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AEC RESEARCH

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 86

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                                                                                                                                   EVALUATION OF RADI 0LOG.ICAL CONDITIONS
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                                                                                                                                                                      NORTHWEST
                                                                              C                    5,                ,                BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE     PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORIES
                                                                                                                                      BATTELLE BOULEVARD, P. 0. BOX 999, RICHLAND. WASHINGTON 99352
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                                                        BNWL-1341
                                           U C - 4 1 , Health and Safety




E V A L U A T I O N OF R A D I O L O G I C A L C O N D I T I O N S
 I N THE V I C I N I T Y OF HANFORD FOR 1 9 6 8



 The Environmental Evaluations Staff
        W. L. Fisher, Manager


                       Edited by
                     C. B. Wilson




     Radiation Protection Department
       Technical Services Division




                        May 1970




            FIRST UNRESIrttCIED
            ,,smwnu, tm,          JUL 15 '70
        BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
       PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORIES
        RICHLAND, WASHINGTON 99352
                                                    BNWL- 1341




           Printed in the United States of America
                        Available from
Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information
   National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce
                 Springfield, Virginia 22151
         Price: Printed Copy $3.00; Microfiche $0.65
                   EVALUATION OF RADIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
                     I N THE V I C I N I T Y O F HANFORD FOR 1968
                                 E d i t e d by C .    B.   Wilson

                                            ABSTRACT

        A t t h e Hanford p r o j e c t , c o n t r o l l e d r e l e a s e s of a v a r i e t y
o f l o w - l e v e l r a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e s a r e made t o t h e Columbia R i v e r ,
t o t h e g r o u n d , and t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e . The m a j o r s o u r c e o f
l o w - l e v e l w a s t e s r e l e a s e d t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t i n 1968 c o n t i n u e d
t o b e r e a c t o r c o o l i n g w a t e r d i s c h a r g e d t o t h e Columbia R i v e r .
E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e combined o f f s i t e e f f e c t s o f a l l r a d i o a c t i v e
w a s t e r e l e a s e s d u r i n g 1968 showed t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f r a d i o -
n u c l i d e s i n t h e e n v i r o n s and r a d i a t i o n d o s e s r e c e i v e d by n e a r b y
p o p u l a t i o n groups were w e l l w i t h i n accepted s t a n d a r d s .               Doses
w e r e e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e w h o l e body, g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l - t r a c t , and
t h y r o i d a s i n previous y e a r s and, f o r t h e f i r s t time, t h e annual
i n t a k e o f b o n e - s e e k i n g r a d i o n u c l i d e s was a l s o e x p r e s s e d i n
t e r m s o f d o s e t o s k e l e t a l bone.

       The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i n c l u d e d t h e Maximum I n d i v i d u a l ,
t h e Average R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t , and t h e T y p i c a l R i c h l a n d R e s i -
dent.      P o p u l a t i o n d o s e e s t i m a t e s were l e s s t h a n o n e - t e n t h of
t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d s e x c e p t f o r t h e s k e l e t a l bone of t h e
Maximum I n d i v i d u a l ( 1 7 % o f t h e 1500 mrem/year s t a n d a r d ) and
f o r t h e t h y r o i d o f t h e i n f a n t T y p i c a l Richland R e s i d e n t (11%
o f t h e 500 mrem/year s t a n d a r d ) . A s i n g l e r a d i o n u c l i d e , 3 2 ~ ,
c o n t r i b u t e d 96% of t h e e s t i m a t e d s k e l e t a l b o n e d o s e r e c e i v e d
by t h e Maximum I n d i v i d u a l w i t h Columbia R i v e r f i s h t h e m a j o r
s o u r c e of i n t a k e .
        On a c o m p a r a b l e b a s i s , t h e s e p o p u l a t i o n d o s e e s t i m a t e s
f o r 1968 would r e p r e s e n t a d e c r e a s e from t h o s e o f 1967.
However, b e c a u s e o f c h a n g e s i n t h e method o f c o m p u t a t i o n , t h e
p e r c e n t a g e s o f s t a n d a r d f o r 1968 a r e n o t d i r e c t l y c o m p a r a b l e
t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d f o r 1967.
                          CONTENTS

ABSTRACT  .                                                 i ii
LIST OF FIGURES   .                                         vii
LIST OF TABLES.                                               ix
INTRODUCTION  .
SUMMARY   .
CONCLUSIONS   .
DOSE STANDARDS FOR EVALUATION .
SITE DESCRIPTION  .
SOURCES AND LEVELS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY   .       lk-.
   Radioactivity in the Columbia River.                 >   14
   Radioactivity in the Atmosphere.                         25
   Radioactivity in Groundwater      .                      30
   Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests    .
EXPOSURE PATHWAYS .
   Radionuclides in Drinking Water.                         34
   Radionuclides in Columbia River Fish      .              37
   Radionuclides in Game Birds.
   Radionuclides in Shellfish .
   Radionuclides in Milk and Produce .                      43
   External Radiation .                                     49
   Fallout from Nuclear Weapons Tests    .
COMPOSITE ESTIMATES OF RADIATION DOSE .
   The Maximum Individual .                                  58
   The Typical Richland Resident     .                      .: 4
   The Average Richland Resident     .                      65
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS   .                                         69
REFERENCES.                                                 71
                 L I S T OF F I G U R E S

Geographical Relationship of Hanford to
the Pacific Northwest
Features of Hanford Project and Vicinity
Weekly Average Flow Rate of the Columbia River
at Priest Rapids and Bonneville Dams
      "           3'
3 2 ~ , ~ r , and 11 Transport Rates in the
Columbia River at Richland
46~c           Transport Rates in the
     and 6 5 ~ n
Columbia River at Richland
Monthly Average 3 2 Concentrations in Flesh of
                     ~
Whitefish Caught in the Columbia River Between
Ringold and Richland
Offsite Air Sampling Locations
Monthly Average 11
                 '
                 3   Concentrations in the Air
of Hanford Environs
Monthly Average Particulate Total Beta Concentra-
tions in the Air of Hanford Environs
3~ Concentrations in Groundwater - July-
December, 1968
lo6~u Concentrations in Groundwater - July-
December, 1968
Relative Contribution of Various Radionuclides
in Richland Drinking Water to the GI Tract
Dose for 1968
Doses to the GI Tract from Richland and Pasco
Drinking Water
 P
" and 6 5 ~ n
            Concentrations in Willapa Bay
Oysters
                              Concentrations
Monthly Average 3 2 and 6 5 ~ n
                    ~
in Milk from River-Irrigated Farms
                3'
Monthly Average l1   Concentrations in Locally
Available Milk
Monthly Average Gamma Exposure Rates at Hanford
Test Location and at Richland
17   Monthly Average External Gamma Exposure Rates at the
     Columbia River Shoreline at Richland and at
     Sacajawea Park                                         52
18                         Concentrations in Locally
     Monthly Average 9 0 ~ r
     Available Milk                                         55
19   Monthly Average   1 3 7 ~ sConcentrations in Locally
     Available Milk                                         56
20   Estimated Doses   to the Maximum Individual - 1968     61
21   Estimated Doses   to the Typical Richland
     Resident - 1968
22   Estimated Doses   to the Average Richland
     Resident - 1968
                  L I S T OF T A B L E S

Summary of Radiation Doses in the Hanford
Environs, 1968
Radiation Protection Standards for External
and Internal Exposure                                6
Dose Factors for Certain Bone-Seeking
Radionuclides
Comparison of Percentage of 1.5 rem/year Standard
for Bone for an Adult Individual Based on MPRI
and Based on Current Dose-Factors                    9
Relative Abundance of Reactor Effluent
Radionuclides
Annual Average Concentrations of Several
Radionuclides in Columbia River Water
Annual Average Transport Rates of Selected
Radionuclides Past Bonneville Dam                   20
Annual Average 11 '
                  3  Concentrations in the
Atmosphere                                          28
Average Concentrations of Several Radionuclides
in Drinking Water, 1968                             35
Calculated Annual Doses to Selected Organs
from Routine Ingestion of Drinking water, 1968      36
                      Concentrations in Muscle
Average 3 2 and 6 5 ~ n
               ~
of ~ i S e rBirds                                   41
Species Distribution of Local Game Birds            42
Contribution of Each Species to 100 g of an
Average Game Bird Meal                              42
1968 Annual Radiation Doses from Individual
Fallout Nuclides                                    57
Total Annual Radiation Doses During 1967
and 1968 from Fallout Nuclides
Dietary Assumptions                                 59
Summary of Radiation Doses in the Hanford
Environs, 1968                                      60
Dose Estimates for Maximum Individual
1964 to 1968
                    E V A L U A T I O N OF R A D I O L O G I C A L C O N D I T I O N S
                      I N T H E V I C I N I T Y O F H A N F O R D FOR 1 9 6 8
                                E d i t e d by C. B. W i l s o n

                                           INTRODUCTION

        A v a r i e t y of r a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e s a r e g e n e r a t e d by t h e
Hanford p r o d u c t i o n r e a c t o r s , c h e m i c a l s e p a r a t i o n s p l a n t s , and
laboratories.   High l e v e l w a s t e s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d and r e t a i n e d
i n storage within t h e p r o j e c t boundaries. Controlled r e l e a s e s
o f l o w - l e v e l w a s t e s , f o r which c o n c e n t r a t i o n and s t o r a g e a r e
n o t f e a s i b l e , a r e made t o t h e ground, t o t h e a t m o s p h e r e , and
t o t h e Columbia R i v e r . The Atomic Energy Commission r e g u l a -
t i o n s g o v e r n i n g r a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e d i s p o s a l a t Hanford a r e
d e s c r i b e d i n t h e AEC Manual C h a p t e r RL 0510.                      During 1968,
t h e p l a n t f a c i l i t i e s were o p e r a t e d f o r t h e Atomic Energy
Commission by:             A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Hanford Company; P a c i f i c
Northwest L a b o r a t o r i e s of B a t t e l l e Memorial I n s t i t u t e ; Douglas-
U n i t e d N u c l e a r , I n c o r p o r a t e d ; and I T T F e d e r a l S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s ,
Incorporated.
       The p u r p o s e of t h i s r e p o r t i s t o p r e s e n t a n e v a l u a t i o n o f
t h e combined o f f s i t e e f f e c t s o f t h e r a d i o a c t i v e w a s t e manage-
ment p r a c t i c e s of a l l Hanford c o n t r a c t o r s d u r i n g 1968. Ana-
l y t i c a l d a t a on which t h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s b a s e d have been pub-
l i s h e d a s a s e p a r a t e r e p o r t (BNWL-1341 APP).             The p r e v i o u s
r e p o r t s i n t h i s s e r i e s were BNWL-983 and BNWL-983 APP. (3 1
                                                      BNWL- 1341


                             SUMMARY

     Surveillance of the Hanford environs during 1968 showed
that both environmental concentrations of radioactive materials
and the environmental radiation doses of Hanford origin received
by local residents were well within appropriate guides and stan-
dards. The environmental surveillance program for 1968 also
indicated that most of the environmental radiation dose for the
majority of persons living in the Hanford environs was due to
natural sources and worldwide fallout rather than to Hanford
operations. The major source of low-level wastes released to
the environment from Hanford plants continued to be reactor
cooling water discharged to the Columbia River.
     An announced foreign weapons test ( 4 ) caused increased 1311
concentrations in the environment in January 1968 and higher
concentrations of total beta activity associated with airborne
particulates during the first half of the year. An offsite
event    caused an abrupt temporary increase in atmospheric
beta activity in December.
     An unlikely, but plausible, combination of living and
dietary habits that probably would result in an individual's
receiving the largest radiation dose from Hanford-effluent
radionuclides has been postulated ( 3 ) as:
     Consumption of 200 meals/yr of fish caught down river from
     the reactors
     Spending 500 hr/yr on the riverbank to catch the above
     quantity of fish
  e Consumption of meat, milk, fruit, and vegetables from
     irrigated farms in the Riverview district
     Consumption of drinking water from the Pasco system.
A person with such habits is called the Maximum Individual.
During 1968, the Maximum Individual's bone dose from ingested
materials (mostly 3 2 ~ )and from shoreline exposure was estimated
t o b e 1 7 % of t h e s t a n d a r d (1500 mrem/yr) f o r i n d i v i d u a l members
o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Doses t o t h e GI t r a c t and whole body from
s u c h s o u r c e s were e s t i m a t e d t o be 4 and 5 % , r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f
the appropriate standards.
        A Typical Richland Resident has been d e f i n e d i n previous
y e a r s , ( 3 9 6 9 7 )f o r t h e p u r p o s e of e s t i m a t i n g d o s e s t o bone,
whole body, and GI t r a c t , a s a n a d u l t consuming t y p i c a l q u a n t i -
t i e s ( a s g i v e n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ) of R i c h l a n d d r i n k i n g w a t e r
d e r i v e d from t h e Columbia R i v e r , and o f m i l k , meat, and o t h e r
f o o d s t u f f s from commercial s o u r c e s . The r a d i a t i o n d o s e s of
Hanford o r i g i n r e c e i v e d by s u c h a n i n d i v i d u a l come, f o r t h e
most p a r t , from R i c h l a n d d r i n k i n g w a t e r , w i t h t h e GI t r a c t
n o r m a l l y r e c e i v i n g t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e of p e r m i s s i b l e d o s e
f o r t h e a d u l t ( 5 % i n 1 9 6 8 ) . For t h e p u r p o s e of e s t i m a t i n g
t h y r o i d d o s e , a T y p i c a l R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t h a s been d e f i n e d a s
a n i n f a n t w i t h a 2 g t h y r o i d . H i s s o u r c e s of food and w a t e r
a r e t h e same a s t h o s e o f t h e a d u l t . The t h y r o i d d o s e t o a
T y p i c a l R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t ( I n f a n t ) f o r 1968 was 5 5 mrem o r 11%
of t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d .A s i n 1967, t h i s e s t i m a t e i n c l u d e s
a d o s e c o n t r i b u t i o n from s h o r t - l i v e d r a d i o i o d i n e t h a t had n o t
been i n c l u d e d i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s .

