Hospital Business Management in India by MikeJenny


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Hospital Business Management in India

Description:    Hospitals play a major role in the society as they provide healthcare services to patients. Increasing
                population and healthcare requirements and the complexity of diseases brought about by radical
                changes in the concept of healthcare services in the country. Public healthcare system alone are
                unable to do justice in such a scenario. Healthcare services witnessed a tremendous growth with
                the entry of private multi-speciality hospitals. More and more hospitals were built to bridge the gap
                between demand and supply of healthcare services in a growing economy. As management of
                hospitals became a core issue, the demand for trained and efficient staff increased.

                Key Findings & Highlights

                - In the present scenario, management of healthcare services has become a big challenge for
                corporate hospitals.
                - In late 1980s, Apollo Hospital was the only private hospital for profits started in Chennai.
                - In multi-speciality hospitals, medical specialty like general medicine, surgery,
                pathology,paediatrics, orthopaedics, ophthalmic, ENT, dermatology, cardiology, neurology,
                oncology, gastroenterology and others like endocrinology, Pulmonology & nephrology are covered.
                - Constraint Management is a process methodology that is especially useful for planning,
                organising, evaluating and controlling complex systems in an organisation.
                - Emergency and trauma services consists of specialists’ team from Anaesthesiology, Cardiology,
                Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Gastroenterology, Internal Medicine, Neurology, Neurosurgery,
                Orthopaedics, Plastic Surgery, and Traumatology.

                Reasons to Buy

                - Covers concepts of production management in a pharma company, marketing and its distribution
                channels, inventory management and its importance, and above all, environment management,
                which is critical to any pharma company
                - Provides insight into the key concepts of pharma business management in a comprehensive
                - Prepares students and budding management executives to face the industry confidently



                1. Functions of hospitals
                1.1 Patient Care
                1.2 Training
                1.3 Medical Research
                1.4 Health Education

                2. Medical Specialities
                2.1 General Medicine
                2.2 Surgery
                2.2.1 Types of Surgery
       Replantation Surgery
       Reconstruction Surgery
       Elective Surgery
       Emergency Surgery
       Minimally invasive Surgery
       Laser Surgery
       Robotic Surgery
2.3 Pathology
2.3.1 Anatomical pathology Surgical pathology Cytopathology Forensic pathology
2.3.2 Clinical Pathology
2.4 Obstetrics & Gynaecology
2.4.1 Obstetrics
2.4.2 Gynaecology
2.4.3 Oncology
2.5 Paediatrics
2.5.1 Paediatric plastic surgery
2.6 Orthopaedics
2.6.1 Orthopaedic surgery
2.7 Ophthalmology
2.7.1 Astigmatism
2.7.2 Cataracts
2.7.3 Glaucoma
2.8 ENT (Ear Nose Throat)
2.8.1 Otology and Neurotology
2.8.2 Paediatric Otolaryngology
2.8.3 Rhinology
2.8.4 Laryngology
2.8.5 Inhalant Allergy
2.9 Dermatology
2.9.1 Venereology
2.9.2 Phlebology
2.9.3 Cosmetic dermatology
2.10 Cardiology
2.10.1 Interventional cardiology
2.10.2 Electrophysiology
2.10.3 Nuclear cardiology
2.10.4 Echocardiography
2.11 Oncology
2.11.1 Medical oncology
2.11.2 Surgical oncology
2.11.3 Radiation oncology
2.12 Psychiatry
2.12.1 Biological psychiatry
2.12.2 Child and adolescent psychiatry
2.12.3 Community psychiatry
2.12.4 Cross-cultural psychiatry
2.12.5 Emergency psychiatry
2.12.6 Forensic psychiatry
2.12.7 Geriatric psychiatry
2.12.8 Liaison psychiatry
2.12.9 Military psychiatry
2.12.10 Neuropsychiatry
2.12.11 Social psychiatry
2.13 Neurology
2.13.1 Neurosurgery
2.14 Gastroenterology
2.14.1 Surgical Gastroenterology
2.15 Others
2.15.1 Endocrinology
2.15.2 Pulmonology
2.15.3 Nephrology
2.16 Co-ordination among Specialties
2.17 Constraints and Limitations in Successful Treatment
2.17.1 Patient satisfaction
2.17.2 Throughput vs. cost control
2.17.3 Financial leverage
3. Classification of Hospital Services
3.1 Line Services
3.1.1 Outpatient Services
3.1.2 Inpatient Services
3.1.3 Emergency Services
3.1.4 Intensive Care Units
3.1.5 Operation Theatre
3.2 Supportive Services
3.2.1 Nursing Services
3.2.2 Central Sterile Supply Management
3.2.3 Diagnostic Services
3.2.4 Pharmacy Services
3.2.5 Radiology
3.2.6 Diet Management
3.2.7 Laundry
3.2.8 Stores
3.3 Auxiliary Services
3.3.1 Records Management Classification of records Advantages and uses of record keeping Mechanism of record management Contents of medical records Issues & problems in maintaining medical records Maintenance of hospital statistics and its uses
3.3.2 Ambulance & Transport
3.3.3 Security
3.3.4 Engineering and Maintenance Services
3.3.5 Mortuary
3.3.6 Waste Management Industrial waste / Hazardous waste Municipal solid waste E-waste Biomedical waste / Hospital waste Elements of a comprehensive waste management system Techniques for Treating Hospital Waste

