Reaction in the 1920s
• Definition: A socio-political policy favoring the interests of native inhabitants over those
• The Passing of the Great Race by Madison Grant
• Sacco and Vanzetti Case: 1920 case where two foreign born anarchists were arrested for
payroll robbery. Many believed that they were sentenced more for their political ideas rather
than ethnic origins
• Immigration Restriction: Emergency Immigration Act of 1921 and
Revival of the Ku Klux Klan
• Started because of nativism
• Founder was William J. Simmons
• Very strong in the Midwest and South
• Hostile to African-Americans, Catholics, Jews, Foreigners, and suspected Communists
• Had around 5 million members by 1925
• Decline-Corruption, immorality, and the role of Grand Dragon Stevenson
• A movement or point of view marked by rigid adherence to fundamental or basic principles.
• Reaction to the rise of Modernism
• William J. Bryan was one of the great leaders
• Rise of antievolution bills in Midwest and South
• Scopes Trial-1925-John Scopes taught evolution to this Tennessee High School class and
was arrested for violating the law of Tenn. Clarence Darrow defended Scopes and William J.
• Influenced by WCTU, Anti-Saloon League and rise of anti-liquor laws throughout the states.
• Jubilee Convention of 1913
18 Amendment-1919-prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages, including
liquors, wins, and beers.
• Caused rise of stills, speakeasies, organized crime.
• Rise of Al Capone and gangs who made money in the bootlegging trade.
• Republicans mostly supported the “noble experiment”, but Democrats were divided.
• st th
21 amendment repealed 18 in 1933
• Social and intellectual revolution
• Development of a new, cosmopolitan culture
• Sinclair Lewis’s Main Street-portrayed the stifling, mean, cramped life of a prairie town
• Thomas Wolfe-Look Homeward Angel-Discussed the unrelenting drive to go to the City
• The symbol of the new and modern culture
• Very popular among High Scholl and college youth
• Movies-Mary Pickford and the Vamp
• The “New Woman” is a reaction to old Victorian values.
• Women’s dress and demeanor change significantly.
• Influence of Sigmund Freud’s Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex
• Margaret Sanger influenced the movement for easy access to birth-control
• Great Migration north and the increased political influence of African-Americans in northern
• Harlem-Located in New York in the 1920s. This was the center for talented African-American
actors, artists, musicians and writers. The writers focused on African-American heritage and
expressed a range of emotions from bitterness to joy.
• Important Writers-Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, Zora Neal Hurston, Countee Cullen
Marcus Garvey and Negro Nationalism
• UNIA-Formed in 1916-advocated individual and racial pride for African-Americans
• Organized for black separatism, economic self-sufficiency, and a back to Africa movement
• Black Star Steamship
• Influence of the Niagara Movement
• Wanted to inform people of social problems and used legal action to bring down racism
• Buchanan v. Worley-1917
• Guinn v. U.S.-1915
• Campaign for a federal anti-lynching clause
• Scottsboro Case
Culture of Modernism
Science and Social Thought
• Einstein’s Theory of Relativity showed there are no absolutes
• Werner Heisenberg’s Principle of Uncertainty-believed that atoms were indescribable and the
very process of observation would inevitably affect the behavior of the particle. Human
Knowledge has its limits.
Modernist Art and Literature
• Depicted the alienation caused by the failure of the League of Nations, failure of social
experiments, and rise of Communism and fascism.
• Emphasize the subconscious and stream of conscious
• T.S. Eliot’s-The Wasteland
• Ezra Pound-leader of imagist poetry
• F. Scott Fitzgerald-This Side of Paradise and The Great Gatsby
• Gertrude Stein coins The Lost Generation
Progressivism in the 1920s
• Dissolution of the progressive coalition in Congress
• Survival of progressivism in the twenties is in the state and local levels
Election of 1920
• Mood of the country is the return to normalcy
• Warren G. Harding-Republican Nominee
• James Cox-Democratic nominee
• Harding won with an electoral vote of 404 to 127
• Secretary of State-Charles Evans Hughes
• Commerce Department-Herbert Hoover
• Secretary of Treasury-Andrew Mellon
• Lesser offices filled with the Ohio Gang
• Many wanted to dismantle and neutralize any of the social and economic components of
• Pro-business tone of government
• Revenue Act of 1926-extended further benefits to high-income groups by lowering estate
taxes and repealing the gift tax
• Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922-increased rates on chemical and metal products and further
extended duties on farm products.