         The Average R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t (3) i s a l s o d e f i n e d a s a n
a d u l t f o r p u r p o s e s o f e s t i m a t i n g bone, whole body, and G I
t r a c t d o s e s and a s a n i n f a n t f o r e s t i m a t i n g t h y r o i d d o s e .
However, t h e a d u l t d i e t a r y h a b i t s o f t h e Average R i c h l a n d
R e s i d e n t h a v e b e e n d e t e r m i n e d from l o c a l d i e t a r y s u r v e y s and
thus provide a b e t t e r b a s i s f o r dose-estimation than those
of t h e Typical Richland Resident.
        R a d i a t i o n d o s e from Hanford s o u r c e s r e c e i v e d by t h i s pop-
u l a t i o n group a l s o o r i g i n a t e s , f o r t h e most p a r t , from d r i n k i n g
w a t e r d e r i v e d from t h e Columbia R i v e r . However, r a d i o n u c l i d e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e a d j u s t e d f o r decay and d i l u t i o n i n t h e w a t e r
                                                                                   BNWL- 1341


 distribution system. For the adult, the GI-tract dose is nor-
mally the largest percentage of appropriate standards for the
mixture of radionuclides present in drinking water. During
 1968, this dose was 5% of the standard for the general popula-
 tion. The thyroid dose to the infant Average Richland Resident
(2 g thyroid) for 1968 was 8% of the appropriate standard,
 including a contribution from short-lived radioiodines.
     Estimated radiation doses to the above-defined residents
resulting from the combined effects of Hanford contractor opera-
tions are summarized in Table 1 with the appropriate standards
for comparison.
               TABLE 1.       Summary of Radiation Doses (a)
                              in the Hanford Environs, 1968
                                       Annual Dose, Standard,                          % of
               Organ                       mrem        mr em                         Standard
Maximum Individual
Bone
Whole Body
GI Tract
Thyroid (infant)
Typical Richland Resident
Bone                                                  8                 500                   (bl
Whole Body                                            3                 170               2
GI Tract                                             24                 500               5
Thyroid (infant)                                     55                 500             11
Average Richland Resident
Bone                                                 13                 500               3 (b)
Whole Body                                            3                 170               2
GI Tract                                             25                 500               5
Thyroid (infant)                                     39                 500               8
 a.   Doses from f a Z l o u t and n a t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d n o t i n c l u d e d .
 b.   I n 1 9 6 7 , b o n e d o s e was e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f M P R I .       There-
      f o r e , t h e 1968 e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t d i r e c t l y c o m p a r a b l e . See
      t h e foiZowing s e c t i o n i n t h i s r e p o r t , 'Dose S t a n d a r d s f o r
      EvaZuation. "
                                               4
                           CONCLUSIONS
       The results of the 1968 environmental surveillance program
 at Hanford again showed that the amounts of radionuclides as
 measured in the environs were well within accepted standards.
The only estimates exceeding one-tenth of the appropriate stan-
 dard were for the bone of the hypothetical Maximum Individual
(17% of the 1500 mrem/yr standard) and for the thyroid of the
 infant Typical Richland Resident (11% of the 500 mrem/yr stan-
 dard). Because of changes in the method of computation, these
 dose estimates for the environmental population are not com-
 pletely comparable to 1967 levels, but on a comparable basis
 they would represent a decrease. Process improvements and
 the shutdown of plant facilities both have contributed to a
 decrease in environmental doses from 1965 to 1968.
                  DOSE STANDARDS FOR EVALUATION
     Radiation protection practices at Hanford, including
radioactive waste disposal, are governed by the AEC Manual. (1
Chapters 0524 and RL 0524 provide the following standards for
permissible radiation exposures in uncontrolled areas. The
section of RL 0524 Appendix to which this evaluation is
addressed is shown in Table 2.
     It is not possible to determine precisely the radiation
dose received by every individual because of variations in the
kinds, quantities, and sources of food and water consumed:
variations in physiological characteristics with age and body
size; and many variations in personal living habits. These
inherent variations between individuals require a somewhat
subjective approach when estimating probable radiation doses
in relation to various established limits. The Federal Radia-
tion Council (FRC) and the AEC have provided two sets of cri-
teria by which doses from environmental sources may be judged.
One is for the greatest dose received by critical individuals
and the other for the average dose received by the general
population.
                               5
                "TABLE 2.          Radiation Protection Standards f o r External
                                   and I n t e r n a l E x p o s u r e ( % )
                                         Annual Dose o r Dose Commitment, rem

                                      Based on Dose                          Based on a n Average
                              t o C r i t i c a l Individuals                Dose t o a S u i t a b l e
           Type o f              a t P o i n t s of Maximum                     Sample o f t h e
           Exposure               P r o b a b l e Exposure                  Exposed P o p u l a t i o n ( a )

          Whole Body,
          gonads, o r
          bone marrow
          Other
          organs (b)


          a.   S e e Par. 5. 4 , F R C R e p o r t No. I , f o r d i s c u s s i o n on c o n c e p t
               o f s u i t a b l e sample o f e x p o s e d p o p u l a t i o n .
          b.   An a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t e s t a n d a r d f o r bone f o r i n d i v i d u a l s
               i s t h e I C R P s t a n d a r d o f 0 . 0 0 3 pg o f radium- 226 o r i t s
               b i o l o g i c a l e q u i v a l e n t . The a l t e r n a t e s t a n d a r d f o r p o p u l a -
               t i o n s would be o n e - t h i r d t h i s I C R P s t a n d a r d . "

        For t h e Hanford e n v i r o n s , d o s e s from t h e v a r i o u s e x p o s u r e
pathways d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s have been combined
f o r c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h g u i d e s f o r b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e
general population. A s i n previous years, a hypothetical
Maximum I n d i v i d u a l h a s been a s s i g n e d p e s s i m i s t i c d i e t a r y and
o t h e r h a b i t s i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e d o s e s comparable t o t h e s t a n -
dards f o r c r i t i c a l individuals i n t h e preceding t a b l e .                                     For
t h y r o i d d o s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e Maximum I n d i v i d u a l h a s been
assumed t o b e a n i n f a n t .

        I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a somewhat l a r g e r d o s e t o a s p e c i f i c
o r g a n t h a n h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e Maximum I n d i v i d u a l may
b e i n d i c a t e d by a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on d i f f e r e n t a g e g r o u p s
o r persons w i t h unique d i e t h a b i t s o r p h y s i o l o g i c a l behavior.
The l i k e l i h o o d t h a t any s u c h p e r s o n c o u l d have r e c e i v e d a d o s e
approaching t h e s t a n d a r d s i s considered q u i t e remote.                                       For
example, c e r t a i n R i c h l a n d t e e n a g e r s may have r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r
whole body d o s e s i n 1968 t h a n t h e Maximum I n d i v i d u a l ( s e e p a g e 5 3 ) .
However, t h e s e d o s e s were w e l l w i t h i n a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d s .                            For
                                                         6
the general population, a dose has been estimated in previous
years for what was called the Typical Richland Resident. In
each case, the best available information on dietary patterns
was used. Such a dose estimation was included for 1968.
     In.1967, sufficient diet information became available for
the first time to make a reasonable estimate of average doses
to Richland adults. In our judgment, this provides a more
suitable comparison against dose standards applicable to the
general population as given in AEC Manual Chapter 0524 ( 8 ) than
the assumptions previously used for a Typical Richland Resident.
For continuity, we have presented both types of estimates in
this annual report.
     Radiation doses to the population near the Hanford project
have been estimated in some detail since 1957. (3, 9-18) I~
recent years (1960-1967), the dose calculations for most criti-
cal organs were expressed in terms of dose-equivalent rates
(i.e., rem/yr) rather than in terms of a Maximum Permissible
Rate of Intake (MPRI).  The MPRI was taken as the Maximum
Permissible Concentration (MPC) in water for a given radio-
nuclide as recommended by the International Commission on
Radiological Protection (ICRP) for persons in the neighborhood
of controlled areas, (19920921) multiplied by the rate of water
intake as defined for the standard man. This amounts to one-
tenth of the MPC for continuous occupational exposure multi-
plied by intake rates of 2.2 liters/day or 800 liters/yr (for
annual estimates).
     Only the dose to the bone was still phrased in the MPRI
terminology because the significance of bone seekers, such as
3 2 and 'OS~ has required special consideration and treatment. (3
    ~
                      " P a


The rate of intake of "P has not been specifically studied by
the FRC (Federal Radiation Council) (22,23,24) in relation to a
dose-equivalent for the bone or bone marrow.
                                                                                   BNWL- 1341

       In view of the AEC instruction that ICRP-NCRP (National
Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements) dosimetry
methods (23y25) be used where the FRC does not provide direct
guidance, and in view of a more conservative rate of intake for
3 2 implied by the ICRP-NCRP recommendations than by use of a
      ~
computational scheme for 3 2 similar to that used by the FRC for
                               ~
        we
9 0 ~ r . continued to use the ICRP values as a reference base.
In the case of 3 2 ~ ,the MPRI for bone for individuals in the
neighborhood of controlled areas (derived from ICRP values) is
16.1 C i r For 6 5 ~ n ,  the MPRI for bone is 803 pCi/yr.
      It is currently recognized that although some problems
still exist in the accurate translation of the intake rate of
 a radionuclide into dose-equivalent for bone, these problems
 are not of a greater order of magnitude than those that exist
for many other organs. Thus in 1968, MPRI terminology was
abandoned and the doses to the skeleton from 3 2 and 6 5 ~ n
                                                  ~
(of Hanford origin) and 'OS~ (from fallout) were expressed in
 dose-equivalents derived from their annual intake rates by
 applying the dose factors given in Table 3. (26)

 TABLE 3.        Dose Factors for Certain Bone-Seeking Radionuclides

                                          mrem/pCi Intake (a)
                                      Adult              Child
     Nuclide        Organ        (7 kg Skeleton)   (2 kg Skeleton)

       3 2 ~ Skeleton                       190                           660
       6 5 ~ n Skeleton                     3.1                             11
                  Skeleton

a.    Based on I C R P m e t a b o l i c p a r a m e t e r s b e i n g i n v a r i a n t w i t h age
      unless otherwise noted.
b.    A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same vaZues can be d e r i v e d from e i t h e r
      t h e I C R P d a t a a t e q u i z i b r i u m o r from s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y .
c.    Based on s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y i n t h e s k e l e t o n b e i n g 0 . 2 5 t i m e s
      t h a t of t h e d i e t a t a l l ages.
        After careful consideration, these f a c t o r s f o r conversion
o f r a d i o n u c l i d e i n t a k e t o bone d o s e ( 2 6 ) h a v e b e e n a c c e p t e d f o r
u s e a t Hanford, pending f u r t h e r refinement through experimental
e v i d e n c e . The g r e a t e s t n e e d s a r e f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n
of t h e bone burden which w i l l b e m a i n t a i n e d , a t e q u i l i b r i u m ,
from a s p e c i f i c i n t a k e r a t e o f 3 2 and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
                                                     ~
t h i s r a d i o n u c l i d e throughout t h e s k e l e t o n . Large animal s t u d -
i e s d e f i n i n g t h e v a r i a t i o n o f t h e s e two i t e m s w i t h a g e a r e a l s o
needed.
      Comparison w i t h d o s e s t a n d a r d s f o r t h o s e e s t i m a t e s b a s e d
on MPRI a n d t h o s e b a s e d on t h e c u r r e n t d o s e - f a c t o r s a r e shown
i n Table 4.

   TABLE 4.         Comparison of P e r c e n t a g e of 1 . 5 rem/year S t a n d a r d
                    f o r Bone f o r an Adult I n d i v i d u a l Based on MPRI and
                    Based on C u r r e n t Dose- Factors

                                                                        Dose t o
                                     Intake,                       S k e l e t a l Bone
             Radionuclide            uCi/yr         MPRI.%        rem       % Standard




        Thus, t h e % MPRI r e p o r t e d i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s m u l t i p l i e d by
two c o r r e s p o n d s v e r y n e a r l y t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p e r c e n t a g e o f
s t a n d a r d f o r t h e s k e l e t a l b o n e from i n g e s t e d r a d i o n u c l i d e s
where 3 2 i s t h e main c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h e t o t a l % MPRI.
                  ~                                                                             In
p a s t y e a r s when d o s e was e x p r e s s e d a s % MPRI, no c o n t r i b u t i o n
of e x t e r n a l r a d i a t i o n t o t h e b o n e d o s e was i n c l u d e d . However,
i n 1 9 6 8 , t h e e s t i m a t e d d o s e t o t h e s k e l e t a l bone ( e x p r e s s e d i n
mrem) i n c l u d e s a n e s t i m a t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n from e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s
of r a d i a t i o n o f H a n f o r d o r i g i n .
     As i n t h e p a s t , c o n t r i b u t i o n s from s o u r c e s e x t e r n a l t o t h e
body a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e e s t i m a t e d d o s e s f o r t h e G I t r a c t and
whole body.           The t h y r o i d d o s e e s t i m a t e i s f o r a n i n f a n t who i s
assumed t o have no e x p o s u r e t o e x t e r n a l r a d i a t i o n o f Hanford
origin.
          I t should be noted t h a t t h e t o t a l exposure t o a c r i t i c a l
o r g a n c o n s i s t s o f i r r a d i a t i o n from r a d i o n u c l i d e s d e p o s i t e d b o t h
w i t h i n t h a t o r g a n and e l s e w h e r e i n t h e body, and from i r r a d i a t i o n
from s o u r c e s e x t e r n a l t o t h e body. However, f o r p u r p o s e s of
t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e e s t i m a t e d d o s e t o a c r i t i c a l o r g a n from
i n t e r n a l e m i t t e r s i n c l u d e s o n l y c o n t r i b u t i o n s from r a d i o n u c l i d e s
deposited w i t h i n t h a t organ.
        For t h y r o i d d o s e c a l c u l a t i o n s , t h e F e d e r a l R a d i a t i o n Coun-
c i l h a s g i v e n s p e c i f i c g u i d a n c e ( 2 3 ) f o r p e r m i s s i b l e d a i l y 1311
i n t a k e f o r i n f a n t s , assuming a t h y r o i d s i z e o f 2 g. W have         e
u s e d t h i s g u i d a n c e , b o t h f o r t h e t r a n s l a t i o n of r a d i o i o d i n e
i n t a k e t o d o s e and f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e g r o u p s f o r
dose e v a l u a t i o n .
        For whole-body and G I t r a c t d o s e c a l c u l a t i o n s . we h a v e
u s e d ICRP v a l u e s (")         f o r t h e s e v e r a l physiological'parameters
i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s l a t i n g i n t a k e t o d o s e . T h e r e f o r e , i n 1968
a l l e s t i m a t e d o r g a n d o s e s ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s e f o r bone) were c a l -
c u l a t e d i n d o s e - e q u i v a l e n t t e r m s , and compared a g a i n s t t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d s a s d e f i n e d i n t h e AEC Manual. ( 8 )
         The r a d i o l o g i c a l u n i t u s e d t h r o u g h o u t most o f t h i s r e p o r t
i s t h e rem ( d o s e - e q u i v a l e n t ) . When t h e n u c l i d e s o f i n t e r e s t a t
Hanford a r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h t h e o r g a n s ( o t h e r t h a n s k e l e t a l
bone) f o r which r a d i a t i o n d o s e s ( i n r a d s ) a r e c a l c u l a t e d , t h e
u n i t s r a d and rem a r e n u m e r i c a l l y e q u a l .

        The t e r m " a n a l y t i c a l l i m i t " i s d e f i n e d a s t h e c o n c e n t r a -
t i o n a t which t h e l a b o r a t o r y c a n measure a r a d i o n u c l i d e w i t h a n
accuracy ( b a s - p r e c i s i o n composite) of                  +loo% a t       the 90%
confidence l e v e l .          The d e t e c t i o n l i m i t f o r a s p e c i f i c r a d i o -
n u c l i d e v a r i e s w i t h sample t y p e , sample s i z e , c o u n t i n g t i m e ,
and amounts of i n t e r f e r i n g r a d i o n u c l i d e s p r e s e n t . The " ana-
l y t i c a l limits" g i v e n r e p r e s e n t upper bounds t o t h e s e f l u c t u a t -
ing d e t e c t i o n l i m i t s .
                                        S I T E DESCRIPTION
         The Hanford s i t e i s i n a s e m i a r i d r e g i o n of s o u t h e a s t e r n
Washington S t a t e ( F i g u r e 1 ) where t h e a v e r a g e r a i n f a l l i s
a b o u t 16 cm (6 i n . ) .  T h i s s e c t i o n of t h e s t a t e has a s p a r s e
c o v e r i n g of n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n p r i m a r i l y s u i t e d f o r g r a z i n g ,
a l t h o u g h l a r g e a r e a s n e a r t h e s i t e have g r a d u a l l y been p u t
                                                               The p l a n t s i t e
under i r r i g a t i o n d u r i n g t h e p a s t few y e a r s .
( F i g u r e 2) c o v e r s an a r e a of a b o u t 1300 km2 (500 m i 2 ) . The
Columbia R i v e r f l o w s t h r o u g h t h e n o r t h e r n edge o f t h e p r o j e c t
and forms p a r t of t h e e a s t e r n boundary. A s i n d i c a t e d by t h e
wind r o s e s shown i n F i g u r e 2 , p r e v a i l i n g winds n e a r t h e p l a n t
p r o d u c t i o n s i t e s a r e from t h e n o r t h w e s t , w i t h s t r o n g d r a i n a g e
and c r o s s winds c a u s i n g d i s t o r t e d flow p a t t e r n s . The meteorology
of t h e r e g i o n i s t y p i c a l of d e s e r t a r e a s w i t h f r e q u e n t s t r o n g
i n v e r s i o n s o c c u r r i n g a t n i g h t and b r e a k i n g d u r i n g t h e day t o
p r o v i d e u n s t a b l e and t u r b u l e n t c o n d i t i o n s .
          The p o p u l a t e d a r e a of p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i s t h e T r i - C i t i e s
a r e a ( R i c h l a n d , ~ a s c o ,and Kennewick) s i t u a t e d on t h e Columbia
R i v e r d i r e c t l y downstream from t h e p l a n t . S m a l l e r communities
i n t h e v i c i n i t y a r e Benton C i t y , West R i c h l a n d , Mesa, and
O t h e l l o . The p o p u l a t i o n of t h e communities n e a r t h e p l a n t ,
t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e surrounding a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a , i s about
95,000.
FIGURE 1.   Geographical Relationship of Hanford
            to the Pacific Northwest
Neg 0661379-1

