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					    Power Distribution Enhancement
                 Project
                 TA 4876 (PAK)

   ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT of

Fazil Pur & Shahdun Lund Grid Sub-station and New
          Construction of LAR Grid Station
                    submitted to


            Asian Development Bank

                  January 2008
                        by
         Multan Electric Power Company

  Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project
                         Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination



INTRODUCTION
       Scope & Overview

1.     This document is the Environmental Impact Assessment covers Following
       three subproject for the 1 sub-project proposed by the Multan Electricity
       Power Company (MEPCO, Figures 1.1 and 1.2).

       Sr.No Subproject                   Location                 Project

       1         LAR                      Multan                   New Construction

       2         Fazil Pur                RajanPur                 Conversion/Line

       3         Shahdun Lund             D.G.Khan                 Conversion Line

       This EIA was prepared under TA4876 of the Asian Development Bank
       (ADB) Power Distribution and Enhancement Multi-tranche Finance Facility
       (PDEMFF). Under ADB Guidelines the sub-station and distribution line are
       to be taken as one integral sub-project and the guidelines require
       environmental assessment of all components of sub-projects whether
       financed by ADB, governments or other co-financiers.

       The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (GoP) has requested
       ADB to provide the PDEMFF to facilitate investments in power distribution
       and development of networks of eight independent distribution companies
       (DISCOs) that distribute power to end user consumers. The funding from
       ADB is expected to be released in stages (tranches). The Power
       Distribution Enhancement (PDE) Investment Program is part of the GoP
       long term energy security strategy. The proposed ADB intervention will
       finance new investments in PDE and assist capacity building of sector
       related agencies. The investment program will cover necessary PDE
       development activities in secondary transmission / distribution networks of
       eight DISCOs. The PDEMFF activities include extension (additional
       transformers) and augmentation (replacement of transformers with higher
       capacity) distribution line extensions, new and replacement distribution
       lines, additional sub-stations, transformer protection and other non
       network activities such as automatic meter reading, construction
       equipment and computerized accounting. New distribution lines to and
       from various network facilities and some of the above activities will also be
       included in the later tranches. The proposed PDEMFF facility has been
       designed to address both investment and institutional aspects in the
       electrical power sector.

       This EIA presents the results and conclusions of environmental
       assessment for the Fazil Pur sub-project proposed by MEPCO. This EIA is
       submitted by Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) on behalf of
       MEPCO. PEPCO has been nominated by Ministry of Water and Power
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project
                         Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination


          (MOWP) to act as the Executing Agency (EA) with each DISCO being the
          Implementing Agency (IA) for work in its own area. PEPCO’s role in the
          processing and implementation of the investment program is that of a
          coordinator of such activities as preparation of PC-1s and PFRs,
          monitoring implementation activities; that includes submission of
          environmental assessments for all sub-projects in all tranches of the
          PDEMFF under ADB operating procedures. An EIA/IEE has been carried
                                                                                                    12
          out to fulfill the requirements of ADB Guidelines (May 2003 ). This EIA
          study report is used to complete the Summary Environmental Impact
                                                                                          3
          Assessment (SEIA) for disclosure by ADB if necessary .

          The environmental assessment requirements of the GoP for grid stations
          and power distribution sub-projects are different to those of ADB. Under
          GoP regulations, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of
          Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination and
          Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations (2000) categorize
          development sub-projects into two schedules according to their potential
          environmental impact. The proponents of sub-projects that have
          reasonably foreseeable impacts are required to submit an EIA/IEE for their
          respective sub-projects (Schedule I). The proponents of sub-projects that
          have more adverse environmental impacts (Schedule II) are required to
          submit an environmental impact assessment (EIA). Distribution lines and
          sub-stations are included under energy sub-projects and EIA/IEE is
          required for sub-transmission/distribution lines of 11kV and less and large
          distribution sub-projects (Schedule I). EIA is required by GoP for all sub-
          projects involving sub-transmission/distribution lines of 11kV and above
          and for DGS sub-stations (Schedule II).

          Clarification has been sought from Pakistan EPA on the requirements for
          environmental assessment (Figure 1.1) for certain energy sub-projects
          and for sub-transmission/distribution lines. A Framework of Environmental
          Assessment (FEA) on power extensions and augmentation sub-projects
          was prepared by consultants and submitted to the Pakistan EPA, after
          hearings with provincial EPAs. In response to the FEA submitted by NTDC
          to the Pakistan EPA4 it has been clarified that all proponents must follow
          section 12 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act for all sub-
          projects. Pakistan EPA has also assumed that all proponents will consult
          with the relevant provincial EPAs (PEPA) and follow their advice. In 2006
          Punjab EPA requested disclosure of the scope and extent of each sub-
          project in order that the Director General of PEPA can determine if
          additional land is required and the need for EIA/IEE or EIA (Figure 1.2). A
          review of the need for EIA/EIA/IEE for submission to GoP is therefore
1
  Initial subproject classification was carried out in 2007 and the Category is B. Most of the construction impacts will
take place with only local impacts and there are no potential significant environmental impacts associated with the T1
(tranche one) sub-subproject construction. Initial environmental reconnaissance and REA carried out by consultants
under ADB guidelines in 2007 indicated that all the T1 sub-subprojects will be Category B.
2
  Environmental Assessment Guidelines (ADB May 2003).
3
  Category A subprojects that are deemed by ADB's chief compliance officer to be environmentally sensitive for the
purposes of (i) the 120 day rule, and (ii) the environmental management plan requirement could involve subprojects
that are near or in environmentally sensitive areas. At this stage no component of the T1 sub-subprojects under
consideration is actually within a critical area and therefore the MFF tranche as a whole is Category B.
4                    th
   Letter dated 29 June 2007 – Ref 2(1)2004-W/KCP-DD from Pak EPA Sajjad Hussein Talpur, Dy Director
(EIA/Mont) to NTDC, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Subproject Director PPTA, NTDC, WAPDA House, Lahore.
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project
                         Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination


       required by the relevant environmental protection agency, in this case the
       Punjab Environmental Protection Agency.
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project
                         Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination




              Power Distribution Enhancement
                           Project
                                  TA 4876 (PAK)

              ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

                   Fazil Pur Grid Sub-station and Line
                                      submitted to


                          Asian Development Bank

                                   January 2008
                                           by
                     Multan Electric Power Company

          Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment



CONTENTS
1.0    INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................2
1.1    Overview ................................................................................................................2
1.2    Scope of the EIA/IEE Study and Personnel...........................................................5
1.3    Policy and Statuary Requirements in Pakistan ......................................................6
1.4    Structure of Report ................................................................................................9

2.0    DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ......................................................................8
2.1    Type of Project.......................................................................................................11
2.2    Categorisation of the Project..................................................................................11
2.3    Need for the Project ...............................................................................................12
2.4    Location and Scale of Project ................................................................................14
2.5    Proposed Schedule for Implementation.................................................................15

3.0    DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT.............................................................1
3.1    Project Area ...........................................................................................................1
3.2    Physical Resources ...............................................................................................1
3.3    Ecological Resources ............................................................................................5
3.4    Economic Development .........................................................................................6
3.5    Social and Cultural Resources...............................................................................8


4.0    SCREENING POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND
       MITIGATION MEASURES ....................................................................................1
4.1    Sub-project Location ..............................................................................................1
4.2    Potential Environmental Impacts in Construction ..................................................4
4.3    Potential Environmental Impacts in Operation.......................................................10

5.0    INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS                        &         ENVIRONMENTAL
       MANAGEMENT PLAN ..........................................................................................12

6.0    PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND INFORMATION DISCLOSURE ........................i
6.1    Approach to Public Consultation............................................................................i
6.2    Public Consultation Process ..................................................................................i
6.3    Results of Public Consultation ...............................................................................iii

7.0    CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................iv
7.1    Findings and Recommendations ...........................................................................iv
7.2    Summary and Conclusions ....................................................................................v




                                                             ii
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment



Figures
Figure 1.1     Pakistan EIA Process
Figure 1.2     Letter from Pakistan Federal EPA on EIA Process
Figure 2.1     Jurisdiction of MEPCO.
Figure 2.2     Location of Fazil Pur on MEPCO grid
Figure 2.3     Sketch Plan of Fazil Pur DGS and DGL on survey sheet.

Appendixes
Appendix 1     Pakistan EIA Process
Appendix 2     Reviews of environmental implications for MEPCO Shadan Lund
Appendix 3     Photographs of the Shadan Lund S/S and Line
Appendix 4     Environmental Management Plan (matrix)
Appendix 5     Monitoring Plan (matrix)
Appendix 6     Bunds for transformers
Appendix 7     Summary of Public Consultation

ABBREVIATIONS
ADB               Asian Development Bank
COI               Corridor of Influence
DFO               Divisional Forest Officer
DGS               Distribution grid sub-station
DGL               Distribution line
EA                Environmental Assessment
EARF              Environment Assessment Review Framework
EIA               Environment Impact Assessment
EMP               Environmental Management Plan
GDP               Gross Domestic Product
GOP               Government of Pakistan
GIS               Gas Insulated Switchgear
EIA/IEE          Environmental       Impact     Assessment/Initial      Environmental
                  Examination
LARP              Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan
MEPCO             Multan Electric Power Company
LARP              Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan
Leq               equivalent sound pressure level
MPL               maximum permissible level
NEQS              National Environmental Quality Standards
NGO               Non Governmental Organization
PC                public consultation
PEPA              Punjab Environmental Protection Agency
PEPAct            Pakistan Environment Protection Act 1997 (as amended)
PPMS              Sub-project Performance Monitoring System
REA               Rapid Environmental Assessment
SIA               Social Impact Assessment
SP                Fazil Pur 132 kv sub-station & distribution line sub-project.
SR                Sensitive Receiver
TOR               Terms of Reference
DGL               distribution line
Rupee, PKR        Unit of Pakistan currency. $US approx R62




                                            iv
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment




                                                                 1
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Overview

2.        This document is the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Tranche 1
          Fazil Pur sub-station and distribution line sub-project proposed by the
          Multan Electricity Power Company (MEPCO, Figures 1.1 and 1.2). This
          EIA was prepared under TA4876 of the Asian Development Bank (ADB)
          Power Distribution and Enhancement Multi-tranche Finance Facility
          (PDEMFF). Under ADB Guidelines the sub-station and distribution line are
          to be taken as one integral sub-project and the guidelines require
          environmental assessment of all components of sub-projects whether
          financed by ADB, governments or other co-financiers.

3.        The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (GoP) has requested
          ADB to provide the PDEMFF to facilitate investments in power distribution
          and development of networks of eight independent distribution companies
          (DISCOs) that distribute power to end user consumers. The funding from
          ADB is expected to be released in stages (tranches). The Power
          Distribution Enhancement (PDE) Investment Program is part of the GoP
          long term energy security strategy. The proposed ADB intervention will
          finance new investments in PDE and assist capacity building of sector
          related agencies. The investment program will cover necessary PDE
          development activities in secondary transmission / distribution networks of
          eight DISCOs. The PDEMFF activities include extension (additional
          transformers) and augmentation (replacement of transformers with higher
          capacity) distribution line extensions, new and replacement distribution
          lines, additional sub-stations, transformer protection and other non
          network activities such as automatic meter reading, construction
          equipment and computerized accounting. New distribution lines to and
          from various network facilities and some of the above activities will also be
          included in the later tranches. The proposed PDEMFF facility has been
          designed to address both investment and institutional aspects in the
          electrical power sector.

4.        This EIA presents the results and conclusions of environmental
          assessment for the Fazil Pur sub-project proposed by MEPCO. This EIA is
          submitted by Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) on behalf of
          MEPCO. PEPCO has been nominated by Ministry of Water and Power
          (MOWP) to act as the Executing Agency (EA) with each DISCO being the
          Implementing Agency (IA) for work in its own area. PEPCO’s role in the
          processing and implementation of the investment program is that of a
          coordinator of such activities as preparation of PC-1s and PFRs,
          monitoring implementation activities; that includes submission of
          environmental assessments for all sub-projects in all tranches of the
          PDEMFF under ADB operating procedures. An EIA/IEE has been carried
                                                                                                    56
          out to fulfill the requirements of ADB Guidelines (May 2003                                    ). This EIA
5
  Initial subproject classification was carried out in 2007 and the Category is B. Most of the construction impacts will
take place with only local impacts and there are no potential significant environmental impacts associated with the T1



                                                                                                                      2
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


         study report is used to complete the Summary Environmental Impact
         Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination (SEIA/IEE) for disclosure
                                      7
         by ADB if necessary .

5.       The environmental assessment requirements of the GoP for grid stations
         and power distribution sub-projects are different to those of ADB. Under
         GoP regulations, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of
         Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination and
         Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations (2000) categorize
         development sub-projects into two schedules according to their potential
         environmental impact. The proponents of sub-projects that have
         reasonably foreseeable impacts are required to submit an EIA/IEE for their
         respective sub-projects (Schedule I). The proponents of sub-projects that
         have more adverse environmental impacts (Schedule II) are required to
         submit an environmental impact assessment (EIA). Distribution lines and
         sub-stations are included under energy sub-projects and EIA/IEE is
         required for sub-transmission/distribution lines of 11kV and less and large
         distribution sub-projects (Schedule I). EIA is required by GoP for all sub-
         projects involving sub-transmission/distribution lines of 11kV and above
         and for DGS sub-stations (Schedule II).

6.       Clarification has been sought from Pakistan EPA on the requirements for
         environmental assessment (Figure 1.1) for certain energy sub-projects
         and for sub-transmission/distribution lines. A Framework of Environmental
         Assessment (FEA) on power extensions and augmentation sub-projects
         was prepared by consultants and submitted to the Pakistan EPA, after
         hearings with provincial EPAs. In response to the FEA submitted by NTDC
         to the Pakistan EPA8 it has been clarified that all proponents must follow
         section 12 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act for all sub-
         projects. Pakistan EPA has also assumed that all proponents will consult
         with the relevant provincial EPAs (PEPA) and follow their advice. In 2006
         Punjab EPA requested disclosure of the scope and extent of each sub-
         project in order that the Director General of PEPA can determine if
         additional land is required and the need for EIA/IEE or EIA (Figure 1.2). A
         review of the need for EIA/EIA/IEE for submission to GoP is therefore
         required by the relevant environmental protection agency, in this case the
         Punjab Environmental Protection Agency.




(tranche one) sub-subproject construction. Initial environmental reconnaissance and REA carried out by consultants
under ADB guidelines in 2007 indicated that all the T1 sub-subprojects will be Category B.
6
  Environmental Assessment Guidelines (ADB May 2003).
7
  Category A subprojects that are deemed by ADB's chief compliance officer to be environmentally sensitive for the
purposes of (i) the 120 day rule, and (ii) the environmental management plan requirement could involve subprojects
that are near or in environmentally sensitive areas. At this stage no component of the T1 sub-subprojects under
consideration is actually within a critical area and therefore the MFF tranche as a whole is Category B.
8                  th
   Letter dated 29 June 2007 – Ref 2(1)2004-W/KCP-DD from Pak EPA Sajjad Hussein Talpur, Dy Director
(EIA/Mont) to NTDC, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Subproject Director PPTA, NTDC, WAPDA House, Lahore.



                                                                                                                3
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment




                                                                 4
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


1.2      Scope of the EIA/IEE Study and Personnel

The Study Area included the identification of irrigation facilities, water
     supply, habitable structures, schools, health facilities, hospitals,
     religious places and sites of heritage or archaeological
     importance and critical areas9 (if any) within about 100m of the
     DGS boundary and along the distribution line. The works are
     generally envisaged to involve conversion of the existing
     substation with construction of the foundations and other works
     within the DGS as well as construction of the bases foundation
     pads and towers to support the distribution line and stringing the
     line. The transformers will be supplied MEPCO under a separate
     sub-project by MEPCO and all works will supervised by the Fazil
     Pur management.
The field studies were undertaken by the environment team with
     experience of environmental assessment for power sub-projects
     in Pakistan. Mrs. Syeda Bushra Waheed, Wali Waheed and Syed
     Asif Riaz Shahid conducted preliminary scoping, survey and
     assessment activities, co-ordinated the field sampling and
     analysis, and were also responsible to supervise collation of
     information and co-ordinate the various public consultation
     activities. The team conducted preliminary scoping, survey and
     assessment activities, and carried out the report writing. Dr David
     Green (International Environmental Consultant of BPI) provided
     leadership and guidance in planning the field work, and in
     finalization of the report. The environmental team also benefited
     from technical support and other information on the impacts of
     the proposed power works provided in feasibility summaries
     prepared with MEPCO10 by expert consultants of BPI dealing with
     engineering, power distribution, socio-economic, resettlement and
     institutional aspects.
A scoping and field reconnaissance was conducted on the sub-project
     site, during which a Rapid Environmental Assessment was carried
     out to establish the potential impacts and categorization of sub-
     project activities. The methodology of the EIA/IEE study was then
     elaborated in order to address all interests. Subsequently primary
     and secondary baseline environmental data was collected from
     possible sources, and the intensity and likely location of impacts
     were identified with relation the sensitive receivers; based on the
     work expected to be carried out. The significance of impacts from
     construction of the DGS was then assessed and, for those
     impacts requiring mitigation, measures were proposed to reduce
     impacts to within acceptable limits.
Public consultation (PC) was carried out in July 2007, in line with ADB
      guidelines2. Under ADB requirements the environmental

9
 Critical areas as published by the PEPA on the website put in specific reference
10
  Feasibility Summary submitted to the Asian Development Bank by the Multan Electric Power Company, Pakistan
under Power Distribution       Enhancement Subproject PPTA 4876-PAK. Subproject Number 165, 132 kV Fazil Pur
Grid Substation



                                                                                                          5
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


       assessment process must also include meaningful public
       consultation during the completion of the draft EIA/IEE. In This
       EIA the PC process included verbal disclosure of the sub-project
       works as a vehicle for discussion. Consultations were conducted
       with local families and communities around the Fazil Pur SP site
       and along the DGL route, and with staff of the sub-project
       management. The responses from correspondents have been
       included in Appendix 7 and summarized in Section 6 of This EIA.
1.3    Policy and Statuary Requirements in Pakistan
Direct legislation on environmental protection is contained in several
      statutes, namely the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (1997)
      the Forest Act (1927) the Punjab Wildlife Act (1974). In addition the
      Land Acquisition Act (1894) also provides powers in respect of
      land acquisition for public purposes. There are also several other
      items of legislation and regulations which have an indirect bearing
      on the sub-project or general environmental measures.
Statutory Framework
The Constitution of Pakistan distributes legislative powers between the
     federal and the provincial governments through two ‘lists’
     attached to the Constitution as Schedules. The Federal List covers
     the subjects over which the federal government has exclusive
     legislative power, while the Concurrent List contains subjects
     regarding which both the federal and provincial governments can
     enact laws. “Environmental pollution and ecology” is included in
     the concurrent list, hence both the federal and the provincial
     governments can enact laws on this subject. However, to date,
     only the federal government has enacted laws on environment,
     and the provincial environmental institutions derive their power
     from the federal law. The Punjab Environmental Protection Act
     1996 is now superseded by the Pakistan Environmental Protection
     Act (1997). The key environmental laws affecting this sub-project
     are discussed below.
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 is the basic legislative
     tool empowering the government to frame regulations for the
     protection of the environment. The act is applicable to a wide
     range of issues and extends to air, water, soil, marine, and noise
     pollution, as well as to the handling of hazardous wastes. The key
     features of the law that have a direct bearing on the proposed sub-
     project relate to the requirement for an Environmental Impact
     Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination (EIA/IEE) and
     environmental impact assessment (EIA) for development sub-
     projects. Section 12(1) requires that: “No proponent of a sub-
     project shall commence construction or operation unless he has
     filed with the Federal Agency an Environmental Impact
     Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination [EIA/IEE] or, where
     the sub-project is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect,


                                                                         6
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


       an environmental impact assessment [EIA], and has obtained from
       the Federal Agency approval in respect thereof.” The Pakistan
       Environmental Protection Agency has delegated the power of
       review and approval of environmental assessments to the
       provincial environmental protection agencies, in this case the
       Punjab EPA.




                                                                    7
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


        Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of EIA/IEE and
        EIA Regulations, 2000
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEP Act) provides for
     two types of environmental assessments: Environmental Impact
     Assessment/Initial Environmental Examinations (EIA/IEE) and
     environment impact assessments (EIA). EIAs are carried out for
     sub-projects that have a potentially ‘significant’ environmental
     impact, whereas EIA/IEEs are conducted for relatively smaller sub-
     projects with a relatively less significant impact. The Pakistan
     Environmental Protection Agency Review of EIA/IEE and EIA
     Regulations, 200011 (the ‘Regulations’), prepared by the Pak-EPA
     under the powers conferred upon it by the PEP Act, categorises
     sub-projects for EIA/IEE and EIA. Schedules I and II, attached to
     the Regulations, list the sub-projects that require EIA/IEE and EIA,
     respectively.
Distribution lines and grid sub-stations of 11kV and above are included
       under energy sub-projects in Schedule II, under which rules EIA is
       required by GoP. Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial
       Environmental Examination (EIA/IEE) is required for distribution
       lines less than 11kV and large distribution sub-projects (Schedule
       I). A review of the need for EIA / EIA/IEE submission is therefore
       required by the relevant EPA, in this case the Punjab
       Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the proposed sub-
       project will be located in Punjab.
There are no formal provisions for the environmental assessment of
     expanding existing distribution lines and grid sub-stations but
     Punjab EPA have requested disclosure of the scope and extent of
     each sub-project in order that their Director General can
     determine if additional land is required and the need for statutory
     environmental assessment. The details of this sub-project will be
     forwarded to the Punjab EPA (by August 2007), in order to
     commence the local statutory environmental assessment process.
National Environmental Quality Standards
The National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) were first
    promulgated in 1993 and have been amended in 1995 and 2000.
    The following standards that are specified in the NEQS may be
    relevant to the Tranche 1 sub-projects:
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (32 parameters) in
     municipal and liquid industrial effluents discharged to inland
     waters, sewage treatment facilities, and the sea (three separate
     sets of numbers)
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (2 parameters) in
     gaseous emissions from vehicle exhaust and noise emission from
     vehicles.

11
  The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial
Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations, 2000


                                                                                              8
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


Other Relevant Laws
There are a number of other federal and provincial laws that are
     important in the context of environmental management. The main
     laws potentially affecting sub-projects in this MFF are listed
     below.
The    Punjab Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972 empowers the
       government to declare certain areas reserved for the protection of
       wildlife and control activities within in these areas. It also provides
       protection to endangered species of wildlife. As no activities are
       planned in these areas, no provision of this law is applicable to
       the proposed sub-project.
The Forestry Act, 1927 empowers the government to declare certain
     areas reserved forest. As no reserved forest exists in the vicinity
     of the proposed sub-project, this law will not affect the proposed
     sub-project.
The Antiquities Act of 1975 ensures the protection of Pakistan’s cultural
     resources. The Act defines ‘antiquities’ as ancient products of
     human activity, historical sites, or sites of anthropological or
     cultural interest, national monuments, etc. The Act is designed to
     protect these antiquities from destruction, theft, negligence,
     unlawful excavation, trade, and export. The law prohibits new
     construction in the proximity of a protected antiquity and
     empowers the Government of Pakistan to prohibit excavation in
     any area that may contain articles of archaeological significance.
     Under the Act, the sub-project proponents are obligated to:
Ensure that no activity is undertaken in the proximity of a protected
     antiquity
Report to the Department of Archaeology, Government of Pakistan, any
     archaeological discovery made during the course of the sub-
     project.
No protected or unprotected antiquity was identified in the vicinity that
     may be affected by this sub-project.
1.4    Structure of Report
This EIA reviews information on existing environmental attributes of the
      Study Area. Geological, hydrological and ecological features, air
      quality, noise, water quality, soils, social and economic aspects
      and cultural resources are included. The report predicts the
      probable impacts on the environment due to the proposed sub-
      project enhancement and expansion. This EIA also proposes
      various environmental management measures. Details of all
      background         environmental        quality,      environmental
      impact/pollutant generating activities, pollution sources, predicted
      environmental quality and related aspects have been provided in
      this report. References are presented as footnotes throughout the
      text. Following this introduction the report follows ADB guidelines
      and includes:


                                                                            9
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


       • Description of the Sub-project
       • Description of Environmental and Social Conditions
       • Assessment of Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
       • Environmental Monitoring Plan
       • Public Consultation
       • Recommendations and Conclusions




                                                                       10
Power Transmission Enhancement Multitranche Financing Facility
– Tranche 1 MEPCO Fazil Pur sub-station and line Sub-project

Environmental Impact Assessment


2.0    DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
2.1    Type of Project

The sub-project will be the DGS and DGL. That is, the DGS will require
     the conversion of the existing 66kV DGS into a 132kV DGS and
     connection to the network. The distribution line component of the
     project (as well as the 11kV distribution substation are an integral
     part of the sub-project and will be studied together in the present
     EIA/IEE in line with ADB Guidelines2. Even if MEPCO chooses to
     plan and construct the 132kV line as a separate sub-project under
     a subsequent Tranche of this MFF for ADB funding or with some
     other form of co-finance the ADB Guidelines2 require that both
     DGS and DGL be studied together for the EIA/IEE. Figures 2.2 and
     2.3 show the location of the DGS site.




2.2    Categorisation of the Project
Categorization is based on the environmentally most sensitive
     component of a sub-project. The aspects of the sub-project with
     potential for significant environmental impacts need to be
     assessed in detail and this environmental assessment has
     therefore focused on the significant impacts possible from the
     construction activities.
The site for the DGS, as well as the route of the proposed DGL, is
     located in a rural setting, with some minor settlements and other
     infrastructure around the site. The Fazil Pur SP is categorised as a
     Category B sub-project under ADB requirements1,3 and This EIA is
     based on that assumption.




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2.3    Need for the Project
The standards and conditions of the power distribution system in
     Pakistan are inadequate to meet rapidly growing demand for
     electrical power. This situation limits national development and
     economic growth. To cope with the constraints, the existing
     power distribution infrastructure has to be improved and
     upgraded. The overall contribution of power infrastructure also
     requires institutional arrangements and capacity that support
     strategic management of the sector, and planning and
     management of investments. Overall the proposed PDEMFF
     facility has been designed to address both investment and
     institutional aspects in the electrical power sector.
Power demands in the Fazil Pur area of MEPCO jurisdiction have
     increased rapidly, especially in summer months, so that the
     existing 66kV DGS is unable to cope up with the increasing
     demands of the domestic, commercial and industrial sectors.
     Therefore, MEPCO has planned to convert this DGS to 132kV.
     Land for this DGS is already available, so no additional land is
     needed except for the five towers for the feeder line.




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       2.4     Location and Scale of Project
This EIA has included field reconnaissance of the site and surroundings
      of the Fazil Pur SP. The Fazil Pur DGS is located 2km north of
      Fazil Pur town, on the Indus Highway (N-55) at 18km north of
      Rajanpur (Figure 2.1). The DGS has its main entrance on the Indus
      Highway and access to the SP site is easily available. The existing
      environment around the DGS site is typical of a rural/suburban
      area of Punjab.
The Fazil Pur sub-project will involve the conversion of the existing DGS
     from 66kV to 132kV, and construction of a new 132kV DGL. The
     scope of work includes addition of 2X 26MVa, 132/11kV Power
     Transformers and allied equipment and buildings. The Fazil Pur
     SP also requires construction of a 1.1km long 132kV DGL, over 5
     towers to join the network to the proposed DGS. The proposed
     132kV DGL will need to cross a canal, and the (Rajanpur – DG
     Khan) Indus Highway, but there are no other developments in the
     proposed route of the DGL (July 2007) and future developments
     should not be allowed directly under the DGL. The DGS has its
     main entrance on the Indus Highway (west side) flanked by a
     Police Station (north) and a school (south), and cultivated lands
     around its eastern, north-eastern and northern sides. The
     proposed route to the nearest 132kV line appears to be
     environmentally feasible and technically appropriate (Figure 2.3)
     and will join the DGS with an existing 132kV line at about 1km
     from the DGS.
This EIA has been conducted based on the assumptions available in late
      July 2007 when the preliminary designs for the DGS were
      completed and the overall requirements for installation of the
      equipment had been identified (Figure 2.3). The detailed designs
      are currently being progressed by MEPCO. At this stage, the
      construction activities under the SP are expected to include the
      usual localized civil works such as extension of the main yard,
      including excavation and concreting of foundations for the new
      transformers, capacitor banks, cable trays and terminal tower
      (within the DGS compound), installation of the transformers,
      equipment and fittings, erection of the towers, cabling,
      construction of the control rooms and installation of allied
      equipment, and construction of the offices and residences.
      Impacts from construction of the Fazil Pur SP are envisaged to be
      minor, since no additional land needs to be acquired for
      converting the DGS, and the works will be within the existing
      boundary of the DGS.
Land has to be acquired for a Right of Way (RoW) for the supporting
     towers that can accommodate the distribution line. The
     connecting line from Fazil Pur SP to the network will involve
     erection of 5 towers (4 angle towers, and one normal) that will be
     strung with the new DGL. The detailed designs for the Tranche 1
     (T1) sub-projects will be developed later.