• Mellon insisted on European powers paying all borrowed
• Conservatives would be appointment to ICC, FRB, and FTC
• Harry M. Daugherty-Attorney General implicated in fraudulent handling of German assets
seized after the war and for taking bribes for agreeing not to prosecute certain criminal
• Teapot Dome Scandal-Albert B. Fall accepted bribes for granting oil leases in Wyoming.
• August 1923
• Successes-pardoned Debs, pressured steel magnates
• Weaknesses-corruption of administration
• Silent Cal
• Believed in passive deference to Congress
• Focused on industrial development at the expense of labor
• Calvin Coolidge-Republican
• John W. Davis-Democratic
• La Follette –Progressive
• Significance-Coolidge wins by a majority and the election shows the major gap between rural
and urban voters.
• Consumption Ethic
• Mass Advertising
– Movies-Great Train Robbery, Birth of a Nation, Jazz Singer
– Radio-NBC and CBS
Image of Buster Keaton-Silent Film Star
Example of Advertising
Republican Economic Policies
• Herbert Hoover advocated “cooperative individualism”
• Enlarged Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
• Trade Associations-Business leaders in a given field would gather and disseminate
information on sales, purchases, shipments, productions, and prices. Allowed for greater
efficiency and planning, but also could led to corruption.
• Weak point in the economy, collapse of prices.
• However..increased mechanization with drills, plows, planters, fertilizers led to larger and more
• The Farmer’s Union and the American Farm Bureau-farmer organization that had a business
like attitude and helped to push through legislation to prevent collusion designed to keep farm
• McNary-Haugen Bill-This plan wanted to dump farm surpluses on the world market in order to
raise prices in the home market. Vetoed by Coolidge
• Rise in real wages
• Unions’ Setbacks
– Red Scare
– America Plan which advocated the open shop with caused discrimination against those
who were a part of a union.
– Yellow Dog Contracts forced workers to agree to stay out of unions.
– Gastonia Strike
Election of 1928
• Herbert Hoover-Republican-Platform-cost-cutting, debt, tax reduction, and protective tariff
• Alfred E. Smith-Democrat-Platform-economic equality of agriculture and other industries and
he wanted to liberalize the Volstead Act. 1 Catholic to be nominated as a major candidate for
• See a realignment of big cities voting Democrat
• Hoover wins!
Hoover’s Initial Policies
• Took actions against corrupt patronage practices
• Agricultural Marketing Act-set up a federal farm board with a revolving loan fund of 500 million
dollars tohelp farm cooperatives to market the major commodities
• Hawley-Smoot Tariff-1930-carried duties to an all time high
Problems with the Economy
• Collapse of Florida real estate
• Rising stock prices and buying on margin
• The Crash-October 29, 1929-BLACK TUESDAY
CAUSES OF THE CRASH
• Uneven distribution of income
• Stock market speculation
• Excessive use of credit
• Overproduction of consumer goods
• Weak farm economy
• Government farm policies
• Global economic problems
Immediate effects of Crash
• GNP dropped from 104 billion to 56 billion in four years
• Income decline by 50%
• 20% of banks closed
• Hawley Smoot Tariff-1930
• Dawes Debt Moratorium Plan
• Federal Farm Board
• Reconstruction Finance Cooperation
• Glass-Steagall Act
• Federal Home Loan Bank Act
• He focused primarily on trickle down theory and urged confidence in the market
• Farmers formed a Farm Holiday Association which attempted to reverse the drop in prices by
stopping the entire crop of grain harvested in 1932 from reaching the market.
• Bonus March-Spring 1932WWI veterans marched on D.C. to demand repayment of bonuses
promised them at a later date and Hoover orders MacArthur to use tanks and tear gas to
destroy the shantytown and drive the veterans away.
Election of 1932
• Franklin D. Roosevelt-Democratic Nominee
• Herbert Hoover-Republican
• FDR wins electoral college by 472 to Hoover’s 59
20 amendment is passed which is known as the Lame duck amendment. Provided
presidents would take office on January 20 and Congress would convene on January 3.
• FDR promised the three R’s-Relief, Recovery and Reform
• Brain Trust-Panel of advisers to FDR
• Some wanted antitrust action others wanted collaboration with big business, and some
recommended increased government spending.
Strengthening the Financial Institutions
• Bank Holiday-March 9, 1933
• Emergency Banking Relief Act-permitted sound banks to reopen provided and provided
managers for those that remained troubled.
• Economy Act-granted the executive branch the power to cut salaries, reduce payments to
veterans, and reorganize agencies.
• Beer-Wine Revenue Act-amended the Volstead Act.
