Questionaire in Car Park Management by nps20963


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									                              Three Rivers District Council
                         Woodland Management Plan No.1

          Date:                  June 2006                         to      June 2011
          Owner:                 Three Rivers District Council
          Consultant:            Jacobs UK Ltd. Prepared by Jeremy Steed MICFor


     1.1 Location
          Nearest town, village or feature           Rickmansworth
          Grid reference                             TQ
          Total area (ha)                            194.2

     1.2 Description of the woodland(s) in the landscape
          Woodland Management Plan No.1 includes Oxhey wood, Bishops wood, Carpenters wood, Croxley
          Hall wood, Pheasants and Solomons woods.
          All woods are situated in and around the town of Rickmansworth that is located at the head of the
          Colne Valley local landscape area and provide important natural features within the suburban
          landscape. All woods are predominantly broadleaved in appearance with some containing mixed
          conifers either in small blocks or locally intimate.
          The local geology is glacial sands and gravels with areas of acid free draining soils and heavy loam
          soils mixed with flints overlie London clay.

     1.3 History of Management
          Oxhey Woods: The site has a complex history consisting of different wooded areas at various times,
          some areas are ancient semi-natural, whilst others are secondary of varying ages, and others have
          been part replanted. This is reflected in the stand types and the signs and features of historic
          management as scattered throughout the site today. Hornbeam / hazel coppice with oak standards
          together with oak high forest appears to have been the most common silvicultural systems used in the

          Management in recent years has focused on clearing 4ha of Rhododendron ponticum, thinning and
          cleaning 2ha of oak and beech natural regeneration, enhancing public and interpretation and creating
          internal open space where mature oak and birch were felled as part of the access improvement
          programme. Heavy horses were employed to extract timber to ride side where tractors then hauled the
          timber to lorries at road side. A number of ecological surveys were also undertaken including bats,
          birds and vegetation. Several small ponds were created and rustic seating has been erected for public

          Bishops Wood Management in recent years has involved the introduction of plantation conifer
          species. Access management has involved path, ride and stile maintenance with facilities for car
          parking and interpretation signs.

          Carpenters Wood areas of mature beech were cleared and replanted with broadleaves and a larch
          nurse crop following the storms of 1987/ 90. Some areas of planting have failed and not beaten-up
          resulting in dominance by bracken and bramble.


                                                                Page 1 of 18
          Croxley Hall woods recent management in these woods has been focused on access with the
          provision of seating.

          Pheasants and Solomons active management has been very limited at this site to date.


     2.1 Areas and features
                                                                                  In      Adjacent to
          2.1.1 Designated Areas                                               Woodland   Woodland

          Special Areas for Conservation (SACs)
          Special Protection Areas (SPAs)
          Ramsar Sites (see note on Guidance)
          National Nature Reserves (NNRs)
          Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs)                         √
          Other designations eg: National Parks (NPs), Areas of                √
          Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs), Local Nature Reserves
          Oxhey Woods LNR, Grade A of County Importance
          Bishops Wood Former SSSI (rescinded 1986), TPO (1957), Grade A of County Importance
          Carpenters Wood located within the Chiltern Hills AONB, Grade A+ of County Importance
          Croxley Hall woods Grade B of District Importance
          Pheasants and Solomons Grade C of District Importance
                                                                                  In      Adjacent to
          2.1.2 Rare and important species                                     Woodland   Woodland

          Red Data Book or BAP species                                         √
          Rare or threatened species                                           √
          Oxhey Woods important for wild service tree, bluebells
          Croxley Hall woods high importance site for bats, Natterers bat part of Herts LBAP, bluebells
          Pheasants and Solomons important for bluebells
                                                                                  In      Adjacent to
          2.1.3 Habitats                                                       Woodland   Woodland

          Ancient semi-natural woodland (ASNW)                                 √                        Oxhey, Carpenters,
                                                                                                        Bishops, Croxley Hall,
          Other semi-natural woodland
          Plantations on ancient woodland sites (PAWS)                         √                        Bishops
          Semi-natural features in PAWS
          Woodland margins and hedges                                          √
          Veteran and other notable trees                                      √                        Oxhey
          Breeding sites
          Habitats of notable species
          Unimproved grassland
          Rides and open ground                                                √                        Oxhey, Carpenters,
                                                                                                        Bishops, Croxley Hall,
          Valuable wildlife communities                                        √
          Feeding areas
          Lowland heath                                                        √                        Oxhey, Bishops


                                                                Page 2 of 18
 Oxhey Woods ASNW, areas of remnant heathland
 Bishops Wood ASNW, PAWS
 Carpenters Wood ASNW, PAWS
 Croxley Hall woods ASNW
 Pheasants and Solomons AWS (Pheasants) ASNW, Site of Ecological Importance (Solomons)

                                                                         In      Adjacent to
 2.1.4 Water                                                          Woodland   Woodland

 Watercourses                                                         √
 Ponds                                                                √
 Wetland habitats
 Oxhey Woods woodland pond, streams
 Bishops Wood woodland pond, streams, swallow holes in north-west corner where drainage occurs
 Carpenters Wood low lying wet area and stream
                                                                         In      Adjacent to
 2.1.5 Landscape                                                      Woodland   Woodland

 Landscape designated areas                                           √          √
 Landscape features
 Rock exposures
 Historic landscapes
 Areas of the woodland prominent from roads                           √
 Areas of the woodland prominent from settlements                     √
 All woods are of high landscape value occupying prominent in the landscape as they are situated in
 and around urban development and offer landscape benefits intimately and also from Chorleywood and
 Carpenters Wood is also situated within the Chiltern Hills AONB. Pheasants and Solomons are
 situated either side of the M25 providing an important visual screen and noise reduction function to
 residential areas on the edge of Rickmansworth and Chorley wood.
                                                                         In      Adjacent to
 2.1.6 Cultural Features                                              Woodland   Woodland

 Public rights of way                                                 √
 Prominent viewing points
 Permissive footpaths                                                 √
 Areas managed with traditional management systems


