includes,       responsibilities of each sector has to be
among     others    parent-teacher-community      negotiated in terms to the real potential
associations, teachers associations, student      resources, time, capacity, assets and
organizations, and parents‘ groups concerned      opportunities     through      dialogue     and
with educational issues. The NCPC Education       understanding. Improving public education at
Sector representatives within the Education       a local level faces lots of complexity but also
Committee of the City Council could therefore     potential      opportunities     to     manage
initiate relevant legislative proposals and       participation and negotiation.
agendas that aim to promote quality universal
public education. In turn, NCPC organizing at     Even when local governments want to build
the grassroots level in the educational sector    partnership with private sector and civil
could lead to the promotion of SBM in the         society in order to deliver good quality social
public schools and other initiatives that         services, they can not forget that focusing
support and expand the various City-led and       only in market efficiency with social issues
DepEd-led programs on education.                  hides the different aspects and needs of social
                                                  interactions and demands. Top-down decision-
VIII. Conclusions: Risks and Risk Mitigation      making leads to more difficulties in
Strategies                                        transforming big bureaucracies like those in
                                                  public education systems. People are less
There     are    some     risks accompanying      willing to reflect, transform and change in the
decentralization and the institutionalization     face of top-heavy bureaucracies and
of a school-based management approach. One        centralized decision-making structures.
is how the further devolving of functions to
the local level could result in further           There are very clear advantages and
unevenness of quality among schools. There is     challenges when voice and authority are given
also the potential capture of schools and         to parents, students and teachers in decision-
school governance boards by local elite           making around school governance and
interests, as power and control get to reside     management. The investment of the time and
increasingly at the local.                        resources to the needs that the community
                                                  identifies gives ownership and responsibility
                                                  to all the members. There are spaces for

creativity and inventiveness and it is context
driven. Some of the most important
challenges are to remain accountable and to
have clear and fast communication strategies
to     disseminate     decisions,     evaluate
performance and enhance changes.


Banzon-Bautista, Maria Cynthia Rose. 2006. ―Introduction: Schools of the People,‖ Transforming
    Education (draft chapter).

Barcillano, Malu D. Reinventing the Naga City School Board. Improving Education Outcomes.
     Readings on Local Education Reform in the Philippines. Centre for Local Governance Ateneo
     de Naga University

Government of Indonesia and Canadian International Development Agency, Development Planning Assistance
Project Education Decentralization Policy Recommendations: Communication and Socialization, Final Report
SP-16J Prepared by PT. HICKLING INDONESIA. Jakarta, Indonesia, March 2001

DiGropello, Emmanuella. 2006b. A Comparative Analysis of School-Based Management in Central
     America. World Bank Series 72. Washington, D.C. World Bank.

Guevara, Milwida M.. Building an Education Community. Readings on Local Education Reform in the
    Philippines. Centre for Local Governance Ateneo de Naga University

KAAKBAY Citizens‘ Development Initiatives. Philippine Public Education: A Situationer. Readings on
    Local Education Reform in the Philippines. Centre for Local Governance Ateneo de Naga

McGinn, N. and T Welsh. 1999. Decentralization of Education: Why, When, What, and How.
    Fundamentals of Educational Planning 64, Paris, France: UNESCO.

Naga City Planning Department. Reinventing the Naga City School Board. Improving education
    outcomes. PowerPoint Presentation.

Prillies, Willy Jr. ―Education Centre of Bicolandia, Naga Pushes Education Reform‖ Philippines Free
      Press. September 20, 2003. pp 21-23.

Robredo, JESSE M. Reinventing Local School Boards in the Philippines. PowerPoint Presentation.

Appendix 1 – raw data on class size- NAT result

                                  Correlation: Class Size and Test Results



                Class size



                                                                    R2 = 0,0782

                                  0,0   10,0   20,0   30,0   40,0   50,0     60,0   70,0

                                                      NAT results

                                                                                                                                                 DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION - REGION V - NAGA CITY

                                                                                                   DIVISION ORGANIZATIONAL CHART
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SY 2006 – 2007

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         SCHOOLS DIVISION SUPERINTENDENT

                                                                                                                                                                                                         ASST. SHOOLS DIVISION SUPERINTENDENT

                                                PROMOTIONAL STAFF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Line Agencies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE


                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Division Music & Cultural
Division English Coordinator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Medical & Dental Unit
                                                                                                                                                                     ES –I Val Ed & Guidance
                                                                                                   ES –I EPP/ TLE - HE

                                                                                                                                                                                               Division Social Studies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Accounting Section
                                                                  ES –I Mathematics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Personnel Section

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             General Services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Security Section
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Records Section
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Budget Section

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cashier Section

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Supply Section
                               ES –I Filipino

                                                 ES –I Science

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Planning Unit
                                                                                                                                      ES –I Preschools
                                                                                                                         ES –I BALS
                                                                                      ES –I PESS


                               PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT SUPERVISORS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SEC. SCHOOL PRINCIPALS

                                     PRINCIPAL/HEAD TEACHERS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SEC. SCHOOL HEAD TEACHERS

                                                MASTER TEACHERS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MASTER TEACHERS

                               ELEMENTARY SCH. TEACHERS                                                                                                                                                                                                               ______ Line of Supervision                                                                                 SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      . . . . . . . Line of Consultation

                                                                 TEACHERS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               STUDENTS
Appendix 3: Percent of Schools Crossing the 60% and 75% Levels by Division, 2002-2005
Source: JBIC Study Team for the Review of TEEP

       Percent of Schools Crossing the 60% Near Mastery Levels* by Division Cluster, 2002-03 to