• Emergency Farm Mortgage Act and Farm Credit Act-confirmed the action and authorized
extensive refinancing of farm mortgages
• FDIC-guaranteed bank deposits up to $5,000.
• Federal Securities Act-required full disclosure of information about new stock and bond issues
• SEC-regulated Stock market
• Gold Reserve Act-1934-F.D.R. wanted to impound all the gold and take the U.S. off the gold
• Civilian Conservation Corp
• Federal Emergency Relief Administration led by Hopkins
• Civil Works Administrations
• Agricultural Adjustment Act-May 1933
• Commodity Credit Corporation which extended loans to cotton and other crops kept in storage
and off the market.
• Effects-caused decline in supply of crop goods and increase in commodity prices
• U.S. v. Butler-declared AAA unconstitutional.
Soil and Conservation Act-2 AAA
• National Industrial Recovery Act-1933
• National Recovery Administration led by Hugh S. Johnson
• They wanted to stabilize business and generate purchasing power by providing jobs, defining
labor standards and raising wages
• NRA and the Blue Eagle
• Declared unconstitutional
TVA-Tennessee Valley Authority
• David E. Lilienthal-director
• Built dams, powerplants, controlled flooding and erosion
• Sold electricity to residents at rates that were very cheap
• Paved the way for the REA-Rural Electrification Administration
Human Cost of the Depression
• Depression mentality
• Unemployment is around 30%
• Increase in crime
• Decrease in birthrates and marriages
• Dust Bowl Migrants-from the Great Plains and went westward looking for jobs. Steinbeck’s
Grapes of Wrath depicts their experiences
• Many programs were for whites only
• Some African Americans were given jobs with the WPA and CCC and FDR appointment over
100 African-Americans to middle level positions in Federal departments.
• Mary McLeod Bethune established the Federal Council on Negro Affairs
• Marian Anderson
• Lacked citizenship and many were forced to return to Mexico.
• John Collier is appointment the commissioner for the Bureau of Indian Affairs
• He established CCC projects on reservations
• Indian Reorganization Act-1934
Culture in the Thirties
• Pragmatism made a comeback in artistic expression
• Most literature and art are a social commentary on the poverty and life of those impacted by
• Grant Wood-American Gothic and regionalist art
• Role of the Federal Writers’ Project
• Radio-escape from Depression-Amos n’Andy, Dick Tracy, and FDR’s Fireside Chats
• Movies-Escapism-Depicted wealth and glamour-Gone with the Wind, Marx Brothers
Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert in It Happened One Night
Jimmy Stewart in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington
James Agee and Walker Evans
• Let us now Praise Famous Men-
• Depicted the lives of farmers in the south.
• Focused primarily on tenant farming and sharecropping.
Second New Deal
• Role of Eleanor Roosevelt
• Criticism of the New Deal
– American Liberty league
– Huey P. Long-Share Our Wealth
– Francis Townsend-suggested pensions for elderly
– Charles E. Coughlin-criticized the banking system and founded the national Union for
– Supreme Court
• Schechter Poultry Corp v. U.S.-1935
Legislative Achievements of 2 New Deal
• Wagner Act-1935-gave workers the right to bargain through unions of their own choice and
prohibited employers from interfering with union activities.
• NLRB-supervised unions
• Social Security Act-1935
• Works Progress Administration-led by Hopkins
• Revenue Act-1935-raised income taxes, estate taxes, gift taxes, and corporate taxes.
Election of 1936
• Alfred Landon-Republican Nominee
• FDR-Democratic nominee
• Significance-see a realignment in voting with African-Americans and midwestern farmers.
• New Deal Coalition
• Because the courts continued to declare legislation unconstitutional, FDR wanted to increase
the size of the court to assure support of New Deal legislation.
• Reaction-FDR is accused of being a dictator
• Aftermath-Supreme Court began to uphold the constitutionality of several major acts and
several justices retired.
Changes in Labor
• Renewed unionization
• Committee for Industrial Organization-led by John L. Lewis and it formed in 1935 in response
to the domination of the AFL by craft unions.
• Strikes occurred in 1937 at the GM plan in Flint Michigan and Republic Steel. FDR refused to
send troops and the Steel workers Union was recognized.
Recession of 1937
• Slump in the economy caused debates over the policy. Morgentheau vs. Ickes
• Causes??-government policy of reducing expenditures and reduced consumer spending.