                                                       Page 3 of 18
     A statement of the local importance of woodlands and the Councils commitment to sustaining them is
     set out in the Councils Greenspace Strategy (draft 2003). Policies on tree and woodland protection,
     tree planting, veteran trees, woodland and open space management are set out. For example;
     The Council will; Develop management plans for all Council owned woodlands. The multiple objectives
     of conservation, landscape, timber, recreation, access and education should be pursued with priorities
     determined by the character and the history of the woodlands, its contribution to landscape,
     conservation and recreation potential.
              Endeavour to improve access for the whole community
              Encourage community involvement
              Improve timber quality where possible
              Develop multi-age structure woodland and retain standing deadwood where possible
     The Greenspace strategy links into other strategic documents including the Councils Cultural Strategy,
     the Community Strategy, the local Biodiversity Action Plan and Local Plan.
     Coppicing was once widely practiced, particularly in ancient semi-natural woods and many woods have
     areas of overstood coppice ie Oxhey wood Cpt.3 hornbeam coppice and Ox pasture spring within
     Oxhey playing fields.

     Oxhey Woods Access is gained from many points off the main roads. Many internal footpaths and
     wider tracks provide good access. PRoW north-east corner. Links to other countryside sites is possible
     via the ProW network. Informal paths are found throughout.

     Bishops Wood PRoW. Permissive bridleway. Access is good with a car park located at White Hill /
     Harefield Road to the south of the wood. Circular walks have been laid out and waymarked with a
     permissive bridleway linking White hill with Woodcock hill. Forestry tracks offer vehicular access
     throughout. Currently there are two car parks that serve the wood with interpretation panels at both
     sites. Informal paths are found throughout.

     Carpenters Wood PRoW (footpath and bridleway). The bridleway runs the length of the wood and a
     public footpath links Whitelands wood to Whitelands Avenue close to the eastern boundary. Three
     main access points correspond to where these rights of way enter the wood. Informal paths are found

     Croxley Hall woods A good well surfaced PRoW footpath (FP11) links all three sections of the wood.
     Vehicular access is good (licensed). Informal paths are found throughout.

     Pheasants and Solomons PRoW (Pheasants). Adequate access is found from Berry Lane, Berry
     Farm Lane, Queens Drive and Highfield Way. Public footpath (FP30) passes through compartments 3
     and 4 and provides access from Mill End across the M25. Informal paths are found throughout.
                                                                             In      Adjacent to
     2.1.7 Archaeological Features                                        Woodland   Woodland

     Scheduled monument
     Historical features                                                  √
     Oxhey Woods Ancient wood banks, laid hedges and veteran trees, remnant old coppice
     Bishops Wood Ancient wood banks, remnant old coppice
     Carpenters Wood Ancient wood banks
     Croxley Hall woods Ancient wood banks and remnant coppice
     Pheasants and Solomons Ancient Holloway and remnant hornbeam coppice. Deep borrow pits.

2.2 Woodland resource characteristics
     Oxhey Woods 97.6ha is a large complex of ancient semi-natural woodland on the edge of the county
     boundary at South Oxhey surrounded by urban development to the north, east and west. The wood is
     dissected by public roads resulting in three distinct compartments. Oxhey wood is predominantly oak
     high forest with a number of different stand types within it including open forest, stored coppice and
     coppice with standards. The diversity of woodland vegetation is linked directly to the varied geology,
     soils, topography and hydrology found within the woods.


                                                           Page 4 of 18
 It is responsible for the overall species richness of the woods that is among the highest of any
 woodland in Hertfordshire. Deadwood is present both standing and fallen and provides an important
 resource. External access is available from many points around the wood and internal access is served
 well with a network of wide rides and footpaths. A public car park is located at the north-east corner of

 Sub-compartment 1(south) 33.9ha: Oak occupies 30% of the high forest canopy with sycamore 10%,
 ash 10% and beech 5%. Minor forest species including birch, hornbeam and rowan occupy 15%
 canopy and 10% woody shrubs including hazel and holly. Open ground is approx 20% inc tracks and
 footpaths. Very good age class range with groups of naturally regenerating oak and birch. Beech is
 regenerating throughout. Rhododendron is present covering approx 4ha. The ground layer consists of
 bramble, bracken, bluebell and patches of remnant heathland. The locally rare wild service tree is
 present in sub-cpt.1 as are ancient hedge banks, watercourses and acid-wet grassland.

 Sub-compartment 2 (central) 22.5ha: Contains 40% widely scattered mature oak, 15% ash and 10%
 sycamore. Minor forest species include birch and rowan at approx 15% with a further 15% woody
 shrubs. Open space is limited at approx 5%. This compartment also contains a number of large
 veteran oaks interspersed with birch, rowan, beech and ash. Bluebells are abundant together with
 sedges, wood millet and wood sage.

 Sub-compartment 3 (north) 41.2ha: Oak / hornbeam dominated woodland with over-stood hornbeam
 and sweet chestnut coppice and areas of ash woodland. Oak occupies 25% of the high forest canopy
 with hornbeam 15%, ash 20%, sweet chestnut 10% and minor woodland species 20%. Woody shrubs
 form 10% and there is currently no open space within the wood although the canopy is quite open in
 places outside of the main stand of hornbeam coppice. Woodland archaeology can be seen in this area
 in the form of ditches and wood banks. The shrub layer consists of field maple, guelder rose, hazel,
 dogwood and midland hawthorn.

 Bishops Wood 38.4ha is a mixed species woodland that is part ancient semi-natural and part planted
 ancient woodland sites (PAWS). The ancient semi-natural areas include:

 Compartments 3, 4, 5 dominated by mixed broadleaf high forest. Species include oak occupying 20%
 canopy, ash 10%, beech 10% and Scots pine 10%. Minor forest species and woody shrubs occupy
 50% and include hornbeam, field maple, birch, alder, rowan, wild service tree, hazel, alder buckthorn,
 guelder rose, holly and hawthorn. Open space is limited at approx 10%.