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2.5    Proposed Schedule for Implementation
Designs of the DGS equipment layout, review of environmental
     management and construction processes could take several
     months. When the detailed designs are completed, tendering and
     award of contract will take place over about three to six months.
     The construction period will follow and best estimates indicate
     about      eighteen        months        to      two       years.




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3.0    DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
3.1    Project Area
3.1.1 General Characteristics of Project Area
The existing 66kV Fazil Pur DGS is about 2km from Fazil Pur town, and
     18km from Rajanpur. The DGS site is located in a generally
     agricultural area, with cultivated fields along two sides of the DGS.
     There are about 20 non-fruit trees within the DGS boundary which
     will have to be removed to make way for the 132kV gear.
3.1.2 Affected Administrative Units
The area to be indirectly affected by the conversion works for the Fazil
      Pur DGS that falls in mouza and tehsil Fazil Pur in the district of
      Rajanpur, Punjab (Appendix 1). Interviews were conducted with
      the public near the DGS site and DGL corridor (Appendix 7) to
      obtain their views on the sub-project, and any perceived impacts.
      In addition to some houses near the DGS site (which broadly fall
      in the mouza Fazil Pur), a small basti Bhani Khalil, is nearest to
      the line route, within about 50m of the line proposed RoW.
3.2    Physical Resources
3.2.1 Topography, Geography Geology, and Soils
Dera Ghazi Khan district comprises the Suleman mountains area in the
     west and the Punjab plain in the east. Most of the hills are in the
     tribal area known as the De-Excluded Area. The hills are higher in
     the north where they rise to peaks as high as 3,000m above the
     sea level. In addition to main range, there are two smaller chains
     parallel to each other between the main range and the plain in the
     east. The height of these ranges gradually decreases southwards.
     The high peaks towards the centre of the district are Ekbhai
     (2,274m), Fort Munro (1,916m) and Dragul (1640 m). The
     mountains are formed of sandstone with occasional outcrops of
     limestone except some higher summits in the north of the district.
     They are generally barren.
The plain area of the district can be subdivided into three natural tracts,
      namely, the piedmont, canal and riverine areas; The well irrigated
      canal-plain area forms the intermediate zone between the
      piedmont and the riverine area. The latter lies close to the Indus
      River where cultivation depends on the flooding rather than
      irrigation from canals.




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Climate and Hydrology
There is no variation of altitude above sea level in the land along the
      alignment and the short length of the distribution line means no
      variation between the climate of the sub-project area. The climate
      at DG Khan SP is typical of that of the southern Punjab.
The maximum temperature in summer reaches 42oC. In winter the
     minimum is 4.5oC. The mean maximum and minimum
     temperatures in summer for this period are 40.6oC and 27.2oC
     respectively and in winter 22.3oC and 5.9oC respectively. The
     summer season starts from April and continues till October. May,
     June and July are the hottest months. The winter season on the
     other hand starts from November and continues till March,
     December, January and February are the coldest months. At Fort
     Munro, which is a hill station, the day temperature indoors rarely
     rises over 27oC.
The rainy season starts in July and ends in September. Annual rainfall is
      166.8 mm. More rains occur in July and August than any other
      months. Most of the winter rains are received in the months of
      March and April.
3.2.3 Groundwater and Water Supply
Irrigation is largely dependent on the canals, but tube wells have also
       been sunk in the areas where water is fit for irrigation. The
       chemical quality of ground water in the district varies in different
       areas and at different depths. According to KCP Feasibility Study
       carried out by WAPDA 200312, Potable water is available in a belt
       along Shuria Canal. Irrigation supplies are perennial and tube
       wells have been installed to make up the deficiencies. The strata
       near the DGS and DGL are water bearing and alluvial deposits,
       giving groundwater potential throughout the sub-project area and
       the water table is about seven to eight metres below the surface.
       The water table is not seasonal and dug wells do not generally run
       dry. Groundwater sources exist in the area and there are tube
       wells within 500m of the proposed DGL towers. The local
       population near most of the DGS & DGL is generally reliant on
       supply from tube wells. Piped water supply is available in 23,569
       housing units of D.G.Khan. There should be no impact on these
       sources of water during the construction.
Surface Water
Rivers and Tributaries: The river Indus runs to the east and flows
      increase significantly in May when melting snow from the
      Himalayas gradually fills its bed to a breadth of 14km. It continues
      to gain height till the end of August after which it begins to
      subside, reaching its lowest cold weather level at the end of

12
   KCP – Kachhi Canal Project - water quality from a hand pump at Mouza Chohata Pajahda indicates ph7.75,
                                            ++             ++           ++          ++              ++
SAR0.46, Cations 7.5mg/l, Anions 7.4mg/l, Ca 1.9 mg/l, Mg 3.0mg/l, Na 2.28mg/l, K mg/l 0.32, CO3 mg/l
         3                                                                           o
0.00, HCO 4.70mg/l, Cl 0.50mg/l, SO4 2.2mg/l, electric conductivity 717mmohs/cm at 25 C D.S. by evaporation
444ppm.



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        September. Large nullahs rise from the west to east, through
        narrow and deep gorges. The most northerly, the Vihowa,
        emerges from those in the Dera Ismail Khan district, but its flood
        water reaches the villages in the north of Sangarh. The Sangarh
        emerges near the village of Mangrotha at the centre of the western
        boundary of Taunsa Tehsil.
Irrigation: The eastern and south-eastern belt of the district along the
       Indus is irrigated by canals. The Dera Ghazi Khan Canal which
       takes off from Taunsa Barrage is the major source of irrigation. It
       irrigates Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil. Manka Canal and Shuria Canal
       also irrigate Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil. Kachhi canal is under
       construction which also off take from Taunsa barrage. It will
       irrigate about 713,000 acres of land in Balochistan. Total length of
       this canal is 500 km, out which 300 km will pass through Punjab,
       and 200 km in Balochistan.
Apart from occasional springs here and there, the hill torrents supply
      water for the cultivation and irrigation of tiny patches in the
      rugged hills where water is accumulated in tanks and reservoirs.
      Irrigation on a limited scale is also done by tube-wells and
      Jhalars.
The nearest irrigation channel is the DG Khan Canal which runs north
     south about 1km away on the other side of the Indus Highway.
     The protection of surface water sources should not be an issue
     during construction or operation.
Air Quality
Air quality in the sub-project area appears good based on observation
      during the study period. Domestic sources of air pollution, such
      as emissions from wood and kerosene burning stoves as well as
      small diesel standby generators in some households, are well
      dissipated. There are no other industrial pollution sources are
      present in the vicinity.
The other major source of air pollution is dust arising from construction
      and other ground or soil disturbance. Near the access roads,
      when vehicles pass, dust levels will increase. The nearby road is
      paved but dust levels are elevated when vehicles pass
      intermittently over the roads based on field observations and may
      be high enough to obscure vision significantly based on
      observations in May 2007.
Noise
Noise from vehicles and other powered mechanical equipment is
     intermittent. There are also the occasional calls to prayer from the
     PA systems at the local mosques but there are no significant
     disturbances to the quiet rural setting. However the construction
     from the proposed power expansion will use powered mechanical
     equipment. Subjective observations were made of background
     noise and also of individual vehicle pass by events. Based on


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       professional experience background daytime noise levels are
       probably well below 55dB(A)L90.




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3.3    Ecological Resources
Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquatic Biology: There are no areas of wildlife
       significance near the sub-project area. Pig and hog deer are found
       in woodland near the river and hares are fairly common. Black and
       gray partridges are also found. Migratory birds use the Indus
       valley and in cold weather many varieties of duck and teal visit the
       district. The Indus contains a variety of fish. In the winter months
       when the river recedes, fish are caught in greater quantity.
There are no reservoirs or other water bodies near the sub-project area.
      However, Indus River and Taunsa barrage are the main water
      bodies/ ponding areas. These water bodies form a habitat for a
      large number of fish species. The major commercial fish species
      according to Department of Fisheries, D.G. Khan include Catla
      catla (Theila), Channa marulius (Saul), Cirrhinus mrigala (Mori)
      and Cyprinus carpio (Gulfam).
Terrestrial Habitats, Forests and Protected Species: The sub-project
      area, which is not dry, is dominated by rural suburbs and with
      various productive fields of monocultures that now dominate the
      agro-ecosystems present in the sub-project area. Common floral
      species with rooted vegetation are also present near most of the
      water bodies of the area.
There is herbaceous ground cover and shrubs but very little other
     vegetation in the RoW for the line (Appendix 3). Just either side of
     the distribution line alignment semi-natural vegetation consists of
     the trees and scrub areas that have not been cultivated. Amongst
     the trees, Jand (Prosopis spicigera) Frash (Tamarix articutlata)
     Shisham (Dalbergia sisso) Sirin (Albizia lebbek) and Kikar
     (Accacia arabica) are most common.
There is wild growth of mesquite bushes, and some Sirin (Albizia
     lebbek), Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), Kikar (Accacia arabica) trees
     in the areas near the works, but natural forest cover in the district
     has been significantly reduced in the past due to clearance for
     cultivation.
Protected and Religious Trees: There is a protected forest near Taunsa,
      about 20km north; the largest forest in the Dera Ghazi Khan
      district. There are also planted trees along canals and roads. The
      major trees grown in the forest are Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo),
      Kikar (Acacia arbica) and Eucalyptus. There are not many trees
      along the RoW but there are a few on private land. In general
      permission should be sought from the local tree owners for the
      felling of any trees. A Land Acquisition and Resettlement plan
      (LARP) for the SLSP will make provision for compensation of local
      people for the loss of trees, if needed after detailed study. The
      works must deal with trees that need to be lopped or removed for
      safety reasons with the necessary permissions.
Protected Areas/National Sanctuaries: In Pakistan there are several areas of
       land devoted to the preservation of biodiversity through the


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       dedication of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. Two wet
       lands and a reservoir namely the Indus river and Taunsa Barrage
       are about 30km from the sub-project site. These water bodies
       provide excellent feeding, breeding and resting habitats to
       numerous migratory as well as resident birds. The water reservoir
       is located on one of the major bird migration routes of the world
       over the river Indus. Taunsa reservoir is also a sanctuary (Ramsar
       site). Both areas are too far away to be affected by the sub-project.
       There are no other protected areas near the distribution line
       alignment.
3.4    Economic Development
Agriculture and Industries
Cropping Pattern: The main crops in the sub-project area during winter
     are wheat, gram, barley, oil seeds, Taramira, Sarson and Toria. In
     summer sugarcan, cotton, Jawar, Bajra and rice are grown.
Horticulture: The main fruits grown in the area are date, orange and
      mango. In De-Excluded area at Khar near Fort Munro there is a
      garden of fruits where mulberry, vine, fresh olive, almond, peach,
      plum and apricot are grown. Main minerals are petroleum, natural
      gas, uranium, gypsum, limestone etc.
Industry: There are nine (9) major Industrial units of cotton ginning and
      pressing, cotton textiles, a cement factory and vegetable oil
      factory. Dera Ghazi Khan is well known for lacquered articles such
      as wooden/electric lamps, mirror frames, pottery, furniture and
      several other articles of decoration. There are cotton seed oil
      factories at 3km from the DGS.
Transportation and Tourism
Dera Ghazi Khan is linked with the rest of the country by rail and roads.
      It lies on the National Indus Highway, which connects Karachi with
      rest of the country. The district headquarters Dera Ghazi Khan is
      connected with metalled roads to all its headquarters. The eastern
      and south-eastern belt of the district is comparatively developed
      with good metalled road transportation. All major villages are
      connected with the district headquarters through metalled roads.
      A metalled road also connects this district with Musa Khel,
      Barkhan, Loralai, and many other districts of Baluchistan province
      to the west.
The district is also served by railway line which runs north-south along
      the main metalled road of this district from Taunsa Barrage to
      Rajanpur district across which it leads to Jaccobabad district of
      Sindh Province.
D G Khan is not connected with rest of the country by air. The nearest
     airport is at Multan. PIA operates regular flights from Multan to
     other parts of the country.
There are many places of interest which attract tourists and promote
     tourism e.g. Fort Munro (is situated at a height of 1890 meters

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       above sea level), where there are gardens, orchards, bungalows
       and government offices. During summer season climate of Fort
       Munro remains cool. It is used as summer resort during hot
       weather, Dam, lake and Trimmu waterfalls situated near Fort
       Munro are good picnic spots. Shrines of Sakhi Sarwar, Zinda Pir,
       Derah Din Panah, Pir Adil, Muhammad Suleman at Taunsa are
       religious places to visit.




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Energy Sources
The distribution lines for electrical power run to a main grid sub-station
      D.G.Khan. The existing 220kV D.G.Khan Grid Station owned by
      MEPCO, transmits power to the load centres.
Reserves of fossil fuels the main sources of energy in Pakistan others
     are derived from hydropower. In the study area there is no source
     of hydropower and other energy sources are progressively more
     common further away from the major towns. The biomass
     sourcing is concentrated on home garden production of fuel wood
     and the extraction of wood from forests, woodland, crop
     plantations and agricultural residues. The other significant energy
     sources in the area are kerosene and LPG. There are numerous
     petrol stations and LPG dealers in the district.
3.5    Social and Cultural Resources
Population Communities and Employment
The total population of Dera Ghazi Khan District was 1,643,118 as
     enumerated in March 1998. The 1998 Census the population
     showed the district is predominantly 99% Muslim. The next higher
     percentage is of Ahmadis with 0.2%, followed by scheduled castes
     0.10%. Other minorities like Christians, Hindu (jati) etc are small in
     number. The proportion of population of Muslims in rural and
     urban areas is over 99%. Ahmadis in urban areas are 0.43 per cent
     and rural areas 0.16 per cent. Christian are more in Urban areas as
     compared to their proportion in rural areas. The Hindu (Jati) are
     very small number in rural area. Also scheduled castes and others
     are in very small numbers. Siraiki is the predominant language
     being spoken in the district, representing 80% of the population,
     followed by Baluchi spoken by 14%, Urdu 3% and Panjabi 1%.
     Others speak Sindhi, Pashto, Baravi, Dari etc.
Of the total economically active population 75.2 per cent were registered
      as employed in 1998. Nearly three-quarters (72.6%) were self
      employed, 10% were private employees and 6% government
      employees. Unpaid family helpers were recorded as 10%. The
      difference in proportions of employed population was significant
      between the genders and urban and rural residences.
The main occupation of women in rural areas including sub-project area
     of D.G. Khan district is house-keeping which includes attending to
     the cattle, extracting butter and Ghee from milk, weaving and
     sewing of family clothes. In addition they generally help their men-
     folk on farms with the lighter duties like transplanting of
     seedlings, threshing and winnowing of grains and sometimes they
     also help in harvesting. In city women are housewives or work as
     professional doctors, nurses, teaching.
Education and Literacy
The literacy ratio in Dera Ghazi Khan district increased from 16% in 1981
       to 31% in 1998. The literacy ratio for males is 42% and 18% for


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       females. Literacy is much higher in urban areas compared with
       rural areas for male and female.
There is one primary school for boys, and one for girls in each of the
      basties Sanjedari, Bhatiwala, and Shadan Lund. Taliwala has only
      one primary school for both boys and girls. There are high
      schools for boys and girls at about 3 km from the DGS.
      Educational institutions and their enrolment 1997-98 are given in
      Table 3.1.


Table 3.1: Educational Institutions by Level Education, 1997-98
         Institution                               Number        Enrolment
         SCHOOLS
         Primary                                   1405          85000
         Middle                                    142           26000
         High                                      99            42000
         Higher Secondary                          8             5347
         (I – XII Classes)
         COLLEGES
         Degrees                                  4              5790
         Intermediate                              1             268
         TECHNICAL/PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTES
         Technology/Polytechnic
                                                   2             915
              Institute
         Commercial Training Institute             12            1493
         Vocational Institute                      12            569
Source: Punjab Development Statistics, Bureau of Statistics Punjab,
     1995-96.
Health Facilities
In Dera Ghazi Khan district there are 6 hospitals with 305 beds, 35
      dispensaries with 14 beds, 9 Rurral Health Centres with 180 beds,
      52 Basic Health Units with 8 beds along with one T.B. Clinic, 34
      Sub-Health Centres and 6 Mother Care Health Centres are
      functioning day and night for providing the medical facility to the
      people of the district. There is a Basic Health Unit at Shahdan
      Lund, and the Bakhtawar Trust Hospital at 4km from the DGS.
Cultural Heritage and Community Structure


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There are no officially protected heritage sites or historic, religious or
      archeologically important sites located in the sub-project works
      areas. There are no major historic or archaeological feature of
      note but there a few places of worship within about 500m of the
      works.
The inhabitants of the district are predominantly Balochi belonging to
      various tribal groups. Nutkani, Buzdar and Qaisrani tribes are in
      overwhelming majority in Taunsa Tehsil whereas Sori Lund,
      Khosa, and Leghari tribes dominate in Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil.
      Besides people belonging to smaller sub-tribes such as Pitafi and
      Jaskan are settled in all the district. Khitran, Pathans dominate in
      the villages situated in the north- west of Taunsa Tehsil, which
      formerly formed a part of Dera Ismail Khan District. Apart from
      this the people of other tribes i.e. Sayed, Pathan, Mughal, Jat,
      Arain, Awan, Rajput, etc. all commonly called jats, are scattered all
      over the district but they are found mostly in area along the Indus.
There is a police station adjacent to the DGS and the next closest is at
      Kala        Thana         12km        from       the        DGS.




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4.0    SCREENING Potential Environmental Impacts and Mitigation
       Measures
4.1    Sub-project Location
Impact Assessment and Mitigation
In this section the potential environmental impacts are reviewed. Where
       impacts are significant enough to exceed accepted environmental
       standards, mitigation is proposed in order to reduce residual
       impact to acceptable levels. In this regard, the impact prediction
       plays a vital role as these predictions are used for developing
       mitigation measures and any alternative options, if appropriate.
       When the detailed designs are completed the impacts and
       mitigation measures will need to be further reviewed to take
       account of how the contracts are set up and in the light of any fine
       tuning of the sub-project proposals.
This Tranche 1 sub-project will involve conversion of the existing 66kV
      DGS and 1km of DGL, implying an expansion of facilities, both
      outside and within the existing boundaries of the DGS. There are a
      few sensitive receivers (SR), including some houses, a school,
      and a police station, which are close to the DGS boundary, and
      could be possibly affected by certain activities of the SP works.
      There are some other sensitive receivers (SR) (a small cluster of
      rural houses) within about 300m of the DGS. The DGL will also
      cross a major highway, and a minor canal, and could require the
      removal of about seven (7) trees, but there are no other sensitive
      receivers on its route, which could be affected by the works.
The location and scale of the works are very important in predicting the
      environmental impacts. Therefore, it is essential that a proper
      analysis is carried out during the sub-project planning period.
      This process of impact prediction is the core of the EIA/IEE
      process and it is critical that the recommendations and mitigation
      measures are carried out according to, and with reference to the
      conditions on the ground in the affected areas in the spirit of the
      environmental assessments process (Figures 2.2 and 2.3 show
      the location of the proposed DGS).
The environmental management plan (Section 5, and EMP matrix
     Appendix6) has been reviewed based on the assessment and shall
     be reviewed in due course at sub-project inception and through
     construction in order to provide a feed back on any significant
     unpredicted impacts. It is based on the analysis of impacts,
     primarily to document key environmental issues likely to arise
     from sub-project implementation, to prescribe mitigation
     measures to be integrated in the sub-project design, to design
     monitoring and evaluation schedules to be implemented during
     sub-project construction and operation, and to estimate costs
     required for implementing sub-project mitigation measures. The
     EMP must be reviewed in the sub-project inception by the sub-
     project management and approved before any construction


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       activity is initiated, to take account of any subsequent changes
       and fine tuning of the proposals.




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General Approach to Mitigation
Based on professional experience on some projects, contractors have
     put emphasis on the financial compensation for nuisances. This
     may be acceptable for some social impacts where evacuation is
     necessary or where houses have been accidentally damaged,
     however it is not best international practice to accept payment for
     environmental impacts. An approach whereby the sub-project
     contractor pays money for nuisances rather than control impacts
     at source will not be acceptable. This practice should not be
     allowed and financial compensation shall not be allowed as
     mitigation for environmental impacts or environmental nuisance.
During the preparation for the sub-project construction phase the future
      contractors must be notified and prepared to co-operate with the
      executing and implementing agencies, subproject management,
      construction supervising consultants and local population in the
      mitigation of impacts. Furthermore the contractor must be primed
      through bidding stages and the contract documentation to
      implement the EMP in full and be ready to engage or train staff in
      the management of environmental issues and to audit the
      effectiveness and review mitigation measures as the sub-project
      proceeds. The effective implementation of the EMP will be audited
      as part of the loan conditions and the executing agency (MEPCO)
      must be prepared for this. In this regard the MEPCO must fulfill
      the requirements of the law and guidance prepared by Pak EPA on
      the environmental aspects of power sub-projects and the
      recommendations already made for sub-project in This EIA and
      under Pakistan’s PEP Act.
The location of the residences, mosques, schools, hospitals and civic,
      cultural and other heritage sites has been reviewed in Section 3.
      No residences or schools are close enough to the sub-project
      such that there could be significant potential impacts in the
      construction stage from disturbance due to noise and dust. This
      is because the DGL is fairly short (only four spans), and the
      alignment has no human settlements and structures.
Work on the 5 tower sites could cause some generation of air borne
     dust, but any nuisance from this is likely to be very localized and
     temporary. Other project activities, e.g. movement of heavy
     vehicles on unpaved tracks during the works, could generate
     considerable dust. Water is available in the study area, although
     surplus water may not always be available to suppress dust at
     vulnerable locations in the dry season. If the alignment changes
     closer to sensitive receivers, as a general approach it is
     recommended that where works are within 15m of any residential
     sensitive receivers, the contractor should install segregation
     between the works and the edge of the sensitive receivers. The
     segregation should be easily erectable 2.5m high tarpaulin sheet
     and designed to retain dust and provide a temporary visual barrier
     to the works. Where dust is the major consideration the barrier


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       can take the form of tarpaulins strung between two poles mounted
       on a concrete base. These can be moved along from tower base to
       tower base the power as the work proceeds.
If the alignment is changed such that noise becomes a major
      consideration (say outside schools or hospitals) construction
      should be avoided at sensitive times. As a fall back option to
      control noise, the mass of the barriers can be increased using
      block-board or corrugated metal sheet to supplement the
      tarpaulins. In addition to the physical effect of mitigating dust and
      noise the installation of such measures should be discussed with
      the local population and serve as a vehicle for further public
      consultation at the implementation stage to assist in public
      relations.
Cultural heritage, Mosques and other religious sites
The location of mosques and other cultural and other heritage SR sites
      has been reviewed in Section 3. There are no mosques or other
      religious sites close to the DGS site. The new line will also not
      affect or disturb any such site. (Appendix 2).
The nearest clinic / hospital is more than 100m from the edge of the Sub-
      project or DGL route and the nearest houses at about 30m from
      the DGS. The DGL will also cross the Indus Highway, and a canal.
      Apart from these features, there will be sufficient buffer distance
      between the works and any other SRs, so that no other significant
      impacts should be expected. Public consultation should be
      undertaken at the implementation stage to ensure nuisances are
      not allowed to escalate for the SRs close to the DGS and DGL
      sites.
4.2    Potential Environmental Impacts in Construction
Encroachment, Landscape and Physical Disfiguration
The extent of the proposed power expansion is moderate and should not
      extend beyond the power corridor (RoW) created by the sub-
      project. No significant landscape impacts are expected from
      construction of Fazil Pur SP.
Cut and Fill and Waste Disposal
Disposal of surplus materials must also be negotiated through local
     authority approvals prior to the commencement of construction.
     The Sub-project work should not involve any significant cutting
     and filling but minor excavations (down to 4m) and piling may be
     required to create the foundations for the new transformers and
     for some towers (if required). It is envisaged (depending on the
     mode of contract) that the surface under the towers will need to be
     scrabbled to remove unstable materials, or to stockpile topsoil.
Mitigation measures must focus on the minimization of impacts. In order
      to allow the proper functioning of the settlement sites (access to
      villages) during construction it is recommended that
      consideration be given to erect temporary hoardings immediately

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       adjacent to the nearest houses and shops if they are within 15m of
       the power distribution line tower construction.
If surplus materials arise from the removal of the existing surfaces from
       specific areas, these should be used elsewhere on the sub-project
       before additional soil, rock, gravel or sand is brought in. The use
       of immediately available material will generally minimize the need
       for additional rock based materials extraction from outside.
The sub-project detailed designers have so far estimated that no
     substantial additional materials will be required other than
     concrete for piles and supporting foundations, subject to
     confirmation at the detailed design stage.
Contractual clauses should be included to require each contractor to
      produce a materials management plan (one month before
      construction commences) to identify all sources of cement and
      aggregates and to balance cut and fill. The plan should clearly
      state the methods to be employed prior to and during the
      extraction of materials and all the mitigation measures to be
      employed to mitigate nuisances to local residents. Financial
      compensation shall not be allowed as mitigation for
      environmental impacts or environmental nuisance. Mitigation
      measures shall seek to control the impacts at source in the first
      place. The engineer shall be responsible to update the sub-project
      cut and fill estimates and create Materials Master Plan to facilitate
      materials exchange between the different contract areas along the
      power line and sub-contractors on the power line and to provide
      an overall balance for materials and minimize impacts on local
      resources.
Trees, Ecology and Protected Areas
There are no Reserved or Protected Forests or trees near the DGS site
      or DGL alignment. The proposed line will require the installation of
      5 towers, all in cultivated land. The DGL route includes about 7
      trees. In case removal of some or all of these trees is essential
      during the works, written permission should be obtained from the
      forest authority/owner after written justification by MEPCO, and
      fair compensation paid to the owner.
At this stage no areas require removal of woodland. However if
      specimen trees of religious plantations are affected the owners
      should be given the resources and opportunity to reinstate the
      woodland long term. A plantation compensation plan should be
      drawn up to replant the trees that will be remove within the DGS.
      In the event that the land is not suitable for plantation then other
      areas should be identified to replace the cut trees and sufficient
      areas should be identified to allow plantation of trees at a rate of
      say 3:1. The replacement ratio should allow for a high mortality
      rate among the newly planted trees in the dry environment or
      otherwise as based on advice from the forest authority.



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If for some unforeseen reason or change of alignment, any trees with
       religious significance or other trees need to be removed, written
       permission should be obtained from the forest authority and the
       owner after written justification by MEPCO. Trees shall be planted
       to replace the lost trees, as agreed.
A requirement shall be inserted in the contracts that no trees are to be
     cut on the Fazil Pur SP site or outside, without the written
     permission from the supervising consultant who may permit the
     removal of trees if unavoidable on safety/technical/engineering
     grounds after written justification by MEPCO and to the
     satisfaction of the forest authority and the owner.