  FIGURE 2.     F'eat.we;   of HanfoM Project and the Vicinity
                 SOURCES AND L E V E L S O F ENVIRONMENTAL R A D I O A C T I V I T Y

     Low-level wastes from plant operations, fallout from
nuclear weapons testing, naturally occurring radioelements, and
cosmic rays contribute to radioactivity in the Hanford environs.
Hanford operations that could contribute to radioactivity o u t I - - - - - - - _ - - - -
- - -   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


side the plant boundary are: (1) the disposal of reactor cool-
ing water to the Columbia River, (2) stack releases at the
chemical separations areas and laboratory areas, and (3) disposal
of radioactive wastes to ground.
     The most significant Hanford contributions to off-plant
radioactivity and population doses usually originate with
reactor cooling water released to the Columbia River. Although
                     3'
airborne releases of l1   have contributed in past years to the
thyroid doses of the local population, the major portion of the
thyroid doses in 1968 resulted from radioiodines in drinking
water.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                          -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -   -




      Noteworthy events during 1968 included the retirement in
 mid-February of B Reactor, the fifth Hanford production reactor
 to be retired since 1964. Four plutonium production reactors
(including the dual-purpose N reactor) remained in operation.
 Increases in atmospheric total beta concentrations in January
with sustained high concentrations throughout the first part of
 the year were attributed primarily to an announced ( 4 ) foreign
weapons test in December 1967.
 RADIOACTIVITY I N THE COLUMBIA RIVER

 Nuclides Present in Reactor Effluent
         Cooling of the Hanford production reactors (with the excep-
 t i o 9-f-                               -by
         ~ _N_reactar) i s accornp-1-i-shed a-single- pass- -of- treated
                                           -                                                                                                                  -   -   -   -   -   -   - - -   -   -   -   -.-
 Columbia River water. The N reactor uses recirculating demin-
 eralized water as a primary coolant, and all waste water contain-
 ing significant amounts of radioactive material is discharged
 t o ' a ground disposal site near the river. Although some of
these radionuclides eventually enter the river, the total
quantity of radioactivity entering the Columbia River from
N reactor is a negligibly small fraction of that released
from the older reactors.
     At the older reactors, some elements present in the cool-
ing water are activated during the single pass through the
reactors. In addition, radioactive materials formed on the
surfaces of fuel elements and process tubes are eventually
carried away by the cooling water to the river. Table 5 shows
the relative abundance of the radionuclides found in the cool-
ing water of the older production reactors, adjusted to 4 hr
after leaving the reactor.
     Many of the radionuclides formed in reactor cooling water
are short-lived and disappear quickly due to radioactive decay.
In addition, sedimentation and uptake by aquatic organisms
remove some fraction of most radionuclides from the river water.
Relatively small amounts of fission products are present in
the river because of the fissioning of natural uranium present
in the river water, because of occasional ruptures of the fuel
elenent jackets, and because of fallout from nuclear weapons
testing,
     Some radionuclides also enter the river from wastes
disposed to ground, but their contribution to the total radio-
activity is extremely small. (See Radioactivity in Ground-
water, page 30).
River Flow Rates
     The seasonal fluctuations in flow rate of the Columbia
River affect radionuclide concentrations by varying the quan-
tity of water available for dilution of reactor effluent
released to the river. In addition, the seasonal scouring of
sediments deposited in reservoirs behind each dam causes
seasonal fluctuations in transport rates of those longer-lived
           TABLE 5.          R e l a t i v e Abundance o f R e a c t o r
                             E f f l u e n t Radionuclides ( a )
 Major,            Minor,
  90%               9%                            Trace. 1%

 2 4 ~ a        3 2 ~

 31~i           4 6 ~ c
 51~r           69m~n

     6 ~ n      7 2 ~ a
 64~u             6 ~ s

                "sr
                lZ2sb
                13ZI
                       (b 1
                1 4 0 ~ ~
                1 5 2mEU (b 1
                           (b 1
                153sm
                165        (b 1
                      DY
                239
                      NP




a.    T r a c e n u c l i d e c o m p o s i t i o n based on a n a l y s e s , 1 9 6 4 and
      1968.
b.    T h e s e r a d i o n u c Z i d e s a s a group a r e d e n o t e d h e r e a f t e r
      a s RE + Y ( R a r e E a r t h s + Y t t r i u m ) .
                                                                                        BNWL- 1341


nuclides associated with t h e sediments. This i s notably t r u e
                c
f o r 4 6 ~ and 6 5 ~ n . Also a f f e c t e d by t h e flow r a t e i s t h e time
r e q u i r e d f o r a s p e c i f i c volume of w a t e r t o move from one l o c a -
t i o n t o a n o t h e r which i n t u r n a f f e c t s t h e amount of decay of
the shorter- lived nuclides.
     F i g u r e 3 shows t h e weekly a v e r a g e flow r a t e s of t h e
Columbia River a t P r i e s t Rapids and B o n n e v i l l e Dams determined
from d a i l y average flow r a t e s p u b l i s h e d by t h e U.S. G e o l o g i c a l
Survey. ( 2 7 ) For 1968, t h e a v e r a g e r i v e r flow r a t e a t P r i e s t
Rapids was 3380 m 3 / s e c (120,000 f t 3 / s e c ) which was below t h e
1948-1962 annual average of 3770 m 3 / s e c (133,000 f t 3 / s e c . )
River Concentrations
         During 1968, samples of r i v e r w a t e r were c o l l e c t e d above
t h e p r o d u c t i o n r e a c t o r a r e a s a t P r i e s t Rapids Dam and below
t h e a r e a s a t t h e Richland w a t e r p l a n t i n t a k e , McNary Dam, and
B o n n e v i l l e Dam. Where p o s s i b l e , cumulative sampling equipment
was used t o p r o v i d e a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample t h a n p e r i o d i c
"grab" samples. T h i s c u m u l a t i v e sampling t e c h n i q u e , however,
p r e v e n t s c a l c u l a t i o n of t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of r a d i o n u c l i d e s
w i t h v e r y s h o r t h a l f - l i v e s ; t h e s e were measured i n monthly
"grab" samples. D e t a i l e d measurements a r e r e p o r t e d i n t h e
Appendices. (2)
          T a b l e 6 shows t h e annual average r a d i o n u c l i d e c o n c e n t r a -
t i o n s i n r i v e r w a t e r a t Richland and a t B o n n e v i l l e Dam f o r
1965-1968. The d a t a f o r 1966 i n c l u d e t h e e f f e c t s of r e a c t o r
o u t a g e s d u r i n g t h e July - August s t r i k e . Comparison of 1968
w i t h 1967 c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n d i c a t e s a g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n f o r
most r a d i o n u c l i d e s . P a r t of t h e a p p a r e n t r e d u c t i o n i n 3 2 ~
a t Richland i s due t o a change from "grab" t o cumulative
sampling. For example, t h e a v e r a g e of t h e c u m u l a t i v e samples
d u r i n g 1967 was 130 p C i / l i t e r compared t o 190 p C i / l i t e r f o r
"grab" samples of 3 2 ~ . I n 1968, c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of t h e
                                       BNWL- 1 3 4 1
0   0
N   0
N   d   r   l
            w   M
    0       .   .   r   l   0     d
W   N       O   w r l       L C   .
W   M       V   v       v   rl    r.
s h o r t - l i v e d r a d i o n u c l i d e s were e x p e c t e d t o be lower t h a n i n
p r e v i o u s y e a r s b e c a u s e fewer p r o d u c t i o n r e a c t o r s remained i n
o p e r a t i o n . Moreover, t h e o p e r a t i n g r e a c t o r s a r e f a r t h e r
upstream t h a n t h e r e t i r e d r e a c t o r s ( e x c e p t "B" r e a c t o r ) . A s
i n p a s t y e a r s , t o t a l a l p h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured i n r i v e r
w a t e r a t R i c h l a n d were n e a r t h e a n a l y t i c a l l i m i t (A.L. -
1 p C i / l i t e r ) and were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e
measured i n samples c o l l e c t e d upstream from t h e Hanford p r o j e c t .

        Sampling t r a v e r s e s a c r o s s t h e Columbia River a t R i c h l a n d
have i n d i c a t e d a s l i g h t l y nonuniform d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e l o n g e r -
l i v e d r a d i o n u c l i d e s a t t h i s c r o s s s e c t i o n . E n t r i e s of t h e
Yakima R i v e r j u s t below R i c h l a n d and of t h e Snake R i v e r j u s t
below Pasco i n f l u e n c e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of r a d i o n u c l i d e s i n t h e
Columbia below t h e s e two p o i n t s . The magnitude of t h e i n f l u -
ence v a r i e s w i t h s e a s o n a l changes i n t h e flow r a t e of t h e
tributaries.
          B o n n e v i l l e Dam, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 490 km (240 m i l e s ) below
t h e Hanford r e a c t o r s , i s t h e f a r t h e s t downstream l o c a t i o n
where r i v e r w a t e r i s r o u t i n e l y sampled a s p a r t of t h e Hanford
e n v i r o n m e n t a l s u r v e i l l a n c e program. Measurements a t t h i s
l o c a t i o n p r o v i d e a n upper l i m i t t o t h e a n n u a l t r a n s p o r t of
s p e c i f i c n u c l i d e s i n t o t h e P a c i f i c Ocean (Table 7 ) .
       TABLE 7.        Annual Average Transport Rates of Selected
                       Radionuclides Past Bonneville Dam (Ci/day)
     Radionuclides              1968          1967          1966            1965          1964




a.    The    (--)    i n d i c a t e s no r o u t i n e a n a l y s i s was made.
Transport Rates
     Figures 4a and 4b show the river transport rates of
several radionuclides past Richland. Table 6 shows the annual
average transport rates of selected radionuclides past
Bonneville Dam. More detailed measurements are presented in the
Appendices. ('I Transport rates of 84-day 4 6 ~ care now shown in
Figure 4 and Table 6 because concentrations of this particular
radionuclide increased to detectable values in 1967. The trans-
port rates at Richland in 1968 for the five radionuclides shown
were all lower than the 1967 values, primarily due to changes in
reactor operation and the retirement of the "B" reactor.
Trend Indicator - Whitefish
     The Columbia River is popular for sports fishing both
above and below the Hanford reservation. Fish feeding down-
stream from the reactors acquire some reactor-effluent radio-
nuclides through food chains with 3 2 being the most signifi-
                                      ~
cant in regard to population doses. Changes in river concen-
trations and temperatures may induce changes in concentrations
in biological media. However, the ultimate uptake of radio-
nuclides depends on complex environmental interrelationships.
Whitefish are the sports fish that usually contain the great-
est concentration of radioactive materials. Furthermore,
they can be caught during winter months when other sports fish
are difficult to sample. Therefore, 3 2 data accumulated from
                                         ~
whitefish sampling near the plant boundary are useful as a
trend indicator of concentrations in biological media even
though whitefish are not the most significant source of
radionuclides for the local population.
     Concentrations of 3 2 in whitefish during 1968 tended to
                           ~
follow the same seasonal trends observed in past years (Figure 5).
The average concentrations of 3 2 in whitefish sampled downstream
                                  ~
    a, id'
2   $y
                                                                                         BNWL- 1341


from t h e r e a c t o r s d u r i n g 1968 was 140 pCi/g,                 a s compared w i t h
260 pCi 3 2 ~ / gd u r i n g 1967. (3) The lower a v e r a g e 3 2 concen-             ~
t r a t i o n i n 1968 was a t t r i b u t e d t o d e c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
of 3 2 ~ n t h e r i v e r and d e c r e a s e d r i v e r t e m p e r a t u r e s .
       i

R A D I O A C T I V I T Y I N THE A T M O S P H E R E

        A t Hanford, gaseous w a s t e s from t h e chemical s e p a r a t i o n s
f a c i l i t i e s a r e r e l e a s e d t o t h e atmosphere t h r o u g h e l e v a t e d
s t a c k s a f t e r most of t h e r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s have been
removed. L a b o r a t o r y s t a c k s , r e a c t o r - b u i l d i n g s t a c k s , and
s t a c k s from w a s t e s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s r e l e a s e r e l a t i v e l y minor
amounts of r a d i o a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s under normal o p e r a t i n g con-
d i t i o n s . F i g u r e 6 shows t h e l o c a t i o n s of o f f s i t e a i r sampling
stations.
         Measurements o f a i r b o r n e 1311, t h e r a d i o n u c l i d e of p r i m a r y
i n t e r e s t , were made r o u t i n e l y d u r i n g 1968 a t a b o u t 30 l o c a t i o n s
w i t h i n and n e a r t h e Hanford r e s e r v a t i o n . F i g u r e 7 shows t h e
d a t a from o f f s i t e a i r samples from n e a r b y l o c a t i o n s i n t h e
d i r e c t i o n of t h e p r e v a i l i n g wind ( S o u t h e a s t Q u a d r a n t ) . The
r e s u l t s of l3'1 measurements f o r f o u r s e l e c t e d l o c a t i o n s f o r
t h e p a s t few y e a r s , which i n c l u d e c o n t r i b u t i o n s from o f f s i t e
weapons t e s t s , a r e summarized i n T a b l e 8 , w i t h a more d e t a i l e d
t a b u l a t i o n i n t h e Appendices. ( 2 ) The l o c a t i o n s l i s t e d i n
T a b l e 8 l i e w i t h i n a 45' s e c t o r s o u t h e a s t t o s o u t h of t h e
s e p a r a t i o n s a r e a s . The e n v i r o n m e n t a l 13'1 c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
                                                                                                       7
f o r 1968 a v e r a g e d l e s s t h a n t h e a n a l y t i c a l l i m i t of 0.02 p ~ i / m 3
a t R i c h l a n d , Pasco, and Kennewick, A s u s t a i n e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n
of l3'1 a t t h i s l e v e l i n b r e a t h i n g a i r would imply an a n n u a l
r a d i a t i o n d o s e t o t h e t h y r o i d of t h e S t a n d a r d Man ('O) of l e s s
t h a n 1 mrem from i n s p i r e d a i r . *


*   Assuming t h a t volume b r e a t h i n g r a t e i s p r o p o r t i o n a Z t o
    t h y r o i d s i z e , t h e t h y r o i d d o s e from i n h a l a t i o n o f 1 3 1 ~
    i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f age and t h y r o i d s i z e . ( 2 8 )
                                                                              WAITSBURG




@   SOUTHEAST               QUADRANT

A   P E R I M E T E R COMMUNITIES                                                     ---   --

S C A L E   -   M I L E S




                   F I G U R E 6.      O f f s i t e Air Sampling Locations
                                                                                           -n
                                                                                           -
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    I



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             I   I   I   I   I   I   I




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                                         I   I   I   I       I



                                                                             1.
                                                                                  a
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                                                                                                    s
                                                                                                    0
                                                                                                    d
                                                                                                     '
            TABLE 8.        Annual Average 1311C o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( a
                             i n t h e Atmosphere, ( p ~ i / m 3 )
                               Distance
                          from S e p a r a t i o n
     Location               Stacks, k    m         1968      19'67 1966 1965 1964
                                                             ----
   Prosser
   Barricade                         23                 O.Ol(b)          0.02      0.02         0.03     0.02
   Benton C i t y                    32                 0.01             0.02      0.01         0.03     0.06
   Richland                          32                 0.02             0.02      0.01         0.02     0.02
   Pasco                             51                 0.02             0.02      0.01         0.03     0.01

                                                                                           I   u/
   a.     C o n c e n t r a t i o n Guide ( A E C Manual C h a p t e r 0524,                        Annex I ,
          T a b l e I I , Column 1 ) - 100 p ~ i / m 3 .
   b.     S a m p l i n g a t P r o s s e r B a r r i c a d e was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n A p r i l 1968.

        Continuous sampling f o r r a d i o a c t i v i t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a i r -
borne p a r t i c u l a t e s was m a i n t a i n e d a s of t h e end of 1968 a t 35
l o c a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e w i t h i n t h e Hanford r e s e r v a t i o n and
around t h e p l a n t p e r i m e t e r a t d i s t a n c e s up t o 7 5 m i l e s .                  The
g r o s s b e t a a c t i v i t y of each sample f i l t e r was r o u t i n e l y
measured (based on ' O S ~ - Y                calibration) with detailed radio-
a n a l y s e s performed on f i l t e r s showing u n u s u a l b e t a a c t i v i t y .