 Compartments 1, 2, 6, 7 plantations on ancient woodland sites (PAWS) with species comprising Scots
 pine 40%, Japanese larch 15%, Norway spruce 5%, Douglas fir 5%, beech 10% planted between 1965
 and 1985. Mature oak are scattered throughout and occupy 5% canopy. Woody shrubs occupy 15%
 with open space limited at 5%. Ancient woodland ground flora exists in places and includes blue bells,
 wood spurge, spotted orchid, wood sorrel, ragged robin in the wetter areas. Braken and bramble are
 locally dominant. Birch and beech are currently regenerating freely throughout and native broadleaves
 including oak and ash have been planted within Cpts 4 and 6 and are estimated to be between 10 and
 15 years old.

 Remnant heathland vegetation exists in Cpts 3 and 7 and a woodland pond is located within Cpt 4.
 Ancient wood banks are frequent throughout with many containing standards such as hornbeam and
 oak. The woodland boundary is dominated by mature oak standards.

 Carpenters Wood 22.8ha is a mixed species woodland situated on the south-east edge of the
 Chilterns AONB. The wood is part ancient semi-natural and part planted ancient woodland site (PAWS)
 and is divided into three main compartments. Species composition includes; beech 30%, oak 10%,
 larch 20% ash 5%, sycamore 5%, hornbeam 5%, elm 5% and sweet chestnut 5% with minor forest
 species including field maple, cherry and birch 10%. Woody shrubs occupy 10% with 10% open
 space throughout

 Compartment.1 known as Whitelands wood is located on the lower slopes of Cpt.3 and in a the valley
 bottom where ash is regenerating well in the deep and moist base rich soils. Mature beech with oak,
 hornbeam and cherry are present with lime occurring in the south-west corner of the compartment. The
 shrub layer includes hazel, holly and dogwood. The ground layer includes wood sanicle, dog violet, and
 common figwort.


                                                       Page 5 of 18
 Compartment.2 known as Hillas wood is a PAW site where mature beech had been felled, the area
 rabbit fenced and subsequently planted with larch and oak (1985 approx) in lines at a ratio of 3:2.
 Further down the slope below the footpath the planting changes to larch and mixed broadleaves
 planted at 1:3 ratio. Natural regeneration of mixed broadleaves has occurred throughout and around
 the boundary and includes birch, sycamore and goat willow. In the west of the compartment a semi-
 natural stand of beech and hornbeam still remains providing shelter to other areas of the wood.

 Compartment.3 known as Carpenters wood is the largest compartment that is varied in composition
 and structure. At lower elevations beech dominates the canopy together with hornbeam, oak, ash,
 cherry, sweet chestnut and rowan with hazel, holly and bramble understorey. Many of the standard
 trees appear to be of even age at around 150 years old. Patches of cherry laurel exist throughout. On
 the upper slopes mature wind-blown beech have been cleared (probably following the 1987 storm) and
 areas part restocked with larch, beech, oak and cherry. Natural regeneration of mixed broadleaves is
 patchy with ash proliferating in places, although much of the ash regeneration has been browsed by
 deer, probably roe and muntjac. Bluebells are abundant in the ground layer.

 Some areas that were cleared of wind-blown trees seem to have not regenerated, either due to a lack
 of viable seed of the absence of maintaining planted trees, and are now dominated by bramble and

 Croxley Hall Wood 15.6ha: divided into three separate compartments and is predominantly ancient
 semi-natural mixed broadleaved woodland with a small area of secondary woodland.

 Compartment.1 Dominated by mature mixed broadleaves with oak occupying 20% canopy, ash 15%,
 cherry 15%, beech 10% with larch, birch, sycamore 15%. Hazel and hawthorn occupy 15% of the
 under-storey together with blocks of cherry laurel. There is very limited open space. Areas of pole
 stage sycamore and ash with young beech natural regeneration throughout. Oak regeneration is poor
 and not likely to improve without intervention. The ground layer comprises bluebells and dogs mercury
 with much ivy, both as ground cover and on tree stems. Fly tipping is a common feature along the
 boundary with adjacent properties.

 Compartment.2 Mixed broadleaved woodland as Cpt.1 with oak occupying 30% canopy with ash 15%,
 sycamore 15%, beech 10%, cherry 10% including small percentage of hornbeam together with areas of
 secondary woodland over old quarrying areas. Scots pine is present in the canopy in places. Vertical
 structure is reasonable with hazel and hawthorn in the under-storey at 10% cover. Ground layer sparse
 in places due to heavy recreational use and shading from over-storey. Open space is very limited.

 Compartment.3 Secondary mixed broadleaved woodland regenerated over old quarry site. Dominated
 by a mix of sycamore 10%, ash 15%, oak 15%. Minor forest species include cherry, horse chestnut and
 birch with hawthorn and hazel in the under-storey occupying 20%. Ivy is dominant in the field layer and
 has spread to tree stems and canopies. Open space is approx 5%.

 Pheasants and Solomons Woods 18.6ha Mixed broadleaved ancient semi-natural and PAWS
 providing important visual and noise screening function from the M25.

 Solomons 5.2ha mature ancient semi-natural beech/hornbeam woodland 15% with oak 10%, ash 25%
 and sycamore 25% locally dominant. Cherry, field maple throughout lower elevations with scattered
 birch and scots pine on the upper ridge comprising. Areas of remnant hazel, hornbeam, sweet chestnut
 and field maple coppice throughout combine to contribute a total of 15%. Hazel, bramble and holly form
 the understorey together with blocks of Rhododendron and cherry laurel occupying 10%. The ground
 layer comprises dogs mercury, bluebells, wood mellick, coral root and ivy. Ash and sycamore is
 regenerating freely.

 Pheasants Mixed mature beech/hornbeam ancient woodland site bisected by the M25. The eastern
 part comprises mature beech 15% and sycamore 25% with oak 15% and ash 25%. Minor forest
 species include birch at 15% cover. Hazel, hawthorn and holly comprise the under-storey. Sycamore
 natural regeneration is dominant. Rhododendron and cherry laurel have become well established and
 dominant in places, particularly along the boundary to the M25. Mature beech dominates the northern
 boundary with a remnant yew avenue forming part of the under-storey. Open space is 5%.

