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Office Ergonomics PowerPoint Presentation

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									  PC User’s Survival Guide
Managing Preventable Injuries
 In the Office Environment
          Alan Graham COTA/L CECD
From the Greek Ergo (“Work”)
and Nomos (“Law”)

Means fitting the work and
the worker together so that
both are well matched to one
                                Fictional Computer Villains

• Plot to take over the world
• Enslave people to serve machines
• Passionlessly terminate opponents
• See and Know everything
                                      Real Computer Villains

• Create physical, emotional and mental pain gradually
• Enslave users through promised (though never realized)
• Easily loose critical information
Human Nature and Adaptation

When faced with a challenging and
important job, human nature is to first
adapt the worker to the work.

If, however, the job frequently requires
this kind of adaptation or the work
requires awkward postures and highly
repetitious or resistive effort, the
outcome may eventually be a worker
The Bucket Model


     Job Demands
The Bucket Model


 Job Demands
 Recognize the Symptoms of an Office
            Related MSD*
 Radiating burning pain, numbness or “pins and needles” in
 the trunk, neck or extremities.
 Soreness or fatigue in arms, legs and back that occurs
 while working and doesn’t go away within an hour.
 Pain in the upper extremity, back or neck often not noted
 until the end of the day which prevents sleep or wakes at
 The worker avoids carrying children or participating in
 tasks they normally enjoy because those tasks are now

*Musculoskeletal Disorder
Common Office MSD’s
 •Carpal Tunnel
   •Neck and Back Strain
    •Shoulder Strain or Tendonitis

       •Lateral and Medial Epicondylitis

          •DeQuervain’s Tendonitis
MSD Factors in the Office
1. Nerve compression
2. Repetitive strain
3. Prolonged static loading (especially when combined with
   resistive pinch or grip)
4. Awkward postures
5. Lack of appropriate breaks or excessive work pace
6. Sedentary workers performing occasional resistive tasks
7. Stressors which modify the normal responses to
   discomfort, pain and fatigue
Acquired and Inherited Comorbid Factors

1. Glandular disorders
2. Genetic abnormalities
3. Bony abnormalities
4. Neurological disorders
5. Autoimmune disorders
6. Connective tissue disorders
7. Other diseases or injuries
The Worker
           The average office worker
           rarely receives instruction how
           to properly set up her area for
           comfort and efficiency
           Normally she has arranged her
           area by trial and error
           …Or she has left it very close
           to the arrangement of the
           person who just clocked out
         (Who also never adjusted it)
Back rest adjusted to
provide good lumbar            Seated
Sitting Posture

                          Good Seating is
                          foundational to overall
                          good office worker
                          posture and position.
                          Trunk upright or
                          slightly reclining
                          (10 degrees or less)

                        One fist width (3-3 1/2”)
                          knee to chair edge
Rule of 90’s
                  Elbows at 90 degrees
                  or slightly less with a
                  neutral shoulder

               Knees hips and ankles at
               90 degrees or slightly less
                   Seated or
Neutral Neck       Standing
               Neck should be neutral to
               slightly forward flexed
               Neck should never be held
               in extension while working
               Dynamic rotation of the
               head should be limited to
               30 degrees side to side
               Static rotation of the head
               to face the monitor or
               work is not acceptable
Look familiar?

                 This posture should be
                 corrected with a headset or
                 use of a speaker phone.
Twisting and Bending
               Seats should pivot, not
               backs or hips
               May be a clue the space is
               too restricted
               May indicate flaws in
               workstation setup or work
               May relate to bad habits
               and require education of
Static Working Postures
                  Static loading causes an
                  anaerobic condition in
                  skeletal muscle.
                  Sustained hold of limbs or
                  objects against gravity or
                  resistance creates resting
                  Symptoms of fatigue,
                  stiffness and pain result
                  from “doing little or
                  nothing at all”.
                  Workers should vary tasks
                  at least every two hours.
Interface Pressures
                      32mm of mercury is
                       sufficient to cut off
                      capillary blood flow

                         Nerve is unforgiving of
                         sustained pressures in
                         every case
Reach and Excursion

                 How far is too far to
                 reach when seated?
      Comfort Zone

      Horizontal Arc of Grasp
                    Optimum Working Distance
                    30” wide x 17” forward reach