     F i g u r e 8 shows a v e r a g e t o t a l b e t a c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r t h e
group of samples c o l l e c t e d from t h e S o u t h e a s t Quadrant and
from o t h e r more d i s t a n t l o c a t i o n s ( P e r i m e t e r Communities), w i t h
a complete t a b u l a t i o n i n t h e Appendices.                            The h i g h e r atmos-
p h e r i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of r a d i o a c t i v e p a r t i c u l a t e m a t e r i a l d u r i n g
t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1968 compared t o f a l l 1967 were a t t r i b u t e d
p r i m a r i l y t o f a l l o u t f o l l o w i n g a f o r e i g n n u c l e a r weapons t e s t
i n l a t e December 1967.                The o b s e r v e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were com-
p a r a b l e t o t h o s e o b s e r v e d d u r i n g s i m i l a r e v e n t s of r e c e n t y e a r s .
A s i m i l a r i n c r e a s e i n t o t a l b e t a c o n c e n t r a t i o n s was n o t e d i n
December 1968, however, no s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e was n o t e d i n
t h e s o u t h e a s t q u a d r a n t l o c a t i o n s b e c a u s e of t h e nonuniform
    -
    -
    -
    -                                                                                                    Perimeter Communities
    -                                                                                           0        S.E. Quadrant
    -
    -




                                                                                       -
                                                                                       V




    -

    -                                                                                      Y



    -
                                                                                                 -           *
                                                                                                                                         u

                                                                                                     +LyLU
                                                                                                         0
    -
    -
    -
    -
    -

    -

                                     -         --- -
                                                                         Analytical Limit
                                                                        -- -                                     -- - --




        I I I I I I I I I I I     I I I I I I I I I I I   I I I I I I I I I I I            I I I I I I I I I I I       1 l 1 1 1 l I I I l I
    J           J
              1964          DlJ
                                          J
                                        1961          Dr          J
                                                                1966              1'             1967
                                                                                                     J
                                                                                                                  '1
                                                                                                                               J
                                                                                                                               1968
                                                                                                                                               D




FIGURE 8.            Monthly Average Particulate Total Beta Concentrations
                     in the Air of Hanford Environs (p~i/rn3)
g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . The
i n c r e a s e was a t t r i b u t e d t o f a l l o u t from a n o f f s i t e s o u r c e and
t h e c o n t a m i n a n t was i d e n t i f i e d a s r a d i o t u n g s t e n .
R A D I O A C T I V I T Y I N GROUNDWATER

        R a d i o a c t i v i t y i n t h e groundwater b e n e a t h t h e Hanford p r o -
j e c t r e s u l t s p r i m a r i l y from g r o u n d d i s p o s a l o f w a s t e s i n t h e
chemical s e p a r a t i o n s a r e a s . These wastes a r e routed t o v a r i o u s
f a c i l i t i e s , d e p e n d e n t upon t h e i r r a d i o n u c l i d e b u r d e n and chemi-
c a l c o n t e n t . H i g h - l e v e l w a s t e s * a r e s t o r e d i n underground con-
c r e t e tanks l i n e d with s t e e l . I n t e r m e d i a t e - l e v e l wastes*" a r e
s e n t t o underground " c r i b s t t (covered l i q u i d waste d i s p o s a l
s i t e s ) from w h i c h t h e y p e r c o l a t e i n t o t h e s o i l . The a r e a s
s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e - l e v e l w a s t e d i s p o s a l and h i g h - l e v e l
w a s t e s t o r a g e h a v e s o i l w i t h good i o n exchange c a p a c i t y and
g r o u n d w a t e r d e p t h s o f 50 t o 100 m .     Low-level wastest a r e
u s u a l l y s e n t t o d e p r e s s i o n s i n t h e g r o u n d w h e r e s u r f a c e ponds
o r "swampstt h a v e b e e n formed a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e c o n t i n u o u s
a d d i t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e volumes of w a t e r .
        One i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e i n t h e management o f w a s t e s p l a c e d
i n t h e ground i s t h e p r e v e n t i o n of r a d i o l o g i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t
r a d i o n u c l i d e s from r e a c h i n g t h e groundwater i n q u a n t i t i e s t h a t
c o u l d u l t i m a t e l y c a u s e s i g n i f i c a n t human r a d i a t i o n e x p o s u r e
s h o u l d t h e y m i g r a t e t o t h e Columbia R i v e r . An e x t e n s i v e g r o u n d -
w a t e r s u r v e i l l a n c e program i s m a i n t a i n e d a t H a n f o r d t o a i d i n
a c h i e v i n g t h i s o b j e c t i v e . Hundreds o f w e l l s h a v e b e e n d r i l l e d
a t v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s around t h e Hanford p r o j e c t , i n c l u d i n g
s i t e s w i t h i n and n e a r c r i b and t a n k s t o r a g e a r e a s , t o m o n i t o r
t h e movement o f r a d i o n u c l i d e s i n t h e g r o u n d w a t e r .
        The r a d i o a c t i v i t y i n groundwater from t h e c h e m i c a l s e p a r a -
t i o n s a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e immediate v i c i n i t y o f t h e d i s p o s a l
s i t e s i s p r i m a r i l y 3~ and lo6Ru-Rh, a l t h o u g h 6 0 ~ o and "TC
have a l s o b e e n found b u t a t much lower c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . The
more r a d i o t o x i c n u c l i d e s , s u c h a s 'Osr, have n o t been d e t e c t e d
i n g r o u n d w a t e r e x c e p t i n t h e immediate v i c i n i t y o f a few s p e c i -
f i c disposal s i t e s .
        F i g u r e s 9 and 1 0 show t h e p r o b a b l e e x t e n t of d e t e c t a b l e
3~ and lo6Ru-Rh i n groundwater b e n e a t h t h e Hanford p r o j e c t a s
of December 31, 1968. (")  The o u t e r b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e c o n t a m i -
n a t i o n c o n t o u r s , e . g . , 0 . 1 % CG* f o r 3~ and 2 % CG f o r l o 6 ~ u - ~ h ,
represent the detection l e v e l s rountinely achievable f o r these
radionuclides.
         I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , some r a d i o n u c l i d e s from t h e c h e m i c a l
p r o c e s s i n g a r e a s a r e p r e s e n t l y e n t e r i n g t h e Columbia R i v e r .
However, t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f t h e s e n u c l i d e s a r e t o o s m a l l t o
b e r o u t i n e l y measurable i n t h e groundwater n e a r t h e r i v e r o r
i n t h e r i v e r i t s e l f , and any r a d i a t i o n d o s e from them i s
negligible.

F A L L O U T FROM NUCLEAR WEAPONS T E S T S
          F r e s h f a l l o u t i n e a r l y 1968 r e s u l t e d from a n announced ( 4 )
f o r e i g n n u c l e a r weapons t e s t i n December, 1967. A i r b o r n e
p a r t i c u l a t e r a d i o a c t i v i t y c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( F i g u r e 8 ) were h i g h e r
d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1968 a s a r e s u l t o f t h e December 1967

*    c o n c e n t r a t i o n Guide       G I i s t h e new t e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e AEC
     Manual C h a p t e r 0 5 2 4 ( 7 F and i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e t e r m Maximum
     PermissibZe Concentration (MPC) a s used i n previous r e p o r t s
     i n t h i s s e r i e s . The C o n c e n t r a t i o n Guide ( C G ) r e f e r r e d t o i s
     t h a t f o r c o n t i n u o u s e x p o s u r e t o i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e
     public.          I t i s only one- tenth t h a t permitted for occupational
     exposure, b u t about t h r e e times t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n permitted
      f o r a s u i t a b l e sample o f t h e e x p o s e d p o p u l a t i o n .
              K i 1o m e t e r s




  FIGURE 9.                       3~ Concentrations in Ground Water        -   July-
                                  December, 1968
          .eL.




          -
          0       4       8   12
    K i 1o m e t e r s



          0           4       8         12
                      M i 1e s




    1                 2-191 CG
   -,,I        -b,-
                      1 0 - 5 0 4 CG

                      ,100         CG

                      *CG = 3 0 0 0 p C i     06~u/ml

                       *AECM Ch 0 5 2 4 ,    Ann.1,   Tbl.11,   Col.   2

FIGURE 10.                    lo6~u Concentrations in Ground Water             -   July-
                              December, 1968
event.       Atmospheric c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of                    ( F i g u r e 7) were
w i t h i n t h e normal r a n g e of f l u c t u a t i o n from p l a n t s o u r c e s , b u t
l3'1 c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n m i l k samples r e a c h e d a peak of 2 5 pCi/
l i t e r i n January.          For comparison, i n J a n u a r y 1967, t h e peak
l3'1 c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n m i l k was 83 p C i / l i t e r a s a r e s u l t of
f a l l o u t from a f o r e i g n weapons t e s t i n December 1966.
        I n December, a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n b e t a a c t i v i t y i n t h e
atmosphere was a t t r i b u t e d t o r e g i o n a l f a l l o u t from a n e v e n t
a t t h e Nevada T e s t                         w i t h t h e h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of
                                                               3
p a r t i c u l a t e r a d i o a c t i v i t y (3.9 pCi/m ) a t Walla Walla d u r i n g
t h e p e r i o d December 6 t h r o u g h December 20. The p r i n c i p a l
gamma-emitter was i d e n t i f i e d a s r a d i o t u n g s t e n .

         o
        N s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o atmospheric r a d i a t i o n
l e v e l s was d e t e c t e d i n December samples f o l l o w i n g t h e announced (30)
f o r e i g n n u c l e a r weapons t e s t of December 2 7 , 1968.
        R o u t i n e measurements i n f o o d s of t h e f a l l o u t n u c l i d e s
1311, ' O S ~ ,                  s
                     and 1 3 7 ~ a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Exposure Pathways,
page 54.
        C o n c e n t r a t i o n s of 3~ i n r i v e r w a t e r a r e measured upstream
from Hanford a t P r i e s t Rapids Dam and downstream from Hanford
a t R i c h l a n d . The a v e r a g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of 3~ a t P r i e s t Rapids
Dam and R i c h l a n d were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t 1 . 6 and
1 . 7 n C i / l i t e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y , compared t o 1 . 4 and 1 . 5 n C i / l i t e r
a t t h e s e l o c a t i o n s d u r i n g 1967.
                                      E X P O S U R E PATHWAYS

R A D I O N U C L I D E S I N D R I N K I N G WATER

        The c i t y of R i c h l a n d i s t h e f i r s t community downstream
from t h e Hanford r e a c t o r s t h a t u s e s t h e Columbia R i v e r a s a
s o u r c e of d r i n k i n g w a t e r . Pasco and Kennewick, a few k i l o m e t e r s
f a r t h e r downstream, a l s o u s e t h e Columbia R i v e r a s a s o u r c e of
d r i n k i n g w a t e r . The R i c h l a n d and Pasco w a t e r p l a n t s u s e a
modern f l o c c u l a t i o n - f i l t r a t i o n method; Kennewick w a t e r i s
pumped from Rainey w e l l c o l l e c t o r s ( i n f i l t r a t i o n p i p e s ) l a i d
i n the riverbank.            During 1968, c u m u l a t i v e d r i n k i n g w a t e r sam-
p l e s were c o l l e c t e d a t t h e R i c h l a n d and Pasco w a t e r p l a n t s ,
and p e r i o d i c samples a t a l l t h r e e communities.                   A l l of t h e s e
samples were a n a l y z e d f o r i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l r a d i o n u c l i d e s .
D e t a i l e d a n a l y s e s of d r i n k i n g w a t e r from t h e s e t h r e e c i t i e s
a r e a v a i l a b l e i n t h e Appendices,         and a r e summarized i n
T a b l e 9.      I n J u n e , analyses of i n d i v i d u a l r a d i o n u c l i d e s i n
samples from Kennewick were d i s c o n t i n u e d b e c a u s e p r e v i o u s
e x p e r i e n c e h a s shown t h a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of r a d i o n u c l i d e s i n
Kennewick w a t e r a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t h a n a t Pasco o r
R i c h l a n d . Kennewick samples c o n t i n u e d t o b e a n a l y z e d f o r g r o s s
beta.
          .
         The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of s h o r t - l i v e d r a d i o n u c l i d e s i n t h e
w a t e r a t t h e t i m e i t i s consumed a r e l e s s t h a n shown i n T a b l e 9
b e c a u s e t h e r e c a n b e a s i g n i f i c a n t t r a n s p o r t t i m e between t h e
w a t e r p l a n t and most consumers. The t r a n s p o r t t i m e may v a r y
from h o u r s t o d a y s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e c u s t o m e r s
on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m and t h e w a t e r demand.           I n Richland,
many r e s i d e n t s r e c e i v e no r a d i o a c t i v i t y of Hanford o r i g i n i n
d r i n k i n g w a t e r d u r i n g t h e t i m e s of t h e y e a r when w e l l w a t e r i s
u s e d t o supplement t h e s y s t e m s u p p l y .

        T a b l e 1 0 p r e s e n t s c a l c u l a t e d d o s e s t o t h e a d u l t whole body,
G I t r a c t , and bone from s u s t a i n e d consumption a t a s t a n d a r d
 TABLE 9.         Average Concentrations (a) of Several Radionuclides
                  in Drinking Water, 1968 (pCi/liter)
      Radionuclide               Richland            Pasco          Kennewick ( b ) '
         RE   +   Y
                  '
                  )
                  (                 46               20                   9




         122sb                      120              100                  22
         131,     (a)               6.9              5.9                  <2
         133,                       41               2')
                                                      4*                  ----
        239~p                       670              340                  57
      Total Beta,
      counts/min/ml                 2.9              1.2                  0.3

a.    Measured a t t h e w a t e r p l a n t s
b.    Kennewick c o n c e n t r a t i o n s were based o n m o n t h l y grab samples
      c o l l e c t e d January t h r o u g h June e x c e p t f o r t o t a l b e t a w h i c h was
      based on w e e k l y grab s a m p l e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e year
c.    See T a b l e 4 for d e f i n i t i o n
d..   R e s u l t s b a s e d on c u m u Z a t i v e sampZes a t R i c h l a n d and Pasco
e.    E s t i m a t e baeed on an avepage r a t i o of 1 3 3 ~ / 1 3 1o~ 6:1      f
      measured i n grab s a m p l e s
f.                                                                                f
      E s t i m a t e b a s e d on an a v e r a g e r a t i o o f 1 3 3 ~ / 1 3 1o~ 4 : 1
      measured i n grab samples
     TABLE 10.       C a l c u l a t e d Annual Doses t o S e l e c t e d O r a n s from
                     R o u t i n e I n g e s t i o n o f D r i n k i n g Water, (a7 1 9 6 8 ( m r e m )

                                                                        Thyroid ( I n f a n t )
                Whole Body         GI T r a c t         Bone            0.4 l i t e r s / d a y
Richland             1.5                18                  4.0                     48
                                                    ( 0 . 1 % MPRI)
Pasco                0.5                12                  2.5                     32
                                                    ( < 0 . 1 %MPRI)

a.     The " S t a n d a r d Man" f 2 0 1 a v e r a g e i n t a k e r a t e o f 1 . 2 l i t e r s /
       day was u s e d i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e
       thyroid.

i n t a k e of 1 . 2 l i t e r s / d a y , and t o t h e i n f a n t 2 g t h y r o i d from con-
sumption of 0 . 4 l i t e r s / d a y of d r i n k i n g w a t e r i n R i c h l a n d and
Pasco. Average c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of r a d i o n u c l i d e s measured a t t h e
w a t e r p l a n t s were u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e s e d o s e s . However,
t h r i c e - w e e k l y measurements of g r o s s b e t a a c t i v i t y were a l s o
used i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e G I - t r a c t dose.    .
                                                                .