 The western section has been extensively quarried in places and has since naturally regenerated to
 woodland. Dominant species include ash 15%, beech 15%, sycamore 20%, oak 15% and horse


                                                       Page 6 of 18
     chestnut 10% on the upper slope adjacent to the M25. Species composition of the bottom slope is
     similar to NVC W8 in places. The understorey comprises hazel, elder and holly with spindle, dogwood
     approx 10% and minor forest species comprising 15% including yew with goat willow on the wetter
     valley bottom to the west. Clematis can be found in the canopies of trees on lower slopes. Natural
     regeneration of ash, beech and sycamore is locally strong. The ground layer is rich in places with dogs
     mercury, sweet woodruff, dog violet, wood mellick and twayblade occurring. An ancient Holloway with
     old hornbeam coppice on the top of the banks forms part of a public footpath. Cherry laurel is beginning
     to regenerate and spread within the compartment. Open space is very limited.

2.3 Site description
     Oxhey Woods Agrillic brown earths and London clay over gravel and Reading beds. Aspect is
     easterly for Cpt.1 and north-easterly for Cpt.2 and 3. Several small streams drain easterly and
     northerly off of the plateau top. All streams have been channelled into culverts as they leave the wood.
     Subsidiary drains have been dug in the woodland in Cpt.2. A good network of internal access exists
     with many informal footpaths and wider tracks linking throughout. Cpt.1 is more used than other
     compartments and erosion is a potential problem on the plateau and beside streams.

     Car parking, picnic area and litter bins are provided in Cpt.1. Signposting and interpretation is limited to
     panels at the car park. Links with other countryside sites is possible via the rights-of way network. The
     wood is surrounded by residential housing on three sides with grassland to the south.

     The woods are very accessible from surrounding residential areas and is very popular with dog

     A gas wayleave is found in the southern part of Cpt.1. Access will be required around the woodland
     boundary for flood relief work.

     Bishops Wood The wood occupies both sides of a shallow east-west orientated valley with a stream
     running through. Soils are mainly acidic over sands and gravels with localised heavy clay loams in the
     valley bottoms.

     Carpenters Wood A plateau top woodland incised by two dry valleys characterised by free draining
     agrillic brown earth soils over upper chalk drift deposits.

     Croxley Hall woods A valley-side woodland with undulations due to previous land use (Borrow pits).
     The soil is classed as agrillic brown earths over flinty gravels. Drainage is good with occasional ditches.

     Pheasants and Solomons Hillside woodland with free draining agrillic brown earths and flinty gravels
     over upper chalk and river terrace gravel form the geology of the site. The aspect is northerly. Situated
     either side of the M25, access is via Berry Lane, Berry Farm Lane. Public footpath passes through
     Cpt’s 3 & 4. Compartments 2 & 3 are linked via an informal path under the M25. Attempts have been
     made to block illegal access by motorbikes by the use of barriers. Adjacent land use includes the
     Metropolitan line (north), M25 and Berry Lane, residential areas.

2.4 Significant hazards, constraints and threats
     Isolation and Climate Change:

     With the exception of Oxhey woods, the main significant hazard affecting the long term sustainability of
     most woods within this management plan is isolation from other semi-natural wooded habitats. The
     woods are either surrounded by urban development or agricultural land and therefore difficult for many
     woodland species, that have poor or limited mobility, to readily spread and colonise new territory.
     Furthermore small isolated woodlands are prone to adverse effects of climate change inc species
     selection, pollution and disease. Steps to develop greater robustness and connectivity between
     individual woods by manipulating species composition and buffering and extending woodlands would
     help sites to mitigate and /or adapt to change.

     For example, beech is a particular feature of some woods, particularly those on the fringes of the


                                                           Page 7 of 18
          Chiltern Hills AONB such as Carpenters wood. However, climate predictions forecast that beech will
          become unsuited to south-east England due to deceasing rainfall and increased summer temperatures.

          Squirrel damage: Bark stripping of young oak and beech can reduce the viability of young regeneration.
          Grey squirrels are also having an impact on the regeneration of beech (and oak) as trees are attacked
          during pole stage. These factors combined with climate change have the potential to make a significant
          impact on the future character of those woods where beech is a significant component. Replacing
          beech with other site suitable species such as ash would be an option.

          Fly tipping: Problematic in all of the woods. Most seems to be related to household dumping with
          garden waste comprising being the main constituents with the added danger of introducing exotic
          plants into ancient semi-natural sites.

          Deer: Browsing and fraying from deer can reduce the long-term sustainability of woodlands through
          seriously affecting species composition and age class. Ash is particularly palatable to deer. Population
          censussing is the most effective way to determine the potential for future damage to young trees. Deer
          management plans cans be produced as a result with options for sustainable management.

          Invasive exotic plants: Present in all woods and includes Rhododendron, cherry laurel and snowberry.

          Fire: Potential for arson damage in dryer woods with heath ground flora e.g. bracken, heather – see fire
          plan para 4.4.2


     3.1 Long term vision
          Our long term vision is for a sustainable network of mainly broadleaved woodlands throughout the
          District that are rich in biodiversity and offer opportunities for public recreation and enjoyment.

