Stress_ Strain _amp; Fairness at Work by nyut545e2


									Stress, Strain & Fairness
        at Work:
 Making the Connections

    Martin Shain S.J.D.

    Durham Region
       Stress and Strain at Work: Definitions

any stimulus in the environment or from within the mind that causes a
person to react at an emotional level

                        Stress threshold
the limit of a person’s ability to cope with stress without experiencing strain

characterized by anxiety, irritability, or depression arising from an inability
to cope with stress that exceeds one’s personal threshold
      Stress and Strain at Work Definitions
incapacitating strain

Coping Resources
  the psychological and social means by which people deal
  with stress to avoid its becoming a strain
  the same means used to control the effects of strain

Superfluous Stress at Work
stress produced through deliberate choices and decisions about
the organization of work that is over and beyond what is
required to get the job done effectively and efficiently.
       Normal and Excessive Stress

    “normal”                   coping                  composure
    stress                     skills

Normal levels of stress are “turned back” or otherwise dealt with when
people have adequate coping skills. Result: composure

  “excessive”                                           strain
  stress                    coping skills
Even normally adequate coping skills are not enough in the face of
sustained excessive stress which can overwhelm or destroy them.
                     Result: strain, distress
Origins of Stress & Strain at Work

      Major Culprits
       * High Demand
       * High Effort
       * Low Control
       * Low Reward
   Origins of Stress & Strain at Work

These conditions are more likely to:
result in strain when perceived as unfair
be perceived as unfair when seen as arising
from choices and decisions that could have
been made otherwise
Unfairness is The Chill Factor : it adds
about one third to the impact of stress on
mental health
Results of Strain
 The Wheel of Harm

 Focus on Fairness
      Costs of an Unhealthy Workplace
                       3X Heart Problems

2X Substance Abuse
                                                   3X Back Pain
                      High Effort, Low Reward
  2X-3X Injuries                 +                   5X Certain
                     High Demand, Low Control
                      X   Unfairness = STRAIN
2X-3X Infections                                     2x Conflict

                     2-3X Mental Health Problems
  Costs of Stress in the Workplace
                  Low Employee Satisfaction

   Low customer
                          High Effort
                                                 Low Morale
                          Low Reward
    Low                          +
  Commitment                                       Low trust
                         High Demand,
  Low Loyalty                Low Control          Low retention

                         X   Unfairness =
Low Motivation                                 Low creativity

                   Trailing Edge Performance
The Cost Wheel (Wheel of Harm)


Substance       Mental
Abuse                         Heart

         Demand/Control, Effort/Reward,
           Fairness, Purpose and Trust


             Trust               Purpose

You recognize and try to accommodate, to a
reasonable degree, my legitimate interests and rights

I do the same for you

We keep our promises to one another within the
framework of the employment relationship
         Fairness Has Health Value
        HIGH plus LOW                     HIGH plus LOW

      DEMAND        CONTROL              EFFORT     REWARD

Reduced adaptability                       Increased Rates of:
Impaired learning                           Heart/Circulatory Diseases
Impaired memory                             Immune Function Disorders
Increased helplessness                      Some Cancers
Increased passivity, or                     Mental Disorders
Increased aggression/conflict               Substance Abuse
Sociobiological Translation
 Process of transduction of information from
 social environment to biological signals
 triggering the process of disease

                            Tarlov 1996
Nervous System   Sociobiological
                      Response                              Cardiovascular

                                                   Immune System:
 Endocrine        Respiratory   Gastrointestinal

                                                       Source: Dr. Ray Baker
Fairness Has Health Value “The Feelings”

   Fairness                    Unfairness
  Belonging/Included            Excluded
  Trusted/Warm                  Tricked/Suspicious
  Accepted                      Rejected
  Liked                         Disliked
  Worthy                        Unworthy/Diminished
  Proud                         Shamed
  Calm/Collected                Anxious/Agitated
  Secure                        Insecure
  Happy                         Depressed
  Contented                     Angry/Enraged

  Sense of Purpose, Meaning,    Lack of Sense of Purpose, Meaning,
  Order, Legitimacy             Order, Legitimacy
         Problems and Solutions
 Q. Now we know the problem …        What is the solution?
 A. Yogi Berra said, “when you come to a fork in the road, take it!”