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Hydrology, Sedimentation, Soil Erosion
The drainage streams en-route of the sub-project should not be impeded
      by the works. The scale of the works does not warrant
      hydrological monitoring.
Air Pollution from Earthworks and Transport
Field observations indicate that ambient air quality is generally
      acceptable and that emissions from traffic and other powered
      mechanical equipment in the area are rapidly dispersed. There will
      be a few items of powered mechanical equipment to be used in
      the construction of the distribution line works that may give rise
      gaseous emissions. However these should be well dissipated. The
      major sources of complaint will likely be any necessary
      earthworks and local soil compaction.
Earthworks will contribute to increasing dust, and the foundation
      earthworks for the transformers and the line towers will generate
      dust and the following mitigation measures are needed:
Dust suppression facilities (water sprayers/hosepipe) shall be available
      where earth and cement works are required.
Areas of construction (especially where the works are within 50m of the
      SRs) shall be maintained damp by watering the construction area.
Construction materials (sand, gravel, and rocks) and spoil materials will
     be transported trucks covered with tarpaulins.
Storage piles will be at least 30m downwind of the nearest human
      settlements.
All vehicles (e.g., trucks, equipment, and other vehicles that support
      construction works) shall be well maintained and not emit dark,
      smoky or other emissions in excess of the limits described in the
      NEQS.
The need for large stockpiles should be minimised by careful planning
     of the supply of materials from controlled sources. Stockpiles
     should not be located within 50m of schools, hospitals or other
     public amenities such as wells and pumps and should be covered
     with tarpaulins when not in use and at the end of the working day
     to enclose dust.
Noise, Vibration and Blasting
It is anticipated that powered mechanical equipment and some local
       labour with hand tool methods will be used to construct the sub-
       project works. No blasting is anticipated. Powered mechanical
       equipment can generate significant noise and vibration. The
       cumulative effects from several machines can be significant. To
       minimize such impacts, the contractor for sub-project should be
       requested by the construction supervision consultants (engineer)
       to provide evidence and certification that all equipment to be used




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        for construction is fitted with the necessary air pollution and noise
        dampening devices to meet MEPCO requirements.
A criterion of 70dB(A)Leq (exterior, boundary of DGS) has been used for
       assessment in previous EIA/IEE studies. Any noisy equipment
       should be located within DGS as far from SRs as possible to
       prevent nuisances to dwellings and other structures from
       operation.
Noise     from construction of the power distribution lines and
        improvements to sub-stations is not covered under any
        regulations however in order to keep in line with best international
        practice it is recommended that no construction should be
        allowed during night-time (9 pm to 6 am) and 70dB(A)Leq should
        be the criterion at other times during the day measured at the
        boundaries of land from which construction noise is emitted. A
        criterion of 70dB(A)Leq (exterior, boundary of DGS) has been
        used for assessment in previous EIA/IEE studies.
Any noisy equipment should be located within DGS or as far from SRs
     as possible to prevent nuisances to dwellings and other
     structures from operation.
Vibration from construction of pile and support pads for tower
      construction may be a significant impact but this should be short
      duration. Where vibration could become a major consideration
      (within say 100m of schools, religious premises, hospitals or
      residences) a building condition survey should take place prior to
      construction. The physical effect of piling should be assessed
      prior to construction and measures should be discussed with the
      local population as well as timing of the works to serve as a
      vehicle for further public consultation at the implementation stage
      and to assist in public relations. At nearby schools, the contractor
      shall discuss with the school principals the agreed time for
      operating these machines and completely avoid machine use near
      schools during examination times, if such a need arises.
Sanitation, Solid Waste Disposal, Communicable Diseases
The main issues of concern are uncontrolled or unmanaged disposal of
     solid and liquid wastes into watercourses and natural drains,
     improper disposal of storm water and black water and open
     defecation by construction workers.
In order to maintain proper sanitation around construction sites, access
      to the nearby DGS lavatories should be allowed or provision of
      temporary toilets should be made. Construction worker camps will
      not be necessary based on the scale of the works needed. If for
      some unforeseen reason a larger workforce is needed any
      construction camp should not be located in settlement areas or
      near sensitive water resources.
Wherever water is allowed to accumulate, in temporary drainage
     facilities, due to improper storm water management, or improper


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       disposal of waste water generated from the site, it can offer a
       breeding site for mosquitoes and other insects. Vectors such as
       mosquitoes may be encountered if open water is allowed to
       accumulate at the Fazil Pur SP site. Temporary and permanent
       drainage facilities should therefore be designed to facilitate the
       rapid removal of surface water from all areas and prevent the
       accumulation of surface water ponds.




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4.3    Potential Environmental Impacts in Operation
Air Pollution and Noise from the Enhanced Operations
The sub-project works will extend the power distribution lines but no
     houses, mosques or schools will be close to the new DGL in the
     operational phase. Nevertheless some houses, a school, and a
     police station are fairly close to the DGS. The DGS is already
     functioning in the locality, and the extended level of operation of
     the facility is not likely to cause any appreciable increase in the
     noise level already generated by the existing equipment. However,
     it is recommended that an acoustical check be made on the
     detailed design to determine of any noise barriers are required.
     There should be no source of atmospheric pollution from the sub-
     project. In the operational phase any nearby industrial facilities
     with fuel powered mechanical equipment will be the main
     polluters. All such emissions will be very well dissipated in the
     open terrain and there will be no cumulative effect from the sub-
     project.
Noise impacts from the operation of the DGS equipment should be
     reviewed at the detailed design stage. There are/not national noise
     standards in Pakistan for power distribution noise emissions that
     would apply in the operational stages. A criterion of 70dB(A)Leq
     (exterior, boundary of DGS) has been used for assessment in
     previous EIA/IEE studies. It is recommended that a check be made
     on the likely acoustical performance of the installed equipment at
     the detained design stage.
Pollution from Oily Run-off, Fuel Spills and Dangerous Goods
No significant impacts from oily residues such as transformer oil and
      lubricants are expected to arise in this sub-project. However
      control measures will be needed for oily residues such as
      transformer oil and lubricants in the case of accidental or
      unexpected release. Transformer oil is supplied in drums from an
      imported source and tap tanks are topped up as necessary on
      site. There are facilities in some sub-project DGS maintenance
      yards for recycling (dehydrating) oil from breakers. However the
      areas upon which these recycling facilities are located have no
      dedicated drainage which can capture run-off. Oily residues and
      fuel and any contaminated soil residues should be captured at
      source and refueling and maintenance should take place in
      dedicated areas away from surface water resources.
      Contaminated residues and waste oily residues should be
      disposed at a site agreed with the local authority.
The current grid substation layouts do not include any dedicated
     drainage or secondary containment to control residual oil spills. In
     order to comply with best international practice to prevent
     contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water all the new
     substations will be designed to include dedicated surface
     drainage and secondary containment to control residual oil spills


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       from installation, maintenance or decommissioning. The
       secondary containment (bunding) will seal the surface with
       concrete and be of sufficient capacity to hold 110% of the
       contents of the bunded equipment in the even of a catastrophic
       failure with loss of all transformer oil (Appendix 6). This is not
       necessarily an unlikely event in Pakistan where some power
       distribution facilities have been the target of bomb attacks in 2007.
       The EMP includes and recommends that an integrated approach
       be introduced to waste management for materials such as surface
       soils that have become contaminated with residual oils from
       maintenance activities. Contaminated residues and waste oily
       residues should be disposed at a site agreed with the local
       authority.
4.4    Enhancement
Environmental enhancements are not a major consideration within the
      Tranche 1 sub-project sites. However it is noted that it is common
      practice at many such sites to create some local hard and soft
      landscaping and successful planting of fruit trees and shrubs has
      been accomplished in many sites. This practice should be
      encouraged as far as practicable. Other opportunities for
      enhancements can be assessed prior to construction and
      proposed enhancements should be discussed with the local
      population to serve as a vehicle for further public consultation at
      the implementation stage and to assist in public relations.




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5.0    institutional requirements & Environmental Management Plan
In this section, the mitigation measures that are required for the Fazil
       Pur SP Tranche 1 sub-project, to reduce residual impact to
       acceptable levels and achieve the expected outcomes of the
       project, are discussed. The Environmental Management Plan is
       based on the type, extent and duration of the identified
       environmental impacts for the Fazil Pur SP Tranche 1 sub-project.
       The EMP has been prepared following best practice and by
       reference to the ADB Environmental Assessment Guidelines 2003.
It is important that the recommendations and mitigation measures are
       carried out according to the spirit of the environmental
       assessment process and in line with the guidelines. The EMP
       matrix is presented as Appendix6. The impact prediction (Section
       4) has played a vital role in reconfirming typical mitigation
       measures and in identifying any different approaches based on
       the feasibility and detailed design assumptions and any
       alternatives available at this stage.
Prior to implementation and construction of the sub-projects the EMP
       shall be amended and reviewed by the MEPCO in due course after
       detailed designs are complete. Such a review shall be based on
       reconfirmation and additional information on the assumptions
       made at this feasibility stage on positioning, alignment, location
       scale and expected operating conditions of the sub-projects. For
       example, in this case if there are any additional transmission lines
       or extension of the sub-station boundaries to be included, the
       designs may be amended and then the performance and
       evaluation schedules to be implemented during project
       construction and operation can be updated, and costs estimates
       can be revised. The EIA/IEE and EMP should than be revised on a
       sub-project by sub-project basis.
The EIA/IEE and EMP plan must be reviewed by the project management
      and approved by the PEPA before any construction activity is
      initiated. This is also an ADB requirement in order to take account
      of any subsequent changes and fine tuning of the proposals. It is
      recommended that before the works contract is worked out in
      detail and before pre-qualification of contractors, a full extent of
      the environmental requirements of the project (EIA/IEE/EIA and
      EMP) are included in the bidding documents. Professional
      experience indicates that past environmental performance of
      contractors and their awareness of environmentally responsible
      procurement is likely to be limited, therefore, the environmental
      awareness of contractors should be improved through the bidding
      process and also be used as indicator criteria for the
      prequalification of contractors.
In order to facilitate the implementation of the EMP, during the
     preparation for the construction phase the MEPCO must prepare
     the future contractors to co-operate with all stakeholders in the
     mitigation of impacts. Furthermore the contractor must be primed

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       through the contract documentation and ready to implement all
       the mitigation measures. The MEPCO has already engaged trained
       environmental management staff and these staff should audit the
       effectiveness and review mitigation measures as the sub-projects
       are rolled out. The effective implementation of the EMP will be
       audited as part of the mid-term review of loan conditions and the
       executing agency must prepare for this at the inception stage.
The details of EMP given in the Appendix 4 are for the Tranche 1
     extension and augmentation sub-project. The EMP matrix will
     have much in common for many other sub-station and line
     projects that a similar scale of works and types of location but will
     be different for more complicated sub-station and line projects
     that involve impacts to land outside the existing sub-stations and
     for lines traversing more sensitive land. In all cases separate
     dedicated EIA/IEEs must be prepared.
The    impacts have been classified into those relevant to the
        design/preparation stage, construction stage and operation and
        maintenance stage. The matrix provides details of the mitigation
        measures recommended for each of the identified impacts, time
        span of the implementation of mitigation measures, an analysis of
        the associated costs and the responsibility of the institution. The
        institutional responsibility has been specified for the purpose of
        the implementation and the supervision. The matrix is
        supplemented with a monitoring plan for the performance
        indicators. An estimation of the associated costs for the
        monitoring is given with the plan. The EMP has been prepared
        following best practice and the ADB environmental assessment
        guidelines 2003.
Prior to implementation of the sub-projects the MEPCO needs to comply
       with several environmental requirements, such as submitting and
       EIA/EIA/IEE to PEPA and obtaining PEPA clearance (“No
       Objection Certificate” compiling acceptable EMP and Clearance
       Certificate) under PEPAct (guidelines and regulations 2000) and
       any other permissions required from other authorities. MEPCO
       will also need to confirm that contractors and their suppliers have
       complied with all statutory requirements and have appropriate and
       valid licenses and permits for all powered mechanical equipment
       and to operate in line with local authority conditions.
The EMP (Appendix 4) was prepared taking into account the limited
     capacity of MEPCO to conduct environmental assessments of the
     sub-projects. MEPCO has engaged one graduate environmental
     manager with limited field experience. It is envisaged that
     experience in the environmental as well as the social field should
     therefore develop in the near future. However it is also strongly
     recommended that for sub-projects in future Tranches that the
     MEPCO be prepared to engage more support where necessary
     (e.g. senior environmental specialist with at least 10 years
     experience in environmental management five years site


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       experience in environmental monitoring and auditing) to guide the
       subsequent formal assessment and submission process under
       the PEPAct and monitor compliance with the EMP. As of August
       2007, the MEPCO is clearly committed to developing in-house
       environmental and social capability and it is recommended that
       the environmental manager and a counterpart with experience in
       social and resettlement assessment shall form the core of an
       environmental and social unit (ESU).
The newly appointed environmental manager has to have a good level of
     awareness and will be responsible for addressing environmental
     concerns for sub-projects potentially involving hundreds
     kilometres of distribution lines and DGS. Whereas some of their
     work may in future be delegated to consultants they will need
     more training and resources if they are effectively provide quality
     control and oversight for the EMP implementation. They will
     require robust support from senior management staff members
     and the management consultant if they are to address all
     environmental concerns for the sub-projects effectively. Specific
     areas for immediate attention are in formal submission Provincial
     EPA and EMP auditing, environmentally responsible procurement,
     air, water and noise pollution management and ecological impact
     mitigation. If local staff cannot be identified to fill this position it is
     recommended that an environmental specialist consultant with 10
     years experience be made available to all the DISCOS to cover
     these aspects full time for at least the first six months of the
     PDEMFF project and that on a call off basis with local support
     those services are retained for the life of the PDEMFF loan. The
     newly appointed graduate environmental manager can then
     shadow the environmental specialist to improve awareness and
     hopefully provide independent quality control and oversee the
     EMP implementation within 12 months.
In order to achieve good compliance with environmental assessment
      principles the graduate environmental manager for the project
      implementation team must be actively involved prior to the outset
      of the implementation design stage to ensure compliance with the
      statutory obligations under the PEPAct. It is also recommended
      that MEPCO Board allow direct reporting to Board level from the
      in-house Environmental and Social Unit (ESU). If the ESU requires
      resources for larger sub-projects then environmental specialist
      consultants could be appointed through the project
      implementation unit to address all environmental aspects in the
      detailed design. It is recommended that the project management
      unit (PMU) should liaise directly with the ESU to address all
      environmental aspects in the detailed design and contracting
      stages. The graduate environmental manager will cover the
      implementation of environmental mitigation measures in all the
      subproject packages.




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Overall implementation of the EMP will become MEPCO’s responsibility.
     MEPCO and other parties to be involved in implementing the EMP
     are as follows:
Contractors: responsible for carrying out the contractual obligations,
      implementing all EMP measures required to mitigate
      environmental impacts during construction;
MEPCO Board of Directors: responsible to ensure that sufficient timely
    resources are allocated to process the environmental
    assessments and to monitor implementation of all construction
    and operational mitigation measures required to mitigate
    environmental impacts, and
Other government agencies: such as regional PEPA and state pollution
      authorities, Department of Forests, Department of Wildlife
      Services, who will be responsible for monitoring the
      implementation of environmental conditions and compliance with
      statutory requirements in their respective areas and local land use
      groups at the local levels.
Considering that other government agencies that need to be involved in
     implementing the EMP, training or harmonization workshops
     should be conducted for all ESUs in all DISCOS every six months
     or twice each year, for the first 2 years (and annually thereafter) to
     share the monitoring report on the implementation of the EMP in
     each DISCO and to share lessons learned in the implementation
     and to achieve a consistent approach decide on remedial actions,
     if unexpected environmental impacts occur.
The monitoring plan (Appendix 5) was designed based on the project
     cycle. During the preconstruction period, the monitoring activities
     will focus on (i) checking the contractor’s bidding documents,
     particularly to ensure that all necessary environmental
     requirements have been included; and (ii) checking that the
     contract documents’ references to environmental mitigation
     measures requirements have been incorporated as part of
     contractor’s assignment and making sure that any advance works
     are carried out in good time. Where detailed design is required
     (e.g. for power distribution lines and avoidance of other
     resources) the inclusion and checking of designs must be carried
     out. During the construction period, the monitoring activities will
     focus on ensuring that environmental mitigation measures are
     implemented, and some performance indicators will be monitored
     to record the Sub-projects environmental performance and to
     guide any remedial action to address unexpected impacts.
Monitoring activities during project operation will focus on recording
     environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to
     address unexpected impacts. The potential to use local
     community groups as contacts for monitoring should be explored
     as part of the activities in setting up the Environmental and Social



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       Unit which should have regular meetings with the NGOs as a
       matter of good practice and to discuss matters of mutual concern.
At this stage, due to the modest scale of the new power distribution
      projects and by generally keeping to non-sensitive and non-
      critical areas the construction and operational impacts will be
      manageable. No insurmountable impacts are predicted providing
      that the EMP is implemented to its full extent and required in the
      contract documents. However experience suggests that some
      contractors may not be familiar with this approach or may be
      reluctant to carry out some measures. In order that the
      contractors are fully aware of the implications of the EMP and to
      ensure compliance, it is recommended that environmental
      measures be costed separately in the tender documentation and
      that payment milestones are linked to environmental performance,
      vis a vis the carrying out of the EMP.
The effective implementation of the EMP will be audited as part of the
      loan conditions and the executing agency must be prepared for
      this. In this regard the MEPCO (the IA) must be prepared to guide
      the design engineers and contractors on the environmental
      aspects.




                                                                     16
6.0   Public Consultation and Information Disclosure
6.1   Approach to Public Consultation
The public consultation (PC) process with various stakeholders has
     been approached so as to involve public and other stakeholders
     from the earliest stages. Public consultation has taken place
     during the planning and design and viewpoints of the
     stakeholders have been taken into account and their concerns
     and suggestions for possible improvements have been included
     where appropriate. Much of the PC process to date has revolved
     around concerns for the mitigation of construction impacts and
     the possible side effects from the proximity of high voltage power
     lines and the DGS and its equipment.
There is also a requirement for ongoing consultation for land acquisition
      and resettlement (LARP) and the completion of the Resettlement
      Plan (RP) is documented separately. It is expected that this
      process will continue through all stages of the sub-project in
      order to accommodate stakeholders' aspirations and to orient the
      stakeholders positively towards the project implementation and
      where possible to harness co-operation over access issues in
      order to facilitate timely completion.
The public consultation process has commenced in the initial feasibility
     stages (prior to construction) in order to disclose the project
     information to the stakeholders and record feedback regarding the
     proposed project and preferences. The stakeholders involved in
     the process were the population likely to be impacted along the
     route of the proposed power lines; the village leaders and school
     teachers.
6.2   Public Consultation Process
Prior to the implementation of the consultation, feedback, etc. has been
       carried out to support This EIA and recorded. The focus of
       attention has been the population near the proposed DGL that
       may be affected by the Sub-project expansion. The level of
       engagement varied from the stakeholder to stakeholder with some
       registering no major comment but it is noted that none registered
       any outright opposition to sub-project.
The disclosure of the enhancement project in advance and subsequent
      consultation with stakeholders has advantages in the
      environmental assessment and mitigation of impacts. Public
      consultation can also provide a conduit for the improvement of
      the project implementation to better serve the stakeholders.
The   environmental assessment process under the Pakistan
      Environmental Protection Act only requires the disclosure to the
      public after the statutory EIA/IEE/EIA has been accepted by the
      relevant EPA to be in strict adherence to the rules. In This EIA the
      consultation process was performed to satisfy the ADB
      requirements. The locations of consultation and people consulted
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       are listed in the full table of public consultation presented in
       Appendix 7.




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6.3    Results of Public Consultation
The consultations identified some potential environmental and social
     impacts and perceptions of the affected communities. The public
     consultation resulted in 16 responses in July 2007 (Appendix 7).
     Where correspondents commented they were generally
     supportive of the construction of the DGS and line. The local poor
     people predominantly requested for unskilled and semi skilled
     jobs on priority basis with the contractors during implementation
     of the project. No significant land acquisition and resettlement is
     involved in this sub-project. However, compensation will be paid
     to the concerned parties/owners of land under the towers and
     where the loss of some trees and for damage to crops is expected.
On the basis of the consultations so far, it appears that the project will
     have no insurmountable environmental and social impacts but
     MEPCO will have to make sure that compensation and assistance
     amounts are assessed justly and that skilled and unskilled
     employment should be preferentially given to the AP as far as is
     reasonably practicable.




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7.0    CONCLUSIONS
7.1    Findings and Recommendations
This study was carried out at the planning stage of the project. Primary
      and secondary data were used to assess the environmental
      impacts. The potential environmental impacts were assessed in a
      comprehensive manner. The report has provided a picture of all
      potential environmental impacts associated with the Project, and
      recommended suitable mitigation measures. This study
      recommends that some further follow up studies are undertaken
      during project processing in order to meet the ADB requirements.
There are some further considerations for the planning stages such as
      obtaining clearance for the project under the Pakistan
      Environmental Protection Act (1997) but environmental impacts
      from the power enhancements will mostly take place during the
      construction stage. There are also some noise impacts and waste
      management issues for the operational stage that must be
      addressed in the detailed design and through environmentally
      responsible procurement. At the detailed design stage the number
      of and exact locations for transmission tower enhancements may
      change subject to detailed surveys but the impacts are likely to be
      broadly similar at most locations and impacts have been reviewed
      in the environmental impact section of This EIA report.
There are a number of key actions required in the detailed design phase.
      Prior to construction the MEPCO must receive clearance
      certification from the PEPA and MEPCO must complete an EMP
      that will be accepted by the PEPA and agreed by the contractor
      prior to signing the contract. The information provided in this
      report can form the basis of any further submission to PEPA as
      required in future.
No land acquisition, compensation and resettlement is involved.
     However, some trees will be compensated to the concerned
     parties, if needed. However, provisions may be made in LARP,
     based on the proposed alignments these should not be difficult
     tasks and can be conducted as the detailed designs are worked
     out and to dovetail with the existing system and minimize adverse
     impacts and maximize benefits. A social impact assessment and
     resettlement action plan (LARP) has been completed in tandem
     with This EIA for the whole sub-project.
Baseline monitoring activities should be carried out during project
      detailed design stage to establish the baseline of parameters for
      checking during the construction stage. The monitoring schedule
      (Appendix3) recommends monitoring on two occasions at the site
      location. The results should be integrated with the contract
      documentation to establish performance action thresholds,
      pollution limits and contingency plans for the contractor’s
      performance.



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During the commissioning phase noise monitoring should ensure that
      statutory requirements have been achieved. Monitoring activities
      during project operation will focus on periodic recording
      environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to
      address any unexpected impacts.
7.2    Summary and Conclusions
The expansion of the Fazil Pur SP is a feasible and sustainable option
     from the power transmission, engineering, environmental, and
     socio-economic points of view. Implementation of the EMP is
     required and environmental impacts associated with the sub-
     project need to be properly mitigated but the existing institutional
     arrangements are available. Additional human and financial
     resources will be required by MEPCO to complete the designs and
     incorporate the recommendations effectively and efficiently in the
     contract documents, linked to payment milestones. The proposed
     mitigation and management plans are practicable but require
     additional resources.
This EIA, including the EMP, should be used as a basis for an
     environmental compliance program and be included as an
     Appendix to the contract. The EMP shall be reviewed at the
     detailed design stage. In addition, any subsequent conditions
     issued by PEPA as part of the environmental clearance should
     also be included in the environmental compliance program.
     Therefore, continued monitoring of the implementation of
     mitigation measures, the implementation of the environmental
     conditions for work and environmental clearance, and monitoring
     of the environmental impact related to the operation of the Project
     should be properly carried out and reported at least twice per year
     as part of the project performance report.




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       Power Distribution Enhancement Project
                                  TA 4876 (PAK)


              ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

                Lar Grid Sub-station & Distribution Line
                                      Submitted to

                           Asian Development Bank

                                   January 2008
                                           By
                      Multan Electric Power Company

          Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan




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CONTENTS
1.0   INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 1
1.1   Overview ............................................................................................................ 1
1.2   Scope of the EIA/IEE Study and Personnel........................................................ 2
1.3   Policy and Statuary Requirements in Pakistan ................................................... 3
1.4   Structure of Report ............................................................................................. 8

2.0   DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT ................................................................... 7
2.1   Type of Project.................................................................................................... 1
2.2   Categorisation of the Project............................................................................... 1
2.3   Need for the Project ............................................................................................ 1
2.4   Location and Scale of Project ............................................................................. 2
2.5   Proposed Schedule for Implementation.............................................................. 3

3.0   DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT.......................................................... 3
3.1   Project Area ........................................................................................................ 1
3.2   Physical Resources ............................................................................................ 1
3.3   Ecological Resources ......................................................................................... 3
3.4   Economic Development ...................................................................................... 4
3.5   Social and Cultural Resources............................................................................ 6

4.0   SCREENING        POTENTIAL                ENVIRONMENTAL                        IMPACTS               AND
      MITIGATION MEASURES ................................................................................. 15
4.1   Sub-project Location ........................................................................................... 1
4.2   General Approach to Mitigation .......................................................................... 2
4.3   Potential Environmental Impacts in Construction ............................................... 3
4.4   Potential Environment Impacts in Operation....................................................... 22
4.5   Enhancement...................................................................................................... 7

5.0   INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
      PLAN .................................................................................................................. 1

6.0   PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND INFORMATION DISCLOSURE....................... 1
6.1   Approach to Public Consultation......................................................................... 1
6.2   Public Consultation Process ............................................................................... 1
6.3   Results of Public Consultation ............................................................................ 26

7.0   CONCLUSIONS.................................................................................................. i
7.1   Findings and Recommendations ........................................................................ i
7.2   Summary and Conclusions ................................................................................. ii




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Figures
Figure 1.1      Location of MEPCO jurisdiction
Figure 1.2      Layout of Sub-stations and Distribution Lines MEPCO
Figure 2.1      Location of Lar DGS and DGL on Survey sheet
Figure 2.2      Sketch Plan of Lar DGS and DGL.
Figure 2.3      Layout for Lar DGS and DGL.