     3.2 Management Objectives

          No     Objective
          1      Manage all woodland sites in-line with the UKWAS and the UK Forestry Standard criteria for well
                 managed forests
          2      Protect and enhance all ancient semi-natural woodland and their indigenous ecology
          3      Restore all planted ancient semi-natural woodland to favourable conservation status
          4      Adopt the principles of ‘continuous cover’ management promoting an uneven age-class structure
                 and that relies on natural regeneration to provide successive generations of young trees.
          5      Maintain / enhance forest biodiversity in all woods
          6      Ensure minimum of 10% and maximum of 30% open space in larger woods ie Oxhey, Bishops
          7      Protect and promote archaeological features
          8      Maintain and promote high quality public access.
          9      Keep open the option of producing some hardwood timber of reasonable quality for future
                 generations where this does not conflict with objectives relating to nature conservation,
                 landscape and public recreation.
          10     Promote selected sites as educational resources
          11     Control unwanted tree species in ancient semi-natural woodland

     3.3 Strategy
          The strategy relates to the sensitive enhancement of semi-natural stand types and their associated
          floristic communities. There will also be gradual restructuring of PAWS and secondary woodlands
          through planned thinning, felling, regeneration and protection.
          The strategy is to lightly manage existing regeneration to ensure that trees, particularly native
          broadleaves are secured and are able to reach the upper canopy. This will be achieved through;
                cleaning, re-spacing and lightly thinning around existing regeneration


                                                                Page 8 of 18
                  seeking opportunities for group felling of minor species i.e. birch or exotic conifers for the
                   purpose of regenerating mixed broadleaves
                  thinning young broadleaves and conifer blocks to improve biodiversity potential, develop wind
                   firmness and any future timber potential should it be required
                  deadwood will created by the selected retention of dead standing trees or ring-barking selected
                   conifers and leaving thinnings and / or lop and top on the ground.
                  long term retention of Scots pine (max10% of area) to produce large, open-grown trees
                  seek opportunities for linkage between woods and/or extending / buffering


     4.1 Silvicultural systems

          4.1.1 Harvesting
          Selective and line thinning will be undertaken within selected stands to improve the conservation
          potential as well as promote stand stability and robustness. Where there is an agreed objective,
          selected stands of mainly young oak with good form will be gently nurtured to provide a future timber
          resource if needed. Thinning will also increase light levels to the woodland floor, release broadleaved
          trees particularly veterans and provide a means for removing unwanted species. Where line thinning is
          recommended this will create racks and enable access to adjacent broadleaved species for future
          tending and thinning.

          Much regeneration is taking place within small groups and as a result group shelter-wood systems are
          naturally developing. Felling coupes that are created for the purposes of regeneration should not be
          greater than 0.25ha this will also take into account the potential for adverse landscape impacts.

          Where conifers exist within ancient woodlands, thinning will act as the means for the gentle removal of
          exotic species over a planned period. Therefore thinning will take place on 5 to 10 year cycles,
          depending on available resources, development of stand structure and markets, until unwanted conifer
          stands are removed. In other cases some large, open grown Scots pine will be retained in the canopy
          to provide biological and aesthetic diversity.

          Thinning will aim to retain a minimum of 60% canopy but will also avoid even spacing so as to begin
          the process of transformation to a more uneven-aged structure through gap creation for the purposes
          of regeneration. Control of the seed-bed will be critical in achieving successful regeneration as
          bramble, bracken and other aggressive weeds are likely to dominate if light levels are too high.

          Any extraction of timber will require careful planning to minimise ground damage and thorough
          consultation with all stakeholders.

          Some areas will be coppiced as a means of cleaning and releasing advanced regeneration. Coppicing
          was once widely practiced, particularly in ancient semi-natural woods and many woods have areas of
          overstood coppice ie Oxhey wood Cpt.3 hornbeam coppice.

          4.1.2 Phased felling and restructuring of plantations
          Not applicable

          4.1.3 Establishment, restocking and regeneration
          Restocking via natural regeneration will be favoured. Native species will be encouraged with oak, ash,
          beech and hornbeam providing the main high forest component. Oak, in particular, will require some
          intervention, either in the form of gap creation and light manipulation, cleaning, weeding and general
          maintenance to ensure that it is able to provide a contribution in the canopy. Beech will require
          controlling as it is able to regenerate freely under shaded conditions and can proliferate to the
          detriment of other species and individual woodland character. Oxhey woods, for example, is
          predominantly oak in character and objectives are to maintain such sites as oak dominated.


                                                                Page 9 of 18
4.2 Other operations
     Treatment of advanced regeneration:

     Oxhey Woods A number of small areas of oak, birch, rowan regeneration requires intervention to
     clean and ‘release’ desired species (oak) from competing vegetation. This can be carried out with hand
     tools but is fairly urgent. Where deer pressure is a problem, some trees i.e. birch can be cut at waist
     height to maintain a physical barrier around selected trees. Selective thinning will also release
     ‘dormant’ regeneration.

     Bishops Wood Mixed broadleaves have been planted within the last ten years and some have failed
     due to competition and shading from surrounding trees. Work to ‘release’ the better planted trees
     should be undertaken without delay. Selective thinning will also release ‘dormant’ regeneration.

     Carpenters Wood Small groups of mixed broadleaf regeneration will be respaced to between 2m to
     3m centres. Selected hazel coppice will be cut to also remove competition with high forest species until
     clear of interference from the understorey. Selective thinning will also release ‘dormant’ regeneration.

     Pheasants and Solomons Respace broadleaf regeneration to 2m to 3m centres and selective
     coppicing of hazel stools. Selective thinning will also release ‘dormant’ regeneration.

4.3 Protection and maintenance

     4.4.1 Pest and disease management
     Pesticide will not be used in any of our woods. Herbicides will not be used for weeding young trees as
     this will be carried out by hand. However, herbicide will be used to eradicate and control the spread of
     invasive exotics i.e. Rhododendron and Cherry laurel. Assessment of total area within selected sites
     will be undertaken with the view of introducing a programme of control. Control operations will involve
     cutting the stems to ground level followed by chemical treatment of cut stumps and any subsequent re-
     growth the following summer.

     4.4.2 Fire plan
     Those woodlands considered to be of risk from fire include those over acid / neutral soils supporting a
     predominantly heathland type ground vegetation including bracken and heather. Such sites within this
     plan include Oxhey woods and Bishops wood. On some of these sites conifer stands have been
     planted that may have built up a combustible litter layer. Where brashing has not been carried out dead
     branches may remain on the lower parts of the stems creating an additional combustible hazard.

     In the event of a fire staff will adopt a procedure set out on a flow chart. On site, warning signs will be
     displayed at strategic points within selected woods and beaters will be provided. Fire breaks are not
     considered to be an effective method of fire prevention within small woods as the width of open land
     required to create a fire break will be out of scale and context.