4. Administration of Outpatient Services
4.1 Managing Patient Inflows
4.2 Time Management
4.3 Ambience Management
4.3.1 Beautification
4.3.2 Noise Levels
4.3.3 Courtesy Maintaining a healthy relationship Importance of human relationships in hospitals Relationship between Doctor/Nurse and Patient
4.4 Need for Regionalisation & Referral System
4.5 Facilities for Attendants and Visitors
4.6 Maintenance of Quality and Image
4.7 Public Relations Management
4.7.1 Hospital and Media Relations

5. Administration of Inpatient Services
5.1 Ward Administration
5.1.1 Emergency and Trauma Services Objectives of emergency and trauma services Planning parameters for trauma centre Essential requirements for trauma centre
5.2 Nursing Department
5.2.1 Structure of Nursing Department
5.2.2 Communication and Coordination
5.2.3. Supervision and Control
5.2.4 Patient Nurse Ratio
5.3 Operation Theatres
5.3.1 Biomedical & Diagnostic Equipment Procurement Handling Maintenance
5.3.2 Central Sterile Supply Department (CSSD) The Scope
5.4 Measuring Efficacy of Hospitals
5.5 Medical Audit
5.5.1 Definition
5.5.2 Purpose
5.5.3 Importance of Medical Audit
5.6 Discharge Planning
5.6.1 Meaning of Discharge Planning
5.6.2 People Involved in Discharged Planning
5.6.3 Timing of Discharge
5.7 Resources Mobilisation and Cost Consciousness

6. Materials Management
6.1 Materials Management & Its Objectives
6.1.1 Essential Principles
6.1.2 Procedure
6.1.3 Procurement
6.1.4 Materials Management Interventions
6.1.5 Methods of Classification of Inventory
6.2 Materials Management in Hospitals
6.2.1 Drugs Management Educating the Staff Regarding the Use of Drugs Controlling Life-Saving Drugs Pre-packaging Drugs for Outpatient Department
6.2.2 Consumables Management
6.2.3 Equipment Management Equipment Planning Factors to be considered for Equipment Purchase Managing Equipment Ordering Equipment Storing Equipment Issuing Equipment Codification not Standardisation

7. Hygiene Management
7.1 Sterilisation
7.1.1 Methods of Sterilisation Dry heat sterilization Steam sterilisation Gaseous sterilisation Irradiation sterilization Pasteurisation sterilization
7.1.2 Choice of Sterilising Method
7.2 Washing, Drying & Packaging
7.2.1 Washing and Drying
7.2.2 Cleaning Facilities
7.2.3 Chemicals Used in Cleaning and Washing Abrasives Soaps Neutral cleaners
7.3 Linen Bank Referral Systems
7.3.1 Laundry Management System
7.3.2 Historical Perspective
7.3.3 Conventional Technology
7.3.4 State–of-the-Art Technology

8. Setting up A new hospital
8.1. Key criteria Introduction
8.1.1 Planning of a New Hospital
8.1.2. Planning & Construction of Wards
8.1.3 Infrastructure Requirements Land Requirements Equipment Requirements Skill Requirements
8.2. Financial Analysis
8.2.1. Revenue Models (w.r.t cases)
8.2.2 Revenue streams
8.2.3 Cost Structures
8.2.4. Funding of New Hospital Project
8.3 Critical Success Factors