       Appendixes
Appendix 1     Pakistan EIA Process
Appendix 2     Reviews of environmental implications for MEPCO Lar
Appendix 3     Photographs of the Lar DGS and DGL
Appendix 4     Environmental Management Plan (matrix)
Appendix 5     Monitoring Plan (matrix)
Appendix 6     Bunds for Transformers
Appendix 7     Summary of Public Consultation

       ABBREVIATIONS
ADB               Asian Development Bank
COI               Corridor of Influence
DGS               Distribution grid sub-station
DGL               Distribution line
EA                Environmental Assessment
EARF              Environment Assessment Review Framework
EIA               Environment Impact Assessment
EMP               Environmental Management Plan
GDP               Gross Domestic Product
GOP               Government of Pakistan
GIS               Gas Insulated Switchgear
EIA/IEE           Environmental       Impact    Assessment/Initial     Environmental
                  Examination
LARP              Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan
MEPCO             Multan Electric Power Company
LARP              Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan
Leq               equivalent sound pressure level
MPL               maximum permissible level
NEQS              National Environmental Quality Standards
NGO               Non Governmental Organization
PC                public consultation
PEPA              Punjab Environmental Protection Agency
PEPAct            Pakistan Environment Protection Act 1997 (as amended)
PPMS              Sub-project Performance Monitoring System
REA               Rapid Environmental Assessment
SIA               Social Impact Assessment
SP                Lar 132 kv sub-station & distribution line sub-project
SR                Sensitive Receiver
TOR               Terms of Reference
Rupee, PKR        Unit of Pakistan currency. $US approx R62




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1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Overview
This document is the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Tranche 1
      Lar sub-station and distribution line sub-project proposed by the
      Multan Electricity Power Company (MEPCO). This EIA was prepared
      under TA4876 of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) Power
      Distribution and Enhancement Multi-tranche Finance Facility
      (PDEMFF). Under ADB Guidelines the sub-station and distribution
      line are to be taken as one integral sub-project and the guidelines
      require environmental assessment of all components of sub-
      projects whether financed by ADB, governments or other co-
      financiers.
The Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (GoP) has requested
     ADB to provide the PDEMFF to facilitate investments in power
     distribution and development of networks of eight independent
     distribution companies (DISCOs) that distribute power to end user
     consumers. The funding from ADB is expected to be released in
     stages (tranches). The Power Distribution Enhancement (PDE)
     Investment Program is part of the GoP long term energy security
     strategy. The proposed ADB intervention will finance new
     investments in PDE and assist capacity building of sector related
     agencies. The investment program will cover necessary PDE
     development activities in secondary transmission/distribution
     networks of eight DISCOs. The PDEMFF activities include extension
     (additional transformers) and augmentation (replacement of
     transformers with higher capacity) distribution line extensions, new
     and replacement distribution lines, additional sub-stations,
     transformer protection and other non network activities such as
     automatic meter reading, construction equipment and computerized
     accounting. New distribution lines to and from various network
     facilities and some of the above activities will also be included in
     the later tranches. The proposed PDEMFF facility has been
     designed to address both investment and institutional aspects in
     the electrical power sector.
This EIA presents the results and conclusions of environmental
     assessment of the Lar sub-project proposed by MEPCO. This EIA is
     submitted by Pakistan Electric Power Company (PEPCO) on behalf
     of MEPCO. PEPCO has been nominated by Ministry of Water and
     Power (MOWP) to act as the Executing Agency (EA) with each
     DISCO being the Implementing Agency (IA) for work in its own
     jurisdiction. PEPCO’s role in the processing and implementation of
     the investment program is that of a co-ordinator of such activities
     as preparation of PC-1s and PFRs, monitoring implementation
     activities; that includes submission of environmental assessments
     for all sub-projects in all tranches of the PDEMFF under ADB
     operating procedures. An EIA/IEE has been carried out to fulfill the
     requirements of ADB Guidelines (May 20031314). This EIA study
13
  Initial subproject classification was carried out in 2007 and the Category is B. Most of the construction impacts will
take place with only local impacts and there are no potential significant environmental impacts associated with the T1

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         report has been used to complete the Summary Environmental
         Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination (SEIA/IEE)
         for disclosure by ADB if necessary15.
The environmental assessment requirements of the GoP for grid stations
      and power distribution sub-projects are different to those of ADB.
      Under GoP regulations, the Pakistan Environmental Protection
      Agency Review of Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial
      Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment
      Regulations (2000) categorize development sub-projects into two
      schedules according to their potential environmental impact. The
      proponents of sub-projects that have reasonably foreseeable
      impacts are required to submit an EIA/IEE for their respective sub-
      projects (Schedule I). The proponents of sub-projects that have
      more adverse environmental impacts (Schedule II) are required to
      submit an environmental impact assessment (EIA). Distribution
      lines and sub-stations are included under energy sub-projects and
      EIA/IEE is required for sub-transmission/distribution lines of 11kV
      and less and large distribution sub-projects (Schedule I). EIA is
      required by GoP for all sub-projects involving sub-
      transmission/distribution lines of 11kV and above and for DGS sub-
      stations (Schedule II).
Clarification has been sought from Pakistan EPA on the requirements for
       environmental assessment for certain energy sub-projects and for
       sub-transmission/distribution lines. A Framework of Environmental
       Assessment (FEA) on power extensions and augmentation sub-
       projects was prepared by consultants and submitted to the
       Pakistan EPA, after hearings with provincial EPAs. In response to
       the FEA submitted by NTDC to the Pakistan EPA16 it has been
       clarified that all proponents must follow section 12 of the Pakistan
       Environmental Protection Act for all sub-projects. Pakistan EPA has
       also assumed that all proponents will consult with the relevant
       provincial EPAs (PEPA) and follow their advice. In 2006 Punjab EPA
       requested disclosure of the scope and extent of each sub-project in
       order that the Director General of PEPA can determine if additional
       land is required and the need for EIA/IEE or EIA. A review of the
       need for EIA/EIA/IEE for submission to GoP is therefore required by
       the relevant environmental protection agency, in this case the
       Punjab Environmental Protection Agency.
                     1.2       Scope of the EIA/IEE Study and Personnel
The Study Area included the identification of irrigation facilities, water
     supply, habitable structures, schools, health facilities, hospitals,
     religious places and sites of heritage or archaeological importance


(tranche one) sub-subproject construction. Initial environmental reconnaissance and REA carried out by consultants
under ADB guidelines in 2007 indicated that all the T1 sub-subprojects will be Category B.
14
   Environmental Assessment Guidelines (ADB May 2003).
15
   Category A subprojects that are deemed by ADB's chief compliance officer to be environmentally sensitive for the
purposes of (i) the 120 day rule, and (ii) the environmental management plan requirement could involve subprojects
that are near or in environmentally sensitive areas. At this stage no component of the T1 sub-subprojects under
consideration is actually within a critical area and therefore the MFF tranche as a whole is Category B.
16                  th
    Letter dated 29 June 2007 – Ref 2(1)2004-W/KCP-DD from Pak EPA Sajjad Hussein Talpur, Dy Director
(EIA/Mont) to NTDC, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Subproject Director PPTA, NTDC, WAPDA House, Lahore.

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         and critical areas17 (if any) within about 100m of the proposed DGS
         boundary. The works are generally envisaged to involve
         construction of the DGS, including construction of the bases,
         foundation pads and towers to support the distribution line and
         supervised by the MEPCO management.
The field studies were undertaken by the environment team with
     experience of environmental assessment for power sub-projects in
     Pakistan. Mrs. Syeda Bushra Waheed, Wali Waheed and Syed Asif
     Riaz Shahid conducted preliminary scoping, survey and
     assessment activities, co-ordinated the field sampling and analysis,
     and were also responsible to supervise collation of information and
     co-ordinate the various public consultation activities. The team
     conducted preliminary scoping, survey and assessment activities,
     and carried out the report writing. Dr David Green (International
     Environmental Consultant) provided leadership and guidance in
     planning the field work, and in finalization of the report. The
     environmental team also benefited from technical support and other
     information on the impacts of the proposed power works provided
     in feasibility summaries prepared with MEPCO 18 by expert
     consultants of BPI dealing with engineering, power distribution,
     socio-economic, resettlement and institutional aspects.
A scoping and field reconnaissance was conducted on the sub-project
     site, during which a Rapid Environmental Assessment was carried
     out to establish the potential impacts and categorization of sub-
     project activities. The methodology of the EIA/IEE study was then
     elaborated in order to address all interests. Subsequently primary
     and secondary baseline environmental data was collected from
     possible sources, and the intensity and likely location of impacts
     were identified with relation the sensitive receivers; based on the
     work expected to be carried out. The significance of impacts from
     construction of the DGS was then assessed and, for those impacts
     requiring mitigation, measures were proposed to reduce impacts to
     within acceptable limits.
Public consultation (PC) was carried out in July 2007, in line with ADB
      guidelines2. Under ADB requirements the environmental
      assessment process must also include meaningful public
      consultation during the completion of the draft EIA/IEE. In This EIA
      the PC process included verbal disclosure of the sub-sub-project
      works as a vehicle for discussion. Consultations were conducted
      with local families and communities around and Lar SP site, and
      along DGL route, and staff of the sub-project management. The
      responses from correspondents have been included in Appendix 8
      and summarized in Section 6 of This EIA.
                  1.3      Policy and Statuary Requirements in Pakistan
Direct legislation on environmental protection is contained in several
      statutes, namely the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (1997)
17
  Critical areas as published by the PEPA on the website put in specific reference
18
  Feasibility Summary submitted to the Asian Development Bank by the Multan Electric Power Company, Pakistan
under Power Distribution Enhancement Subproject PPTA 4876-PAK. Sub-subproject Number 83, 132 kV Lar Grid
Substation.

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       the Forest Act (1927) the Punjab Wildlife Act (1974). In addition the
       Land Acquisition Act (1894) also provides powers in respect of land
       acquisition for public purposes. There are also several other items
       of legislation 7 and regulations which have an indirect bearing on
       the sub-project or general environmental measures.
                                     Statutory Framework
The Constitution of Pakistan distributes legislative powers between the
     federal and the provincial governments through two ‘lists’ attached
     to the Constitution as Schedules. The Federal List covers the
     subjects over which the federal government has exclusive
     legislative power, while the Concurrent List contains subjects
     regarding which both the federal and provincial governments can
     enact laws. “Environmental pollution and ecology” is included in
     the concurrent list, hence both the federal and the provincial
     governments can enact laws on this subject. However, to date, only
     the federal government has enacted laws on environment, and the
     provincial environmental institutions derive their power from the
     federal law. The Punjab Environmental Protection Act 1996 is now
     superseded by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (1997).
     The key environmental laws affecting this sub-project are
     discussed below.




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                            Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 is the basic legislative
     tool empowering the government to frame regulations for the
     protection of the environment. The act is applicable to a wide range
     of issues and extends to air, water, soil, marine, and noise
     pollution, as well as to the handling of hazardous wastes. The key
     features of the law that have a direct bearing on the proposed sub-
     project relate to the requirement for an Environmental Impact
     Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination (EIA/IEE) and
     environmental impact assessment (EIA) for development sub-
     projects. Section 12(1) requires that: “No proponent of a sub-
     project shall commence construction or operation unless he has
     filed with the Federal Agency an Environmental Impact
     Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination [EIA/IEE] or, where
     the sub-project is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect,
     an environmental impact assessment [EIA], and has obtained from
     the Federal Agency approval in respect thereof.” The Pakistan
     Environmental Protection Agency has delegated the power of
     review and approval of environmental assessments to the
     provincial environmental protection agencies, in this case the
     Punjab EPA.
         Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of EIA/IEE and
         EIA Regulations, 2000
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEP Act) provides for
     two types of environmental assessments: Environmental Impact
     Assessment/Initial Environmental Examinations (EIA/IEE) and
     environment impact assessments (EIA, Figure 1.1). EIAs are carried
     out for sub-projects that have a potentially ‘significant’
     environmental impact, whereas EIA/IEEs are conducted for
     relatively smaller sub-projects with a relatively less significant
     impact. The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of
     EIA/IEE and EIA Regulations, 200019 (the ‘Regulations’) prepared by
     the Pak-EPA under the powers conferred upon it by the PEP Act,
     categorises sub-projects for EIA/IEE and EIA. Schedules I and II,
     attached to the Regulations, list the sub-projects that require
     EIA/IEE and EIA, respectively.
Distribution lines and grid sub-stations of 11kV and above are included
       under energy sub-projects in Schedule II, under which rules EIA is
       required by GoP. Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial
       Environmental Examination (EIA/IEE) is required for distribution
       lines less than 11kV and large distribution sub-projects (Schedule
       I). A review of the need for EIA/EIA/IEE submission is therefore
       required by the relevant EPA, in this case the Punjab Environmental
       Protection Agency (EPA) as the proposed sub-project will be
       located in Punjab.



19
  The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental
Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations, 2000

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There are no formal provisions for the environmental assessment of
     expanding existing distribution lines and grid sub-stations but
     Punjab EPA have requested disclosure of the scope and extent of
     each sub-project in order that their Director General can determine
     if additional land is required and the need for statutory
     environmental assessment (Figure 1.2). The details of this sub-
     project will be forwarded to the Punjab EPA (by August 2007), in
     order to commence the local statutory environmental assessment
     process.




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       National Environmental Quality Standards
The National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) were first
    promulgated in 1993 and have been amended in 1995 and 2000. The
    following standards that are specified in the NEQS may be relevant
    to the Tranche 1 sub-projects:
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (32 parameters) in
     municipal and liquid industrial effluents discharged to inland
     waters, sewage treatment facilities, and the sea (three separate sets
     of numbers).
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (2 parameters) in gaseous
     emissions from vehicle exhaust and noise emission from vehicles.
       Other Relevant Laws
There are a number of other federal and provincial laws that are important
      in the context of environmental management. The main laws
      potentially affecting sub-projects in this MFF are listed below.

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The Punjab Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972 empowers the government to
      declare certain areas reserved for the protection of wildlife and
      control activities within in these areas. It also provides protection to
      endangered species of wildlife. As no activities are planned in these
      areas, no provision of this law is applicable to the proposed sub-
      project.
The Forestry Act, 1927 empowers the government to declare certain areas
      reserved forest. As no reserved forest exists in the vicinity of the
      proposed sub-project, this law will not affect to the proposed sub-
      project.
The Antiquities Act of 1975 ensures the protection of Pakistan’s cultural
     resources. The Act defines ‘antiquities’ as ancient products of
     human activity, historical sites, or sites of anthropological or
     cultural interest, national monuments, etc. The Act is designed to
     protect these antiquities from destruction, theft, negligence,
     unlawful excavation, trade, and export. The law prohibits new
     construction in the proximity of a protected antiquity and empowers
     the Government of Pakistan to prohibit excavation in any area that
     may contain articles of archaeological significance. Under the Act,
     the sub-project proponents are obligated to:
        •   Ensure that no activity is undertaken in the proximity of a
            protected antiquity.
        •   Report to the Department of Archaeology, Government of
            Pakistan, any archaeological discovery made during the course
            of the sub-project.
No protected or unprotected antiquity has been identified in the vicinity
     that may be affected by the sub-project.
1.4    Structure of Report
This EIA reviews information on existing environmental attributes of the
      Study Area. Geological, hydrological and ecological features, air
      quality, noise, water quality, soils, social and economic aspects and
      cultural resources are included. The report predicts the probable
      impacts on the environment due to the proposed sub-project
      enhancement and expansion. This EIA also proposes various
      environmental management measures. Details of all background
      environmental quality, environmental impact/pollutant generating
      activities, pollution sources, predicted environmental quality and
      related aspects have been provided in this report. References are
      presented as footnotes throughout the text. Following this
      introduction the report follows ADB guidelines and includes:
       •     Description of the Sub-project
       •     Description of Environmental and Social Conditions
       •     Assessment of Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
       •     Environmental Monitoring Plan
       •     Public Consultation


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       •     Recommendations                         and         Conclusions




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       2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
2.1    Type of Project
The sub-project will be the DGS and DGL. That is, the DGS will require the
      construction of a 270m long 132kV DGL, comprising 2 towers, to
      join the 132kv distribution network with the proposed DGS. The
      distribution line component of the sub-project (as well as the DGS)
      are an integral part of the sub-project and will be studied together in
      the present EIA/IEE in line with ADB Guidelines2. Even if MEPCO
      chooses to plan and construct the 132kV line as a separate sub-
      project under a subsequent Tranche of this MFF for ADB funding or
      with some other form of co-finance the ADB Guidelines2 require
      that both DGS and DGL be studied together for the EIA/IEE. There
      are no developments in the proposed route of the DGL (July 2007)
      and future developments should not be allowed directly under the
      DGL.




2.2    Categorization of the Project
Categorization is based on the environmentally most sensitive component
     of a sub-project. The aspects of the sub-project with potential for
     significant environmental impacts need to be assessed in detail and
     this environmental assessment has therefore focused on the
     significant impacts possible from the construction activities of the
     sub-project.
The site for the DGS, as well as the route of the proposed DGL, is located
      in a rural setting, with some minor settlements and other
      infrastructure around the site. The Lar SP is categorized as a
      Category B sub sub-project under ADB requirements1,3 and This
      EIA report is based on that assumption.
2.3    Need for the Project
The standards and conditions of the power distribution system in
     Pakistan are inadequate to meet rapidly growing demand for

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       electrical power. This situation limits national development and
       economic growth. To cope with the constraints, the existing power
       distribution infrastructure has to be improved and upgraded. The
       overall contribution of power infrastructure also requires
       institutional arrangements and capacity that support strategic
       management of the sector, and planning and management of
       investments. Overall the proposed PDEMFF facility has been
       designed to address both investment and institutional aspects in
       the electrical power sector.
Power demands in the Lar area of Multan jurisdiction have increased
     rapidly, especially in summer months, so that existing DGS are
     unable to cope up with the increasing demands of the domestic,
     commercial and industrial sectors. Therefore, MEPCO has planned
     to construct a new 132 kV DGS at Lar, to reduce the load on DGS
     presently serving this area. Land for this DGS is already available
     (acquired by MEPCO by 2007) and no additional land is needed.




2.4    Location and Scale of Project
This EIA has included field reconnaissance of the site and surroundings
      of the Lar SP. The Lar DGS is located on the main Multan –
      Bahawalpur Road (the National Highway), about 20km south of
      Multan (Appendix 1) with the entrance on the Highway. Access to
      the SP site is therefore easily available. The existing environment
      around the DGS site is typical of a rural/suburban area of Punjab.
      There are several houses very nearby at about 50m and the nearest
      village is the Bhani Khalil basti, about across the main road about
      150m from the boundary wall of the Lar DGS. Appendices 1, 2 and 3
      show the location of the DGS site and line.
The Lar sub-project will involve the construction of a new 132kV DGS and
     DGL; including installation of 2 towers. The proposed route to the
     nearest 132kV line appears to be environmentally feasible and
     technically appropriate (Figure 2.2) and will join the DGS with an
     existing 132kV line at about 250m from the DGS.

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This EIA has been conducted based on the assumptions and information
      available in late 2007 when the preliminary designs for the DGS
      were completed and the overall requirements for installation of the
      equipment had been identified (Figure 2.2). The detailed designs are
      currently being progressed by MEPCO. At this stage, the
      construction activities under the SP are expected to include the
      usual localized civil works such as construction of the main yard,
      including excavation and concreting of foundations for the
      transformers, capacitor banks, cable trays and terminal tower
      (within the DGS compound), installation of the transformers,
      equipment and fittings, erection of the towers, cabling, construction
      of the control rooms and installation of allied equipment and
      construction of the offices and residences. Impacts from
      construction of the Lar SP will therefore be minor as they will
      mostly be within the DGS boundary wall. The additional land for the
      sub-station has already been acquired and the additional land
      required for the towers in small. Most of the construction works will
      be within the demarcated boundary for the DGS.
Land will be acquired for a Right of Way (RoW) for the supporting towers
     that involve erection of 2 towers that will be strung with the new
     DGL. The detailed designs for the Tranche 1 (T1) sub-projects will
     be developed later.
2.5    Proposed Schedule for Implementation
Designs of the DGS equipment layout, review of environmental
     management and construction processes could take several
     months. When the detailed designs are completed, tendering and
     award of contract will take place over about three to six months.
     The construction period will follow and best estimates indicate
     about eighteen months to two years.




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             3.0     DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
3.1    Project Area
       General Characteristics of Project Area
The 132kV DGS will be constructed at a place called 58 kanal on about
     3.4ha of land in Mouza Lar (1km from Lar town) in Multan District,
     about 20km south of Multan City. The DGS site is located in an
     agricultural area, but land in the Lar DGS is not being cultivated as
     it has been acquired by MEPCO. There are no fruit or non-fruit trees
     in the DGS site, which would need to be removed.
       Affected Administrative Units
The Lar SP, DGS and DGL will indirectly affect Mouza Lar, in Multan
     District in Punjab Province (Figure 2.1). Some houses are near the
     DGS site (which broadly fall in the Mouza Lar, a small basti named
     Bhani Khalil, nearest to the line route, and some houses are within
     about 50m of the DGS and line RoW. Interviews were conducted
     with the public near the DGS site and DGL corridor (Appendix 7) to
     obtain their views on the subproject, and any perceived impacts.
3.2    Physical Resources
       Topography, Geography, Geology, and Soils
Three natural divisions of the Multan district are the riverine, the high
     barren areas of Rawa and the intermediate lands known as Utar.
     The distinctive features of the riverine area are the high water level
     and influence of river floods. The riverine area is relatively small.
     The outstanding feature of the Rawa is the low water level.
     Differences of soil between the two areas are negligible and there is
     a remarkable uniformity of physical conditions. The soil of the
     district is of alluvial in nature and sandy soil is present everywhere
     to a few feet below the surface. The district has no mineral
     resources. Saltpeter (potassium nitrate) is manufactured on a small
     scale and waste kankar is found in places on the surface.
       Climate and Hydrology
The climate of the district is dry hot in summer and cold in winter. The
      hottest months are May, June, July and August. Multan is noted for
      it’s heat and dust. Day temperature is high in the summer months
      between May and September but the nights are comparatively cool.
      The highest day temperature is recorded in the months of May and
      June. The winter is pleasant. The coldest months are the later half
      of December and January. The maximum and minimum mean
      temperatures in summer are 42oC and 29oC whereas in winter it is
      21oC and 5oC respectively.
Sand storms were formerly one of the chief characteristics of Multan. In
     recent times, however the frequency of sand storms has
     considerably decreased due to extensive agricultural development
     in and around the district. The normal annual rainfall is about 186
     mm most of which falls during monsoons from July to September.
     Winter rain is very rare.

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       Groundwater and Water Supply
Irrigation is largely dependent on the canals, but tube wells have also
       been sunk in the areas where water is fit for irrigation. The chemical
       quality of groundwater in the district varies in different areas and at
       different depths. Potable water is available in a belt five to twenty
       miles wide paralleling the river Ravi. In the hither, irrigation
       supplies are perennial and tube wells have been installed to make
       up the deficiencies. The strata near the Lar SP are water bearing
       and alluvial deposits, giving groundwater potential throughout the
       project area and the water table is fairly near the surface. The water
       table is not seasonal and dug wells do not generally run dry.
Irrigation by wells is an essential part of the agricultural system but now
       most of these have been replaced by canal wells. About 4,000
       hectares area have been irrigated by canal wells. Installation of tube
       wells, is increasing and a large part of the district is being irrigated
       by tube wells. In some of the tehsils WAPDA has supplied
       electricity connections but most are still run by diesel engines.
Around 23% of the housing units are using piped water, mostly in the
     houses. The majority (74%) use hand pumps for potable water. Only
     0.5% households are using potable water from wells. Hand pumps
     are used in 88% of houses in rural areas.
       Surface Water
The Chenab carries larger floods than both the Sutlej and the Ravi owing
     to the presence of natural creek and artificial channels. These
     influence a large area, especially in the Shujabad tehsil. Along the
     greater part of the riverine boundary of Multan tehsil bunds are
     necessary to protect the adjacent canal irrigated lands from
     damage. Cultivation in the hither depends on the nature of the
     floods which varies considerably from year to year and from village
     to village. The deposits of the two rivers possess different qualities.
     The silt of the Sutlej often does as much harm as good, while that of
     the Chenab is generally of benefit.
A branch of the Ravi (Monan) ran within a kilometre of the city as late as
      the 18th century. Before the intervention of the Sidhnai cultivation,
      a channel of the Ravi flowed during the floods up to the suburbs of
      the city. The level of water in the Ravi during the winter months has
      decreased significantly owing to the supplies taken off by the Bari
      Doab Canal system and for the greater part of winter its bed is dry.
The Chenab is never dry and rarely fordable, except in exceptionally dry
     seasons. It has been suggested that at one time the Chenab flowed
     east of Multan, but since the 11th century it has flowed to the west
     of the town. As it now flows, the river has no high banks and the
     difference between the average level of the highest flood is only
     between 4.0 to 4.6 metres. The damage which it used to cause by
     inundation of Multan itself has been stopped by the construction of
     head works and a series of embankments extending from Khatti
     Char in the Kabirwala tehsil to Dhandhua in Shujabad tehsil. The
     Chenab water brings more fertile soil in the plains than the Sutlej,

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       but less than the Ravi. The south-western part of the district
       receives water from both these rivers.
The total area irrigated by canals is 11,000 hectares. The district is
     irrigated by network of tube wells, canal tube wells and irrigation
     canals from various sources on the rivers Ravi, Chenab and Sutlej,
     the area irrigated in the district forms a part of the jurisdiction of
     two Irrigation Circles. Amongst natural streams (nallahs), the more
     well known are Wali Muhammad, Gujbatta and Bakhtowah nallahs.
     In the Haveli Canal Circle, the district is fed by Chag and Darkhana
     distributors of the Haveli main canal line (from rivers Chenab at
     Trimmu). The Sidhnai canal system and the Fazal Shah canal
     system, both take water from the Ravi at Sidhnai Headworks. The
     Nili Bar Circle comprises the Pakpattan and Mailsi Canals. Parts of
     tehsils Shujabad and Jalalpur Pirwala are irrigated by Mailsi canal.
       Air Quality
Air quality in the sub-project area appears good based on observation
      during the study period. Domestic sources of air pollution, such as
      emissions from wood and kerosene burning stoves as well as small
      diesel standby generators in some households, are well dissipated.
      There are no other industrial pollution sources are present in the
      vicinity.
The other major source of air pollution is dust arising from construction
      and other ground or soil disturbance. Near the access roads, when
      vehicles pass, dust levels will increase. The nearby road is paved
      but dust levels are elevated when vehicles pass intermittently over
      the roads based on field observations and may be high enough to
      obscure vision significantly based on observations in May 2007.
                                              Noise
Noise from vehicles and other powered mechanical equipment is
     intermittent. There are also the occasional calls to prayer from the
     PA systems at the local mosques but there are no significant
     disturbances to the quiet rural setting. However the construction
     from the proposed power expansion will use powered mechanical
     equipment. Subjective observations were made of background
     noise and also of individual vehicle pass by events. Based on
     professional experience background daytime noise levels are
     probably well below 55dB(A)L90.
3.3    Ecological Resources
y
Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquatic Biology: There are no areas of wildlife
        significance near the sub-project area. Wildlife is scarce in Multan
        district. Species occasionally encountered include jackals, foxes,
        hares, chipmunks, rats, mice, turtles, and snakes, etc. The only deer
        now to be found is the Chinkara and the ‘hog deer’. Wild boar is
        also found in the riverine areas. Common species of birds found in
        the district are the common house sparrow, crow, pigeon, dove,
        starling, yellow and white eyed myena, weaver bird, parrot, quail,

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       humming bird, babbler, bulbul, the Indian roller, common kite,
       plover, herons and egrets, etc, as well as some water birds like
       pintail, mallard, and teal etc. Sand grouse visit the district during
       the winter.