     4.4.3 Waste disposal and pollution
     Measures will be taken to reduce pesticide use. However, where chemical treatment is necessary i.e.
     Rhododendron eradication, pesticides will be handled and applied by trained and certificated
     operatives in accordance with manufacturers instructions and Forestry Commission guidance. All
     regulations under COSHH will be applied. Where possible forest residues (e.g. lop and top) will be left
     in situ to provide a deadwood resource. Large diameter branch and stem wood will remain uncut (ie not
     cross-cut) where possible. The burning of forest residues will be discouraged. Alternatively chipping
     and/or complete removal from site maybe undertaken.


                                                           Page 10 of 18
     4.4.4 Protection from unauthorised activities
     Woodland boundaries have become dilapidated allowing access to vehicles and fly tipping. Full
     boundary assessments should be taken place with a view to either replacing or repairing and
     strengthening the boundaries, particularly where they abut residential areas.

4.4 Game management
     Deer and Rabbits are present in all woods. Roe and muntjac deer are locally common and there is
     evidence of deer browsing to young tree seedlings. Control of deer is not considered to be necessary
     at this time although browsing to tree regeneration will require monitoring. If levels of damage are such
     that an adverse impact on the long term sustainability of the wood then control may require further
     consideration. However, deer culling in sub-urban woodland will be politically sensitive and practically
     difficult on health and safety grounds due to the high public use.Deer densities of 5 animals / 100ha are
     considered reasonable and will allow for some regeneration of trees and other semi-natural flora.

     Squirrels are a threat to the future sustainability of broadleaved woodlands, especially beech and oak
     woods. Bark stripping can completely ring bark and kill branches or entire trees. Such damage often
     results in a weak point where wood decay can set in resulting in the failure of branches and tree tops
     some years after the damaging event. Damage to the long term sustainability principle forest species
     Can have major implications for historical landscapes that depend on such tree species or the
     character of special landscape areas such as the Chilterns AONB where beech woods are a defining

     Control of squirrels is possible from shooting, setting out live trapping or poison dispensing hoppers.
     However, such activity is likely to be unpopular with members of the public. Therefore where possible
     we will seek to educate the public on the nature of squirrels and why, in some circumstances, control
     will be necessary.

4.5 Protecting and enhancing biodiversity

     4.6.1 Management of designated areas
     LNR: Oxhey Woods, management will focus on maintaining the wood as a native oak woodland with
     associated species. This will involve ensuring that successive generations of oak reach the upper
     canopy and that other invasive exotic species i.e. Rhododendron, will be removed.

     AONB: Carpenters Wood, strategic guidance on perpetuation of beech dominated woodland will be
     informed by future revision of Chilterns Woodland Policy.

     4.6.2 Measures to enhance biodiversity
     All woods have been previously surveyed by ecologists who have highlighted areas and features of
     importance. In all woods measures to protect and enhance biodiversity will include;
           encourage natural regeneration of native species to gradually replace non-native species
           promote an un-even age class structure to provide structural diversity
           provision of early and late successional habitats i.e. open glades, old trees and deadwood
           widening of selected south-facing rides edges
           limiting damaging activities such as unauthorised vehicular access
           eradicating invasive exotics e.g. Rhododendron
           discouraging fly tipping
           limiting forestry operations during spring and summer (except where excessive wet conditions

     Long Term Retentions: It is considered that the concept of long term retentions is not applicable in this
     case. It is felt that concept of LTR applies mainly to restructuring conifer plantations and improving
     biodiversity. Most of the woods are ancient semi natural and will all be retained in the long term.


                                                           Page 11 of 18
          4.6.3 Special measures for ASNW and SNW
          In all asnw sites work will be undertaken to eradicate invasive exotic plants, mainly rhododendron and
          cherry laurel. Sycamore will be limited to 10% of woodland area within asnw sites. Sites where beech is
          not a dominant component e.g. Oxhey woods (NVC W10 oak/bracken/bramble), will require
          intervention to ensure beech does not exceed 20% of total canopy area. Control of unwanted tree
          species will be undertaken as part of selective thinning programmes.

          Thinning is considered important in some woods to maintain floristic diversity. Coppice work will be
          undertaken to hazel stools particularly with regard to creating space around selected young oak.
          It is considered that over-stood hornbeam coppice should not be re-cut as their age and vigour would
          predispose them to not responding favourably to this type of operation resulting in tree decline.
          Similarly, old pollards should be left well alone as favourable response to cutting is unlikely. However,
          new pollards can be created where young trees i.e. oak, hornbeam, ash, beech are between 10 to 15
          years of age.

          Work to secure the conservation of other related habitats such as remnant heathland in Oxhey and
          Bishops Wood will be undertaken and will include tree removal for glade creation.

          4.6.4 Special measures for PAWS
          Bishops Wood Conifer stands will be gradually thinned on 7 year cycles retaining a minimum 60%
          canopy at any one time so as to not encourage prolific bramble and / or bracken growth, until most
          conifers are removed except for the occasional large, open grown Scots pines that can be selected as
          long term retentions. Thinning will also seek to release native broadleaves from within the conifer
          stands, especially oak and beech.

          Carpenters Wood Conifer stands will be gradually thinned, retaining a minimum 60% canopy at any
          one time so as to not encourage prolific bramble and / or bracken growth, until all conifers are
          eventually removed. Those stands where broadleaves have been planted with a conifer nurse will
          initially be line thinned either side of the broadleaves to provide access racks and release the canopies
          of the broadleaves. Smaller blocks of conifers will be felled and allowed to naturally regenerate with
          native broadleaves.

     4.6 Management of social and cultural values

          4.7.1 Archaeology and sites of cultural interest
          Ancient wood banks, sunken lanes, quarry pits and veteran pollards are present within many woods.
          Such archaeological features will be identified and protected from damage. This may initially require
          further survey work to identify all features of interest. Selected sites will be developed as educational
          resources. Damage to archaeological features by forest operations will be avoided and archaeological
          sites monitored to inform future protective measures.