        The d o s e e s t i m a t e s f o r Pasco r e s i d e n t s r e f l e c t a downward
t r e n d from 1967. The t h y r o i d dose f o r 1968 from Pasco d r i n k i n g
w a t e r (32 mrem) was s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h a t f o r 1967 (35 mrem)
b e c a u s e c o f t h e d e c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n of 1311. The a v e r a g e
r a t i o of 1 3 3 ~ / 1 3 1 ~    of 4 : l f o r Pasco i n 1968 which was b a s e d on
1968 measurements on g r a b samples was t h e same a s t h e assumed
r a t i o i n 1967.
          The e s t i m a t e d GI t r a c t d o s e t o R i c h l a n d r e s i d e n t s from
t h e measured r a d i o n u c l i d e s i n d r i n k i n g w a t e r was somewhat l o w e r
i n 1968 (18 mrem) t h a n i n 1967 (28 mrem) a s a r e s u l t o f t h e
d e c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of most measured r a d i o n u c l i d e s and a
d e c r e a s e i n t h e a v e r a g e g r o s s b e t a a c t i v i t y from 4 . 7 i n 1967
t o 2.9 counts/min/ml             i n 1968.       The i n f a n t t h y r o i d d o s e a p p e a r s
somewhat h i g h e r d u r i n g 1968 t h a n d u r i n g 1 9 6 7 ( ~ )b e c a u s e t h e e s t i -
mated c o n t r i b u t i o n of 1 3 3 ~was b a s e d on a n assumed r a t i o o f 1 3 3 ~t o
13'1 o f 4 : l i n 1967.           Measurements d u r i n g 1968, however, i n d i -
cated a s l i g h t l y higher r a t i o (6:l).               Without t h e i n c r e m e n t
from 1 3 3 ~ , t h e e s t i m a t e d t h y r o i d d o s e f o r 1968 would have been
lower t h a n f o r 1967.
     F i g u r e 11 shows t h e r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s e v e r a l
radionuclides i n t h e Richland drinking water t o t h e c a l c u l a t e d
a n n u a l d o s e t o t h e GI t r a c t , and F i g u r e 1 2 shows l o n g - t e r m
t r e n d s i n t h e GI t r a c t d o s e from Pasco and R i c h l a n d d r i n k i n g
water.
RADIONUCLIDES IN COLUMBIA RIVER FISH
     The q u a n t i t i e s and k i n d s o f f i s h c a u g h t by l o c a l f i s h e r -
men have b e e n p r e v i o u s l y e s t i m a t e d from s u r v e y s c a r r i e d o u t
from 1963 t o 1965 i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e Washington S t a t e
Game Department. The maximum e s t i m a t e o f consumption by t h e
f i s h e r m e n i n t e r v i e w e d was 200 m e a l s / y r o f p a n f i s h s p e c i e s
( c r a p p i e , p e r c h , and b a s s ) t a k e n from t h e Columbia R i v e r .
A d d i t i o n a l d i e t a r y d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g 1966 and 1967 from
h o u s e h o l d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s u r v e y s (31) a l s o
showed i n d i v i d u a l consumption e s t i m a t e s a s h i g h a s 200 meals
o f f i s h p e r y e a r . The p r i m a r y f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e
c a t c h of t h e s e f i s h were Burbank, H o v e r - F i n l e y , and I s l a n d
View ( s e e F i g u r e 2 ) . The a v e r a g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e maximum
c a t c h by s p e c i e s was 7 3 % c r a p p i e , 1 6 % b a s s , and 11%p e r c h .
       From t h i s s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n and r a d i o c h e m i c a l a n a l y s e s
of t h e specimens c o l l e c t e d ,            t h e Maximum I n d i v i d u a l 1 s e s t i -
mated i n t a k e s d u r i n g 1968 were 1 . 0 p C i 3 2 and 0 . 4 p C i 6 5 ~ n .
                                                          ~
        The a v e r a g e consumption o f Columbia R i v e r f i s h by R i c h l a n d
r e s i d e n t s was e s t i m a t e d from p l a n t employee d i e t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . ( 3 )
With t h e u s e of t h e same m i x t u r e o f s p e c i e s a s f o r t h e Maximum
                50

     s                              R e l a t i v e Abundance i n t h e Columbia R i v e r a t R i c h l a n d
     0
     .,-
     C,
     3
                                    Relative Contribution t o G.I.            T r a c t Dose a t K i c h l a n d
     -C)
     .r
                40                  ( V i a D r i n k i n g Water Pathway)
     L
     C,
     C
     0
     U

     a-
     ;
     2
     0     C,
                30
W
00   -. +
     a
           0
           b-


           0

     LC,
     0 C
                20
     v L
     c aJ
     m a
     m-
     s
     3
     n
     4:
     aJ         10
     >
     .r-
     C,
     Ki
     7
     a
     E

                 0
                                                                                                 1?2Sb             sc   3ZP   6 5 ~ n   1331   1311
                        2 4 ~ a   51 C r   G 4 ~ u 2391~p       7 6 ~ s RE+Y          561~n                                                           td

                                                                                Radionucl i d e                                                       2
                                                                                                                                                      r
                                                                                                                                                      I

                     FIGURE 11.        Relative Contribution of Various Radionuclides in Richland                                                     w
                                                                                                                                                      F
                                       Drinking Water to the GI Tract Dose for 1968                                                                   P
                                                                                                                                                      v
            luaJlu 'asoa y]uow 21
8   3     U
          d             X         0
                                  CU   s    0
a   Ln    0             I
                        n
                        d         0    Ln   0
m   C\I   C\I                     d
                otu/uaJu 'aled asoa
I n d i v i d u a l , t h e Average R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t ' s i n t a k e d u r i n g 1968
was 0 . 0 1 2 p C i 3 2 and 0 . 0 0 4 p C i 6 5 ~ n . Such a n i n t a k e c o r r e s p o n d s
                        ~
t o a bone d o s e of s l i g h t l y more t h a n 2 mrem o r a b o u t 0 . 5 % o f
t h e s t a n d a r d o f 500 mrem/yr f o r t h e p o p u l a t i o n a v e r a g e .        For
comparison, i n t a k e s d u r i n g 1967 were 0.019 p C i 3 2 and 0.004
                                                                ~
p c i (j5zn.

R A D I O N U C L I D E S I N GAME B I R D S

       M i g r a t o r y w a t e r f o w l u t i l i z i n g t h e r i v e r downstream from
t h e r e a c t o r s and u p l a n d game b i r d s l i v i n g n e a r t h e r i v e r may
b e a s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e of t h e b o n e - s e e k i n g r a d i o n u c l i d e s 3 2 ~
             f
and 6 5 ~ n o r p e r s o n s who consume s u c h b i r d s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s
o f r a d i o n u c l i d e s i n game b i r d s a t t h e time o f consumption a r e
d e p e n d e n t upon t h e b i r d s p e c i e s , t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s of
t h e b i r d s , and t h e e l a p s e d t i m e between k i l l i n g and consumption
of t h e b i r d s .
     For t h e p a s t two y e a r s , a b o u t 1 6 km2 (4000 a c r e s ) o f t h e
Hanford s i t e s i t u a t e d n o r t h of Ringold on t h e e a s t e r n s i d e of t h e
Columbia R i v e r h a s b e e n opened t o h u n t e r s d u r i n g h u n t i n g s e a s o n .
T h i s a r e a which i s a d j a c e n t t o t h e r i v e r was v i s i t e d i n 1968
by 1537 h u n t e r s f o r a n a v e r a g e o f a b o u t 33 h u n t e r s on e a c h of
t h e 46 open d a y s . ( 3 2 ) For c o m p a r i s o n , t h e a v e r a g e f o r 1967 was
a b o u t 50 h u n t e r s on e a c h o f t h e 48 open d a y s . (32)
          The a v e r a g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 3 2 i~n t h e m u s c l e ( t h e e d i b l e
p o r t i o n ) o f w a t e r f o w l c o l l e c t e d a t t h e Hanford s i t e f o r t h e
e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g program d u r i n g 1968 was a b o u t 53 p C i / g
f o r ducks and 1 . 4 pCi/g f o r g e e s e .             The maximum c o n c e n t r a t i o n
i n w a t e r f o w l d u r i n g 1968 was 450 pCi 3 2 ~ / g , which i s s i g n i f i -
c a n t l y lower t h a n t h e maxima o b s e r v e d i n t h e p a s t few y e a r s .
Average c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n m u s c l e f o r u p l a n d game b i r d s c o l l e c t e d
a t t h e Hanford s i t e a p p e a r i n T a b l e 11. The maximum 3 2 c o n -          ~
c e n t r a t i o n i n u p l a n d game b i r d m u s c l e was 490 pCi 3 2 ~ / gi n a
q u a i l sample.         I f a s m a l l c h i l d ( 2 kg s k e l e t o n ) had i m m e d i a t e l y
consumed 100 g o f t h i s q u a i l , t h e r e s u l t a n t bone d o s e would b e
a b o u t 30 mrem o r 2 % of t h e s t a n d a r d .
                                                                                BNWL- 1341

       TABLE 11.                    ~         Concentrations (a
                        Average 3 2 and 6 5 ~ n
                        in Muscle of River Birds      (pci/g)
       Species
       Duck
       Goose
       Quail
       Pheasant
       Chukar

       a.    CoZZected w i t h i n 5 km ( 3 m i l e s ) o f t h e CoZumbia
             R i v e r w i t h i n t h e Hanford boundary.
          Data from a d i e t a r y s u r v e y of Hanford employees ( 3 ) and
from a s p e c i a l s u r v e y of l o c a l h u n t e r s , (33) and c o n c e n t r a t i o n
d a t a f o r t h e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s ( ' ) have been combined i n T a b l e s
1 2 and 13. About 30% of t h e game b i r d meals consumed by l o c a l
h u n t e r s were r e p o r t e d t o be b i r d s s h o t w i t h i n a b o u t 5 k m
(3 m i l e s ) of t h e Columbia R i v e r between Ringold and McNary Dam.
Analyses showed t h a t p h e a s a n t s c o l l e c t e d beyond t h i s d i s t a n c e
c o n t a i n e d l i t t l e i f any r a d i o a c t i v i t y of Hanford o r i g i n . About
44% of a l l b i r d s e a t e n were r e p o r t e d t o have been p l a c e d i n
f r o z e n s t o r a g e which would p e r m i t a p p r e c i a b l e decay of 3 2 ~
b e f o r e consumption.
         The maximum t o t a l game b i r d consumption by a d u l t s r e p o r t e d
t o d a t e i s 100 m e a l s / y r , which we assume t o b e a b o u t 23 k g / y r .
Consumption of t h i s w e i g h t of t h e a v e r a g e game b i r d meal
(Table 1 2 ) would r e s u l t i n i n t a k e s o f 0.09 p C i 3 2 ~ / yand         r
0.04 p C i 6 5 ~ n / y r , implying 14 mrem t o t h e s k e l e t o n o f a
S t a n d a r d Man o r 1%of t h e s t a n d a r d f o r i n d i v i d u a l members of t h e
p o p u l a t i o n w i t h bone a s t h e c r i t i c a l o r g a n . Consumption of t h e
e s t i m a t e d a n n u a l i n t a k e (1.24 k g / y r ) f o r t h e Average R i c h l a n d
R e s i d e n t ( a d u l t ) would r e s u l t i n a t o t a l d o s e of l e s s t h a n
1 mrem t o t h e s k e l e t o n .
       TABLE 12.          Species Distribution of Local Game Birds

                          Duck,         Goose,    Quail,         Pheasant,        Grouse,        Dove,
                             %            %         %                  %               %           %

River Birds ( a >
of Each
Species
Meals of
Each S p e c i e s
of A l l B i r d
Meals                        23               6       12             47               13           No
                                                                                                  Data
R i v e r B i r d (a)
Meals of Each
S p e c i e s of A l l
B i r d Meals                8.5          1.8         2.3            16               <1           No
                                                                                                  Data

a.    R i v e r b i r d s a r e d e f i n e d t o b e b i r d s s h o t w i t h i n 5 km ( 3 m i l e s )
      o f t h e CoZumbia R i v e r b e t w e e n RingoZd and McNary Pam.

         TABLE 13.         ~ontribution'~) Each Species to 100 g
                                           of
                           of an Average Game Bird Meal
                                                   Radionuclide Content. D C ~
         Species             Weight, g                     -~
                                                           3 2                 65~n
         Duck                     23                       252                   28
         Goose                     6                         2                    3
         Quail                    12                        52                  8
         Pheasant                 47                        91                 76
         Grouse                   -
                                  13                       - 5                 -5
           Total                  100                      402                 120


         a.     W e i g h t e d f o r l o c a t i o n o f k i l l by u s i n g m e a s u r e d
                c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r r i v e r b i r d s and a s s u m i n g n o
                                        i
                3 2 or 6 5 ~ n n other birds.
                         ~                                          Also weighted for
                f r o z e n s t o r a g e by a s s u m i n g c o m p l e t e d e c a y o f
                3 2 p , b u t no s i g n i f i c a n t d e c a y o f 65272 d u r i n g
                frozen storage of 44% of t h e b i r d s .
RADIONUCLIDES I N SHELLFISH

        65~n    and 3 2 are the only radionuclides in the reactor
                         ~
effluent that are found in sufficient abundance in food organisms
beyond the mouth of the Columbia River to be of radiological
interest. Oysters have been found to contain higher concentra-
tions of 6 5 ~ n    than other common seafoods. (34) Monthly average
concentrations of 6 5 ~ n    and 3 2 periodically measured in oysters
                                     ~
grown commercially in the Willapa Bay area are shown in Figure 13;
the analytical results for 1968 are tabulated in the Appen-
dices. (27) A normal seasonal minimum for 3 2 occurs in the
                                                     ~
late summer. In 1968, 3 2 average concentrations remained at
                                 ~
or below 1 pCi/g and from August through December as in 1967.
The annual average concentrations for 1968 were 25 pCi 6 5 ~ n / g
a n d 3 . 3 p C i 32P/g.
     Consumption of oysters containing the 1968 average concen-
trations at the rate of 50 g/day (35) would result in annual
doses of about 5 mrem to the GI tract, 3 mrem to the whole body,
and 8 mrem to the bone of a Standard Man. (20) Fresh shellfish
are not an important item in the average Tri-Cities diet, but
residents of some coastal areas may consume more than the
reference value of 50 g/day. For such individuals, shellfish
are assumed to be their only source of radionuclides of Hanford
origin.
RADIONUCLIDES I N   M I L K AND PRODUCE
     Irrigation with river water containing reactor effluent
radionuclides can influence the radioactivity found in locally
grown products. Deposition of airborne materials from Hanford
sources and from fallout can be an additional source of radio-
nuclides in these products. Chemical separations facilities
are generally the principal local source of airborne radio-
nuclides, although radioactive materials released from ventila-
tion stacks of reactor or laboratory facilities could, under
certain conditions, be of interest.
        M o n t h l y Average Concentrations, pCilg (Wet Weight)




'-t
 C--l
        The farming a r e a c l o s e s t t o t h e s e p a r a t i o n s f a c i l i t i e s
                              m
i s a t Ringold a b o u t 2 1 k (13 m i l e s ) away.                   However, much o f
t h e l a n d e a s t and s o u t h of t h e p r o j e c t boundary ( s e e F i g u r e 2)
i s under c u l t i v a t i o n and may b e i n t h e p a t h o f a i r b o r n e r e l e a s e s .
     Most i r r i g a t e d farms n e a r t h e Hanford p l a n t o b t a i n w a t e r
from t h e Yakima R i v e r , o r from t h e Columbia R i v e r above t h e
p l a n t . However, two s m a l l i r r i g a t e d a r e a s u s i n g Columbia R i v e r
w a t e r t a k e n downstream from t h e r e a c t o r s a r e t h e Ringold farms
and t h e Riverview d i s t r i c t w e s t of Pasco. They a r e 40 and 65 k                m
(25 and 4 0 m i l e s ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y , downstream from t h e o p e r a t i n g
r e a c t o r s . The Ringold f a r m s , a b o u t 2 1 k e a s t of t h e s e p a r a -
                                                           m
                                                                    2
t i o n s a r e a s , i n v o l v e some 20 p e o p l e working 2 km (500 a c r e s )
of l a n d w i t h f r u i t a s t h e p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t . The Riverview
d i s t r i c t comprises a b o u t 2 1 km2 (5300 a c r e s ) s u p p o r t i n g a b o u t
                                                                                              2
1000 f a m i l i e s , t h e m a j o r i t y of which l i v e on p l o t s of 4000 m
( 1 a c r e ) o r l e s s and r a i s e f a m i l y g a r d e n s . The p r i n c i p a l p r o -
d u c t s from t h e l a r g e r farm p l o t s a r e hay, f r u i t , b e e f , and
d a i r y p r o d u c t s . T h i s a r e a i s c e n t e r e d 40 k (25 m i l e s ) s o u t h -
                                                                    m
e a s t of t h e chemical s e p a r a t i o n s p l a n t s .