There are no reservoirs or other water bodies near the sub-project area.
      The River Chenab and River Ravi are the main water bodies. These
      water bodies form a habitat for a large number of species. The
      major commercial fish species include Catla catla (Thela), Channa
      marulius (Saul), Cirrhinus mrigala (Mori) and Cyprinus carpio
      (Gulfam).
3.3.2 Terrestrial Habitats, Forests and Protected Species
       Vegetation Cover and Trees: The sub-project area, which is not dry, is
       dominated by rural suburbs and with various productive fields of monocultures
       that now dominate the agro-ecosystems present in the sub-project area.
       Common floral species with rooted vegetation are also present near most of
       the water bodies of the area.
There are a few trees and other vegetation in the garden under the RoW
      for the line (Appendix 3). Nearby to the distribution line alignment
      semi-natural vegetation consists of the trees and scrub areas that
      have not been cultivated. Amongst the trees, Jand (Prosopis
      spicigera) Frash (Tamarix articutlata), Shisham (Dalbergia sisso),
      Sirin (Albizia lebbek) and Kikar (Accacia arabica) are most common.
There is wild growth of Calatropis. sp bushes and some Shesham trees in
      the areas near the works but natural forest cover in the district has
      been significantly reduced in the past due to clearance for
      cultivation. The majority of the land adjacent to the sub-station is
      agricultural land which is cultivated. Within the DGS compound
      area, there are now only some grasses.
Protected and Religious Trees: The total area under forest in Multan district
      during 1996-97 was about 8,800ha of which 8,300ha were reserved
      forests, 335ha protected forests, and 156ha were unclassified
      forests. There are planted trees along the canals and the roads. The
      few trees along the RoW are on private land. Permission should be
      sought from the local trees owners for the felling of any trees. A
      Land Acquisition and Resettlement plan (LARP) for the Lar SP will
      make provision for compensation of local people for the loss of
      tress, if needed after detailed study. The works must deal with trees
      that need to be lopped or removed for safety reasons with the
      necessary permissions.
Protected Areas/National Sanctuaries: In Pakistan there are several areas of
      land devoted to the preservation of biodiversity through the
      dedication of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries. There are no
      protected areas near the DGS site or DGL.
3.4    Economic Development
       Agriculture and Industries
The main crops in the sub-project area during winter are wheat, gram,
     rape, mustard, toria, barley and other cereals, and during summer

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       cotton, rice, jawar, bajra, maize and sugarcane. In addition, there
       are subsidiary crops known as Zaid Rabi like kharbooza, tobacco
       and potatoes and Zaid Kharif like potatoes and chillies. The
       principal vegetables grown in the district are brinjal, sweet potato,
       chilli, garlic, cauliflower, tomato, arvi, radish, turnip, peas and lady-
       finger.
The main fruits grown in the district are mango, many kinds of citrus
     including malta, orange, sour-lemon, sweet lemon, and other fruit
     like pomegranate, guava and dates. Some good varieties of
     mangoes have been developed and the most well known of these
     are Anwar Ratol, Dasehri and Langra. The orchards are generally
     scattered all over the district. The tehsils of Multan and Shujabad,
     have the largest area under gardens. Shujabad is particularly
     famous for its mango gardens.
Prior to 1947 there was hardly any large-scale industry in Multan.
      However, Multan has become an important industrial centre,
      particularly for the textile industry as well as other industries allied
      to the agricultural produce of the district like cotton-ginning and
      vegetable oil. The major industries include cotton ginning and
      processing cotton textiles, silk and art silk textiles, carpets, woolen
      textiles, edible oils, tanning, leather finishing, dying, bleaching,
      finishing textiles, fertilizers, soap manufacturing, clay products,
      pharmaceutical preparations and agricultural machinery. The
      cottage industries include, silk and wool carpets, coloured bricks,
      household item. There are numerous small cottage industrial units
      and 243 registered factories (with <100 employees) and 17
      registered factories (>100 employees) were reported during the year
      1996.
       Transportation
Multan is linked with the rest of the country by rail and roads. All tehsil
      headquarters and important towns are connected through over
      900km of paved roads while 282 Mauzas are connected with paved
      roads and 294 Mauzas have earth tracks. The DGS is connected
      with other parts of the country via the National Highway. The
      District is connected with the rest of the country by two railway
      lines, Faisalabad – Multan branch railway line and Lodhran –
      Shujabad – Multan railway line. There are 17 Railway Stations
      situated on these lines. Multan district is also linked by air services
      to other parts of the country.
                                        Energy Sources
The distribution lines for electrical power run to a main 220kV Grid Station
      at Multan, owned by MEPCO, which transmits power to other load
      centres (Figure 2.2).
Reserves of fossil fuels are the main sources of energy in Pakistan, while
     electricity is also derived from hydropower. In the study area there
     is no source of hydropower and other energy sources are
     progressively more common further away from the major towns.
     Biomass fuel is from home garden production of fuel wood, the

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       extraction of wood from forests, woodland, crop plantations and
       agricultural residues. The other significant energy sources in the
       area are kerosene and LPG. There are numerous petrol stations and
       LPG dealers in the district. In urban areas more than half of housing
       units are using wood. I.e. 63% use wood as cooking fuel in their
       houses while 29% use gas for cooking.
3.5    Social and Cultural Resources
       Population, Communities and Employment
The total population of Multan district was 3.1million in March, 1998. The
      1998 Census population of district was predominantly Muslims
      (99%). The next highest are Christians (0.6%) and Ahmadi (0.09%).
      Other minorities such as Hindu (Jati), and Scheduled castes are
      very small in number. The proportion of population of Muslims in
      rural and urban areas is over 99% and Christians and Ahmadis are
      more common in urban areas. Siraiki is the predominant language
      being spoken in the district followed by Punjabi, Urdu Pushto
      Sindhi, Balochi, Bravi and Dari.
In 1998 of the total employed persons 40% had unskilled occupations with
      skilled agricultural and fishery workers representing 25%. Service
      workers, shop and market sales workers have 18% of jobs and craft
      and related trade workers represent 5%. In rural areas people
      having unskilled occupations were again in the majority.
Over 75% of the economically active population were registered as
     employed in 1998. Nearly three-quarters (74%) were self employed,
     10% were private employees and 6% government employees.
     Unpaid family helpers were recorded as 10%. The difference in
     proportions of employed population was significant between the
     genders and urban and rural residences.
The main occupation of women in rural areas including sub-project area
     of Multan district is house-keeping which includes attending to the
     cattle, extracting butter and Ghee from milk, weaving and sewing of
     family clothes. In addition they generally help their men-folk on
     farms with the lighter duties like transplanting of seedlings,
     threshing and winnowing of grains and sometimes they also help in
     harvesting. In city women are housewives or work as professional’s
     doctors, nurses, teaching.
There are many important cultural or archeological sites in Multan as
     mentioned above, but no cultural and archeological site is located
     in the vicinity of the Lar sub-project.
       Education and Literacy
The literacy ratio in Multan district has increased from 23.5 percent in
      1981, to 43.4 percent in 1998. The literacy ratio for males is 53.3
      percent and against 32.3 percent for females. The ratio is much
      higher in urban areas for male and female.
There are 2,173 educational institutions working in Multan district,
     imparting education from the level of mosque/primary up to post
     graduate level. There is also a medical college namely Nishtar

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       Medical College and Multan University situated in Multan. There are
       High Schools for boys and girls in Lar village, at about 1 - 3km from
       the DGS. The number of institutions, enrolment and teaching staff
       available in Multan district in 1996 is as follows:

Table 3.1: Educational Institutions by Gender and Level of Education, 1996
     Type of
                           Institute                  Enrolment                Teaching Staff
    Institute
                      Male         Female         Male         Female         Male         Female
        Primary           590           800       78,000        64,000          2,578         2,280
          Middle          101            77       36,000        23,000          1,339           995
     Secondary            173            38      101,000        46,000          3,852         1,372
        Higher
                             6             2        5.140         2,180             275         107
     Secondary
   (Class XI-XII)
    Intermediate             7             3      11,219          7,351             410         214
     and Degree
        Colleges
        Mosque
                          376               -     11,744                -           751             -
        Schools
         TOTAL          1,253           920      243,103       142,531          9,205         4,928
       Source: Punjab Development Statistics, Bureau of Statistics, Punjab, 1996.

       Health Facilities
Multan district has well developed medical facilities. There are 14
      hospitals, 57 dispensaries, 8 rural health centres, 57 basic health
      units, 3 T.B. clinics, 34 Sub health caters, 13 Mother and childcare
      centres, with a total of 1972 beds. Civil Hospital and Nishtar
      Hospital attached with Nishtar Medical College are located in Multan
      city. While Tehsil Headquarters Hospitals are located one in the
      Shujabad tehsil and the other Jalalpur Pirwala tehsil. There are
      many private hospitals and clinics in Multan. There is a Basic
      Health Unit in Lar.
       Cultural Heritage and Community Structure
Multan is rich in cultural, historic and religious heritage sites. However,
      there are no official heritage sites of historic, religious or
      archeologically important sites located in the Sub-project works
      areas. There are no major historic or archaeological features of
      note, but there a few places of worship within about 500 m of the
      proposed works.
The District has a variety of tribes and castes. The main castes are Syed,
      Qureshi, Arain, Kamboh, Pathan, Baloch, Jat, and Rajput, which
      have numerous castes and sub-castes.




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4.0    SCREENING POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND
                    MITIGATION MEASURES
4.1    Sub-project Location
4.1.1 Impact Assessment and Mitigation
This Tranche 1 sub-project will involve construction of a new DGS and a
      270m DGL including expansion of facilities both outside and within
      the demarcated site for the DGS. There are a few sensitive receivers
      (SR), including two houses and a shop, which are currently set well
      back from the DGS boundaries that may be affected by the new
      works. There are, also some sensitive receivers (SR) within metres
      of the DGL alignment, in the form of typical rural residences, and a
      walled fruit garden. There are houses, a few schools and shops
      across the main road, and further along the highway in Lar town,
      but they are far removed from the areas around Lar SP that might
      be affected by the works.
The location and scale of the works are very important in predicting the
      environmental impacts. Therefore, it is essential that a proper
      analysis is carried out during the sub-project planning period. This
      process of impact prediction is the core of the EIA/IEE process and
      it is critical that the recommendations and mitigation measures are
      carried out according to the spirit of the environmental
      assessments process and with reference to the conditions on the
      ground in the affected areas (Figures 1.1 and 1.2). In this section the
      potential environmental impacts are reviewed. Where impacts are
      significant enough to exceed accepted environmental standards,
      mitigation is proposed in order to reduce residual impact to
      acceptable levels. In this regard, the impact prediction plays a vital
      role as these predictions are used for developing mitigation
      measures and any alternative options, if appropriate. When the
      detailed designs are completed the impacts and mitigation
      measures will need to be further reviewed to take account of how
      the contracts are set up and in the light of any fine tuning of the
      sub-project proposals.
The environmental management plan (Section 5, and EMP matrix
     Appendix 4) has been reviewed based on the assessment and shall
     be reviewed in due course at sub-project inception and throughout
     construction in order to provide a feed back on any significant
     unpredicted impacts. It is based on the analysis of impacts,
     primarily to document key environmental issues likely to arise from
     sub-project implementation, to prescribe mitigation measures to be
     integrated in the sub-project design, to design monitoring and
     evaluation schedules to be implemented during sub-project
     construction and operation, and to estimate costs required for
     implementing sub-project mitigation measures. The EMP must be
     reviewed in the sub-project inception by the sub-project
     management and approved before any construction activity is
     initiated, to take account of any subsequent changes and fine
     tuning of the proposals.

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4.2    General Approach to Mitigation
Based on professional experience on some projects, contractors have put
     emphasis on the financial compensation for nuisances. This may be
     acceptable for some social impacts where evacuation is necessary
     or where houses have been accidentally damaged, however it is not
     best international practice to accept payment for environmental
     impacts. An approach whereby the sub-project contractor pays
     money for nuisances rather than control impacts at source will not
     be acceptable. This practice should not be allowed and financial
     compensation shall not be allowed as mitigation for environmental
     impacts or environmental nuisance.
During the preparation for the sub-project construction phase the future
      contractors must be notified and prepared to co-operate with the
      executing and implementing agencies, sub-project management,
      construction supervising consultants and local population in the
      mitigation of impacts. Furthermore the contractor must be primed
      through bidding stages and the contract documentation to
      implement the EMP in full and be ready to engage or train staff in
      the management of environmental issues and to audit the
      effectiveness and review mitigation measures as the subproject
      proceeds. The effective implementation of the EMP will be audited
      as part of the loan conditions and the executing agency (MEPCO)
      must be prepared for this. In this regard the MEPCO must fulfill the
      requirements of the law and guidance prepared by Pak EPA on the
      environmental aspects of power sub-projects and the
      recommendations already made for sub-project in This EIA and
      under Pakistan’s PEP Act.
The location of the residences, mosques, schools, hospitals and civic,
      cultural and other heritage sites has been reviewed in Section 3. No
      residences or schools are close enough to the sub-project on which
      there could be potential impacts in the construction stage from
      disturbance and significant noise and dust. This is because the
      DGL is very short (only one span), and the alignment has no human
      settlements and structures but there is a garden.
Work on the 2 tower sites could cause some generation of air borne dust,
     but any nuisance from this is likely to be very localized and
     temporary. Other project activities, e.g. movement of heavy vehicles
     on unpaved tracks during the works, could generate considerable
     dust. Water is available in the study area, although surplus water
     may not always be available to suppress dust at vulnerable
     locations in the dry season. Therefore as a general approach it is
     recommended that if the works are within 15m of any sensitive
     receivers, the contractor should install segregation between the
     works and the edge of the sensitive receivers. The segregation
     should be easily erectable 2.5 m high tarpaulin sheet and designed
     to retain dust and provide a temporary visual barrier to the works.
     Where dust is the major consideration the barrier can take the form
     of tarpaulins strung between two poles mounted on a concrete
     base. These can be moved along from tower base to tower base the
     power as the work proceeds.
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Noise will not be a major consideration as there are no schools or
     hospitals in the vicinity.
       Cultural heritage, mosques and other religious sites
The location of mosques and other cultural and other heritage SR sites
      has been reviewed in Section 3. There are no mosques or other
      religious sites close to the DGS site. The new line will also not
      affect or disturb any such site (Appendix 2).
The nearest clinic/hospital is more than 100 m from the edge of the sub-
     project or DGL route. The nearest school is also more than 100 m
     from the sub-project. There will, therefore, be sufficient buffer
     distance between the works and the SRs, so that no significant
     impacts should be expected. Public consultation should be
     undertaken at the implementation stage to ensure nuisances are
     not allowed to escalate.
4.3    Potential Environmental Impacts in Construction
       Encroachment, Landscape and Physical Disfiguration
The extent of the visual impact from the proposed expansion is moderate
      and should not extend beyond the power corridor (RoW) and DGS
      created by the sub-project. No significant landscape impacts are
      expected from construction of the Lar SP.
       Cut and Fill and Waste Disposal
Disposal of surplus materials must also be negotiated through local
     authority approvals prior to the commencement of construction.
     The Sub-project work should not involve any significant cutting and
     filling but minor excavations (down to 4 m) and piling may be
     required to create the foundations for the new transformers and for
     some towers (if required). It is envisaged (depending on the mode
     of contract) that the surface under the towers will need to be
     scrabbled to remove unstable materials, or to stockpile topsoil.
If surplus materials arise from the removal of the existing surfaces from
       specific areas, these should be used elsewhere on the sub-project
       before additional soil, rock, gravel or sand is brought in. The use of
       immediately available material will generally minimize the need for
       additional rock based materials extraction from outside.
The sub-project detailed designers have so far estimated that no
     substantial additional materials will be required other than concrete
     for piles and supporting foundations, subject to confirmation at the
     detailed design stage.
Contractual clauses should be included to require each contractor to
      produce a materials management plan (one month before
      construction commences) to identify all sources of cement and
      aggregates and to balance cut and fill. The plan should clearly state
      the methods to be employed prior to and during the extraction of
      materials and all the mitigation measures to be employed to
      mitigate nuisances to local residents. Financial compensation shall
      not be allowed as mitigation for environmental impacts or
      environmental nuisance. Mitigation measures shall seek to control
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       the impacts at source in the first place. The engineer shall be
       responsible to update the sub-project cut and fill estimates and
       create Materials Master Plan to facilitate materials exchange
       between the different contract areas along the power line and sub-
       contractors on the power line and to provide an overall balance for
       materials and minimize impacts on local resources.
       Trees, Ecology and Protected Areas
At this stage no areas require removal of woodland. The owners of the
       garden should be given the resources and opportunity to reinstate
       the any affected trees long term and a compensation plan should be
       drawn up to replant the affected trees. In the event that the land is
       not suitable for plantation then other areas should be identified to
       replace the cut trees and sufficient areas should be identified to
       allow plantation of trees at a rate of say 3:1. The replacement ratio
       should allow for a high mortality rate among the newly planted trees
       in the dry environment or otherwise as based on advice from the
       forest authority.
There are no Reserved or Protected Forests or trees near the DGS site or
      DGL alignment. The proposed line will require the installation of
      only 2 towers, both in uncultivated land. If for some unforeseen
      reason or change of alignment, any trees with religious significance
      or other trees need to be removed, written permission should be
      obtained from the forest authority and the owner after written
      justification by MEPCO.
A requirement shall be inserted in the contracts that no trees are to be cut
      on the Lar SP site or outside, without the written permission from
      the supervising consultant who may permit the removal of trees if
      unavoidable on safety/technical/engineering grounds after written
      justification by MEPCO and to the satisfaction of the forest
      authority or the owner.
       Hydrology, Sedimentation, Soil Erosion
The drainage streams en-route of the sub-project should not be impeded
      by the works. The scale of the works does not warrant hydrological
      monitoring.
       Air Pollution from Earthworks and Transport
Field observations indicate that ambient air quality is generally acceptable
       and that emissions from traffic and other powered mechanical
       equipment in the area are rapidly dispersed. There will be a few
       items of powered mechanical equipment to be used in the
       construction of the distribution line works that may give rise
       gaseous emissions. However these should be well dissipated. The
       major sources of complaint will likely be any necessary earthworks
       and local soil compaction.
Earthworks will contribute to increasing dust, and the foundation
      earthworks for the transformers and the line towers will generate
      dust and the following mitigation measures are needed:


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Dust suppression facilities (water sprayers/hosepipe) shall be available
      where earth and cement works are required.
Areas of construction (especially where the works and the access road
      are within 50m of the SRs) shall be maintained damp by watering
      the construction area.
Construction materials (sand, gravel, and rocks) and spoil materials will
     be transported trucks covered with tarpaulins.
Storage piles will be at least 30m downwind of the nearest human
      settlements.
All vehicles (e.g. trucks, equipment, and other vehicles that support
      construction works) shall be well maintained and not emit dark,
      smoky or other emissions in excess of the limits described in the
      NEQS.
The need for large stockpiles should be minimized by careful planning of
     the supply of materials from controlled sources. Stockpiles should
     not need to be located any where near schools, hospitals or other
     public amenities such as wells and pumps due to the location of the
     DGS and line.
                                  Noise, Vibration and Blasting
No blasting is expected. It is anticipated that powered mechanical
     equipment and some local labour with hand tool methods will be
     used to construct the sub-project works. Powered mechanical
     equipment can generate significant noise and vibration. The
     cumulative effects from several machines can be significant. To
     minimize such impacts, the contractor for sub-project should be
     requested by the construction supervision consultants (engineer)
     to provide evidence and certification that all equipment to be used
     for construction is fitted with the necessary air pollution and noise
     dampening devices to meet MEPCO requirements and the NEQS.
A criterion of 70dB(A)Leq (exterior, boundary of DGS) has been used for
       assessment in previous EIA/IEE studies. Any noisy equipment
       should be located within DGS as far from SRs as possible to
       prevent nuisances to dwellings and other structures from
       operation.
Noise from construction of the power distribution lines and improvements
      to sub-stations is not covered under any regulations however in
      order to keep in line with best international practice it is
      recommended that no construction should be allowed during night-
      time (9 pm to 6 am) and 70dB(A)Leq should be the criterion at other
      times during the day measured at the boundaries of land from
      which construction noise is emitted. A criterion of 70dB(A)Leq
      (exterior, boundary of DGS) has been used for assessment in
      previous EIA/IEE studies.
Vibration from construction of pile and support pads for tower
       construction may be a significant impact but this should be short
       duration. Due to location vibration should not become a major
       consideration. In case any nearby schools are affected by noise

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       from the project works the contractor shall discuss with the school
       principals the agreed time for operating these machines and
       completely avoid machine use near schools during examination
       times.
       Sanitation, Solid Waste Disposal, Communicable Diseases
The main issues of concern are uncontrolled or unmanaged disposal of
     solid and liquid wastes into watercourses and natural drains,
     improper disposal of storm water and black water and open
     defecation by construction workers.
In order to maintain proper sanitation around construction sites, access
      to the nearby DGS lavatories should be allowed or provision of
      temporary toilets should be made. Construction worker camps will
      not be necessary based on the scale of the works needed. If for
      some unforeseen reason a larger workforce is needed any
      construction camp should not be located in settlement areas or
      near sensitive water resources.
Wherever water is allowed to accumulate, in temporary drainage facilities,
     due to improper storm water management, or improper disposal of
     wastewater generated from the site, it can offer a breeding site for
     mosquitoes and other insects. Vectors such as mosquitoes may be
     encountered if open water is allowed to accumulate at the Lar SP
     site. Temporary and permanent drainage facilities should therefore
     be designed to facilitate the rapid removal of surface water from all
     areas and prevent the accumulation of surface water ponds.
               4.4     Potential Environmental Impacts in Operation
                  Air Pollution and Noise from the Enhanced Operations
The sub-project works will extend the power distribution lines but no
     houses, mosques or schools should be close enough to the
     facilities in the operational phase for significant impacts. There
     should be no source of atmospheric pollution from the sub-project.
     In the operational phase any nearby industrial facilities with fuel
     powered mechanical equipment will be the main polluters. All such
     emissions will be very well dissipated in the open terrain and there
     will be no cumulative effect from the sub-project.
Noise impacts from the operation of the DGS equipment should be
     reviewed at the detailed design stage. It is recommended that an
     acoustical check be made on the detailed design to determine of
     any noise barriers are required. There are/not national noise
     standards in Pakistan for power distribution noise emissions that
     would apply in the operational stages. A criterion of 70dB(A)Leq
     (exterior, boundary of DGS) has been used for assessment in
     previous EIA/IEE studies. It is recommended that a check be made
     on the likely acoustical performance of the installed equipment at
     the detained design stage.
       Pollution from Oily Run-off, Fuel Spills and Dangerous Goods
No significant impacts from oily residues such as transformer oil and
      lubricants are expected to arise in this sub-project. However control

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       measures will be needed for oily residues such as transformer oil
       and lubricants in the case of accidental or unexpected release.
       Transformer oil is supplied in drums from an imported source and
       transformer tap tanks are topped up as necessary on site. There are
       facilities in some sub-project DGS maintenance yards for recycling
       (dehydrating) oil from breakers. However the areas upon which
       these recycling facilities are located have no dedicated drainage
       which can capture run-off. Oily residues and fuel and any
       contaminated soil residues should be captured at source and
       refueling and maintenance should take place in dedicated areas
       away from surface water resources. Contaminated residues and
       waste oily residues should be disposed at a site agreed with the
       local authority.
The current grid substation layouts do not include any dedicated drainage
      or secondary containment to control residual oil spills. In order to
      comply with best international practice to prevent contamination of
      soil, groundwater and surface water all the new substations will be
      designed to include dedicated surface drainage and secondary
      containment to control residual oil spills from installation,
      maintenance or decommissioning. The secondary containment
      (bunding) will seal the surface with concrete and be of sufficient
      capacity to hold 110% of the contents of the bunded equipment in
      the even of a catastrophic failure with loss of all transformer oil
      (Appendix 6). This is not necessarily an unlikely event in Pakistan
      where some power distribution facilities have been the target of
      bomb attacks in 2007. The EMP includes and recommends that an
      integrated approach be introduced to waste management for
      materials such as surface soils that have become contaminated
      with residual oils from maintenance activities. Contaminated
      residues and waste oily residues should be disposed at a site
      agreed with the local authority.
4.5    Enhancement
Environmental enhancements are not a major consideration within the
      Tranche 1 sub-project sites. However it is noted that it is common
      practice at many such sites to create some local hard and soft
      landscaping and successful planting of fruit trees and shrubs has
      been accomplished in many sites. This practice should be
      encouraged as far as practicable. Other opportunities for
      enhancements can be assessed prior to construction and proposed
      enhancements should be discussed with the local population to
      serve as a vehicle for further public consultation at the
      implementation stage and to assist in public relations.




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5.0    INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS & ENVIRONMENTAL
       MANAGEMENT PLAN

In this section, the mitigation measures that are required for the Lar SP
       Tranche 1 sub-project, to reduce residual impact to acceptable
       levels and achieve the expected outcomes of the project, are
       discussed. The Environmental Management Plan is based on the
       type, extent and duration of the identified environmental impacts for
       the Lar SP Tranche 1 sub-project. The EMP has been prepared
       following best practice and by reference to the ADB Environmental
       Assessment Guidelines 2003.
It is important that the recommendations and mitigation measures are
       carried out according to the spirit of the environmental assessment
       process and in line with the guidelines. The EMP matrix is
       presented as Appendix 4. The impact prediction (Section 4) has
       reconfirmed typical mitigation measures and in identifying any
       different approaches based on the feasibility and design
       assumptions at this stage.
Prior to implementation and construction of the sub-projects the EMP
      shall be amended and reviewed by the MEPCO in due course after
      detailed designs are complete. Such a review shall be based on
      reconfirmation and additional information on the assumptions
      made at this feasibility stage on positioning, alignment, location
      scale and expected operating conditions of the sub-projects. For
      example, in this case if there are any additional transmission lines
      or extension of the sub-station boundaries to be included, the
      designs may be amended and then the performance and evaluation
      schedules to be implemented during project construction and
      operation can be updated, and costs estimates can be revised. The
      EIA/IEE and EMP should than be revised on a sub-project by sub-
      project basis.
The EIA/IEE and EMP plan must be reviewed by the project management
      and approved by the PEPA before any construction activity is
      initiated. This is also an ADB requirement in order to take account
      of any subsequent changes and fine tuning of the proposals. It is
      recommended that, before the works contract is worked out in
      detail and before pre-qualification of contractors, a full extent of the
      environmental requirements of the project (EIA/IEE/EIA and EMP)
      are included in the bidding documents. Professional experience
      indicates that past environmental performance of contractors and
      their awareness of environmentally responsible procurement is
      likely to be limited, therefore, the environmental awareness of
      contractors should be improved through the bidding process and
      also be used as indicator criteria for the prequalification of
      contractors.
In order to facilitate the implementation of the EMP, during the preparation
      for the construction phase the MEPCO must prepare the future
      contractors to co-operate with all stakeholders in the mitigation of

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       impacts. Furthermore the contractor must be primed through the
       contract documentation and ready to implement all the mitigation
       measures. The MEPCO has already engaged trained environmental
       management staff and these staff should audit the effectiveness
       and review mitigation measures as the subprojects are rolled out.
       The effective implementation of the EMP will be audited as part of
       the mid-term review of loan conditions and the executing agency
       must prepare for this at the inception stage.
The details of EMP given in the Appendix 4 are for the Tranche 1
     extension and augmentation sub-project. The EMP matrix will have
     much in common for many other sub-station and line projects that a
     similar scale of works and types of location but will be different for
     more complicated sub-station and line projects that involve impacts
     to land outside the existing sub-stations and for lines traversing
     more sensitive land. In all cases separate dedicated EIA/IEEs must
     be prepared.
The    impacts have been classified into those relevant to the
       design/preparation stage, construction stage and operation and
       maintenance stage. The matrix provides details of the mitigation
       measures recommended for each of the identified impacts, time
       span of the implementation of mitigation measures, an analysis of
       the associated costs and the responsibility of the institution. The
       institutional responsibility has been specified for the purpose of the
       implementation and the supervision. The matrix is supplemented
       with a monitoring plan for the performance indicators. An
       estimation of the associated costs for the monitoring is given with
       the plan. The EMP has been prepared following best practice and
       the ADB environmental assessment guidelines 2003.
Prior to implementation of the sub-projects the MEPCO needs to comply
       with several environmental requirements, such as submitting and
       EIA/EIA/IEE to PEPA and obtaining PEPA clearance (“No Objection
       Certificate” compiling acceptable EMP and Clearance Certificate)
       under PEPAct (guidelines and regulations 2000) and any other
       permissions required from other authorities. MEPCO will also need
       to confirm that contractors and their suppliers have complied with
       all statutory requirements and have appropriate and valid licenses
       and permits for all powered mechanical equipment and to operate
       in line with local authority conditions.
The EMP (Appendix 4) was prepared taking into account the limited
     capacity of MEPCO to conduct environmental assessments of the
     subprojects. MEPCO has engaged one graduate environmental
     manager with limited field experience. It is envisaged that
     experience in this field should therefore develop in the near future.
     However it is also strongly recommended that for sub-projects in
     future Tranches that the MEPCO be prepared to engage more
     support where necessary (e.g. senior environmental specialist with
     at least 10 years experience in environmental management five
     years site experience in environmental monitoring and auditing) to
     guide the subsequent formal assessment and submission process
     under the PEPAct and monitor compliance with the EMP. As of
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       August 2007, the MEPCO is clearly committed to developing in-
       house environmental and social capability.
The newly appointed environmental manager has have a good level of
     awareness and will be responsible for addressing environmental
     concerns for sub-projects potentially involving hundreds kilometers
     of distribution lines and DGS. Whereas some of their work may in
     future be delegated to consultants they will need more training and
     resources if they are effectively provide quality control and
     oversight for the EMP implementation. They will require robust
     support from senior management staff members and the
     management consultant if they are to address all environmental
     concerns for the sub-projects effectively. Specific areas for
     immediate attention are in EMP auditing, environmentally
     responsible procurement, air, water and noise pollution
     management and ecological impact mitigation. It is recommended
     that an environmental specialist consultant with 10 years
     experience be made available to all the DISCOS to cover these
     aspects full time for at least the first six months of the PDEMFF
     project and that on a call off basis with local support those services
     are retained for the life of the PDEMFF loan. The newly appointed
     graduate environmental manager can then shadow the
     environmental specialist to improve awareness and hopefully
     provide independent quality control and oversee the EMP
     implementation within 12 months.
In order to achieve good compliance with environmental assessment
      principles the graduate environmental manager for the project
      implementation team must be actively involved prior to the outset
      of the implementation design stage to ensure compliance with the
      statutory obligations under the PEPAct. It is also recommended that
      MEPCO Board allow direct reporting to Board level from the in-
      house Environmental and Social Unit (ESU). If the ESU requires
      resources for larger sub-projects then environmental specialist
      consultants could be appointed through the project implementation
      unit to address all environmental aspects in the detailed design. It
      is recommended that the project management unit (PMU) should
      liaise directly with the ESU to address all environmental aspects in
      the detailed design and contracting stages. The graduate
      environmental manager will cover the implementation of
      environmental mitigation measures in the project packages.
Overall implementation of the EMP will become MEPCO’s responsibility.
      MEPCO and other parties to be involved in implementing the EMP
      are as follows:
Contractors: responsible for carrying out the contractual obligations,
      implementing all EMP measures required to mitigate environmental
      impacts during construction;
MEPCO Board of Directors: responsible to ensure that sufficient timely
    resources are allocated to process the environmental assessments
    and to monitor implementation of all construction and operational