          4.7.2 Public access
          Open public access is currently provided within all woodlands within this Plan. Our objective is to
          ensure that access continues to remain open and maintained to a reasonable standard. This may
          involve the periodic cutting back of vegetation or re-surfacing or re-grading of paths and tracks.
          Carparks currently exist at Oxhey woods and Bishops wood. Provision for car parking will remain at
          these sites and occasional surfacing or re-grading may be required to maintain a drivable surface.
          Carry out condition surveys of footpaths, bridleways and maintenance tracks and preparing action
          plans for improvement

          Organisation/individual       Comment                                 Response/action


                                                                Page 12 of 18
      Parish Councils
      AONB Unit

         Management              Indicator         Method of           Monitoring   Responsibility       How will
          objective                               assessment            period                       information be
      1. Manage in-line      Achieve             Formal            Annual           TRDC             Determine
      with UKWAS and         UKWAS and           application                        Jacobs           status of
      UK Forestry            secure FC           and                                                 woodlands and
      Standard               funding             assessment                                          quality of
      2. Protect and         Favourable          Visual            10 year          TRDC             management.
      enhance all a.s.n.w.   conservation        condition                          EN / FC
                             status              survey                                              Determine
      3. Restore PAWS        % of conifer        Aerial            10 year          TRDC             success of
                             canopy              photographs,                       EN / FC          management
                             gradually           visual                                              and compliance
                             reduced             comparison                                          with UKWAS.
      4. Adopt principles    Wide age class      Visual            Biennially       TRDC
      of Continuous          range, natural      assessment of
      Cover Forestry         regeneration,       nat regen and
                             deer damage         deer damage
                             30% max
      5. Maintain /          Provision of        Censussing of     5 year           TRDC
      enhance forest         20cu.m / ha         associated                         EN
      biodiversity           deadwood. Min       species e.g.                       Jacobs
                             10% open            birds, bats,
                             space.              butterflies
                             Cut south facing
      6. Ensure provision    Min 10%             Visual            5 year           TRDC
      of open space in                           assessment
      Oxhey, Bishops,        Max30%              Aerial
      Carpenters Woods                           photographs
      7. Identify and        Archaeological      Survey and        5 year           TRDC
      protect                sites protected     assessment
      8. Maintain and        Public using        Site visits       5 year           TRDC
      promote high quality   woods for           Questionaire
      public access          informal
      9. Keep open option    Oak                 Visual            5 year           TRDC
      of producing           regenerating,       assessment
      utilisable timber      good form,
      10. Promote sites      Use of woodland     Numbers visits    Annual           TRDC
      as educational         sites by schools,   per year
      resources              interest groups
      11 Control             Maximum limit       Visual            5 year           TRDC
      unwanted tree          10% sycamore        assessment
      species in asnw        20% beech (in
                             oak woods)

     A Summary of monitoring results will be made publicly available upon request.


                                                            Page 13 of 18

     7.1 Outline long-term work programme (2011 to 2026)

          Name & Compartment           Activity
                                                                                            6-10   11-15   16-20
          Oxhey Wood
          Cpt.1                        Selective thinning                               √                  √
                                       Clean / respace MB regeneration                  √          √       √
                                       Cut hazel coppice                                           √
                                       Control unwanted tree species                    √                  √
                                       Maintain access                                  √          √       √

          Cpt.2                        Selective thinning                               √                  √
                                       Clean / respace MB regeneration                  √          √       √
                                       Cut hazel coppice                                           √
                                       Control unwanted tree species                    √                  √
                                       Maintain access                                  √          √       √

          Cpt.3                        Selective thinning                               √                  √
                                       Clean / respace MB regeneration                  √          √       √
                                       Cut hazel coppice                                           √
                                       Control unwanted tree species                    √                  √
                                       Maintain access                                  √          √       √

          Bishops Wood
          Cpt.1                        Remove any conifer natural regeneration                     √

          Cpt.2                        Line / Selective thinning to favour OK, BE and   √                  √
                                       some SP
                                       Maintain access                                  √          √       √

          Cpt.3                        Line/Selective thinning of JL to favour MB       √          √       √
                                       Maintain access                                  √          √       √

                                       Selective thinning of MB                         √          √       √
          Cpt.4                        Maintain access and pond                         √          √       √

                                       Selective thinning of MB                         √          √       √
          Cpt.5                        Maintain access                                  √          √       √

                                       Selective thinning to favour SP and OK           √                  √
          Cpt.6                        Maintain access                                  √          √       √

          Cpt.7                        Selective thinning to favour MB                  √                  √

          Carpenters Wood
          Cpt.1                        Selective thinning of MB                         √                  √
                                       Maintain access                                  √          √       √

          Cpt.2                        Selective thinning of JL / MB                    √          √       √
                                       Maintain access                                  √          √       √

          Cpt.3                        Selective thinning of MB                         √          √       √
                                       Maintain access                                  √          √       √


                                                                Page 14 of 18
 Name & Compartment           Activity
                                                                           6-10   11-15   16-20
 Croxley Hall Woods
 Cpt.1                        Selective thinning MB                    √                  √
                              Control unwanted tree species                       √
                              Cut hazel coppice                        √                  √
                              Maintain access                          √          √       √

 Cpt.2                        Selective thinning MB                    √                  √
                              Control unwanted tree species            √
                              Cut hazel coppice                                   √
                              Maintain access                          √          √       √

 Cpt.3                        Selective thinning MB                    √                  √
                              Control unwanted tree species            √
                              Cut hazel coppice                                           √
                              Maintain access                          √          √       √

 Pheasants and
 Solomons Wood
 Cpt. 1                       Selective thinning MB                    √                  √
                              Control unwanted tree species                       √
                              Cut hazel coppice                        √
                              Clean and re-space MB regeneration       √                  √
                              Maintain access                          √          √       √

 Cpt.2                        Selective thinning MB                    √                  √
                              Control unwanted tree species                       √
                              Cut hazel coppice                        √                  √
                              Clean and re-space MB regeneration       √                  √
                              Maintain access                          √          √       √