          The m i l k s u r v e i l l a n c e program m a i n t a i n e d d u r i n g 1968
i n c l u d e d samples from l o c a l farms and d a i r i e s and from commer-
c i a l supplies a v a i l a b l e t o people i n the T r i - C i t i e s .              The con-
c e n t r a t i o n s of r a d i o n u c l i d e s found i n m i l k s o l d by commercial
o u t l e t s were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by t h e U . S . P u b l i c H e a l t h
                      and t h e Washington S t a t e Department of H e a l t h . (37)
Milk from l o c a l farms i r r i g a t e d w i t h w a t e r drawn from t h e r i v e r
                                                                         6
downstream from t h e r e a c t o r s c o n t a i n e d 3 2 ~ , 5 ~ n ,and 1311 as
w e l l a s f i s s i o n p r o d u c t s of f a l l o u t o r i g i n . Commercial m i l k
d i s t r i b u t e d i n t h e T r i - C i t i e s u s u a l l y does n o t c o n t a i n d e t e c t -
                      b
a b l e 3 2 and 6 5 ~ n e c a u s e t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y of m i l k i s produced
            ~
on farms n o t i r r i g a t e d w i t h Columbia R i v e r w a t e r .
     Figure 14 shows the monthly average concentrations of 3 2 ~
          in
and 6 5 ~ n milk from river-irrigated farms in the Ringold and
Riverview areas. Monthly averages for 1968 represent data from
two farms in Riverview, one of which was sampled in 1967.
During 1968, the annual average 3 2 concentration was 450 pCi/
                                      ~
liter compared to 320 pCi/liter in 1967 as a result of inclusion
of another sampling location in 1968. The 1968 annual average
concentration of 6 5 ~ nwas 340 pCi/liter compared to 200 pCi/
liter for 1967. Seasonal fluctuations in concentrations of
                     caused primarily by irrigation and feeding
both 3 2 and 6 5 ~ n ,
           ~
practices, followed expected trends.
     Figure 15 shows the monthly average concentrations of 1311
in locally available milk. During 1968, 1311 concentrations
in both farm milk and commercial milk were generally near or
below the analytical limit (3 pCi/liter).    The maximum 1311
concentration for the period (25 pCi/liter) was measured in a
single sample of farm milk collected on January 17 and was
attributed to increased worldwide fallout. The average concen-
                                                       -
tration for the year in farm milk was ~ 1 . 5pCi 1311/liter.
     Adult residents consuming milk (1 liter/day) obtained
from the Riverview area could have received an annual dose from
              amounting to about 4 mrem to the GI tract, 2 mrem
3 2 and 6 5 ~ n
    ~
to the whole body, and 32 mrem to the bone. The same intake of
milk by a child with a 2 kg skeleton would result in an esti-
                             *
mated bone dose of 110 mrem.    The intake of l1
                                              3'   would have
resulted in a dose of about 9 mrem to the 2 g thyroid of an
infant. Concentrations of radionuclides measured in milk are
tabulated in the Appendices. (2

*   Based o n d o s e f a c t o r s o f 6 6 0 mrern/pCi f o r 3 2 and ( 2 6 )
                                                                      ~
    1 1 mrem/pCi f o r 6 5 ~ nf o r t h e 2 k g s k e l e t a l w e i g h t .
      -
      -



                .
      -
      -
      -
      -



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      -

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                              0



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w
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-              ~
           3 2 Analytical
5             o Limit                                                                                   0
I
=                                                                                                                                           0                       0
     loo -
         -
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                                                                                                      -30-                   -                  0
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      -                                            i
                                              Analytical
                                           65~n
                                              Limit
                                                                                                                 rn



                                                                                                            .. . . .
      -




                                                                                                           .
                                                                                                           - - -
                                                                                                                  i                                   ~
                                                                                                                                                 3 2 Analytical
                                                                                                                                                     Limit
          I I I I I I I I I I I             I I I I I I I I I I I            I I I I I I I I I I I           I I I I I I I I I I I               I I I I I I I I I I I
      J           J                                    J                              J                                J                                   J                D
                1960                   lJ          1961                              1966                             1967                  Dl             196X



FIGURE 14.                                 ~
                       Monthly Average 3 2 and 6 5 ~ n
                                                     Concentrations in Milk
                       from River-Irrigated Farms (pCi/liter)
         M i s c e l l a n e o u s f r e s h p r o d u c e from l o c a l farms was sampled
p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r r a d i o a n a l y s i s d u r i n g t h e 1967 growing s e a s o n .
R e s u l t s o f t h e s e measurements, t a b u l a t e d i n t h e Appendices ( 2 )
were s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f p r e v i o u s y e a r s and i n d i c a t e d t h a t
only small q u a n t i t i e s of r a d i o n u c l i d e s a r e p r e s e n t i n l o c a l l y
grown p r o d u c e .
          S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f 1311 found i n samples
of f r e s h l e a f y v e g e t a b l e s c o l l e c t e d from l o c a l farms and m a r k e t s
d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f May t h r o u g h September were l e s s t h a n o r
a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o t h e a n a l y t i c a l l i m i t o f 0.05 pCi/g.
Based on a n assumed a v e r a g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o n e - h a l f t h e
a n a l y t i c a l l i m i t and t h e consumption o f 100 g/day t h r o u g h o u t
t h e y e a r , t h e a n n u a l i n t a k e from t h i s s o u r c e would have been
a b o u t 380 pCi 1311. Such a n i n t a k e would imply a n a n n u a l d o s e
of a b o u t 0 . 6 mrem t o t h e t h y r o i d o f a n a d u l t . Consumption of
50 g/day o f t h e same v e g e t a b l e s by a s m a l l c h i l d would imply
an a n n u a l d o s e of a b o u t 4 mrem t o a 2 g t h y r o i d .
EXTERNAL R A D I A T I O N

           I o n i z a t i o n chambers ( V i c t o r e e n s t r a y r a d i a t i o n chambers)
s t a t i o n e d on t h e Hanford r e s e r v a t i o n and i n R i c h l a n d measure
t h e gamma r a d i a t i o n e x p o s u r e from e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s ( F i g u r e 16
and t h e A p p e n d i c e s ) . ( 2 ) Measurements i n a i r 1 m above ground
l e v e l d u r i n g 1968 a v e r a g e d a b o u t 0.36 mR/day o r 130 mR/yr a t
Hanford and 0.28 mR/day o r 100 mR/yr a t R i c h l a n d . These were
n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from 1966 o r 1967 v a l u e s . E s s e n -
t i a l l y a l l o f t h e e x p o s u r e a t R i c h l a n d i s from n a t u r a l back-
ground and worldwide f a l l o u t from n u c l e a r t e s t i n g .
         E s t i m a t e s o f t h e e x t e r n a l r a d i a t i o n d o s e r e c e i v e d from
r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f t h e Columbia R i v e r i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e
Hanford p r o j e c t i s made from r o u t i n e measurements a t t h e r i v e r
s h o r e l i n e and below t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e r i v e r . The s h o r e l i n e
measurements a r e made w i t h a l a r g e (40 l i t e r ) i o n i z a t i o n chamber
BNWL- 1341
c e n t e r e d a t 1 m ( 3 f t ) above t h e g r o u n d t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e
dose t o t h e gonads.            F i g u r e 1 7 shows m o n t h l y a v e r a g e s o f t h e
d a t a f o r 1 9 6 6 , 1 9 6 7 , and 1968 a t R i c h l a n d and a t S a c a j a w e a P a r k ,
where t h e Snake R i v e r e n t e r s t h e Columbia.
        The m e a s u r e d r a d i a t i o n i n c l u d e s components from r a d i o -
a c t i v i t y a c c u m u l a t e d i n s e d i m e n t d e p o s i t s and a l g a l g r o w t h s on
t h e s u b s t r a t e a t t h e r i v e r ' s e d g e . Gamma s p e c t r a show t h a t
4 6 ~ c                 w
        and 6 5 ~ n e r e t h e m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e s h o r e l i n e com-
                        a
p o n e n t , and 2 4 ~ t o t h e w a t e r component d u r i n g 1968.                     The
e x t e r n a l e x p o s u r e r a t e t o swimmers, w a t e r s k i e r s , and f i s h e r m e n
u s i n g t h e Columbia R i v e r i n t h e T r i - C i t i e s a r e a s i s p r e d o m i n a t e l y
due t o gamma r a y s o f t h e o r d e r o f 1 MeV o r g r e a t e r . ( 3 8 ) The
s h o r e l i n e r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s a r e a f f e c t e d by b o t h t h e d a i l y and
s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e f l o w r a t e and r i v e r l e v e l . A l s o
apparent i n Figure 17 i s t h e e f f e c t of t h e extended r e a c t o r
o u t a g e o f 1966.
        The p r i m a r y f i s h i n g l o c a t i o n s f o r t h e p a n f i s h s p e c i e s
consumed i n t h e l a r g e s t q u a n t i t i e s a r e downstream from R i c h l a n d
and t h e a v e r a g e d o s e r a t e f o r s u c h f i s h e r m e n i s d e t e r m i n e d b e s t
from measurements a t S a c a j a w e a P a r k . D u r i n g 1 9 6 8 , t h e a v e r a g e
e x p o s u r e r a t e a t S a c a j a w e a P a r k was 0.65 mR/day ( 2 7 pR/hr) w i t h
a n e s t i m a t e d 0.19 mR/day ( 8 pR/hr) d u e t o n a t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d
r a d i a t i o n . An a v i d f i s h e r m a n s t a n d i n g on t h e r i v e r s h o r e l i n e
a t S a c a j a w e a P a r k f o r a s much a s 500 h r d u r i n g t h e y e a r would
h a v e h a d a gonad and t o r s o e x p o s u r e t o gamma r a d i a t i o n o f a b o u t
1 0 mR, ( 2 % o f s t a n d a r d f o r w h o l e body) n o t i n c l u d i n g n a t u r a l
background r a d i a t i o n .
        D i r e c t r a d i a t i o n m e a s u r e m e n t s a l s o a r e made i n t h e Columbia
River a t s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s with c l u s t e r s of f i v e pocket-type
i o n i z a t i o n chambers p o s i t i o n e d a b o u t 1 m e t e r ( 3 f t ) above t h e
r i v e r bottom.        E x p o s u r e r a t e s a r e p r i m a r i l y due t o t h e gamma
e m i t t e r s ( e s p e c i a l l y 2 4 ~ a )i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e r i v e r w i t h
                                                                                         BNWL- 1 3 4 1

reactor cooling water.                  I n t h e v i c i n i t y of R i c h l a n d , t h e
a v e r a g e e x p o s u r e r a t e i n t h e w a t e r from A p r i l t h r o u g h O c t o b e r
o f 1968 was a b o u t 1 . 5 mR/day.

        During 1967, t h e whole- body d o s e r e c e i v e d by t h e Average
R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t from r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e of t h e Columbia R i v e r
was b a s e d on a n e s t i m a t e d 2 4 h r immersion e x p o s u r e t i m e and
was a b o u t 2 mrem.          During 1968 a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h
was u s e d .
          Teenagers were considered t o be t h e major r e c r e a t i o n a l
u s e r s o f t h e r i v e r . A r e c e n t s u r v e y o f 430 R i c h l a n d t e e n a g e r s
i n d i c a t e d an average exposure time f o r t h i s group of about
1 1 5 h r o f which a b o u t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t i m e was p r o b a b l y immer-
s i o n and a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s was s h o r e l i n e e x p o s u r e . ( 3 9 )
        Using t h e a n n u a l s h o r e l i n e e x p o s u r e r a t e s a t R i c h l a n d o f
0 . 9 1 mR/day o r 0.038 mR/hr ( n o t i n c l u d i n g background r a d i a t i o n )
and t h e A p r i l - O c t o b e r a v e r a g e immersion e x p o s u r e r a t e o f 1 . 5 mR/
day o r 0.062 mR/hr, t h e a v e r a g e e x p o s u r e t o t h e t e e n a g e popu-
l a t i o n was e s t i m a t e d t o b e a b o u t 5 mR d u r i n g 1968.

        Some t e e n a g e r s r e p o r t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r t i m e t h a n
t h e average.         The 38 t e e n a g e r s r e p o r t i n g g r e a t e r t h a n 300 h r / y r
t o t a l o f Columbia R i v e r r e c r e a t i o n t i m e were t a k e n t o be a
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e of t h e c r i t i c a l p o p u l a t i o n group f o r t h i s
e x p o s u r e pathway. The e s t i m a t e d a n n u a l whole-body d o s e s f o r
i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h i s g r o u p r a n g e d from 6 t o 37 mrem w i t h
a n a v e r a g e o f a b o u t 1 7 mrem compared t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d
(500 mrem/yr).           This represents l e s s than 4 % of the standard.
          The a v e r a g e whole- body d o s e r e c e i v e d by t h e R i c h l a n d popu-
l a t i o n from r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e o f t h e Columbia R i v e r c a n b e e s t i -
mated by assuming t h a t o t h e r a g e g r o u p s u s e t h e r i v e r l e s s t h a n
t e e n a g e r s , b u t w i t h t h e same p r o p o r t i o n o f immersion and s h o r e -
l i n e e x p o s u r e t i m e s . Based on 11 h r o f immersion and 2 1 h r o f
                                                                                         BNWL- 1 3 4 1


s h o r e l i n e e x p o s u r e i n t h e v i c i n i t y of R i c h l a n d , t h i s whole-body
d o s e d u r i n g 1968 was e s t i m a t e d t o b e a b o u t 2 mrem, l e s s t h a n
1%o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d o f 170 mrem/yr.

          For c o m p a r i s o n , i f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l d o s e r e c e i v e d by
R i c h l a n d r e s i d e n t s were e s t i m a t e d f o r 1968 by t h e methods u s e d
i n p r e v i o u s r e p o r t s , t h e r e s u l t i n g whole-body d o s e would a l s o
b e a b o u t 2 mrem.
FALLOUT F R O M NUCLEAR WEAPONS T E S T S

        Dose i n c r e m e n t s r e c e i v e d by r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Hanford e n v i -
                                                                                 s
r o n s from t h e f a l l o u t n u c l i d e s 3 ~ 'OSr, and 1 3 7 ~ have b e e n
                                                        ,
estimated r o u t i n e l y , although they a r e not included i n t h e
a s s e s s m e n t o f d o s e due t o Hanford o p e r a t i o n s .            Locally, t h i s
i n c r e m e n t i s below t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e b e c a u s e o f t h e low r a i n -
fall.      Measurements o f f a l l o u t , l i k e measurements o f n a t u r a l
background r a d i a t i o n , h e l p t o p u t t h e r a d i a t i o n d o s e s r e s u l t i n g
from H a n f o r d o p e r a t i o n s i n p r o p e r p e r s p e c t i v e .
        During t h e e a r l y i n f l u x of f r e s h f a l l o u t i n 1968 f o l l o w i n g
                                                                           131
a f o r e i g n weapons t e s t i n December 1967, t h e peak                  I concen-
t r a t i o n i n m i l k was 2 5 p C i / l i t e r compared t o 83 p C i / l i t e r i n
J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 , f o l l o w i n g a f o r e i g n weapons t e s t o f December 1966.
        E s t i m a t e s o f 3~ i n t a k e s from d r i n k i n g w a t e r were b a s e d on
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s measured i n r i v e r w a t e r ( s e e page 3 3 ) . F i g u r e 1 8
shows c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of 'Osr i n l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e m i l k . These
v a l u e s a r e s i m i l a r t o c o n c e n t r a t i o n s found i n commercial m i l k
produced i n o t h e r a r e a s o f low r a i n f a l l remote from t h e Hanford
plant.         9 0 ~i r l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e m i l k a v e r a g e d s l i g h t l y above
                           n
4 p C i / l i t e r d u r i n g 1968, and s l i g h t l y below t h a t i n 1967.                Con-
                                 s
c e n t r a t i o n s of 1 3 7 ~ i n l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e m i l k ( F i g u r e 1 9 ) were
g e n e r a l l y n e a r t h e a n a l y t i c a l l i m i t o f 30 pCi 1 3 7 ~ s / l i t e r d u r i n g
b o t h 1968 and 1967. Worldwide f a l l o u t i s t h e s o u r c e of '*sr and
       s
1 3 7 ~i n milk.
BNWL- 1 3 4 1
         With t h e u s e of t h e assumption'40) t h a t 40% of t h e t o t a l
''ST     i n t a k e from f a l l o u t i s o b t a i n e d from m i l k , t h e d a i l y i n t a k e
of 'Osr d u r i n g 1968 was a b o u t 1 0 pCi/day f o r t h e Maximum I n d i -
v i d u a l , 1 0 pCi/day f o r t h e T y p i c a l Richland R e s i d e n t , and
 5 pCi/day f o r t h e Average Richland R e s i d e n t ( a d u l t ) . These
v a l u e s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e i n t a k e s e s t i m a t e d f o r 1967 ( 8 , 9,
and 5 pCi/day, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The t o t a l i n t a k e of 1 3 7 ~ d u r i n gs
1968 was about 0.06 p C i f o r t h e Maximum I n d i v i d u a l , 0.01 p C i
f o r t h e T y p i c a l Richland R e s i d e n t , and 0 . 0 1 p C i f o r t h e Average
Adult Richland R e s i d e n t . These i n t a k e s a r e a l s o s i m i l a r t o
t h o s e f o r 1967.
        T a b l e 1 4 shows a summary of t h e e s t i m a t e d annual doses
from f a l l o u t n u c l i d e s resent i n t h e Hanford e n v i r o n s . The
        i n t a k e s a r e a l s o e v a l u a t e d i n terms of t h e F e d e r a l Radia-
t i o n Council g u i d e s . ( 2 3 )