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       mitigation measures required to mitigate environmental impacts,
       and
Other government agencies: such as regional PEPA and state pollution
      authorities, Department of Forests, Department of Wildlife Services,
      who will be responsible for monitoring the implementation of
      environmental conditions and compliance with statutory
      requirements in their respective areas and local land use groups at
      the local levels.
Considering that other government agencies that need to be involved in
     implementing the EMP, training or harmonization workshops
     should be conducted for all ESUs in all DISCOs every six months or
     twice each year, for the first 2 years (and annually thereafter) to
     share the monitoring report on the implementation of the EMP in
     each DISCO and to share lessons learned in the implementation
     and to achieve a consistent approach decide on remedial actions, if
     unexpected environmental impacts occur.
The monitoring plan (Appendix 5) was designed based on the project
     cycle. During the pre-construction period, the monitoring activities
     will focus on (i) checking the contractor’s bidding documents,
     particularly to ensure that all necessary environmental
     requirements have been included; and (ii) checking that the
     contract documents’ references to environmental mitigation
     measures requirements have been incorporated as part of
     contractor’s assignment and making sure that any advance works
     are carried out in good time. Where detailed design is required (e.g.
     for power distribution lines and avoidance of other resources) the
     inclusion and checking of designs must be carried out. During the
     construction period, the monitoring activities will focus on ensuring
     that environmental mitigation measures are implemented, and some
     performance indicators will be monitored to record the Sub-projects
     environmental performance and to guide any remedial action to
     address unexpected impacts.
Monitoring activities during project operation will focus on recording
      environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to
      address unexpected impacts. The potential to use local community
      groups’ contacts for monitoring should be explored as part of the
      activities in setting up the Environmental and Social Unit which
      should have regular meetings with the NGOs as a matter of good
      practice and to discuss matters of mutual concern.
At this stage, due to the modest scale of the new power distribution
      projects and by generally keeping to non-sensitive and non-critical
      areas the construction and operational impacts will be manageable.
      No insurmountable impacts are predicted providing that the EMP is
      implemented to its full extent and required in the contract
      documents. However experience suggests that some contractors
      may not be familiar with this approach or may be reluctant to carry
      out some or all of the measures. In order that the contractors are
      fully aware of the implications of the EMP and to ensure
      compliance, it is recommended that environmental measures be

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       costed separately in the tender documentation and that payment
       milestones are linked to environmental performance, vis a vis the
       carrying out of the EMP.
The effective implementation of the EMP will be audited as part of the loan
      conditions and the executing agency must be prepared for this. In
      this regard the MEPCO (the IA) must be prepared to guide the
      design engineers and contractors on the environmental aspect.




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6.0    PUBLIC   CONSULTATION                            AND      INFORMATION
       DISCLOSURE

6.1    Approach to Public Consultation

The public consultation (PC) process with various stakeholders has been
     approached so as to involve public and other stakeholders from the
     earliest stages. Public consultation has taken place during the
     planning and design and viewpoints of the stakeholders have been
     taken into account and their concerns and suggestions for possible
     improvements have been included where appropriate. Much of the
     PC process to date has revolved around concerns for the mitigation
     of construction impacts and the possible side effects from the
     proximity of high voltage power lines and the DGS and its
     equipment.
The requirement for ongoing consultation for land acquisition and
     resettlement (LARP) and the completion of the Resettlement Plan
     (RP) were not fully clarified at the time of writing. But the necessary
     reports will be documented separately. It is expected that this
     process will continue through all stages of the sub-project in order
     to accommodate stakeholders' aspirations and to orient the
     stakeholders positively towards the project implementation and
     where possible to harness co-operation over access issues in order
     to facilitate timely completion.
The public consultation process has commenced in the initial feasibility
     stages (prior to construction) in order to disclose the project
     information to the stakeholders and record feedback regarding the
     proposed project and preferences. The stakeholders involved in the
     process were the population likely to be impacted along the route of
     the proposed power lines; the village leaders and school teachers.
6.2    Public Consultation Process
Prior to the implementation of the consultation, feedback, etc. has been
       carried out to support This EIA and recorded. The focus of attention
       has been the population near the proposed DGL that may be
       affected by the Sub-project expansion. The level of engagement
       varied from the stakeholder to stakeholder with many not
       registering any major comment but it is noted that none registered
       any outright opposition to sub-project.
The disclosure of the enhancement project in advance and subsequent
      consultation with stake holders has advantages in the
      environmental assessment and mitigation of impacts. Public
      consultation can also provide a conduit for the improvement of the
      project implementation to better serve the stakeholders.
The     environmental assessment process under the Pakistan
       Environmental Protection Act only requires the disclosure to the
       public after the statutory EIA/IEE/EIA has been accepted by the
       relevant EPA to be in strict adherence to the rules. In This EIA the

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       consultation process was performed to satisfy the ADB
       requirements. The locations of consultation and people consulted
       are listed in the full table of public consultation presented in
       Appendix 6.
                         6.3      Results of Public Consultation
The consultations identified some potential environmental and social
     impacts and perceptions of the affected communities. The public
     consultation resulted in 17 responses in July 2007 (Appendix 7).
     The community generally supports the construction of the DGS.
     They expect a more stable power supply in the region after
     provision of the DGS in the locality. Poor people requested for
     unskilled and semi skilled jobs on priority basis with the
     contractors during implementation of the project. A few
     respondents suggested that the line should be kept away from the
     houses. No land acquisition and resettlement is involved in this
     sub-project. However, compensation will be paid to the concerned
     parties/owners of land under the towers and where the loss of some
     trees and for damage to crops is expected. A few persons
     emphasized that the compensation should be fair and paid
     promptly. One respondent wanted the project management to take
     care to avoid accidents from construction activities, especially
     movement of trucks.
On the basis of the consultations so far, it appears that the project will
     have no insurmountable environmental and social impacts but
     MEPCO will have to make sure that compensation and assistance
     amounts are assessed justly and that skilled and unskilled
     employment should be preferentially given to the AP as far as is
     reasonably                                               practicable.




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7.0    CONCLUSIONS
7.1    Findings and Recommendations
This study was carried out at the planning stage of the project. Primary
      and secondary data were used to assess the environmental
      impacts. The potential environmental impacts were assessed in a
      comprehensive manner. The report has provided a picture of all
      potential environmental impacts associated with the Project, and
      recommended suitable mitigation measures. This study
      recommends that some further follow up studies are undertaken
      during project processing in order to meet the ADB requirements.
There are some further considerations for the planning stages such as
      obtaining clearance for the project under the Pakistan
      Environmental Protection Act (1997) but environmental impacts
      from the power enhancements will mostly take place during the
      construction stage. There are also some noise impacts and waste
      management issues for the operational stage that must be
      addressed in the detailed design and through environmentally
      responsible procurement. At the detailed design stage the number
      of and exact locations for transmission tower enhancements may
      change subject to detailed surveys but the impacts are likely to be
      broadly similar at most locations and impacts have been reviewed
      in the environmental impact section of This EIA report.
There are a number of key actions required in the detailed design phase.
      Prior to construction the MEPCO must receive clearance
      certification from the PEPA and MEPCO must complete an EMP that
      will be accepted by the PEPA and agreed by the contractor prior to
      signing the contract. The information provided in this report can
      form the basis of any further submission to PEPA as required in
      future.
       (i)     No land acquisition, compensation and resettlement is involved.
               However, some trees will be compensated to the concerned parties, if
               needed. However, provisions may be made in LARP, based on the
               proposed alignments these should not be difficult tasks and can be
               conducted as the detailed designs are worked out and to dovetail with
               the existing system and minimize adverse impacts and maximize
               benefits. A social impact assessment and resettlement action plan
               (LARP) has been completed in tandem with This EIA for the whole
               subproject.
Baseline monitoring activities should be carried out during project
      detailed design stage to establish the baseline of parameters for
      checking during the construction stage. The monitoring schedule
      (Appendix 5) recommends monitoring on two occasions at the site
      location. The results should be integrated with the contract
      documentation to establish performance action thresholds,
      pollution limits and contingency plans for the contractor’s
      performance.




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During the commissioning phase noise monitoring should ensure that
      statutory requirements have been achieved. Monitoring activities
      during project operation will focus on periodic recording
      environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to
      address any unexpected impacts.
7.2    Summary and Conclusions
The expansion of the Lar SP is a feasible and sustainable option from the
      power transmission, engineering, environmental, and socio-
      economic points of view. Implementation of the EMP is required
      and the environmental impacts associated with the sub-project
      need to be properly mitigated, and the existing institutional
      arrangements are available. Additional human and financial
      resources will be required by MEPCO to complete the designs and
      incorporate the recommendations effectively and efficiently in the
      contract documents, linked to payment milestones. The proposed
      mitigation and management plans are practicable but require
      additional resources.
This EIA, including the EMP, should be used as a basis for an
     environmental compliance program and be included as an
     Appendix to the contract. The EMP shall be reviewed at the detailed
     design stage. In addition, any subsequent conditions issued by
     PEPA as part of the environmental clearance should also be
     included in the environmental compliance program. Therefore,
     continued monitoring of the implementation of mitigation
     measures, the implementation of the environmental conditions for
     work and environmental clearance, and monitoring of the
     environmental impact related to the operation of the Project should
     be properly carried out and reported at least twice per year as part
     of the project performance report.




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  Power Distribution Enhancement Sub-project
                                  TA 4876 (PAK)




              ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

       Shadan Lund Grid Sub-station and Distribution Line
                                      Submitted to

                          Asian Development Bank

                                   January 2007
                                           By
                     Multan Electric Power Company

          Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan




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CONTENTS

1.0    INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................. 1
1.1    Overview.......................................................................................................... 1
1.2    Scope of the EIA/IEE Study and Personnel ..................................................... 3
1.3    Policy and Statutory Requirements in Pakistan................................................ 5
1.4    Structure of Report ........................................................................................... 8

2.0    DESCRIPTION OF THE SUB-PROJECT ........................................................ 1
2.1    Type of Sub-project .......................................................................................... 1
2.2    Categorisation of the Sub-project................................................................. 1
2.3    Need for the Sub-project................................................................................ 2
2.4    Location and Scale of Sub-project.................................................................... 2
2.5    Proposed Schedule for Implementation ........................................................... 4

3.0    DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT ....................................................... 1
3.1    Sub-project Area............................................................................................. 1
3.2    Physical Resources .......................................................................................... 1
3.3    Ecological Resources .................................................................................... 3
3.4    Economic Development.................................................................................... 5
3.5    Social and Cultural Resources ......................................................................... 6


4.0    POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS & MITIGATION MEASURES
4.1    Sub-project Location...................................................................................... 8
4.2    General Approach to Mitigation ........................................................................ 9
4.3    Potential Environmental Impacts in Construction ............................................. 10
4.4    Potential Environmental Impacts in Operation............................................ 14
4.5    Enhancement ................................................................................................... 15

5.0    INSTITUTIONAL  REQUIREMENTS                           &           ENVIRONMENTAL
       MANAGEMENT PLAN ..................................................................................... 16

6.0    PUBLIC CONSULTATION AND INFORMATION DISCLOSURE .................... 1
6.1    Approach to Public Consultation ...................................................................... 1
6.2    Public Consultation Process............................................................................. 1
6.3    Results of Public Consultation ..................................................................... 3

7.0    CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................... 4
7.1    Findings and Recommendations ...................................................................... 4
7.2    Summary and Conclusions............................................................................... 5




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Figures and Maps
Figure 1.1     Pakistan EIA Process
Figure 1.2     Letter from Pakistan Federal EPA on EIA Process
Figure 2.1     Jurisdiction of MEPCO.
Figure 2.2     Location of Shadan Lund on MEPCO grid
Figure 2.3     Sketch Plan of Shadan Lund DGS and DGL on survey sheet.

Appendixes
Appendix 1     Pakistan EIA Process
Appendix 2     Reviews of environmental implications for MEPCO Shadan Lund
Appendix 3     Photographs of the Shadan Lund S/S and Line
Appendix 4     Environmental Management Plan (matrix)
Appendix 5     Monitoring Plan (matrix)
Appendix 6     Bunds for transformers
Appendix 7     Summary of Public Consultation
ABBREVIATIONS
ADB                Asian Development Bank
COI                Corridor of Influence
DFO                Divisional Forest Officer
DGS                Distribution grid sub-station
DGL                Distribution line
EA                 Environmental Assessment
EARF               Environment Assessment Review Framework
EIA                Environnent Impact Assessment
EMP                Environmental Management Plan
GDP                Gross Domestic Product
GOP                Government of Pakistan
GIS                Gas Insulated Switchgear
EIA/IEE           Environmental        Impact    Assessment/Initial    Environmental
                   Examination
LARP               Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan
MEPCO              Multan Electric Power Company
LARP               Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan
Leq                equivalent sound pressure level
MPL                maximum permissible level
NEQS               National Environmental Quality Standards
NGO                Non Governmental Organization
PC                 public consultation
PEPA               Punjab Environmental Protection Agency
PEPAct             Pakistan Environment Protection Act 1997 (as amended)
PPMS               Sub-project Performance Monitoring System
REA                Rapid Environmental Assessment
SIA                Social Impact Assessment
SLSP               Shadan Lund 132 kv sub-station & distribution line sub-project
SR                 Sensitive Receiver
TOR                Terms of Reference
DGL                distribution line
Rupee, PKR         Unit of Pakistan currency. $US approx R62




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1.0    INTRODUCTION
1.1    Overview
This document is the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Shadan
      Lund sub-station and distribution line sub-project proposed by
      the Multan Electric Power Company (MEPCO). This EIA was
      prepared under TA4876 of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) for
      Tranche 1 of the Power Distribution and Enhancement Multi-
      tranche Finance Facility (PDEMFF). Under ADB guidelines the
      sub-station and distribution line are to be taken as one integral
      sub-project and the guidelines require environmental assessment
      of all components of sub-projects whether financed by ADB,
      governments or other co-financiers.
Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (GoP) has requested
     ADB to provide the PDEMFF to facilitate investments in power
     distribution and development of networks of eight independent
     distribution companies (DISCOs) that distribute power to end
     user consumers. The funding from ADB is expected to be
     released in stages (tranches). The Power Distribution
     Enhancement (PDE) Investment Program is part of the GoP long
     term energy security strategy. The proposed ADB intervention
     will finance new investments in PDE and assist capacity building
     of sector related agencies. The investment program will cover
     necessary      PDE     development     activities   in   secondary
     transmission/distribution networks of eight DISCOs. The PDEMFF
     activities include extension (additional transformers) and
     augmentation (replacement of transformers with higher capacity)
     distribution line extensions, new and replacement distribution
     lines, additional sub-stations, transformer protection and other
     non network activities such as automatic meter reading,
     construction equipment and computerized accounting. New
     distribution lines to and from various network facilities and some
     of the above activities will also be included in the later tranches.
     The proposed PDEMFF facility has been designed to address
     both investment and institutional aspects in the electrical power
     sector.
This EIA presents the results and conclusions of environmental
     assessment for the Shadan Lund sub-project proposed by
     MEPCO and is submitted by Pakistan Electric Power Company
     (PEPCO) on behalf of MEPCO. PEPCO has been nominated by
     Ministry of Water and Power (MOWP) to act as the Implementing
     Agency (IA) with each DISCO being the Executing Agency (EA)
     for work in its own area. PEPCO’s role in the processing and
     implementation of the investment program is that of a co-
     ordinator of such activities as preparation of PC-1s and PFRs,
     monitoring implementation activities; that includes submission of
     environmental assessments for all sub-projects in all tranches of
     the PDEMFF under ADB operating procedures. An EIA/IEE has
     been carried out to fulfill the requirements of ADB Guidelines



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         (May 20032021). This EIA study report has also been used to
         complete the Summary Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial
         Environmental Examination (SEIA/IEE) for disclosure by ADB if
         necessary22.
The environmental assessment requirements of the GoP for grid
     stations and power distribution sub-projects are different to
     those of ADB. Under GoP regulations, the Pakistan
     Environmental Protection Agency Review of Environmental
     Impact Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination and
     Environmental      Impact    Assessment      Regulations    (2000)
     categorizes development sub-projects into two schedules
     according to their potential environmental impact. The
     proponents of sub-projects that have reasonably foreseeable
     impacts are required to submit an EIA/IEE for their respective
     sub-projects (Schedule I). The proponents of sub-projects that
     have more adverse environmental impacts (Schedule II) are
     required to submit an environmental impact assessment (EIA).
     Distribution lines and sub-stations are included under energy
     sub-projects and EIA/IEE is required for sub-transmission /
     distribution lines of 11kv and less and large distribution sub-
     projects (Schedule I). EIA is required by GoP for all sub-projects
     involving sub-transmission / distribution lines of 11kv and above
     and for grid sub-stations (Schedule II).
Clarification has been sought from Pakistan EPA on the requirements
       for environmental assessment (Figure 1.1) for certain energy sub-
       projects and for sub-transmission / distribution lines. A
       Framework of Environmental Assessment (FEA) on power
       extensions and augmentation sub-projects was prepared by
       consultants and submitted to the Pakistan EPA, after hearings
       with provincial EPAs. In response to the FEA submitted by NTDC
       to the Pakistan EPA it has been clarified that all proponents must
       follow section 12 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act
       for all sub-projects. Pakistan EPA has also assumed that all
       proponents will consult with the relevant provincial EPAs (PEPA)
       and follow their advice. In 2006 Punjab EPA requested disclosure
       of the scope and extent of each sub-project in order that the
       Director General of PEPA can determine if additional land is
       required and the need for EIA/IEE or EIA (Figure 1.2). A review of
       the need for EIA/EIA/IEE for submission to GoP is therefore
       required for all subprojects by the relevant environmental
       protection agency, in this case the Punjab Environmental
       Protection Agency.
20
   Initial subproject classification was carried out in 2007 and the Category is B. Most of the construction
impacts will take place with only local impacts and there are no potential significant environmental impacts
associated with the T1 (tranche one) sub-subproject construction. Initial environmental reconnaissance and
REA carried out by consultants under ADB guidelines in August 2007 indicated that all the T1 sub-
subprojects will be Category B.
21
   Environmental Assessment Guidelines (ADB May 2003).
22
   Category A subprojects that are deemed by ADB's chief compliance officer to be environmentally sensitive
for the purposes of (i) the 120 day rule, and (ii) the environmental management plan requirement could
involve subprojects that are near or in environmentally sensitive areas. At this stage no component of the T1
sub-subprojects under consideration is actually within a critical area and therefore the MFF tranche as a
whole is Category B.

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1.2         Scope of the EIA/IEE Study and Personnel
The Study Area included the identification of irrigation facilities, water
     supply, habitable structures, schools, health facilities, hospitals,
     religious places and sites of heritage or archaeological
     importance and critical areas23 (if any) within about 100 m of the
     DGS boundary and proposed line. The works are generally
     envisaged to involve conversion of the existing substation with
     construction of the foundations and other works within the DGS
     as well as construction of the bases foundation pads and towers

23
     Critical areas as published by the PEPA on the website put in specific reference

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       to support the distribution line and stringing the line. The
       transformers will be supplied MEPCO under a separate sub-
       project by MEPCO and all works will supervised by the Shadan
       Lund management.




The field studies were undertaken by the environment team with
      experience of environmental assessment for power sub-projects
      in Pakistan. Mrs. Syeda Bushra Waheed, Wali Waheed and Syed
      Asif Riaz Shahid conducted preliminary scoping, survey and
      assessment activities, co-ordinated the field survey and analysis,
      and were also responsible to supervise collation of information
      and co-ordinate the various public consultation activities. The
      team conducted preliminary scoping, survey and assessment
      activities, and carried out the report writing. Dr David Green
      (International Environmental Consultant) provided leadership and
      guidance in planning the field work, and in finalization of the

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        report. The environmental team also benefited from technical
        support and other information on the impacts of the proposed
        power works provided in feasibility summaries prepared with
        MEPCO24 by expert consultants of BPI dealing with engineering,
        power      distribution, socio-economic,   resettlement   and
        institutional aspects.
A scoping and field reconnaissance was conducted on the sub-project
     site, during which a Rapid Environmental Assessment was
     carried out to establish the potential impacts and categorization
     of sub-project activities. The methodology of the EIA/IEE study
     was then elaborated in order to address all interests.
     Subsequently primary and secondary baseline environmental
     data was collected and the intensity and likely location of impacts
     were identified with relation the sensitive receivers; based on the
     subproject work expected to be carried out. The significance of
     impacts from construction and operation of the DGS and DGL
     were then assessed and, for those impacts requiring mitigation,
     measures were proposed to reduce impacts to within acceptable
     limits.
Public consultation (PC) was carried out in July 2007, in line with ADB
      guidelines2. Under ADB requirements the environmental
      assessment process must also include meaningful public
      consultation during the completion of the draft EIA/IEE. In This
      EIA the PC process included verbal disclosure of the sub-sub-
      project works as a vehicle for discussion. Consultations were
      conducted with local families and communities around Shadan
      Lund SP site, along DGL route and with staff of the sub-project
      management. The responses from correspondents have been
      included in Appendix 7 and summarized in Section 6 of This EIA.
1.3     Policy and Statutory Requirements in Pakistan
Direct legislation on environmental protection is contained in several
      statutes, namely the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act
      (1997) the Forest Act (1927) the Punjab Wildlife Act (1974). In
      addition the Land Acquisition Act (1894) also provides powers in
      respect of land acquisition for public purposes. There are also
      several other items of legislation and regulations which have an
      indirect bearing on the sub-project or general environmental
      measures.
        Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 is the basic legislative
     tool empowering the government to frame regulations for the
     protection of the environment. The act is applicable to a wide
     range of issues and extends to air, water, soil, marine, and noise
     pollution, as well as to the handling of hazardous wastes. The key
     features of the law that have a direct bearing on the proposed
     sub-project relate to the requirement for an Environmental Impact
24
  Feasibility Summary submitted to the Asian Development Bank by the Multan Electric Power Company,
Pakistan under Power Distribution Enhancement Subproject PPTA 4876-PAK. Sub-subproject Number
158, Shadan Lund Grid Station Conversion of 66kv to132 kv and connecting transmission line.

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        Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination (EIA/IEE) and
        environmental impact assessment (EIA) for development sub-
        projects. Section 12(1) requires that: “No proponent of a sub-
        project shall commence construction or operation unless he has
        filed with the Federal Agency an Environmental Impact
        Assessment/Initial Environmental Examination [EIA/IEE] or,
        where the sub-project is likely to cause an adverse environmental
        effect, an environmental impact assessment [EIA], and has
        obtained from the Federal Agency approval in respect thereof.”
        The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency has delegated the
        power of review and approval of environmental assessments to
        the provincial environmental protection agencies, in this case the
        Punjab EPA.
        Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of EIA/IEE and
        EIA Regulations, 2000
The Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997 (PEP Act) provides for
     two types of environmental assessments: Environmental Impact
     Assessment/Initial Environmental Examinations (EIA/IEE) and
     environment impact assessments (EIA). EIAs are carried out for
     sub-projects that have a potentially ‘significant’ environmental
     impact, whereas EIA/IEEs are conducted for relatively smaller
     sub-projects with a relatively less significant impact. The
     Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of EIA/IEE and
     EIA Regulations, 200025 (the ‘Regulations’), prepared by the Pak-
     EPA under the powers conferred upon it by the PEP Act,
     categorizes sub-projects for EIA/IEE and EIA. Schedules I and II,
     attached to the Regulations, list the sub-projects that require
     EIA/IEE and EIA, respectively.
Distribution lines and grid sub-stations of 11kv and above are included
       under energy sub-projects in Schedule II, under which rules EIA
       is required by GoP. Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial
       Environmental Examination (EIA/IEE) is required for distribution
       lines less than 11kv and large distribution sub-projects (Schedule
       I). A review of the need for EIA/EIA/IEE submission is therefore
       required by the relevant EPA, in this case the Punjab
       Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the proposed sub-
       project will be located in Punjab.
There are no formal provisions for the environmental assessment of
     expanding existing distribution lines and grid sub-stations but
     Punjab EPA have requested disclosure of the scope and extent of
     each sub-project in order that their Director General can
     determine if additional land is required and the need for statutory
     environmental assessment1. The details of this sub-project will
     be forwarded to the Punjab EPA (by August 2007), in order to
     commence the local statutory environmental assessment
     process.


25
   The Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency Review of Environmental Impact Assessment/Initial
Environmental Examination and Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations, 2000

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       National Environmental Quality Standards
The National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) were first
     promulgated in 1993 and have been amended in 1995 and 2000.
     The following standards that are specified in the NEQS may be
     relevant to the Tranche 1 sub-projects:
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (32 parameters) in
     municipal and liquid industrial effluents discharged to inland
     waters, sewage treatment facilities, and the sea (three separate
     sets of numbers)
Maximum allowable concentration of pollutants (2 parameters) in
     gaseous emissions from vehicle exhaust and noise emission
     from vehicles.
       Other Relevant Laws
There are a number of other federal and provincial laws that are
     important in the context of environmental management. The
     main laws potentially affecting sub-projects in this MFF are listed
     below.
The Punjab Wildlife Protection Ordinance, 1972 empowers the government
     to declare certain areas reserved for the protection of wildlife and
     control activities within in these areas. It also provides protection
     to endangered species of wildlife. As no activities are planned in
     these areas, no provision of this law is applicable to the
     proposed sub-project.
The Forestry Act, 1927 empowers the government to declare certain
     areas reserved forest. As no reserved forest exists in the vicinity
     of the proposed sub-project, this law will not affect to the
     proposed sub-project.
The Antiquities Act of 1975 ensures the protection of Pakistan’s cultural
     resources. The Act defines ‘antiquities’ as ancient products of
     human activity, historical sites, or sites of anthropological or
     cultural interest, national monuments, etc. The Act is designed
     to protect these antiquities from destruction, theft, negligence,
     unlawful excavation, trade, and export. The law prohibits new
     construction in the proximity of a protected antiquity and
     empowers the Government of Pakistan to prohibit excavation in
     any area that may contain articles of archaeological significance.
     Under the Act, the sub-project proponents are obligated to:
        •   Ensure that no activity is undertaken in the proximity of a
            protected antiquity; and
        •   Report to the Department of Archaeology, Government of
            Pakistan, any archaeological discovery made during the
            course of the sub-project.
No protected or unprotected antiquity was identified in the vicinity that
     would be affected by the sub-project.