 Cpt.3                        Selective thinning MB                    √                  √
                              Control unwanted tree species                       √
                              Cut hazel coppice                        √                  √
                              Clean and re-space MB regeneration       √                  √
                              Maintain access                          √          √       √

 Cpt.4                        Selective thinning MB                    √                  √
                              Control unwanted tree species                       √
                              Cut hazel coppice                        √                  √
                              Clean and re-space MB regeneration       √                  √
                              Maintain access                          √          √       √


                                                       Page 15 of 18
7.2 Short-term work programme (2006 to 2011)

     Name and Cpt             Activity
                                                                                      1       2       3       4       5
     Oxhey Wood
     Cpt.1                    Clean / respace MB regeneration 0.5ha               √
                              Cut and treat Rhododendron 1.0ha                    √       √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades   √               √               √

     Cpt.2                    Clean / respace MB regeneration 0.5ha               √
                              Cut and treat Rhododendron 1.0ha                            √       √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades           √               √

     Cpt.3                    Clean / respace MB regeneration 0.5ha               √               √
                              Cut and treat Rhododendron 1.0ha                                    √       √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades                   √               √

     Bishops Wood
     Cpt.1                    Fell small group WRC 0.1ha                          √

     Cpt.2                    Line/Selective thinning to favour OK, BE some       √
                              SP 6.0ha
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades   √               √               √

     Cpt.3                    Line/Selective thinning of JL to favour OK /AH      √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades   √               √               √

     Cpt.4                    Ring-bark NS 0.3ha                                  √
                              Cut coppice / fell birch to release OK, AH 0.2ha    √
                              Clean and re-space OK, AH 0.2ha                                     √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades   √               √               √
                              Clear trees around pond 0.1ha                       √

     Cpt.5                    Clean and re-space BE natural regen 0.5ha                                   √
                              Cut and treat Rhododendron 1.0ha                                                    √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades   √               √               √

                              Selective thinning to favour SP and OK 2.0ha        √
     Cpt.6                    Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades   √               √               √

                              Selective thinning to favour MB                     √

     Carpenters Wood          Selective thinning of pole stage AH 2.0ha                   √
     Cpt.1                    Clean and re-space MB regeneration 1.0ha                    √                       √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades           √

     Cpt.2                    Line thinning of JL either side of OK / MB 5.0ha    √
                              Selective thinning of JL 5.0ha                                                      √
                              Clean and re-space MB regeneration 1.0ha                                            √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades   √

     Cpt. 3                   Fell planted conifers 0.2ha                         √
                              Selective thinning of MB 2.0ha                              √
                              Eradicate cherry laurel 0.5ha                               √
                              Clean and re-space MB regeneration 1.0ha                    √
                              Plant native OK 0.4ha, protect in 1.2m shelters     √
                              Hand weed planted trees / beat-up 0.4ha             √       √       √
                              Cut back vegetation - footpaths / tracks / glades           √

                                                           Page 16 of 18
 Name and Cpt               Activity
                                                                                   1       2       3       4       5
 Croxley Hall Woods
 Cpt.1                      Selective thinning MB 2.0ha                                        √
                            Cut and treat cherry laurel 0.5ha                          √
                            Control unwanted tree species                                      √
                            Cut hazel coppice 1.0ha                            √
                            Cut back vegetation - footpaths / track / glades   √               √               √

 Cpt.2                      Selective thinning MB 2.0ha
                            Control unwanted tree species                                      √
                            Cut hazel coppice 1.0ha                                            √
                            Cut back vegetation - footpaths / track / glades   √       √       √               √

 Cpt.3                      Selective thinning MB 2.0ha                                        √
                            Control unwanted tree species                                      √
                            Cut hazel coppice 1.0ha                                            √
                            Cut back vegetation - footpaths / track / glades   √               √               √

 Pheasants and
 Solomons Wood
 Cpt.1                      Selective thinning MB 2.0ha                                                √
                            Control unwanted tree species 1.0ha                                        √
                            Cut hazel coppice 1.0ha                                    √
                            Clean and re-space MB regeneration 1.0ha                   √
                            Cut and treat Rhododendron / laurel 1.0ha          √
                            Cut back vegetation - footpaths / track / glades   √               √               √

 Cpt.2                      Selective thinning MB 1.0ha                        √
                            Control unwanted tree species 1.0ha                √
                            Cut hazel coppice 1.0ha                                            √
                            Clean and re-space MB regeneration 1.0ha                           √
                            Cut and treat Rhododendron / laurel 0.5ha          √
                            Cut back vegetation - footpaths / track / glades   √               √               √

 Cpt.3                      Selective thinning MB 1.0ha / Cpt                          √
                            Control unwanted tree species 1.0ha / Cpt                  √
                            Cut hazel coppice 1.0ha / Cpt                                              √
                            Clean and re-space MB regeneration 1.0ha                                   √
                            Cut and treat Rhododendron / laurel 1.0ha                          √
                            Cut back vegetation - footpaths / track / glades   √               √               √

 Cpt.4                      Selective thinning MB 1.0ha / Cpt                                  √
                            Control unwanted tree species 1.0ha / Cpt                          √
                            Cut hazel coppice 1.0ha / Cpt                                                      √
                            Clean and re-space MB regeneration 1.0ha                                           √
                            Cut and treat Rhododendron / laurel 1.0ha                          √
                            Cut back vegetation - footpaths / track / glades   √               √               √


                                                       Page 17 of 18
8.   MAPS
     List all maps here and append to plan.

      Map        Description
      1          Location Map

      2          Compartment Maps
                 Oxhey Woods
                 Bishops Wood
                 Carpenters Wood
                 Croxley Hall Woods
                 Pheasants and Solomons

      3          Biodiversity Map ASNW, PAWS, SSSI, LNR, Water, Other semi-natural habitat

      4          Sensitivities Map hazards, features, way-leaves, PRoW


                                                            Page 18 of 18

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