                 TABLE 14a.          1968 Annual Radiation Doses from Individual
                                     Fallout Nuclides (a) (mrem)
                                                             Typical    Average
                                                 Maximum     Richland   Richland
                Nuclide              Organ      Individual   Resident   Resident

                  3~             Whole Body                   <1                   <1                   <1

                  90~r(b) Whole Body                          3                    3                    2
                          GI Tract                            <1                   <1                   <1
                          Bone                                35                   35                   18
                 137~s           Whole Body                   2                    <1                   <1
                                 GI Tract                     <1                   <1                   <1
                                 Bone                         4                    1                    1

                 TABLE 14b.         Total Annual Radiation Doses During 1967
                                    and 1968 from Fallout Nuclides (mrem)
                                                   Typical       Average
                                     Maximum       Richland      Richland
                                    Individual     Resident      Resident
                      Organ         6 1968
                                    19 7          1967 1968     1967 1968
                Whole Body              5           5             3         4           2           3
                GI Tract                <1          <1            <1        <1          <1          <1
                Bone                    34       40")             32        36          19          19

                 a.     Not i n c l u d e d i n d o s e s u m m a r i e s p r e s e n t e d e l s e w h e r e .
                 b.     The v a Z u e s l i s t e d f o r d o s e t o b o n e and w h o l e b o d y from 9 0 ~ r
                        a r e b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f an e q u i l i b r i u m s i t u a t i o n ,
                        a l t h o u g h s u c h e q u i l i b r i u m w o u l d b e a p p r o a c h e d o n l y a f t e r many
                        years of continuous i n t a k e .                   A v e r a g e i n t a k e s f o r t h e Maximum
                        I n d i v i d u a l , t h e T y p i c a l R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t , and t h e a d u Z t
                        A v e r a g e R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t c o r r e s p o n d t o 2 % , 5 % and 3 % o f t h e
                        ERC g u i d e ( 2 3 ) o f 2 0 0 p C i / d a y f o r t h e a v e r a g e i n t a k e b y a
                        s u i t a b l e sample o f t h e exposed p o p u l a t i o n o r 600 pCi/day
                        i n t a k e by a n i n d i v i d u a l .
                 c.     Number was r o u n d e d a f t e r summing c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f ' O S P           and
                        137~s.
                      COMPOSITE ESTIMATES OF RADIATION DOSE
THE M A X I M U M I N D I V I D U A L
          Experience accumulated from t h e environmental s u r v e i l l a n c e
program and a s s o c i a t e d r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h o s e
i n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e of p e r m i s s i b l e
r a d i a t i o n dose from Hanford s o u r c e s consume some combination of
t h e f o l l o w i n g : f i s h caught l o c a l l y i n t h e Columbia R i v e r ; game
b i r d s s h o t n e a r t h e r i v e r ; f o o d s t u f f s produced on l o c a l farms
i r r i g a t e d w i t h Columbia R i v e r w a t e r drawn from below t h e r e a c t o r s ;
and m u n i c i p a l w a t e r w i t h t h e Columbia R i v e r a s t h e s o u r c e . A
h y p o t h e t i c a l Maximum I n d i v i d u a l has been a s s i g n e d assumed d i e t a r y
h a b i t s ( T a b l e 15) which a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e used i n t h e 1 9 6 6
and 1967 Annual R e p o r t s ( I 8 , 3, and have been documented
s e p a r a t e l y i n d e t a i l . (6, 7 )
          The consumption r a t e s of most foods f o r t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l
Maximum I n d i v i d u a l were compiled from i n t a k e r a t e s d e s c r i b e d i n
p u b l i s h e d d i e t a r y s u r v e y s . The p o s t u l a t e d s o u r c e s i n c l u d e
w a t e r from t h e Pasco m u n i c i p l e system (Radionuclides i n Drink -
i n g Water, page 3 4 ) and m i l k , meat, and produce from r i v e r -
i r r i g a t e d farms i n t h e Riverview d i s t r i c t ( R a d i o n u c l i d e s i n
Milk and Produce, page 4 3 ) . The consumption of 2 0 0 m e a l s / y r
of p a n f i s h t a k e n from t h e Columbia R i v e r ( R a d i o n u c l i d e s i n
Columbia River F i s h , page 3 7 ) i s based on t h e maximum r e p o r t e d
i n l o c a l s u r v e y s . A t o t a l of 500 h r / y r a l o n g t h e r i v e r b a n k
( E x t e r n a l R a d i a t i o n , page 4 9 ) t o c a t c h t h e s e f i s h i s a l s o
assumed.
         The composite dose f o r t h i s Maximum I n d i v i d u a l i s summa-
r i z e d i n T a b l e 16 and i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2 0 . The e s t i m a t e d
dose t o t h e G I t r a c t f o r t h e Maximum I n d i v i d u a l d u r i n g 1968 was
a b o u t 6 2 mrem o r a b o u t 4 % of t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d , which i s
s l i g h t l y lower t h a n t h e 1967 G I t r a c t dose which was a b o u t 5 %
of t h e s t a n d a r d . The whole-body dose e s t i m a t e f o r 1968, 24 mrem
                                                                                             BNWL- 1 3 4 1


                          TABLE 15.          Dietary Assumptions

                              Maximum               Typical (Adult)                 Average ( A d u l t )
     Foodstuffs             Individual             Richland Resident               Richland Resident

Water
Milk
Meat
Chicken
Eggs
Seafood
Col. Riv. F i s h
Game B i r d s
Leafy Veg.
O t h e r Veg. and
     Fruits
 Food-            Maximum                       Typical (Infant)                Average ( I n f a n t )
stuffs      Individual (Infant)                 Richland Resident               Richland Resident
Water              0.8 % / d a y                     0.4 R/day                       0 . 4 R/day
Milk               1 . 0 !?/day                      0 . 6 &/day                     0 . 6 &/day
Leafy
 Veg   .             50 m a y                          25 g/day                        25 g / d a ~

a.    Based o n d i e t a r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o f R i c h l a n d r e s i d e n t s
      employed a t Hanford. ( 3 )
b.    O n e - t e n t h o f t h e t o t a l i s assumed t o b e W i l l a p a Bay O y s t e r s ,
      t h e r e m a i n d e r f r e e o f r a d i o n u c l i d e s o f Hanford o r i g i n .
c.    F r e s h p r o d u c e from t h e R i v e r v i e w a r e a i s assumed t o b e
      a v a i l a b l e o n l y during f i v e months o f t h e year.
d.    The previous r e p o r t erroneousZy quoted 3 6 . 5 k g / y r i n s t e a d
      o f 200 kg/yr.
       TABLE 16. (a) Summary of Radiation Doses (b) in the
                     Hanford Environs, 1968
                                       Annual Dose,         Standard,         % of
             Organ                         mrem               mrem          Standard
Maximum Individual
Bone
Whole-Body
GI Tract
Thyroid (infant)
Typical Richland Resident
Bone
Whole-Body
G I Tract
Thyroid (infant)
Average Richland Resident
Bone
Whole-Body
GI Tract
Thyroid (infant)

a.   I d e n t i c a l t o TabZe I p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Summary S e c t i o n o f
     t h i s report.
b.   Doses from faZZout and n a t u r a l background n o t i n c l u d e d .
                                                                                         BNWL- 1 3 4 1

                                    Source
                                                                      Percent of Limit
                              Nuclide    Food, etc.




Bone




             All Other,                                  All Other
                                                      /,~ruit and
                                                      \ Veg.
Whole Body
                                                       i ilk
                                                           Meat
                                                      'Fish

              Ext. y                                  -Ext.       y



             All Other.


                                                                                               1500 m rem
GI Tract                                                                                        per Year
                                                                                                AEC -FRC



                  Ext.    ;
                                                ,Veg.
                                                      -Milk
                                                                                               1500 m rem
Thyroid
(Infant)                                                                                        per Year
                                                      -Water                                    AEC f RC




              20.
       'FIGURF:               Estimated Doses to the Maximum Individual-1968
or about 5% of the appropriate standard, was somewhat lower
than the 1967 estimate of 32 mrem (6% of standard). The esti-
mated percent of the Maximum Permissible Rate of Intake (for
ingested radionuclides) with bone as the critical organ was 9%
during 1968, compared to 12% during 1967 and 10% during 1966.
However, for purposes of this report, an estimated bone dose
of 250 mrem (17% of the appropriate standard) was derived from
radionuclide intake and included a contribution from external
radiation.
     In the case of the thyroid gland, the highest radiation
doses are those received by infants because of the relatively
small thyroid mass (assumed to be 2 g.
                                     )   The Maximum Individual
(infant) is defined as a Richland infant drinking Richland water
with radionuclide concentrations equal to those at the water
plant and consuming food and milk obtained from commercial
sources. Dietary assumptions for 1968 (Table 14) were identical
to those used in 1967.
     The estimated thyroid dose received by such a Richland
infant in 1968 was 110 mrem (7% of the appropriate standard)
which is somewhat greater than the maximum infant thyroid dose
for 1967 (97 mrem or 6% of the standard).
     The slight increase resulted from an increase in the esti-
                                   in
mated dose contribution from 1 3 3 ~ drinking water in 1968.
Measurements of grab samples of drinking water taken monthly at
the Richland water plant during 1968 indicated a somewhat higher
ratio of concentrations of 1 3 3 ~ 11
                                 to 3'   (6:l) than had been
assumed for 1967 (4:l). The annual average 11 '
                                              3   concentration
                                               to
in cumulative samples multiplied by the 1 3 3 ~ 1311 ratio was
                            concentration. Based on the 1968
the estimated average 1 3 3 ~
values, the 1 3 3 ~ drinking water contributed 58% of the
                   in
Maximum Individual (infant) thyroid dose.
           For comparison w i t h t h e maximum R i c h l a n d i n f a n t , t h e
 t h y r o i d d o s e e s t i m a t e d f o r a Riverview i n f a n t consuming f o o d s
 from t h e same s o u r c e s a s t h e a d u l t Maximum I n d i v i d u a l was
 7 9 mrem i n 1968.                   T h i s lower v a l u e r e f l e c t s t h e l e s s e r c o n t r i -
 b u t i o n of 1 3 3 ~i n Pasco w a t e r compared t o R i c h l a n d w a t e r .
      T a b l e 1 7 shows t h e t r e n d of Maximum I n d i v i d u a l d o s e e s t i -
 mates f o r t h e p e r i o d 1964-1968. The 1968 t h y r o i d d o s e and bone
 d o s e s have been a d j u s t e d t o a comparable b a s i s (from 1311 o n l y ) .
 The i n c r e a s e o b s e r v e d i n t h e t h y r o i d d o s e d u r i n g 1966 r e f l e c t s
 an u n u s u a l r e l e a s e of r a d i o i o d i n e t o t h e Columbia R i v e r from
 a p r o d u c t i o n r e a c t o r . ( I 8 ) The l o n g - t e r m t r e n d f o r whole-body
 and G I - t r a c t d o s e s i s o b v i o u s l y downward. Bone d o s e s f o r t h e
 Maximum I n d i v i d u a l a r e h e a v i l y dependent upon 3 2 i~n Columbia
 R i v e r f i s h which a r e , i n t u r n , dependent on r i v e r c o n d i t i o n s
 a s w e l l a s r a d i o n u c l i d e r e l e a s e r a t e s . The lower 1966 e s t i -
 mate compared t o 1965 and 1967 r e f l e c t s t o some e x t e n t t h e
 e x t e n d e d r e a c t o r o u t a g e of t h a t y e a r . The d e c r e a s e s t o 9 % MPRI
 i n 1968 r e s u l t e d p r i m a r i l y from d e c r e a s e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of
 3 2 i~n Columbia R i v e r f i s h .

     TABLE 17.            Dose Estimates (a) for Maximum Individual, 1964 to
                          1968 ( % of standard except for bone)

                                                                                                                   Standard,
                                1964             1965            1966            1967               1968              mrem
G I Tract                         9                6               5                5               4                 1500
Whole-Body                      18                 8                7               6              5                   500
Bone                         23% MPRI        1 2 % MPRI       1 0 % MPRI      1 2 % MPRI       9 % MPRI                 --
Thyroid ( i n f a n t )          5                 4                6               3 (b)          3 (b)              1500


a.    Does n o t i n c l u d e f a Z Z o u t and n a t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d .
b.    For c o m p a r i s o n , i n c l u d e s d o s e from 1 3 ' 1 o n l y .
c.    For c o m p a r i s o n , e x p r e s s e d a s % MPRI o f i n g e s t e d r a d i o n u c l i d e s r a t h e r t h a n
      a s p e r c e n t o f s t a n d a r d i n c l u d i n g d o s e from e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s . S e e S t a n d a r d s
      f o r E v a l u a t i o n , page 5, f o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n .
THE T Y P I C A L R I C H L A N D R E S I D E N T

        The m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e who l i v e i n R i c h l a n d o b t a i n t h e i r
f o o d from l o c a l commercial s t o r e s ( r a t h e r t h a n from f a r m s ) , and
consume l i t t l e o r no Columbia R i v e r f i s h o r l o c a l game b i r d s .
The p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e o f r a d i o n u c l i d e s of Hanford o r i g i n i n g e s t e d
by s u c h p e o p l e i s d r i n k i n g w a t e r o b t a i n e d from t h e Columbia
R i v e r . For c o n t i n u i t y w i t h p r e v i o u s y e a r s , t h e d o s e s f o r s e v e r a l
o r g a n s o f t h e body f o r t h e T y p i c a l R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t have b e e n
c a l c u l a t e d f o r 1968.      T a b l e 1 5 shows t h e d i e t a r y a s s u m p t i o n s
f o r t h i s group.
         The e s t i m a t e d d o s e t o t h e G I t r a c t o f t h e T y p i c a l R i c h l a n d
R e s i d e n t from n u c l i d e s o f Hanford o r i g i n d u r i n g 1968 was a b o u t
2 4 mrem o r 5 % o f t h e maximum p e r m i s s i b l e d o s e , t h e same a s i n
1967.      N i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e G I t r a c t d o s e was c o n t r i b u t e d by
d r i n k i n g w a t e r . The combined d o s e s from i n t a k e o f b o n e - s e e k i n g
n u c l i d e s and e x t e r n a l e x p o s u r e was 8 mrem o r a b o u t 2 % o f t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d ( 5 0 0 mrem) f o r a s u i t a b l e sample o f t h e
exposed p o p u l a t i o n . S i m i l a r r a d i o n u c l i d e i n t a k e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g
t o a b o u t 1%    MPRI were o b s e r v e d f o r 1966, 1967, and 1968. The
e s t i m a t e d whole-body d o s e o f t h e T y p i c a l R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t f o r
1968 was 3 mrem o r 2 % of t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d s , s l i g h t l y less
t h a n f o r 1967.
        For c o m p a r i s o n , whole-body d o s e s from n a t u r a l background
( e x c l u d e d from t h e FRC g u i d e ) and from f a l l o u t i n t h i s r e g i o n
a r e e s t i m a t e d f o r t h e T y p i c a l R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t a t a b o u t 100
and 4 mrem/yr, r e s p e c t i v e l y .
     For d o s e t o t h e t h y r o i d , t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e sample o f t h e
exposed p o p u l a t i o n would seem t o be R i c h l a n d i n f a n t s . T a b l e 1 5
l i s t s t h e assumed consumption r a t e s .                 The w a t e r i s from t h e
m u n i c i p a l s y s t e m (assuming r a d i o n u c l i d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s e q u a l t o
t h o s e a t t h e w a t e r p l a n t ) , t h e m i l k i s from commercial s o u r c e s ,
and a few l e a f y v e g e t a b l e s i n s e a s o n a r e o b t a i n e d from l o c a l
markets.         From t h e s e s o u r c e s , a t h y r o i d d o s e f o r t h e T y p i c a l
R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t ( i n f a n t ) was 55 mrem, o r a b o u t 11%o f t h e
a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d , i n c l u d i n g an e s t i m a t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n of
3 1 mrem from 1 3 3 ~i n t h e d r i n k i n g w a t e r .      For c o m p a r i s o n , t h e
c a l c u l a t e d t h y r o i d d o s e f o r 1967 from t h e same s o u r c e s was
2 7 mrem f o r                  only.