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1.4    Structure of Report
This EIA reviews information on existing environmental attributes of the
      Study Area. Geological, hydrological and ecological features, air
      quality, noise, water quality, soils, social and economic aspects
      and cultural resources are included. The report predicts the
      probable impacts on the environment due to the proposed sub-
      project enhancement and expansion. This EIA also proposes
      various environmental management measures. Details of all
      background        environmental         quality,    environmental
      impact/pollutant generating activities, pollution sources,
      predicted environmental quality and related aspects have been
      provided in this report. References are presented as footnotes
      throughout the text. Following this introduction the report follows
      ADB              guidelines               and            includes:

       •       Description of the Sub-project
       •       Description of Environmental and Social Conditions
       •       Assessment of Environmental Impacts and Mitigation Measures
       •       Environmental Monitoring Plan
       •       Public Consultation
       •       Recommendations and Conclusions




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2.0    DESCRIPTION OF THE SUB-PROJECT
2.1    Type of Sub-project
This     Environmental     Impact   Assessment/Initial     Environmental
       Examination is for the conversion of the existing grid station at
       Shadan Lund, proposed by augmentation; replacing the existing
       66kV transformers with 2x26 MVA 132/11 kV power transformers
       and allied equipment. The proposed conversion works will be
       carried out within the boundaries of the existing sub-station. The
       added transformers will also require a distribution line to connect
       to the network. The sub-station improvements and the line form
       the sub-project for environmental assessment in line with ADB
       guidelines2.




The sub-project will comprise both improved DGS and DGL that will
     require the construction of a 3.5km DGL, comprising about 13
     towers, to join the grid with the proposed DGS. Therefore the
     distribution line component of the project (to the 11 kV
     distribution network) and the DGS improvements are an integral
     part of the sub-project for environmental assessment purposes
     and will be studied together in the present EIA/IEE in line with
     ADB Guidelines2. At this stage MEPCO has chosen to provide the
     transformers from separate funds but construction of the
     foundations and infrastructure 132kV line will be in the sub-
     project under Tranche of this MFF for ADB funding. There are no
     urban or other residential developments under the proposed DGL
     alignment to date (July 2007) and future developments should not
     be allowed directly under the DGL.
                       2.2        Categorization of the Sub-project
Categorization is based on the environmentally most sensitive
     component of a sub-project. The aspects of the sub-project with
     potential for significant environmental impacts need to be
     assessed in detail. This environmental assessment has therefore

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       focused on the significant impacts                 possible     from     the
       construction activities of the sub-project.
The SLSP DGS, as well as the DGL, are located in a rural setting, with
     only a few settlements and other infrastructure around the site.
     The Shadan Lund SP is categorized as a Category B sub-sub-
     project under ADB requirements1,3 and This EIA report is based
     on that assumption.
                            2.3   Need for the Sub-project
The standards and conditions of the power distribution system in
     Pakistan are inadequate to meet rapidly growing demand for
     electrical power. This situation limits national development and
     economic growth. To cope with the constraints, the existing
     power distribution infrastructure has to be improved and
     upgraded. The overall contribution of power infrastructure also
     requires institutional arrangements and capacity that support
     strategic management of the sector, and planning and
     management of investments. Overall the proposed PDEMFF
     facility has been designed to address both investment and
     institutional aspects in the electrical power sector.
Power demands in the Shadan Lund area of Multan jurisdiction have
     increased rapidly, especially in the summer months, but the
     existing 66kV sub-station is unable to cope up with those
     demands. Therefore, MEPCO has planned to convert this grid
     station by replacing the existing 66kV transformers with 132kV
     transformers without acquiring any additional land and within the
     existing boundaries of the 66kV Shadan Lund grid station.
2.4    Location and Scale of Sub-project
This   EIA has included field reconnaissance of the site and
       surroundings of the SLSP. The Shadan Lund DGS is located at
       52km north of DG Khan (Figure 2.2) on the main DI Khan – DG
       Khan Road (the A55 Indus Highway) with the entrance on the
       main DI Khan – DG Khan Road. Access to the SP site is therefore
       readily available. The existing environment around the DGS site
       is typical of a rural/suburban area of Punjab. The nearest
       settlement is the Shadan Lund town immediately adjacent to the
       north of the DGS. Figures 2.2 and 2.3 show the location of the
       DGS site. Access to the transmission line tower locations can
       generally be gained through the tracks leading across adjacent
       fields and is therefore also available (Appendix 3).




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The Shadan Lund sub-project will involve replacing the transformers
     with new ones of a higher capacity in the existing sub-station.
     Based on observation, the proposed route to the nearest 132kV
     line appears to be feasible and technically appropriate with
     manageable environmental impacts. The line will join the grid
     with the existing 132kV KAPCO to TAUNSA line, to the north. The
     existing 66 kV Kot Addu to Shadan Lund line will subsequently
     be disconnected and removed.




This EIA has been conducted based on the assumptions available in
      late July 2007 when the preliminary designs for the DGS were
      completed and the overall requirements for installation of the
      equipment had been identified (Figure 2.3). The detailed designs
      are currently being progressed by MEPCO. At this stage the
      methods to convert the DGS are presumed to follow the steps of
      installation of the new transformers, cabling and installation of
      accessories and equipment, and then energizing followed by

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       dismantling the existing transformers from their foundations.
       Impacts from the augmentation of Shadan Lund SP are therefore
       minor. Whereas some land needs to be acquired for the DGL
       towers, the works are routine and other works are mainly within
       the DGS.
Land will be acquired for a Right of Way (RoW) for the supporting
     towers that can accommodate the distribution line. The
     connecting line from SLSP to the network will involve erection of
     about 13 towers that will be strung with the new DGL. The
     detailed designs for the Tranche 1 (T1) sub-projects will be
     developed later.
2.5    Proposed Schedule for Implementation
Designs of the grid station equipment layout, review of environmental
     management and construction processes could take several
     months. When the detailed designs are completed, tendering and
     award of contract will take place over about three to six months.
     The construction period will follow for about eighteen months to
     two years. Completion will be by end 2009.




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3.0    DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT
3.1    Sub-project Area
       General Characteristics of Sub-project Area
The existing 66 kV grid station is located at Shadan Lund village on
     main DI Khan road, in the Dera Ghazi Khan district. The main
     highway is to the west, with shops on the other side of the road,
     and a typical residential colony is included within the western
     part of the grid site. A vacant yard is on the north side and there
     are wide tracks (7m) along the south and eastern sides. There are
     settlements on the other side of the streets to the south and east.
       Affected Administrative Units
The Shadan Lund SP and DGL will indirectly affect only a few bastis
     and villages of Tehsil and District DG Khan, Province of Punjab
     (Appendix 1). In addition to the main villages of Shadan Lund,
     there are a few hamlets [bastis] scattered along the DGL RoW.
     The nearest of these settlements include Taliwala, Bhatiwala,
     Sanjaderi, and Chutane. Interviews were also conducted with the
     public along the DGL corridor (Appendix 7) to obtain their views
     on the sub-project, and any perceived impacts.
3.2    Physical Resources
       Topography, Geography, Geology, and Soils
Dera Ghazi Khan district comprises the Suleman mountains area in the
      west and the Punjab plain in the east. Most of the hills are in the
      tribal area known as the De-Excluded area. The hills are higher in
      the north where they rise to peaks as high as 3,000m above the
      sea level. In addition to main range, there are two smaller
      mountain chains parallel to each other between the main range
      and the plain in the east. The height of these ranges gradually
      decreases southwards. The high peaks towards the centre of the
      district are Ekbhai (2,274m), Fort Munro (1,916 m) and Dragul
      (1640m). The mountains are formed of sandstone with occasional
      outcrops of limestone except some higher summits in the north
      of the district. These areas are generally barren.
The plain area of the district can be sub-divided into three natural
     tracts, namely, the piedmont, canal and river areas. The well
     irrigated canal-plain area forms the intermediate zone between
     the piedmont and the river area. The latter lies close to the Indus
     River where cultivation depends on the flooding rather than
     irrigation from canals.
                                  Climate and Hydrology
There is no variation of altitude above sea level in the land along the
      alignment and the short length of the distribution line means no
      variation of the climate of the sub-project area. The climate at DG
      Khan SP is typical of that of the southern Punjab.
The maximum temperature in summer reaches 42oC. In winter the
     minimum is 4.5oC. The mean maximum and minimum

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         temperatures in summer for this period are 40.6oC and 27.2oC
         respectively and in winter 22.3oC and 5.9oC respectively. The
         summer season starts from April and continues until October.
         May, June and July are the hottest months. The winter season
         starts from November and continues until March. December,
         January and February are the coldest months. At Fort Munro,
         which is a hill station, the day temperature rarely rises over 27oC.
The rainy season starts in July and ends in September. Annual rainfall
      is about 170mm. More rains occur in July and August than any
      other months. Most of the winter rains are received in the months
      of March and April.
         Groundwater and Water Supply
Irrigation is largely dependent on the canals, but tube wells have also
       been sunk in the areas where water is fit for irrigation. The
       chemical quality of ground water in the district varies in different
       areas and at different depths. According to KCP Feasibility Study
       carried out by WAPDA 200326, Potable water is available in a belt
       along Shuria Canal. Irrigation supplies are perennial and tube
       wells have been installed to make up the deficiencies. The strata
       near the DGS and DGL are water bearing and alluvial deposits,
       giving groundwater potential throughout the sub-project area and
       the water table is about seven to eight metres below the surface.
       The water table is not seasonal and dug wells do not generally
       run dry. Groundwater sources exist in the area and there are tube
       wells within 500 m of the proposed DGL towers. The local
       population near most of the DGS & DGL is generally reliant on
       supply from tube wells. Piped water supply is available in 23,569
       housing units of D.G.Khan. There should be no impact on these
       sources of water during the construction.
         Surface Water
Rivers: The river Indus runs to the east and flows increase significantly
      in May when melting snow from the Himalayas gradually fills its
      bed to a breadth of 14km. It continues to gain height until the end
      of August after which it begins to subside, reaching its lowest
      cold weather level at the end of September. Large nullahs rise
      from the west to east, through narrow and deep gorges. The most
      northerly, the Vihowa, emerges in the Dera Ismail Khan district,
      but its flood water reaches the villages in the north of Sangarh.
      The Sangarh emerges near the village of Mangrotha at the centre
      of the western boundary of Taunsa Tehsil.
Irrigation: The eastern and south-eastern belt of the district along the
        Indus is irrigated by canals. The Dera Ghazi Khan Canal which
        takes off from Taunsa Barrage is the major source of irrigation. It
        irrigates Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil. Manka Canal and Shuria Canal
        also irrigate Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil. Kachhi canal is under

26
   KCP – Kachhi Canal Project - water quality from a hand pump at Mouza Chohata Pajahda indicates
ph7.75, SAR0.46, Cations 7.5mg/l, Anions 7.4mg/l, Ca++ 1.9 mg/l, Mg++ 3.0mg/l, Na++ 2.28mg/l, K++ mg/l 0.32,
CO3++ mg/l 0.00, HCO3 4.70mg/l, Cl 0.50mg/l, SO4 2.2mg/l, electric conductivity 717mmohs/cm at 25oC D.S.
by evaporation 444ppm.

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       construction which also offtake from Taunsa barrage. It will
       irrigate about 713,000 acres of land in Balochistan. Total length of
       this canal is 500km, out which 300km will pass through Punjab,
       and 200km in Balochistan.
Apart from occasional springs here and there, the hill torrents supply
      water for the cultivation and irrigation of tiny patches in the
      rugged hills where water is accumulated in field tanks and
      reservoirs. Irrigation on a limited scale is also done by tube-wells
      and Jhalars.
The nearest irrigation channel is the DG Khan Canal which runs north
     south about 1km away to the west on the other side of the Indus
     Highway. The protection of surface water sources should not be
     an issue during construction or operation.
       Air Quality
Air quality in the sub-project area appears good based on observation
      during the study period. Domestic sources of air pollution, such
      as emissions from wood and kerosene burning stoves as well as
      small diesel standby generators in some households, are well
      dissipated. There are no other industrial pollution sources
      present in the vicinity.
The other major source of air pollution is dust arising from construction
      and other ground or soil disturbance. Near the access roads,
      when vehicles pass, dust levels will increase. The nearby road is
      paved but dust levels are elevated when vehicles pass
      intermittently over the roads based on field observations and
      may be high enough to obscure vision significantly based on
      observations in May 2007.
       Noise
Noise from vehicles and other powered mechanical equipment is
     intermittent. There are also the occasional calls to prayer from
     the PA systems at the local mosques but there are no significant
     disturbances to the quiet rural setting. However the construction
     from the proposed power expansion will use powered mechanical
     equipment. Subjective observations were made of background
     noise and also of individual vehicle pass by events. Based on
     professional experience background daytime noise levels are
     probably well below 55dB(A)L90.
                              3.3   Ecological Resources
                            Wildlife, Fisheries and Aquatic Biology
There are no areas of wildlife significance near the sub-project area. Pig
      and hog deer are found in woodland near the river and hares are
      fairly common. Black and gray partridges are also found.
      Migratory birds use the Indus valley and in cold weather many
      varieties of duck and teal visit the district. The Indus contains a
      variety of fish. In the winter months when the river recedes, fish
      are caught in greater quantity.


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There are no reservoirs or other water bodies near the sub-project area.
      However, Indus River and Taunsa barrage are the main water
      bodies and ponding areas. These water bodies form a habitat for
      a large number of fish species. The major commercial fish
      species according to Department of Fisheries, D.G. Khan include
      Catla catla (Theila), Channa marulius (Saul), Cirrhinus mrigala
      (Mori) and Cyprinus carpio (Gulfam).
       Terrestrial Habitats, Forests and Protected Species
The sub-project area, which is not dry, is dominated by rural suburbs
     and with various productive fields of monocultures that now
     dominate the agro-ecosystems present in the sub-project area.
     Common floral species with rooted vegetation are also present
     near most of the water bodies of the area.
However there is very little vegetation in the RoW for the line (Appendix
     3). Just either side of the distribution line alignment semi-natural
     vegetation consists of the trees and scrub areas that have not
     been cultivated.I Amongst the trees, Jand (Prosopis spicigera)
     Frash (Tamarix articutlata), Shisham (Dalbergia sisso), Sirin
     (Albizia lebbek) and Kikar (Accacia arabica) are most common.
There is wild growth of mesquite bushes, and some Sirin and Kikar
     trees in the areas near the works, but natural forest cover in the
     district has been significantly reduced in the past due to
     clearance for cultivation.
There is a protected forest near Taunsa, about 20km north and that is
      the nearest and largest in the Dera Ghazi Khan district. There are
      also planted trees along canals and roads. The major trees grown
      in the forest are Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo), Kikar (Acacia
      arbica) and Eucalyptus. There are many trees along the RoW but
      these are on private land. In general permission should be sought
      from the local tree owners for the felling of any trees. An Land
      Acquisition and Resettlement plan (LARP) for the SLSP will make
      provision for compensation of local people for the loss of trees, if
      needed after detailed study. The works must deal with trees that
      need to be lopped or removed for safety reasons with the
      necessary permissions.
       Protected Areas/National Sanctuaries
In Pakistan there are several areas of land devoted to the preservation
      of biodiversity through the dedication of national parks and
      wildlife sanctuaries. Two wetlands and a reservoir namely the
      Indus river and Taunsa Barrage exist at 30 km from the sub-
      project site. These water bodies provide excellent feeding,
      breeding and resting habitats to numerous migratory as well as
      resident birds. The water reservoir is located on one of the major
      bird migration routes of the world over the river Indus. Taunsa
      reservoir is also a sanctuary (Ramsar site). Both areas are too far
      to be affected by the sub-project. There are no other protected
      areas near the distribution line alignment.


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3.4    Economic Development
       Agriculture and Industries
Cropping Pattern: The main crops in the sub-project area during winter
      are wheat, gram, barley, oil seeds, Taramira, Sarson and Toria. In
      summer sugarcane, cotton, Jawar, Bajra and rice are grown.
Horticulture: The main fruits grown in the area are date, orange and
       mango. In De-Excluded area at Khar near Fort Munro there is a
       garden of fruits where mulberry, vine, fresh olive, almond, peach,
       plum and apricot are grown.
Industry: There are nine (9) major Industrial units of cotton ginning and
       pressing, cotton textiles, a cement factory and vegetable oil
       factory. Dera Ghazi Khan is well known for lacquered articles
       such as wooden/electric lamps, mirror frames, pottery, furniture
       and several other articles of decoration. There are cotton seed oil
       factories at 3 km from the DGS. The closest Police station is at
       Kala Thana 12 km from the DGS. Other resources include
       petroleum, natural gas, uranium, gypsum and limestone.
       Transportation and Tourism
Dera Ghazi Khan is linked with the rest of the country by rail and roads.
      It lies on the National Indus Highway, which connects Karachi
      with rest of the country. The district headquarters Dera Ghazi
      Khan is connected with metalled roads to all its subsidiary
      headquarters. The eastern and south-eastern belt of the district is
      comparatively developed with good road transportation. All major
      villages are connected with the district headquarters through
      metalled roads. A metalled road also connects this district with
      Musa Khel, Barkhan, Loralai, and many other districts of
      Baluchistan province to the west.
The district is also served by railway line which runs north-south near
      the main road of this district from Taunsa Barrage to Rajanpur
      district across which it leads to Jaccobabad district of Sindh
      Province.
D G Khan is not connected with rest of the country by air. The nearest
     airport is at Multan. PIA operates regular flights from Multan to
     other parts of the country.
There are many places of interest which attract tourists. Fort Munro is
      one attraction that is situated at a height of 1890m above sea
      level), with gardens, orchards, bungalows and government
      offices to view. During summer season the climate of Fort Munro
      remains cool. It is used as summer resort during hot weather,
      Dam, lake and Trimmu waterfalls situated near Fort Munro are
      good picnic spots. Shrines of Sakhi Sarwar, Zinda Pir, Derah Din
      Panah, Pir Adil, Muhammad Suleman at Taunsa are religious
      places to visit.




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3.5    Energy Sources
The distribution lines for electrical power run to a main grid sub-station
      D.G.Khan. The existing 220kV D.G.Khan Grid Station owned by
      MEPCO, transmits power to the load centres.
Reserves of fossil fuels the main sources of energy in Pakistan. In the
     study area there is no source of hydropower and other energy
     sources are progressively more common further away from the
     major towns. The biomass sourcing is concentrated on home
     garden production of fuel wood, the extraction of wood from
     forests, woodland, crop plantations and agricultural residues.
     The other significant energy sources in the area are kerosene and
     LPG. There are numerous petrol stations and LPG dealers in the
     district.
3.5    Social and Cultural Resources
       Population Communities and Employment
The total population of Dera Ghazi Khan District was 1,643,118 and in
      the 1998 Census the population showed the district is
      predominantly (99%) Muslim. The next higher percentage is of
      Ahmadis with 0.2%, followed by scheduled castes 0.1%. Other
      minorities like Christians, Hindu (jati) etc are small in number.
      The proportion of population of Muslims in rural and urban areas
      is over 99%. Ahmadis in urban areas are 0.43 per cent and rural
      areas 0.16 per cent. Christians are more in urban areas as
      compared to their proportion in rural areas. Siraiki is the
      predominant language being spoken in the district, representing
      80% of the population, followed by Baluchi spoken by 14%, Urdu
      3% and Punjabi 1%. Others speak Sindhi, Pashto, Baravi and
      Dari.
Of the total economically active population 75.2 per cent were
     registered as employed in 1998. Nearly three-quarters (72.6%)
     were self employed, 10% were private employees and 6%
     government employees. Unpaid family helpers were recorded as
     10%. The difference in proportions of employed population was
     significant between the genders in both urban and rural
     residences.
The main occupation of women in rural areas including the sub-project
     area of D.G.Khan district is house-keeping which includes
     attending to the cattle, extracting butter and Ghee from milk,
     weaving and sewing of family clothes. In addition women
     generally help the men on farms with the lighter duties like
     transplanting of seedlings, threshing and winnowing of grains
     and sometimes they also help in harvesting. In the cities women
     are housewives or work as professional’s doctors, nurses,
     teaching.
       Education and Literacy
The literacy ratio in Dera Ghazi Khan district increased from 16% in
      1981 to 31% in 1998. The literacy ratio for males is 42% and 18%

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       for females. Literacy is much higher in urban areas compared
       with rural areas for male and female.
There is one primary school for boys, and one for girls in each of the
      basties Sanjedari, Bhatiwala, and Shadan Lund. Taliwala has only
      one primary school for both boys and girls. There are high
      schools for boys and girls at about 3km from the DGS.
      Educational institutions and their enrolment 1997-98 are given in
      Table 3.1.
Table 3.1: Educational Institutions by Level of Education, 1997-98
         Institution                       Number                       Enrolment
         SCHOOLS
         Primary                           1405                         85000
         Middle                            142                          26000
         High                              99                           42000
         Higher Secondary                  8                            5347
         (I-XII Classes)
         COLLEGES
         Degrees                           4                            5790
         Intermediate                      1                            268
         TECHNICAL / PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTES
         Technology/ Polytechnic Institute 2                            915
         Commercial Training Institute     12                           1493
         Vocational Institute              12                           569
               Source: Punjab Development Statistics, Bureau of Statistics Punjab, 1995-96.

       Health Facilities
In Dera Ghazi Khan district there are 6 hospitals with 305 beds, 35
      dispensaries with 14 beds, 9 Rural Health Centres with 180 beds,
      52 Basic Health Units with 8 beds along with one T.B. Clinic, 34
      Sub-Health Centres and 6 Mother Care Health Centres are
      functioning day and night for providing the medical facility to the
      people of the district. There is a Basic Health Unit at Shadan
      Lund, and the Bakhtawar Trust Hospital at 4km from the DGS.
       Cultural Heritage and Community Structure
There are no officially protected heritage sites or historic, religious or
      archeologically important sites located in the sub-project works
      areas. There are no major historic or archaeological features of
      note but there a few places of worship within about 500 m of the
      works.
The inhabitants of the district are predominantly Balochi belonging to
      various tribal groups. Nutkani, Buzdar and Qaisrani tribes are in
      overwhelming majority in Taunsa Tehsil whereas Sori Lund,
      Khosa, and Leghari tribes dominate in Dera Ghazi Khan Tehsil.
      Besides people belonging to smaller sub-tribes such as Pitafi and
      Jaskan are settled in all the district. Khitran, Pathans dominate in
      the villages situated in the north-west of Taunsa Tehsil, which
      formerly formed a part of Dera Ismail Khan District. Apart from
      this the people of other tribes i.e. Sayed, Pathan, Mughal, Jat,
      Arain, Awan, Rajput, etc. all commonly called jats, are scattered
      all over the district but they are found mostly in area along the
      Indus.


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4.0    SCREENING POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS &
       MITIGATION MEASURES
4.1    Sub-project Location
This Tranche 1 sub-projects will involve expansion of facilities both
      outside and within an existing sub-station (DGS) and therefore
      although sensitive receivers (SR) are currently set well back from
      the existing power equipment there are other SRs outside the
      DGS boundaries that may be affected by new works. In this case
      there are some sensitive receivers (SR) within 10metres of the
      DGS boundary walls and fairly near the distribution line
      alignment in the form of residential buildings and some schools
      and shops in the surrounding villages. In this section the
      potential environmental impacts are reviewed. Where impacts are
      significant enough to exceed accepted environmental standards,
      mitigation is proposed in order to reduce residual impact to
      acceptable levels.
The location and scale of the works are very important in predicting
      environmental impacts. Therefore, it is essential that a proper
      analysis is carried out during the sub-project planning period.
      This process of impact prediction is the core of the EIA/IEE
      process and it is critical that the recommendations and mitigation
      measures are carried out according to, and with reference to the
      conditions on the ground in the affected areas in the spirit of the
      environmental assessments process (Figures 2.1 and 2.2 show
      the location of the proposed DGS).
The impact prediction plays a vital role as these predictions are used
      for developing mitigation measures and any alternative options, if
      appropriate. When the detailed designs are completed the
      impacts and mitigation measures will need to be further reviewed
      to take account of how the contracts are set up and in the light of
      any fine tuning of the sub-project proposals.
The environmental management plan (Section 5, and EMP matrix
     Appendix 4) has been reviewed based on the assessment and
     shall be reviewed in due course at sub-project inception and
     through construction in order to provide a feed back on any
     significant unpredicted impacts. It is based on the analysis of
     impacts, primarily to document key environmental issues likely to
     arise from sub-project implementation, to prescribe mitigation
     measures to be integrated in the sub-project design, to design
     monitoring and evaluation schedules to be implemented during
     sub-project construction and operation, and to estimate costs
     required for implementing sub-project mitigation measures. The
     EMP must be reviewed in the sub-project inception by the sub-
     project management and approved before any construction
     activity is initiated, to take account of any subsequent changes
     and fine tuning of the proposals.




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4.2    General Approach to Mitigation
Based on professional experience on some projects, contractors have
     put emphasis on the financial compensation for nuisances. This
     may be acceptable for some social impacts where evacuation is
     necessary or where houses have been accidentally damaged,
     however it is not best international practice to accept payment for
     environmental impacts. An approach whereby the sub-project
     contractor pays money for nuisances rather than control impacts
     at source will not be acceptable. This practice should not be
     allowed and financial compensation shall not be allowed as
     mitigation for environmental impacts or environmental nuisance.
During the preparation for the sub-project construction phase the
      future contractors must be notified and prepared to co-operate
      with the executing and implementing agencies, sub-project
      management, construction supervising consultants and local
      population in the mitigation of impacts. Furthermore the
      contractor must be primed through bidding stages and the
      contract documentation to implement the EMP in full and be
      ready to engage or train staff in the management of
      environmental issues and to audit the effectiveness and review
      mitigation measures as the sub-project proceeds. The effective
      implementation of the EMP will be audited as part of the loan
      conditions and the executing agency (MEPCO) must be prepared
      for this. In this regard the MEPCO must fulfill the requirements of
      the law and guidance prepared by Pak EPA on the environmental
      aspects of power sub-projects and the recommendations already
      made for sub-project in This EIA and under Pakistan’s PEP Act.
The location of the residences, mosques, schools, hospitals and civic,
      cultural and other heritage sites has been reviewed in Section 3.
      No residences or schools are close enough to the sub-project on
      which there could be potential impacts in the construction stage
      from disturbance and significant noise and dust. This is because
      the DGL alignment has been selected to avoid human settlements
      and structures, and has included a number of angle towers to
      achieve the bends, and to provide the appropriate direction of
      entry into the grid.
However, work on the tower sites could cause some generation of air
     borne dust. Water is available in the study area although surplus
     water may not always be available to suppress dust at vulnerable
     locations in the dry season. Therefore as a general approach it is
     recommended that where works are within 15 m of any sensitive
     receivers, the contractor should install segregation between the
     works and the edge and the sensitive receivers. The segregation
     should be easily erectable 2.5m high tarpaulin sheet and
     designed to retain dust and provide a temporary visual barrier to
     the works. Where dust is the major consideration the barrier can
     take the form of tarpaulins strung between two poles mounted on
     a concrete base. These can be moved along from tower base to
     tower base the power as the work proceeds, if sensitive receives
     are nearby.
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Where noise is a major consideration (say outside schools or hospitals)
     construction should be avoided at sensitive times. As a fall back
     option to control noise, the mass of the barriers can be increased
     using block-board or corrugated metal sheet to supplement the
     tarpaulins. In addition to the physical effect of mitigating dust
     and noise the installation of such measures should be discussed
     with the local population and serve as a vehicle for further public
     consultation at the implementation stage to assist in public
     relations.
The location of mosques and other cultural and other heritage SR sites
      has been reviewed in Section 3. There is a religious school and
      mosque almost adjacent to the grid boundary wall on the south
      east corner. But the new line will not affect or disturb this school
      as it will run from the east wall of the DGS to the north (Appendix
      2). There are no other mosques or religious sites near the sub-
      project.
The nearest clinic/hospital is more than 100 m from the edge of the
     Sub-project or DGL route. The nearest school (towards the east)
     is also more than 100 m from the Sub-project. There will,
     therefore, be sufficient buffer distance between the works and the
     SRs, so that no significant impacts should be expected. Public
     consultation should be undertaken at the implementation stage
     to ensure nuisances are not allowed to escalate.
4.3    Potential Environmental Impacts in Construction
       Encroachment, Landscape and Physical Disfiguration
The extent of the proposed power expansion is moderate and should
     not extend beyond the power corridor (RoW) created by the sub-
     project. No significant landscape impacts are expected from
     construction of the SLSP. The existing 66kV towers will be
     replaced by the 132kV towers.
       Cut and Fill and Waste Disposal
Surplus materials should not arise in large amounts. However disposal
      of surplus materials must be negotiated through local authority
      approvals prior to the commencement of construction. The Sub-
      project work should not involve any significant cutting and filling
      but minor excavations (down to 4m) and piling may be required
      to create the foundations for the some towers and for new
      transformers (if required). It is envisaged (depending on the
      mode of contract) that the surface under the towers will need to
      be scrabbled to remove unstable materials, and the topsoil
      should be stockpiled for reuse.
If surplus materials arise from the removal of the existing surfaces from
       specific areas, these should be used elsewhere on the sub-
       project before additional soil, rock, gravel or sand is brought in.
       The use of immediately available material will generally minimize
       the need for additional rock based materials extraction from
       outside.


