Organizations by liwenting

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Rational, Natural, and Open Systems

        W. Richard Scott, 1998
           Organizations
“Young people today will have to learn
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organizations the way their forefathers
learned farming.”
                                [Peter Drucker]
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“The fact is that the organization of the large
formal enterprises, governmental or private,
in modern society is modeled on, is a
rationalization of, tendencies that exist in all
human groups.”
                              [George Homans]
  Diverse levels of analysis
1) The behavior or interpersonal relations
   involving individual participants within
   organizations [social psychological level]
2) The structural features or processes that
   characterize organizations [structural level]
3) The characteristics or actions of the
   organization viewed as a collective entity
   operating in a larger system of relations
   [ecological level]
      The elements of
      organizations (1)
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      • The social structure
               – Normative structure: values, norms, and
                 role expectations
               – Behavioral structure: actual behavior that
                 exhibits some degree of regularity
               – Formal and informal social structure                                 QuickTime™ and a
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organizations (2)
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• Participants-social actors
  – Organizational participants are those
    individuals who, in return for a variety of
    inducements, make contributions to the
    organization
• Goals
  – Goals are conceptions of desired ends that
    participants attempt to achieve through
    their performance of task activities
THE CASE: NIKE
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• Participants-social
  actors
   – Organizational               –   Employees
     participants are those
                                  –   Management
     individuals who, in return
     for a variety of             –   Shareholders
     inducements, make            –   …
     contributions to the
     organization
• Goals
   – Goals are conceptions of         “To bring inspiration and
     desired ends that                innovation to every athlete* in
     participants attempt to          the world”

     achieve through their
     performance of task          * If you have a body, you are an athlete.
     activities
The elements of
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• Technology
  – The organization is a place where some
    type of work is done, as a location where
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    energy is applied to the transformation of
    materials (input-output)
• Environment
  – Every organization exists in a specific
    physical, technological, cultural, and social
    environment to which it must adapt
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organizations (3)
• Technology
  – The organization is a       – Silicon processes, and
    place where some type         architectures
    of work is done, as a       – High-tech
    location where energy is
    applied to the              – Highly specialized skills, and
    transformation of             knowledge
    materials (input-output)    – …
• Environment
  – Every organization exists   –   Silicon valley, CA
    in a specific physical,
                                –   U.S. regulations
    technological, cultural,
    and social environment      –   Competitors
    to which it must adapt      –   Stanford, Berkeley, UC…
                                –   …
            The benefits of
            organizations
• Durability
   – They are designed to persist over time
• Reliability
   – Organizations are good at doing the same process
     in the same way over and over again
• Accountability
   – The organizational structure provides guidelines
     and justifications for activities and decisions
         Three perspectives
• The open system
• The natural system
• Theperspective system
       rational
  perspective
  perspective are systems
    Organizations
    Organizations are
    collectivities whose
    Organizations are
    of interdependent activities
    participants are pursuing                      c m
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    linking shifting coalitions of
    collectivities oriented
    different interests, both
    participants; the systems
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    disparate and common, but
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    to the pursuitinofof
    are embedded -
    recognize the value
    perpetuating specific
    relatively the organization
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    dependent on continuing
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    as an important resource.
    exchanges with and
                    exhibiting
    goals and structure of
    The informal by - the
    constituted
    relations thathighly
    relatively develops
    environments in which
    among participants provides
    formalized social
    they operate
    a more informative and
    structures to
    accurate guide
    understanding organizational
    behavior than the formal

								
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