• Keynesian Economics-supported deficit spending to spur the economy
Legacy of the New Deal
• Emergence of the broker states
• Rise of the New Deal Coalition
• Saved capitalism
• Restoration of hope
• Increased government responsibility
Diplomacy in the 1920s
The New Era: The Fiction of Isolation
• Charles Evans Hughes-Secretary of State
• Washington Conference-1921-U.S. initiated talked on naval disarmament. Representatives
included: China, Belgium, Great Britain, France, Italy, Netherlands, and Portugal
• Results of the Talks:
– Five-Power Treaty-reduce the size of navies
– Four Power Treaty-uphold Open Door Policy in China
– Nine Power Treaty-respect territorial holdings in the Pacific and no aggression in the
• This treaty renounced the aggressive use of force to achieve national ends.
• Charles Dawes, an American Banker, negotiated a compromise that was accepted by all
sides. This plan established cycle of payments flowing from the U.S. to Germany and from
Germany to the Allies.
Good Neighbor Policy
• Harding Administration-paid Colombia an indemnity for our involvement in Panama. Began to
withdraw troops in Dominican Republic and Nicaragua
• Coolidge Administration kept marines in Nicaragua because of the corrupt government.
Coolidge traveled to the Pan-American Conference
• Hoover Administration-recognized governments regardless of their behavior. Clark
Memorandum denied the Monroe Doctrine justified American intervention in Latin America.
7 Pan American Conference-Montevideo, Uruguay- (1933)supported and amendment
that stated that no state had the right to intervene in internal or external affairs.
8 Pan American Conference-(1936) reinforced goodwill by pledging to submit future
disputes to arbitration and also warned that if a European power committed an act of
aggression, then it would find a hemisphere prepared to consult together for the mutual good.
• Mexico-1938-Lazaro Cardenas seized U.S. oil properties in Mexico. FDR does not intervene.
• London Economic Conference-1933-
• Recognition of the Soviet Union
• Philippines-Tydings-McDuffie Act-1934
• Trade Agreement Acts-authorized the president to lower tariff rates as much as 50% for
countries that made similar concessions to American products-1934.
Rise of Fascism
• Benito Mussolini
• March on Rome-1922
• Victor Emmanuel II
• Characteristics of Fascism
Rise of fascism in Germany
• National Socialism
• January 1933-made Chancellor
• Invasion of Manchuria-1931
• Mukden Incident-1931
• Establishment of Manchukuo-1932
• Stimson Doctrine-1932
Aggression in Asia and Europe
• Italian Invasion of Ethiopia-1935
• Hitler’s Occupation of the Rhineland-1936
• Spanish Civil War-1936-Francisco Franco
• Japanese Invasion of China-1937
• Anti-Comintern Pact-1937
• Hitler’s Anschluss with Austria-1938
• Hitler takes the Sudetenland-August 1938
• Neville Chamberlain-Britain
• Edouard Daladier-France
• Agreed to allow Hitler the Sudetenland with the promise that he would not invade the rest of
• Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia in March of 1939
• Nye Committee-1934-stated the main reason for U.S. participation in the Great War was to
serve the greed of bankers and armed manufacturers.
• First Neutrality Act of 1935-prohibited the sale of arms to belligerents and travel on
• Moral embargo asked by Sec. of State Hull to protest against Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia.
• Neutrality Act of 1936-forbade the extension of loans and credits to belligerents.
• Neutrality Act of 1937-forbade the shipment of arms to opposing sides in the Spanish Civil
Reactions to Japanese Action in China
• Did not invoke neutrality against Japan
• Quarantine Speech-October 5, 1937
• Panay Incident-December 12, 1937-Japanese planes bombed the American gunboat and the
Japanese apologized and paid reparations.
• Ludlow Amendment-public referendum for a declaration of war-not passed.
• Neutrality Act of 1939-Cash and Carry for allies and excludes the belligerent ports and keeps
American ships out of specified war zones.
War Begins in Europe
• Hitler’s Blitzkrieg
• America’s Involvement
– Aid to Britain
– a-arms sales
– B-Destroyer-bases deal
– FDR revitalized
– Public Debate over American involvement
• Committee to Defend America
• America First Committee
Election of 1940
• FDR-Democratic Nominee
• Wendell Willkie-Republican Nominee
• Results-FDR won because of
– Strong economic recovery based on defense purchases
– Fear of war causing voters to stay with a more experienced leader
Arsenal of Democracy
• 1. Four Freedoms Speech-Jan. 1941-part of the speech was to justify the Lend-Lease Act
• Lend-Lease Act-end the cash and carry requirement of the Neutrality Act and allowed for
American businesses to loan money and send arms/munitions.