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The sub-project designers have so far estimated that no substantial
     additional materials will be required other than concrete for piles
     and supporting foundations, subject to confirmation at the
     detailed design stage.
Contractual clauses should be included to require each contractor to
      produce a materials management plan (one month before
      construction commences) to identify all sources of cement and
      aggregates and to balance cut and fill. The plan should clearly
      state the methods to be employed prior to and during the
      extraction of materials and all the mitigation measures to be
      employed to mitigate nuisances to local residents and provide an
      overall balance for materials and minimize impacts on local
      resources.
       Trees, Ecology and Protected Areas
At this stage no areas require removal of woodland. However if the
      alignment has to be changed and specimen trees or religious
      plantations are affected the owners should be given the
      resources and opportunity to reinstate the woodland long term
      and a plantation compensation plan should be drawn up to
      replant the woodland/trees. In the event that the land is not
      suitable for plantation then other areas should be identified to
      replace the cut trees and sufficient areas should be identified to
      allow plantation of trees at a rate of say 3:1. The replacement
      ratio should allow for a high mortality rate among the newly
      planted trees in the dry environment or otherwise as based on
      advice from the forest authority.
There are no trees in the DGS site. Along the proposed line the first 3
      towers will be installed in uncultivated land covered with
      mesquite bushes. From towers 5 to 13, the land is cultivated
      (mainly for cotton crops), with occasional acacia trees. Overall,
      about 37 trees may need to be removed along the DGL, which
      include 3 dwarf palm trees, and the remaining mainly acacia. If for
      some unforeseen reason or change of alignment Reserved or
      trees with religious significance or other trees also need to be
      removed, written permission should be obtained from the forest
      authority and the owner after written justification by MEPCO.
A requirement shall be inserted in the contracts that no trees are to be
      cut under the SLSP site or outside. In special circumstances and
      on safety/technical/engineering grounds tree cutting may be
      permitted by the forest authority and the owner after written
      justification by MEPCO to the satisfaction of the construction
      supervising consultant, who may agree to the removal of trees, if
      unavoidable.
       Hydrology, Sedimentation, Soil Erosion
The drainage streams en-route of the sub-project should not be
     impeded by the works. The scale of the works does not warrant
     hydrological monitoring.


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       Air Pollution from Earthworks and Transport
Field observations indicate that ambient air quality is generally
      acceptable and that emissions from traffic and other powered
      mechanical equipment in the area are rapidly dispersed. There
      will be a few items of powered mechanical equipment to be used
      in the construction of the distribution line works that may give
      rise gaseous emissions. However these should be well
      dissipated. The major sources of complaint will likely be any
      necessary earthworks and local soil compaction.
Earthworks will contribute to increasing dust, and the foundation
      earthworks for the transformers and the line towers will generate
      dust and the following mitigation measures are needed:
Dust suppression facilities (water sprayers/hosepipe) shall be available
      where earth and cement works are required.
Areas of construction (especially where the works are within 50m of the
      SRs) shall be maintained damp by watering the construction
      area.
Construction materials (sand, gravel, and rocks) and spoil materials will
     be transported trucks covered with tarpaulins.
Storage piles will be at least 30 m downwind of the nearest human
      settlements.
All vehicles (e.g. trucks, equipment, and other vehicles that support
      construction works) shall be well maintained and not emit dark,
      smoky or other emissions in excess of the limits described in the
      NEQS.
The need for large stockpiles should be minimized by careful planning
     of the supply of materials from controlled sources. Stockpiles
     should not be located within 50m of schools, hospitals or other
     public amenities and should be covered with tarpaulins when not
     in use and at the end of the working day to enclose dust. Public
     amenities such as wells and pumps and should be covered with
     tarpaulins when not in use and at the end of the working day to
     keep out dust.
       Noise, Vibration and Blasting
It is anticipated that powered mechanical equipment and some local
       labour with hand tool methods will be used to construct the sub-
       project works. No blasting is anticipated. Powered mechanical
       equipment can generate significant noise and vibration. The
       cumulative effects from several machines can be significant. To
       minimize such impacts, the contractor for sub-project should be
       requested by the construction supervision consultants (engineer)
       to provide evidence and certification that all equipment to be
       used for construction is fitted with the necessary air pollution
       and noise dampening devices to meet MEPCO requirements and
       NEQS.
A criterion of 70dB(A)Leq (exterior, boundary of DGS) has been used
      for assessment in previous EIA/IEE studies. Any noisy equipment
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        should be located within DGS as far from SRs as possible to
        prevent nuisances to dwellings and other structures during
        operation.
Noise     from construction of the power distribution lines and
        improvements to sub-stations is not covered under any
        regulations however in order to keep in line with best
        international practice it is recommended that no construction
        should be allowed during night-time (9 pm to 6 am) and
        70dB(A)Leq should be the criterion at other times during the day
        measured at the boundaries of land from which construction
        noise is emitted. A criterion of 70dB(A)Leq (exterior, boundary of
        DGS) has been used for assessment in previous EIA/IEE studies.
Vibration from construction of pile and support pads for tower
      construction may be a significant impact but this should be of
      short duration. Where vibration could become a major
      consideration (within say 100m of schools, religious premises,
      hospitals or residences) a building condition survey should take
      place prior to construction. The physical effect of piling should
      be assessed prior to construction and measures should be
      discussed with the local population as well as timing of the works
      to serve as a vehicle for further public consultation at the
      implementation stage and to assist in public relations. At nearby
      schools, the contractor shall discuss with the school principals
      the agreed time for operating these machines and completely
      avoid machine use near schools during examination times, if
      such a need arises.
        Sanitation, Solid Waste Disposal, Communicable Diseases
The main issues of concern are uncontrolled or unmanaged disposal of
     solid and liquid wastes into watercourses and natural drains,
     improper disposal of storm water and black water and open
     defecation by construction workers.
In order to maintain proper sanitation around construction sites, access
      to the nearby DGS lavatories should be allowed or provision of
      temporary toilets should be made. Construction worker camps
      will not be necessary based on the scale of the works needed. If
      for some unforeseen reason a larger workforce is needed any
      construction camp should not be located in settlement areas or
      near sensitive water resources.
Wherever water is allowed to accumulate, in temporary drainage
     facilities, due to improper storm water management, or improper
     disposal of wastewater generated from the site, it can offer a
     breeding site for mosquitoes and other insects. Vectors such as
     mosquitoes may be encountered if open water is allowed to
     accumulate at the SLSP site. Temporary and permanent drainage
     facilities should therefore be designed to facilitate the rapid
     removal of surface water from all areas and prevent the
     accumulation of surface water ponds.



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4.4 Potential Environmental Impacts in Operation
                  Air Pollution and Noise from the Enhanced Operations
The sub-project works will extend the power distribution lines but no
     houses, mosques or schools will be close to the facilities in the
     operational phase. Nevertheless certain offices and residences
     (such as nearby villages) could be close to the DGS. Therefore it
     is recommended that an acoustical check be made on the
     detailed design to determine of any noise barriers are required.
     Noise impacts from the operation of the grid equipment should
     be reviewed at the detailed design stage. There are/not national
     noise standards in Pakistan for power distribution noise
     emissions that would apply in the operational stages. A criterion
     of 70dB(A)Leq (exterior, boundary of DGS) has been used for
     assessment in previous EIA/IEE studies. It is recommended that a
     check be made on the likely acoustical performance of the
     installed equipment at the detained design stage.
There should be no source of atmospheric pollution from the sub-
     project. In the operational phase any nearby industrial facilities
     with fuel powered mechanical equipment will be the main
     polluters. All such emissions will be very well dissipated in the
     open terrain and there will be no cumulative effect from the sub-
     project.
Best international practice and ADB guidelines will also require that all
      new switchgear or other gas insulated equipment will not contain
      CFCs or other ozone depleting halons. Industry standard SF6
      switchgear is however likely to be the preferred type of gas
      insulated switchgear and selected SF6 equipment should have a
      nominal leakage and replacement rate of less than1% per year.
       Pollution from Oily Run-off
No significant impacts from oily residues such as transformer oil and
      lubricants are expected to arise in this sub-project. However
      control measures will be needed for oily residues such as
      transformer oil and lubricants in the case of accidental or
      unexpected release. Transformer oil is supplied in drums from an
      imported source and tap tanks are topped up as necessary on
      site. There are facilities in some sub-project DGS maintenance
      yards for recycling (dehydrating) oil from breakers. However the
      areas upon which these recycling facilities are located have no
      dedicated drainage which can capture run-off. Oily residues and
      fuel and any contaminated soil residues should be captured at
      source and refueling and maintenance should take place in
      dedicated areas away from surface water resources.
      Contaminated residues and waste oily residues should be
      disposed at a site agreed with the local authority.
The current grid substation layouts do not include any dedicated
     drainage or secondary containment to control residual oil spills.
     In order to comply with best international practice to prevent
     contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water all the new

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       substations will be designed to include dedicated surface
       drainage and secondary containment to control residual oil spills
       from installation, maintenance or decommissioning. The
       secondary containment (bunding) will seal the surface with
       concrete and be of sufficient capacity to hold 110% of the
       contents of the bunded equipment in the even of a catastrophic
       failure with loss of all transformer oil (Appendix 6). This is not
       necessarily an unlikely event in Pakistan where some power
       distribution facilities have been the target of bomb attacks in
       2007. The EMP includes and recommends that an integrated
       approach be introduced to waste management for materials such
       as surface soils that have become contaminated with residual
       oils from maintenance activities.
4.5    Enhancement
Environmental enhancements are not a major consideration within the
      Tranche 1 sub-project sites. However it is noted that it is common
      practice at many such sites to create some local hard and soft
      landscaping and successful planting of fruit trees and shrubs has
      been accomplished in many sites. This practice should be
      encouraged as far as practicable. Other opportunities for
      enhancements can be assessed prior to construction and
      proposed enhancements should be discussed with the local
      population to serve as a vehicle for further public consultation at
      the implementation stage and to assist in public relations.




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  5.0     INSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS & ENVIRONMENTAL
                     MANAGEMENT PLAN
In this section, the mitigation measures that are required for the SLSP
       Tranche 1 sub-project, to reduce residual impact to acceptable
       levels and achieve the expected outcomes of the project, are
       discussed. The Environmental Management Plan is based on the
       type, extent and duration of the identified environmental impacts
       for the SLSP Tranche 1 sub-project. The EMP has been prepared
       following best practice and by reference to the ADB
       Environmental Assessment Guidelines 2003.
It is important that the recommendations and mitigation measures are
        carried out according to the spirit of the environmental
        assessment process and in line with the guidelines. The EMP
        matrix is presented as Appendix 4. The impact prediction
        (Section 4) has played a vital role in reconfirming typical
        mitigation measures and in identifying any different approaches
        based on the feasibility and detailed design assumptions and any
        alternatives available at this stage.
Prior to implementation and construction of the sub-projects the EMP
       shall be amended and reviewed by the MEPCO in due course
       after detailed designs are complete. Such a review shall be based
       on reconfirmation and additional information on the assumptions
       made at this feasibility stage on positioning, alignment, location
       scale and expected operating conditions of the sub-projects. For
       example, in this case if there are any additional transmission
       lines or extension of the sub-station boundaries to be included,
       the designs may be amended and then the performance and
       evaluation schedules to be implemented during project
       construction and operation can be updated, and costs estimates
       can be revised. The EIA/IEE and EMP should than be revised on a
       sub-project by sub-project basis.
The EIA/IEE and EMP plan must be reviewed by the project
    management and approved by the PEPA before any construction
    activity is initiated. This is also an ADB requirement in order to
    take account of any subsequent changes and fine tuning of the
    proposals. It is recommended that, before the works contract is
    worked out in detail and before pre-qualification of contractors, a
    full extent of the environmental requirements of the project
    (EIA/IEE/EIA and EMP) are included in the bidding documents.
    Professional experience indicates that past environmental
    performance of contractors and their awareness of
    environmentally responsible procurement is likely to be limited,
    therefore, the environmental awareness of contractors should be
    improved through the bidding process and also be used as
    indicator criteria for the prequalification of contractors.
In order to facilitate the implementation of the EMP, during the
      preparation for the construction phase the MEPCO must prepare
      the future contractors to co-operate with all stakeholders in the

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       mitigation of impacts. Furthermore the contractor must be primed
       through the contract documentation and ready to implement all
       the mitigation measures. The MEPCO has already engaged
       trained one environmental manager and this manager should
       audit the effectiveness and review mitigation measures on a
       regular basis as the sub-projects are rolled out. The effective
       implementation of the EMP will be audited as part of the mid term
       review of loan conditions and the executing agency must prepare
       for this at the inception stage.
The details of EMP given in the Appendix 4 are for the Tranche 1 sub-
     project. The EMP matrix will have much in common for many
     other sub-station and line projects that a similar scale of works
     and types of location but will be different for more complicated
     sub-station and line projects that involve impacts to land outside
     the existing sub-stations and for lines traversing more sensitive
     land. In all cases separate dedicated EIA/IEEs must be prepared.
The impacts have been classified into those relevant to the
     design/preparation stage, construction stage and operation and
     maintenance stage. The matrix provides details of the mitigation
     measures recommended for each of the identified impacts, time
     span of the implementation of mitigation measures, an analysis
     of the associated costs and the responsibility of the institution.
     The institutional responsibility has been specified for the
     purpose of the implementation and the supervision. The matrix is
     supplemented with a monitoring plan for the performance
     indicators. An estimation of the associated costs for the
     monitoring is given with the plan. The EMP has been prepared
     following best practice and the ADB environmental assessment
     guidelines 2003.
Prior to implementation of the sub-project the MEPCO needs to comply
       with several environmental requirements, such as submitting an
       EIA/IEE to PEPA and obtaining PEPA clearance (“No Objection
       Certificate” compiling acceptable EMP and Clearance Certificate)
       under PEPAct (guidelines and regulations 2000) and any other
       permissions required from other authorities. MEPCO will also
       need to confirm that contractors and their suppliers have
       complied with all statutory requirements and have appropriate
       and valid licenses and permits for all powered mechanical
       equipment and to operate in line with local authority conditions.
The EMP (Appendix 4) was prepared taking into account the limited
     capacity of MEPCO to conduct environmental assessments of the
     sub-projects. MEPCO has engaged one graduate environmental
     manager with limited field experience. It is envisaged that
     experience in the environmental as well as the social field should
     therefore develop in the near future. However it is also strongly
     recommended that for sub-projects in future Tranches that the
     MEPCO be prepared to engage more support where necessary
     (e.g. senior environmental specialist with at least 10 years
     experience in environmental management five years site
     experience in environmental monitoring and auditing) to guide
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       the subsequent formal assessment and submission process
       under the PEPAct and monitor compliance with the EMP. As of
       August 2007, the MEPCO is clearly committed to developing in-
       house environmental and social capability and it is recommended
       that the environmental manager and a counterpart with
       experience in social and resettlement assessment shall form the
       core of an environmental and social unit (ESU).
The newly appointed environmental manager has to have a good level
     of awareness and will be responsible for addressing
     environmental concerns for sub-projects potentially involving
     hundreds kilometres of distribution lines and DGS. Whereas
     some of their work may in future be delegated to consultants they
     will need more training and resources if they are effectively
     provide quality control and oversight for the EMP
     implementation. They will require robust support from senior
     management staff members and the management consultant if
     they are to address all environmental concerns for the sub-
     projects effectively. Specific areas for immediate attention are in
     formal submission Provincial EPA and EMP auditing,
     environmentally responsible procurement, air, water and noise
     pollution management and ecological impact mitigation. If local
     staff cannot e identified to fill this position it is recommended
     that an environmental specialist consultant with 10 years
     experience be made available to all the DISCOS to cover these
     aspects full time for at least the first six months of the PDEMFF
     project and that on a call off basis with local support those
     services are retained for the life of the PDEMFF loan. The newly
     appointed graduate environmental manager can then shadow the
     environmental specialist to improve awareness and hopefully
     provide independent quality control and oversee the EMP
     implementation within 12 months.
In order to achieve good compliance with environmental assessment
      principles the graduate environmental manager for the project
      implementation team must be actively involved prior to the outset
      of the implementation design stage to ensure compliance with
      the statutory obligations under the PEPAct. It is also
      recommended that MEPCO Board allow direct reporting to Board
      level from the in-house Environmental and Social Unit (ESU). If
      the ESU requires resources for larger sub-projects then
      environmental specialist consultants could be appointed through
      the project implementation unit to address all environmental
      aspects in the detailed design. It is recommended that the project
      management unit (PMU) should liaise directly with the ESU to
      address all environmental aspects in the detailed design and
      contracting stages. The graduate environmental manager will
      cover the implementation of environmental mitigation measures
      in all the subproject packages.
Overall implementation of the EMP will become MEPCO’s
     responsibility. MEPCO and other parties to be involved in
     implementing the EMP are as follows:

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Contractors: responsible for carrying out the contractual obligations,
      implementing all EMP measures required to mitigate
      environmental impacts during construction;
MEPCO Board of Directors: responsible to ensure that sufficient timely
    resources are allocated to process the environmental
    assessments and to monitor implementation of all construction
    and operational mitigation measures required to mitigate
    environmental impacts, and
Other government agencies: such as regional PEPA and state pollution
      authorities, Department of Forests, Department of Wildlife
      Services, who will be responsible for monitoring the
      implementation of environmental conditions and compliance with
      statutory requirements in their respective areas and local land
      use groups at the local levels.
Considering that other government agencies that need to be involved in
     implementing the EMP, training or harmonization workshops
     should be conducted for all ESUs in all DISCOS every six months
     or twice each year, for the first 2 years (and annually thereafter)
     to share the monitoring report on the implementation of the EMP
     in each DISCO and to share lessons learned in the
     implementation and to achieve a consistent approach decide on
     remedial actions, if unexpected environmental impacts occur.
The monitoring plan (Appendix 5) was designed based on the project
     cycle. During the preconstruction period, the monitoring
     activities will focus on (i) checking the contractor’s bidding
     documents, particularly to ensure that all necessary
     environmental requirements have been included; and (ii)
     checking that the contract documents’ references to
     environmental mitigation measures requirements have been
     incorporated as part of contractor’s assignment and making sure
     that any advance works are carried out in good time. Where
     detailed design is required (e.g. for power distribution lines and
     avoidance of other resources) the inclusion and checking of
     designs must be carried out. During the construction period, the
     monitoring activities will focus on ensuring that environmental
     mitigation measures are implemented, and some performance
     indicators will be monitored to record the Sub-projects
     environmental performance and to guide any remedial action to
     address unexpected impacts.
Monitoring activities during project operation will focus on recording
     environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to
     address unexpected impacts. The potential to use local
     community groups as contacts for monitoring should be
     explored as part of the activities in setting up the Environmental
     and Social Unit which should have regular meetings with the
     NGOs as a matter of good practice and to discuss matters of
     mutual concern.
At this stage, due to the modest scale of the new power distribution
      projects and by generally keeping to non-sensitive and non-

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       critical areas the construction and operational impacts will be
       manageable. No insurmountable impacts are predicted providing
       that the EMP is implemented to its full extent and required in the
       contract documents. However experience suggests that some
       contractors may not be familiar with this approach or may be
       reluctant to carry out some measures. In order that the
       contractors are fully aware of the implications of the EMP and to
       ensure compliance, it is recommended that environmental
       measures be costed separately in the tender documentation and
       that payment milestones are linked to environmental
       performance, vis a vis the carrying out of the EMP.
The effective implementation of the EMP will be audited as part of the
      loan conditions and the executing agency must be prepared for
      this. In this regard the MEPCO (the IA) must be prepared to guide
      the design engineers and contractors on the environmental
      aspects.




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6.0    PUBLIC   CONSULTATION                       AND         INFORMATION
       DISCLOSURE
6.1    Approach to Public Consultation
The public consultation (PC) process with various stakeholders has
     been approached so as to involve public and other stakeholders
     from the earliest stages. Public consultation has taken place
     during the planning and design and viewpoints of the
     stakeholders have been taken into account and their concerns
     and suggestions for possible improvements have been included
     where appropriate. Much of the PC process to date has revolved
     around concerns for the mitigation of construction impacts and
     the possible side effects from the proximity of high voltage
     power lines and the grid station and its equipment.
There is also a requirement for ongoing consultation for land
     acquisition and resettlement (LARP) and the completion of the
     Resettlement Plan (RP) is documented separately. It is expected
     that this process will continue through all stages of the sub-
     project in order to accommodate stakeholders' aspirations and
     to orient the stakeholders positively towards the sub-project
     implementation and where possible to harness co-operation
     over access issues in order to facilitate timely completion.
The public consultation process has commenced in the initial
     feasibility stages (prior to construction) in order to disclose the
     sub-project information to the stakeholders and record feedback
     regarding the proposed sub-project and preferences. The
     stakeholders involved in the process were the population likely
     to be impacted along the route of the proposed power lines; the
     village leaders, school teachers, district administration.
6.2    Public Consultation Process
Prior to the implementation of the consultation, feedback, etc. has
      been carried out to support This EIA and recorded. The focus of
      attention has been the population near the proposed distribution
      line that may be affected by the sub-project expansion. The level
      of engagement varied from the stakeholder to stakeholder with
      some registering no major comment but it is noted that none
      registered any outright opposition to the sub-project.
The disclosure of the enhancement sub-project in advance and
     subsequent consultation with stakeholders has advantages in
     the environmental assessment and mitigation of impacts. Public
     consultation can also provide a conduit for the improvement of
     the sub-project implementation to better serve the stakeholders.
The environmental assessment process under the PEP Act only
     requires the disclosure to the public after the statutory
     EIA/IEE/EIA has been accepted by the relevant EPA to be in
     strict adherence to the rules. In This EIA the consultation


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       process was performed to satisfy the ADB requirements. The
       locations of consultation and people consulted are listed in the
       full table of public consultation presented in Appendix 7.




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                        6.3       Results of Public Consultation
The consultations identified some potential environmental and social
     impacts and perceptions of the affected communities. The public
     consultation resulted in 22 responses in July 2007 (Appendix 7).
     The community in general supports the conversion of the grid
     station. Residents around the DGS site have the view that
     increasing the capacity of the grid station will generally benefit
     society and accelerate development in the areas served by the
     grid. They also expect more stable power supply in the area,
     with less interruption to power supply during storms, as the
     provision of the distribution grid improves locality. Poor people
     requested that unskilled and semi skilled jobs be provided on a
     priority basis to local people with the contractors during
     implementation of the sub-project. Some respondents pointed
     out that easier availability of electricity could allow farmers to
     use electricity for running their tube wells instead of diesel,
     which is more expensive. At this stage no land acquisition and
     resettlement is involved in this sub-project. However,
     compensation will be paid to the concerned parties/owners of
     land under the towers and line where loss of some trees, and for
     damage to crops, is expected. Some persons demanded for fair
     and prompt payment of this compensation at the time of sub-
     project construction.
On the basis of the consultations so far, it appears that the sub-project
      will have no insurmountable environmental and social impacts
      but MEPCO will have to make sure that compensation and
      assistance amounts are assessed and efficiently dispersed.
      Skilled and unskilled employment and some skilled employment
      should preferentially be given to the locally affected persons, as
      far as is reasonably practicable.




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                                  7.0   CONCLUSIONS
7.1    Findings and Recommendations
This study was carried out at the planning stage of the sub-project.
      Primary and secondary data were used to assess the
      environmental impacts. The potential environmental impacts
      were assessed in a comprehensive manner. The report has
      provided a picture of all potential environmental impacts
      associated with the sub-project, and recommended suitable
      mitigation measures. This study recommends that some further
      follow up studies are undertaken during sub-project processing
      in order to meet the ADB requirements.
There are some further considerations for the planning stages such as
      obtaining clearance for the sub-project under the Pakistan
      Environmental Protection Act (1997). Environmental impacts
      from the power enhancements will mostly take place during the
      construction stage. There are also some minor noise impacts
      and waste management issues for the operational stage that
      must be addressed in the detailed design and through
      environmentally responsible procurement. At the detailed design
      stage the number and exact locations of towers may change
      subject to detailed surveys, but the impacts are likely to be
      broadly similar at most locations, as reviewed in the
      environmental impact section of This EIA report.
There are a number of key actions required in the detailed design
     phase. Prior to construction the MEPCO must receive clearance
     certification from the PEPA and MEPCO must complete an EMP
     that will be accepted by the PEPA and agreed by the contractor
     prior to signing the contract. The information provided in this
     report can form the basis of any further submission to PEPA as
     required in future.
Some land acquisition, compensation and resettlement is involved.
    And a few trees may need to be removed, for which
    compensation will be paid to the concerned parties, if needed.
    However, provisions may be made in LARP, based on the
    proposed alignments these should not be difficult tasks and can
    be conducted as the detailed designs are worked out and to
    dovetail with the existing system and minimize adverse impacts
    and maximize benefits. If land acquisition is required a social
    impact assessment and land acquisition and resettlement action
    plan (LARP) should be completed in tandem with This EIA for
    the whole sub-project if required under ADB guidelines.
During the commissioning phase noise monitoring should ensure that
      statutory requirements have been achieved. Monitoring activities
      during sub-project operation will focus on periodic recording
      environmental performance and proposing remedial actions to
      address any unexpected impacts.



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                          7.2     Summary and Conclusions
The extension of the Shadan Lund SP is a feasible and sustainable
     option from the power distribution, engineering, environmental,
     and socio-economic points of view. Implementation of the EMP
     is required and the environmental impacts associated with the
     sub-project need to be properly mitigated, and the existing
     institutional arrangements are available. Additional human and
     financial resources will be required by MEPCO to complete the
     designs and incorporate the recommendations effectively and
     efficiently in the contract documents, linked to payment
     milestones. The proposed mitigation and management plans are
     practicable but require additional resources.
This EIA, including the EMP, should be used as a basis for an
     environmental compliance program and be included as an
     Appendix to the contract. The EMP shall be reviewed at the
     detailed design stage. In addition, any subsequent conditions
     issued by PEPA as part of the environmental clearance should
     also be included in the environmental compliance program.
     Therefore, continued monitoring of the implementation of
     mitigation measures, the implementation of the environmental
     conditions for work and environmental clearance, and
     monitoring of the environmental impact related to the operation
     of the Sub-project should be properly carried out and reported at
     least twice per year as part of the sub-project performance
     report.




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Description: Projects on Multan Electric Power Company document sample