9. Manpower Planning
9.1 Definition and Importance of Manpower Planning
9.1.2 Steps in Manpower Planning
9.1.3 Factors which Affect the Efficiency of Employees
9.2 Planning for Medical Personnel
9.2.1 Factors Affecting Manpower Planning in Hospitals
9.2.2 Effective Utilisation of Manpower
9.3 Types of Medical Staff
9.3.1 Medical Staff
9.3.2 Paramedical Staff Physiotherapists Prosthetic and orthotic engineering Occupational therapists Medical technologists Radiographers and radiotherapists
9.4 Competencies of Medical Staff
9.4.1 Patient Care
9.4.2 Medical Knowledge
9.4.3 Practice-Based Learning and Improvement
9.4.4 Interpersonal and Communication Skills
9.4.5 Professionalism
9.4.6 Systems-Based Practice
9.5 Training and Retention at Hospitals
9.5.1 Types of Training Needs Soft skills Leadership programs Internal team-building Technical training
9.5.2 Some Approaches to Training in Indian Hospitals
9.5.3. Newer Methods of Training
9.5.4 The Challenges
9.6 Appraisal and Feedback System
9.6.1 Need for Feedback System
9.6.2 Need for Designing an Effective Appraisal System
9.7 Keeping up the Morale of Employees
9.7.1 Support from the Top
9.7.2 Intangible Incentives
9.7.3 Employee Motivation that Works
9.7.4 Communication is Critical
9.7.5 Personalised Motivation

10. Hospital Administration during Disaster
10.1 Meaning
10.2 Role of Government & Infrastructure Framework
10.3 Preparedness and Mitigation
10.3.1 Elements of Disaster Preparedness Vulnerability Analysis Establishment of a National Coordination Mechanism Preparation of Operation Plans Hospitals Stockpiling Background Data and Inventory of Resources Training of Health Personnel and the Public
10.3.2 Hospital Disaster Drills
10.3.3 Mitigation
10.4 Patient Education
10.5 Role & Responsibilities of Medical & Health Officers
10.6 Rehabilitation
10.7 Healthcare Administration and Planning during Disaster
10.7.1 Goals of the OMP in Hospital
10.7.2 Disaster Plan of a Hospital Basic requirements Organisation and structure of management in hospital Alarm and mobilization Competencies and emergency rights Admission and treatment capacities Admission and registration of patients Predefined patient transportation routes Medical measures including sorting Areas Communication Protective measures Medical, operational and general resources Internal and external information Social Care Traffic control and cordoning off Substitute measures and redundancies Task-books and checklists Training concept Particularities of internal disasters Evacuation in the hospital
10.8 Indicators for Impact Measurement

11. Marketing and Branding Management
11.1 Marketing in Healthcare
11.1.1 Marketing Mix Healthcare Industry
11.2 Marketing Strategies of Healthcare Industry
11.2.1 Market Penetration
11.2.2 Market Development
11.2.3 Product Development
11.2.4 Diversification
11.2.5 Strategic Alliances
11.2.6 Consolidation strategies
11.3 Marketing of Hospitals
11.4 Branding of Hospitals and Services
11.4.1 Branding
11.4.2 Tools of Branding in Hospitals
11.5 Marketing Strategies of Few Hospitals
11.5.1 Fortis Healthcare, Noida
11.5.2. Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai
11.5.3. Apollo Hospital, Chennai
11.5.4. Wockhardt Hospital
11.5.5. Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore



Figure   3.1:   Activities in Outpatient Department
Figure   3.2:   Flow Chart-Inpatient Services
Figure   3.3:   Flow Chart of Emergency Service
Figure   3.4:   Organisational Structure of CSSD
            Figure 5.1: Flow Chart of Nursing Department
            Figure 8.1: Revenue Model & Income Calculation
            Figure 10.1: White water-resistant patient-pouch of CHS

            LIST OF TABLES

            Table   3.1: Categorisation and colour coding of the container
            Table   3.2: Protocol for Management and Handling of Hospital Waste
            Table   6.1: Vendor Rating: Parameters
            Table   6.2: Selective Inventory control
            Table   8.1: Manpower Requirement
            Table   8.2: Estimated Manpower & Cost
            Table   10.1: Potential Injury-Creating Event Algorithm
            Table   11.1: USP of few Major Hospitals

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