                       The two forks are:
                       Stress Management
                       Stress Risk Management

Both are needed in a comprehensive approach to
    stress abatement and conflict avoidance
      Stress Management

1.   The beliefs, attitudes, practices and
     resources that constitute the
     individual’s methods for coping with
     stress that threatens to, or does
     exceed his or her tolerance threshold

2.   Programs designed to reinforce or
     engender effective coping responses
     Stress Management Techniques
A.   Redefinition of stress as non-threatening

B.   Minimizing the impact of stress by
     controlling the mental and physical states
     that it gives rise to.

C.   Reinforcing personal resources such as
     sense of efficacy, social support.
A.   Cognitive reappraisal

B.   Relaxation response training
     * progressive muscle relaxation
     * meditation
     * physical activity

C.   Team-building
     Evaluation of Stress Management
Verdict: Some techniques are effective:
      1. Progressive Muscle Relaxation
      2. Relaxation Response Training
      3. Meditation
      4. Cognitive Reappraisal

BUT: in toxic environments, effectiveness is degraded

   By itself, stress management is like the
   sound of one hand clapping.
         Stress Risk Management
1. Abating superfluous stress at its source

2. Methods used to abate superfluous stress at its source

3. A requirement of due diligence to ensure that
     superfluous stress is abated at its source
    [“The Diligent Alternative”]

4. A management system in which there is accountability
    for the abatement of superfluous stress at its source.
    The Stress Risk Management Regime

 Managers, supervisors and other employees make every
                 reasonable effort to:

Foresee how their words, actions, decisions and choices may
affect others

Actively seek out, make use of, and share information that will
help them to do this

Listen carefully to others’ points of view in order to understand
their needs, interests, claims and rights

Accommodate these needs, interests, claims and rights up to a
reasonable standard
Stress Risk Management
   is the preventive end of a

   continuum at the remedial

        end of which is

  Stress Risk Damage Control
      Stress Risk Management: best practice
                    Knowledge of Stress Risk

                     Foreseeability of Harm

                       Choice of Actions
   Stress Risk Management       Stress Risk Myopia (Issue avoidance)

   (stress) Risk Reduction      Risk Enhancement (Stress aggravation)

Health Promotion + Protection     Health Disorders + Casualties

 Productivity + Competitive     Inefficiency + Loss of Competitive
 Advantage + Lower Costs            Advantage + Higher Costs
         Dealing with Risk
     Harmony                                          Conflict
 Stress Risk               Stress            Stress Risk
 Management               Management         Damage Control

 Consultation                EAP            Grievances/adjudication
 Diligence requirement       Mediation      Human rights investigations
 “neighbour @ work”          Stress mgmt    Arbitration
                             Dispute        Post traumatic stress mgmt
 Principled negotiation     resolution
(interest bargaining)                       Monitoring + surveillance programs –
                                           drugs, email, vulnerability, “panopticon”
                                            Hard bargaining (positional bargaining)
     Evaluation of Stress Risk Management

Most effective when:
  understood as a cultural process under the mentorship of strong

  the cultural process uses visible symbols to establish standards
  of conduct e.g. “the neighbour at work”

  introduced and sustained as part of the central
  accountability structure of the organization
The Neighbour @ Work
 Makes every reasonable effort to:
Predict the effect of his/her behaviour on
others (particularly subordinates)

Prevent & avoid foreseeable harm

Recognize & accommodate others’ legitimate
interests and rights
       Expects the same of others
Evaluation of SRM, continued

Realistic goals include:
•abatement of unreasonable demands and requirements of effort

•increasing individual employee autonomy where possible

•increasing degree to which employees are appreciated and valued

•increasing perceptions of fairness through increased understanding
  of others’ interests, needs and circumstances

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