• Further Axis Gains-British withdrawal of Egypt; Yugoslavia and Greece overwhelmed by
Germans. Influenced opinion to uphold Lend-Lease
• Invasion of Soviet Union in June of 1941
• Atlantic Charter-secret meeting between FDR and Winston Churchill. The two leaders agreed
to self-determination, equal access to raw materials, economic cooperation, freedom of the
seas, and a new system of general security.
• Conflict with Germans
– Convoy System established in Sept. 1940
– Neutrality Acts repealed due to Kearny and Reuben James incidents
Disputes with Japan
• Led to the Export Control Act of 1940
• Tripartite Pact-Japan, Germany, and Italy
• Hideki Tojo rose to power and stated that Japan would occupy no more territory if the U.S. cut
off aid to China and help Japan get supplied with oil from the Dutch Indies.
• December 7, 1941
• “A date which will live in infamy”-FDR
Mobilization at Home
• War Powers Act-1941
• War Production Board-1942
• Reconstruction Finance Corporation
• Rise of the Czars to promote industry
• Office of Science and Research and Development
Financing the War
• Revenue Act of 1942
• War bonds
• Office of Price Administration-1942-set price cilings
• War Labor Board
• Stabilization Act of 1942-president won authority to control wages and farm prices
• Government seized industries that threatened to strike
• Smith-Connelly Anti-Strike Act-1943-empowered the government to take over war-related
businesses whose operations were threatened by strike.
Social Effects of the War
• Mobilization and Development of the West
– Rosie the Riveter
– Tuskegee Airman
– A. Philip Randolph threatens to March on Washington to end discrimination in defense
industries. Effect-Fair Employment Practices Commission
– Double V movement
– Bracero Program-Mexico agreed to provide seasonal workers in exchange for the promise
by American government not to draft them into military service.
– Zoot Suit Riots
• Native Americans
– Supported war effort
– Code Talkers
• Japanese Americans
– War Relocation Camps
– Executive Order 9066
– Korematsu v. U.S.-found it constitutional to put Japanese into internment camps
War in Europe
• North African Campaign
– Erwin Rommel-German
– Meeting at Casa Blanca-”unconditional surrender”
• Battle of the Atlantic
• Italian Campaign-July of 1943
• Teheran Meeting-Stalin, Churchill, FDR meet in with China’s General Chiang Kai-Shek. Said
that war against Japan would continue until Japan’s unconditional surrender.
• June 6, 1944
• 4,000 ships
• 150,000 men
• Deadliest area-Omaha Beach
• August 25, 1944-Paris is liberated
War in the Pacific
• Surrender of Philippines-Dec. 1941
• Battle of Coral Sea-May 1942
• Midway-June, 1942-turning point
• Guadalcanal-island hopping technique and bloodiest battles.
• Nimitz-in charge the fleet
• MacArthur-in charge of the marines
End of the War
Election of 1944
• FDR-Democratic candidate
– VP nominee-Harry Truman
• Thomas Dewey-Republican nominee
• Roosevelt wins 432 to 99
Converging on Germany
• German Counteroffensive-the Battle of the Bulge
• British and Americans continue to move eastward, but they allow the Soviets to take Berlin.
• February 4-11, 1945
• Decided on the following:
– Germany would be divided into occupation zones
– Free elections
– Soviets would enter in the war against Japan
– Soviets would control the southern half of the Sakhalin island and Kurile Islands in the
– A new world peace organization would be formed
Collapse of Germany
• Death of FDR-April 12, 1945
• V-E Day-MAY 8, 1945
• Discovery of the Holocaust
War in the Pacific
• Iwo Jima-February 19, 1945
• Okinawa-April 1945
• Very bloody battles and the battles gave a picture of what a land invasion of Japan would be
like for the U.S. soldiers.
• July 17-August 1945
• Big Three
– To issue a warning to Japan to surrender unconditionally
– To hold war-crime trials of Nazi leaders
The Atomic Bomb
• Manhattan Project
– Led by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer and Enrico Fermi
• Why does Truman decide to use the bomb?
• Hiroshima-August 6, 1945-Little Boy
• Nagasaki-August 9, 1945-Fat Man
• September 2, 1945-surrender took place on the Missouri
Aftermath of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima-1945
Assessing the War
• 70 million fought
• 25 million military dead
• 24 million civilian dead
• 1 trillion in military expenditures
• Soviets suffered the most losses
• Laid the foundation of an era of unprecedented prosperity
• Increase in presidential authority and prestige
• U.S. emerges as one of the world’s superpowers
• However…tensions between the U.S. and the Soviets begin to emerge
Celebrations during V-J Day