         12 – 17”              22 – 26”     20”


Maximum vs. Comfortable Reach

                    As as general rule
                    forward reach should
                    be limited to 2/3 of
                    maximum for routine
                    seated work

Appropriate Breaks

 Breaks are not always rest periods

 Balance work activities with worker “biorhythms”

 Change position and tasks at least every two hours

 Tasks must use different muscle groups and vary
 requirements for posture, pinch and grip
This new PC is great!
I especially love the built in drink
The Workstation

    Ideal    VS   Reality
Maximum Adjustability

Since workers vary in shape, size, gender and
stature the workstation needs to be flexible
The Worker and Workstation
  should “fit one another”
Desk Height
         30-33 inches for writing desk
         23-29 inches for keyboarding*


           * An add on adjustable keyboard tray
          may often be used to correct desk height
Counter Clearance

 Make sure there
 is enough space
 to allow you to
 step close to the
Height Standard
 Use lower counters or cutouts when handling
 stacks of books and heavy loads.
Neutral Relaxed
                  Spine should be balanced

                  Move feet to turn – don’t
                  Antifatigue mat

                  Try to vary leg position
                  (foot rail or footrest)
                  Sensible shoes

                  Rotate jobs and readjust
                  the workstation as needed
Establish right to left work flow
                   The workstation should
                   accommodate logical
                   flow of work and be able
                   to contain all routinely
                   used items without
                   extended reach.
                   As a rule, when using
                   things infrequently, get
                   up and take a break
                   from the workstation to
                   retrieve them.
Proper Mouse Placement
            The mouse should always be
            positioned on the same level and as
            close to the keyboard as possible
            It should never require extended
            reach or contact with the edge of
            any surface
            It is often necessary to add an
            additional mousing surface to
            keyboard drawers or trays.

                           In most cases keyboards
                           should be flat or declined
                           not inclined to achieve
                           neutral wrist flexion
                           Never use split or folded
                           keyboards with typists that
                           need to look at the keys
                           Wrist rests are not
Inclined keyboards are a
throwback to typewriters

          Desktop vs. Tower
          On desk vs. under desk
          Access and dust issues
          Monitor distance should be a
          minimum of 20 inches (no more
          than 30)
          Brightness needs to be about 10x
          greater than a sheet of paper held
          to the screen.
          Position so that no light source
          reflects from it’s surface when it
          is off
          Flat screens provide a much
          smaller footprint
            For seated work footrests
            are needed to bring a short
            worker up to a fixed height
            Otherwise use them if you
            need to but not routinely
            Footrests may be required
            for workstations that have
            an inclined work surface or
            at a counter (alternate feet)
Hazard Control

 Workforce exposure to all current and
 potential hazards should be prevented or
 controlled by using engineering controls
 wherever feasible and appropriate, work
 practices and administrative controls, and
 personal protective equipment.
 The Artsy side of Ergonomics:
     or “some lessons learned the hard way”

•Solve only the current problem without causing a new one
•When possible, manage the root cause not the “obvious”
•Total solutions are often impossible, improvement may be
•Some workers can’t physically tolerate the job they were
•Be careful not to create “workstation envy” in the office
The Artsy side of Ergonomics:
  or “some lessons learned the hard way”

 •The worker frequently has at least a part of the
 solution – listen
 •Workers will often ignore your recommendations
 and resist change – even if they requested help
 •Recommend “new” only when “old” is unfixable or
 •Cost may be a legitimate barrier to solution – or an
 •Both employer + worker need feel the fix is “worth
 the bother”
The Artsy side of Ergonomics:
  or “some lessons learned the hard way”

 •During the break-in time symptoms may worsen
 before improving
Bad isn’t Always “ Bad ” :

A brief disclaimer:

 If a workstation is rarely used throughout
 the workday (less than 2 hours total)
 and/or the worker is at the keyboard for a
 few minutes at a time and constantly
 changing position an ergonomically awful
 setup may be fine for the present.
            Stretches and desk
            exercises are controversial
            Theory: Unused muscle
            gets a chance to lengthen
            and rest, blood flow is
            Why not take a walk down
            the hall, file reports or do
            other productive tasks
A little shameless self promotion

            (440) 285-6398

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