                                                                      60% Mastery Level


                                         50                                                                                                   50                 50
                    60                                                                                  37
                     40                                              11
                            15                                                             22        17
                     30                  16                      12                                                                           16           16
                      20                                                                                                      9
                             TEEP ELS

                                          TEEP non-ELS




      Percent of Schools Crossing the 75% NAT Mastery Levels*, by Division Cluster, 2002-03 to 2004-

                                                                                           75% Mastery Level

                                                         17                                                                                        16

                                        18                                  14

                                                                                                       9               9
                                                                                                                                        5                  6
                                           8                                                    1     5
                                                          3                                                          4                          4
                                           6                                  3
                                            4                                                  1                                    1
                                                                                                                                                                   SY 2004-2005
                                            2                                                                                                              0
                                             0                                                                                                                         SY 2002-2003
                                                          TEEP ELS

                                                                            TEEP non-ELS







Appendix 4: Percent Of Schools Crossing The 75% NAT Mastery And 60% Near Mastery Levels*, TEEP
And Non-TEEP Divisions, 2002-03 To SY2004-05

Source: JBIC Study Team for the Review of TEEP

                  5 M eyee
                  7% at r Lvl
                     s                                            N sy t
                                                                0 " a a r lvl

            60                                            0
            50                                            0

             4                                            0
             3                                            0
                                                          3                               Y-
                                                                                         S 23
                               10                               6
             20                                                          6
                                                                         1                Y-
                                                                                         S 45
                   3                                      0
             0             3
                                     S0- 5                0
                                                                                  S4 5
              0                     Y2 3
                                    S0-0                   0
                                                                                 S 23
                       nnEP                                     E
                                                                     nT P

Appendix 5: New Roles, Functions and Competencies of School Heads in SBM

                                                                                 Knowledge/Skills/Attitudes (KSA)
         Roles                             Functions
       Visionary,             Lead in setting the mission, vision              Change and future orientation
        principal               and goals of the school                          Networking,      organizing,  social
        motivator,             Organize/expand                  school,          mobilization, advocacy
        advocate and            community and local government                   Development of teamwork, building
        planner                 networks and groups who will                      consensus, and skills in negotiation
       Builder of              actively participate in school                    and conflict resolution
        networks and            improvement                                      Participatory       planning    and
        support systems        Lead        in    developing         and          administrative management
                                implementing           the        School
                                Improvement Plan (SIP), with the                 Generation and use of data and
                                participation      of    the school               information as the basis for planning
                                constituency and the community                    and management
                               Lead        in    developing         and
                                maintaining the School MIS
       Curriculum             Create a physical and                         Development          of      collective
        developer and           psychological climate conducive                accountability for school and student
        instructional           to teaching and learning                       performance
        leader                 Localize and implement school                 Designing of the curriculum to
                                curriculum                                     address both national goals and local
                               Encourage development and use                  needs and aspirations
                                of        innovative       instructional      Creation of an open learning system
                                methods            focused            on       based on several resource materials
                                improvement           of        learning       rather than on single textbooks
                                outcomes, increasing access to                Participatory     and      peer-based
                                basic education, improving the                 instructional supervision
                                holding power of schools, and
                                addressing          specific        local
   Personnel Manager          Recommend                    personnel           Proper staffing: identifying and
                                appointments to the Division                      improving personnel        capacities
                                Superintendent after consultation                 through a capacity building program
                                with PTCA, from a pool of                         for staff
                                qualified applicants selected for                Leadership by example
                                eligibility by the division
                               Plan and implement a continuing
                                staff development program based
                                on on-going needs analysis
   Fiscal     Resource      Administer        and     manage         all       Fund management
    Manager                   personnel, physical and fiscal                     Serving as model for transparency
                              resources of the School                             and accountability especially in
                             Encourage and accept donations,                     financial management.
                              gifts, bequests and grants for
                              educational purposes and report all
                              such donations to the appropriate
Source: Operations Manual on SBM and its Support System (2006)

 Appendix 6: Assessment, Standards, Strategies, and Accountability (ASSA) in TEEP

                                      STRATEGIES (Annual Implementation Plan)

  ASSESSMENT                           Inputs                                 Outputs
 School Performance    e.g.                                           e.g.                                           Student Outcomes
 Student Development   Textbooks/Instructional Materials
                        Teacher Training                               Improved Instruction
                        School head’s Supervisory Plan
 Teacher/Admin         Improvement of school facilities                                                                achievement,
 Physical Plant        Parents’ participation in supervision of                                                        Completion, Drop-
   Development          children’s homework                                                                             out Rates, Life
 School-Community                                                     Enhanced Learning Environment                    Skills, Vocational
   Partnership          PTCA organized into parent brigades                                                             efficiency and work
 Resource              to assist in various school activities                                                          skills
   Generation and
   Management           Supplementary Feeding
                                                                       Improved nutritional status of
                        Regular assessment of Students                 students
                                                                       Remedial or other assistance of
                        Tracking of students especially those          students w/ difficulties
                        at risk                                        Reduced Drop-out rate/increased
                                                                       completion rate

                                                                                              Increased (MPS) Mean Percentage Scores of students
                                                                                              from _____ to _____
    Situation              School Vision                           STANDARDS                  Zero non-readers, Grades 1-6
    Analysis               and Mission                              (Priorities)
                                                                                              Zero non-numerates, Grades 1-3
                                                                                              School Performance indicators set as follows:
                                                                                            Enrolment rate: from ___% to ____%
                                                                                               Completion rate: from ___% to ___%
                                                                                               Drop-out rate: from ___% to ___%

                         (Monitoring and Evaluation)  Reporting to the Stakeholders

 Source: Operations Manual on SBM and its Support System (2006)


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