       F i g u r e 2 1 shows t h e s o u r c e and n u c l i d e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o
t h e doses t o v a r i o u s organs f o r t h e ' T y p i c a l Richland Resident
and T a b l e 1 4 p r e s e n t s a d o s e summary.
T H E AVERAGE R I C H L A N D R E S I D E N T

         E s t i m a t e s of a v e r a g e consumption r a t e s o f s e v e r a l food
i t e m s were o b t a i n e d f o r R i c h l a n d a d u l t s from a n a l y s i s of d i e t a r y
q u e s t i o n n a i r e s completed by p l a n t employees.                   The program and
t h e d a t a have been d i s c u s s e d ( 3 ) i n a n o t h e r r e p o r t . The p r i n c i -
p a l changes from t h e consumption v a l u e s assumed f o r t h e T y p i c a l
R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t were a n i n c r e a s e o f 55% f o r t a p w a t e r ( o f
which a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n was consumed a s c o f f e e ) , a d e c r e a s e
of 58% f o r m i l k , a 75% d e c r e a s e f o r s e a f o o d ( o n e - t e n t h of which
i s s t i l l assumed t o b e W i l l a p a Bay o y s t e r s ) , and t h e i n c l u s i o n
of 0.48 k g / y r o f Columbia R i v e r f i s h and 1 . 2 4 k g / y r o f game
b i r d s . T a b l e 1 5 i n c l u d e s a summary o f t h e Average R i c h l a n d
Resident's d i e t .

          I n computing d o s e s f o r t h e Average R i c h l a n d R e s i d e n t , t h e
assumed f o o d s o u r c e s were R i c h l a n d d r i n k i n g w a t e r w i t h a v e r a g e
c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a d j u s t e d f o r decay and d i l u t i o n ( R a d i o n u c l i d e s
i n D r i n k i n g Water, page 3 4 ) , Columbia R i v e r f i s h w i t h t h e
a v e r a g e s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o f f i s h i n g e s t e d by t h e Maximum
I n d i v i d u a l ( R a d i o n u c l i d e s i n Columbia R i v e r F i s h , page 3 7 ) ,
" a v e r a g e game b i r d s " ( R a d i o n u c l i d e s i n Game B i r d s , page 4 0 ) ,
and m i l k , m e a t , and p r o d u c e from l o c a l s t o r e s ( R a d i o n u c l i d e s
i n Milk and P r o d u c e , p a g e 4 3 ) .
                                                                                              BNWL- 1341

                               Source                                      Percent of Limit
                          Nuclide       Food, etc.
                                                     ,Al     Other
                                                     -Milk
                                                     \Leafy Veg.
Bone                                                 kry;;nd

                                                           Meat

                                                     'water
                                                      1
                                                          Ext. y


             All Other-                              ,Al     Other
                32p /

Whole Body
               65   /                                -Water
               24ian/

              Ext. y"                                -Ext.        y




                                                                                                  500 rn rern
G I Tract                                                                                         per Year
                                                                                                  AEC -FRC




                                                                      --
                                               ,Veg.

Thyroid
                                                                                                       I
                                                                                                  500 mrem
(Infant)                                                                                           per Year
                                                                                                  AEC -FRC




                    FIGURE 21.          Estimated Doses to the Typical
                                        Richland Resident-1968
                                                      BNWL- 1341

     Because no significant contribution from Hanford opera-
tions to the background radiation levels in Richland can be
discerned, the external dose to the adult Average Richland
Resident is assumed to result only from recreational use of
the Columbia River. An estimated dose increment slightly less
than 2 mR from immersion in the river and activities along the
shoreline was included in the GI tract, whole-body, and bone
doses on the basis of a recent survey of Richland teenagers
and extrapolation of these data to the entire population.
     The organ of the adult Average Richland Resident that
received the highest percentage of the appropriate dose standard
during 1968 was the GI tract at 25 mrem or 5% of the standard.
The principal source (93% of the total dose) was drinking water.
The whole-body dose from Hanford nuclides during 1968 was esti-
mated to be about 3 mrem (2% of the standard), 46% of which
resulted from recreational use of the Columbia River.) The
dose to bone was 13 mrem or about 3% of standard in 1968 includ-
ing a dose from ingested radionuclides corresponding to about
1% MPRI in the terminology of past reports. About 41% of the
total bone dose was derived from drinking water, 18% from fish,
13% from external radiation, 11% from meat, 8% from game birds,
with 9% from remaining food items. A single radionuclide ( 3 2 ~ )
accounted for 85% of the total bone dose. Dose estimates for
the Average Richland Resident are illustrated in Figure 22 and
summarized in Table 16.
     As in the past report, the infant Average Richland Resident
was assumed to have the same food intakes and sources as were
used for the infant Typical Richland Resident. However, use of
an average composition of drinking water (adjusted for radio-
active decay and dilution) resulted in a lower thyroid dose of
39 mrem or about 8% of the standard.
                                 Source                                      Percent of Limit
                           Nuclide    Food. etc.                  0 3   20     40        60     80      100
                65~n

Bone
                 2
                 ,
                ,3     ,




               Ext. y
                                                    'Ext.   y


             All Other-
                                                      All Other
                                                   / Meat
                                                                  .
               65~nH                                          t
                                                   i ~ r u iand
               3P
                z'                                 \ FishVeg.
Whole Body
                     /                             \ Water
               2 4a~
                                                   -Ext.    y
             Ext. y   '


                                                                                                     500 m r em
G I Tract                                                                                             per Year
                                                                                                     AEC-F RC




                 Ext. y


Thyroid
(Infant)




               FIGURE 22.            Estimated Doses to the Average
                                     Richland Resident-1968
                                                                                      BNWL- 1341


                                   ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

       The r a d i o c h e m i c a l d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e and i n t h e Appendices
were s u p p l i e d by t h e U.S. T e s t i n g Co.,          I n c . , which performed
a l l r o u t i n e r a d i o a s s a y s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l samples.
     The c o o p e r a t i o n of many B a t t e l l e - N o r t h w e s t s t a f f members
who c o l l e c t e d s a m p l e s , performed many t e d i o u s r a d i o a s s a y s ,
p r e p a r e d and p r o v i d e d d a t a , and reviewed t h i s document i s
g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged.         Of s p e c i a l n o t e were t h e e f f o r t s of
W.  C . Horton and h i s Environmental M o n i t o r i n g group,
J . K . S o l d a t who p r o v i d e d t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t , and J . P. C o r l e y
who was i n c h a r g e of t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l e v a l u a t i o n s program
d u r i n g 1968.

       The c o o p e r a t i o n and c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e s e v e r a l c i t y ,
s t a t e , and f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s l i s t e d below a r e a l s o g r a t e f u l l y
acknowledged.
       F e d e r a l A v i a t i o n Agency
       Walla Walla, Washington
       P e n d l e t o n , Oregon
       Kennewick Water Department
       Kennewick, Washington
       Pasco Water Department
       P a s c o , Washington
       R i c h l a n d Water D i s t r i c t
       R i c h l a n d , Washington
       U . S. Army Corps of E n g i n e e r s
       McNary, Oregon
       B o n n e v i l l e , Oregon
       Washington S t a t e Department o f Game
       Olympia, Washington
       Washington S t a t e Department o f Highways
       E l l e n s b u r g , Washington
       Wenatchee, Washington
       Washington S t a t e P a t r o l
       Yakima, Washington
       Many samples s u p p l i e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r by t h e f o l l o w i n g
i n d i v i d u a l s i n Washington s t a t e p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n
about t h e r a d i o l o g i c a l s t a t u s of t h e environs.
        Oysters:        C o a s t O y s t e r Company, S o u t h Bend
        Milk and P a s t u r e G r a s s : N . A t t e r b e r r y , Benton C i t y ;
        H . G . B l e a z a r d , E l t o p i a ; D . N . Dinneen, West R i c h l a n d ;
        W. F . H a r r i s , P a s c o ; B. H a r r i s o n , P a s c o ; L . M . Monson,
        E l t o p i a ; New Moon D a i r y , Mesa; W. M. N i c h o l s , West R i c h l a n d ;
        H . H . O l s o n , P a s c o ; A. W. T a y l o r , P a s c o ; H . L . T e d r o ,
        P a s c o ; Twin C i t y Creamery, Kennewick.
                                          REFERENCES

 1.   " Waste D i s p o s a l , I f AEC Manual, C h a p t e r RL-0510. U . S.
      Atomic Energy Commission, R i c h l a n d O p e r a t i o n s O f f i c e ,
      R i c h l a n d , Washington, JuZy 1967.
 2.   E v a l u a t i o n o f RadioZogicaZ C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e V i c i n i t y o f
      Hanford f o r 1968 ( A p p e n d i c e s ) , e d i t e d by C . B . W i l s o n ,
      BIVWL- 1341 A P P .       BatteZZe-Northwest, Richland, Washington,

 3.   E v a Z u a t i o n o f RadioZogicaZ C o n d i t i o n s i n t h e V i c i n i t y o f
      Hanford f o r 1967, e d i t e d by C . B . WooZdridge, BNWL-983
      and BNWL-983 APP ( A p p e n d i c e s ) . B a t t e Z Z e - N o r t h w e s t ,
      R i c h l a n d , w a s h i n g t o n , March 1969.
 4.   " R e p o r t e d Nuclear D e t o n a t i o n s , December 1967, " Radio ZogicaZ
      H e a l t h Data and R e p o r t s , voZ. 9, no. I , p . 6 2 .      January
      1968.
 5.   " E n v i r o n m e n t a l R a d i o a c t i v i t y FoZZowing P r o j e c t Schooner, "
      RadioZogicaZ H e a l t h Data and R e p o r t s , v o l . 10, no. 4 ,
      p p . 171- 175. A p r i l 1969.
      R. H . W i l s o n and T . H . E s s i g .           C r i t e r i a Used t o E s t i m a t e
      R a d i a t i o n Doses R e c e i v e d by P e r s o n s L i v i n g i n t h e V i c i n i t g
      o f Hanford:           I n t e r i m R e p o r t , BNWL-706.         BatteZZe-Northwest,
      R i c h l a n d , W a s h i n g t o n , JuZy 1968.
 7.   T . H . E s s i g and J . P . CorZey.                   C r i t e r i a Used t o E s t i m a t e
      R a d i a t i o n Doses R e c e i v e d by Persons L i v i n g i n t h e V i c i n i t y
      o f Hanford: I n t e r i m R e p o r t No. 2 , BNWL-1019.                       Battelle-
      N o r t h w e s t , ~ i c h l a n d ,W a s h i n g t o n , A p r i l 1969.
 8.   " P e r m i s s i b Z e L e v e l s o f R a d i a t i o n Exposure, " AEC Manual,
      C h a p t e r 0524.        U.S. Atomic Energy Commission,
      W a s h i n g t o n , D. C . , 1963.       R e v i s e d November 1968.
 9.   J . W . HeaZy, B . V . Andersen, H . V . CZukey, and J .                                 K.   Soldat.
      " R a d i a t i o n Exposure t o P e o p l e i n t h e E n v i r o n s o f             a Major
      P r o d u c t i o n Atomic Energy PZant,"                  Proceedings o f             t h e Second
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11.   R. L. J u n k i n s e t aZ.              E v a l u a t i o n o f RadioZogicaZ C o n d i t i o n s
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                              s
      ~ n f o r m a t i o n , - p r i n g f i e l d , V i r g i n i a , 1960.
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f o r 1960 t h r o u g h 1 9 6 6 .       H W ' s a v a i Z a b Z e from C Z e a r i n g h o u s e f o r
F e d e r a l S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n i c a Z I n f o r m a t i o n .     Springfield,
V i r g i n i a ; BNWL I s , B a t t e l l e - N o r t h w e s t , R i c h l a n d , W a s h i n g t o n :
        Edited by I . C .          U e l s o n , HW-68435.        1960.
        Edited by I . C.           Nelson,       HW-71999.        1961.
        E d i t e d b y R.    H.   W i l s o n , HW-76526. 1 9 6 2 .
        E d i t e d b y R.    H.   Wilson,       HW-80991.        2963.
        E d i t e d b y R.    H.   W i Z s o n , BNWL-90.        1964.
        Edited by J .         K.   S o l d a t and T .      H.   E s s i g , BNWL-316, BNWL-316
        APP. 1965.
        E d i t e d by J .    K.   S o l d a t and T .      H.   Essig,      BNWL-439,        BNWL-439
        APP. 1966.
        I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on RadioZogicaZ P r o t e c t i o n .
        "Recommendations o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a Z Commission on
        R a d i o Z o g i c a Z P r o t e c t i o n ( R e v i s e d Dee., 1 9 5 4 ) , " B r i t .   J.
        Radiology, Supplement 6, 1955.
20.     I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on RadioZogicaZ P r o t e c t i o n .
        " R e p o r t o f ICRP C o m m i t t e e 11 o n P e r m i s s i b l e Dose f o r I n t e r n a l
        R a d i a t i o n ( 1 9 5 9 ) , w i t h B i b l i o g r a p h y f o r B i o Z o g i c a Z , Mathe-
        m a t i c a l , and P h y s i c a Z Data," H e a l t h P h y s i c s , v o l . 3 , n o . 1 ,
        1960.
21.     I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on RadioZogicaZ P r o t e c t i o n .
        NRecommendations o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission o n Radio-
        l o g i c a l P r o t e c t i o n ( A s Amended 1959 and A d o p t e d 1 9 6 2 ) , "
        IC&P P u b l i c a t i o n 6 .       Pergamon P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 .
22.     8rBackground M a t e r i a l s f o r t h e Development o f R a d i a t i o n
        P r o t e c t i o n Standards," S t a f f Report o f t h e Federal Radiation
        C o u n c i l . R e p o r t No. 1 . May 1 9 6 0 .
23.     "Backgrcznrld M a t e r i a l s f o ~ ' t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f R a d i a t i o n
        P r o t e c t i o n Standards," S t a f f Report o f t h e Federal R a d i a t i o n
        Council.           R e p o r t No. 2. September 1961.
24.     " E s t i m a t e s and E v a l u a t i o n o f FaZZout i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
        from NucZear Weapons B e s t i n g C o n d u c t e d T h r o u g h 1 9 6 2 . n
        S t a f f Report o f t h e Federal R a d i a t i o n CounciZ.             R e p o r t No.            4.
        May 1 9 6 3 .
25.     "Maximum P e r m i s s i b l e Body B u r d e n s and Maximum P e r m i s s i b l e
        C o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f R a d i o n u c Z i d e s i n A i r and i n W a t e r f o r
        O c c u p a t i o n a l ~ z ~ b s u r " , u t . B u r . S t d . Handbook 6 9 , -
                                                   e N
        -p -p . 1- 9 5 .      P u b l i s h e d b y S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f Documents, U . S.
         G o v e r n m e n t P ~ i n t i n go f f i c e , Wash?:ngton, D . C . , J u n e 5 , 1 9 5 9 .
      J . K. S o Z d a t .   U n p u b l i s h e d Bone D o s e - E s t i m a t i o n Data.
      BatteZZe-Northwest, Richland, Washington.
      "Weekly R u n o f f R e p o r t s - P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t Water R e s o u r c e s
      f19681", U.S. Department o f t h e I n t e r i o r , U.S.G. S . ,
      N o r t h w e s t Water R e s o u r c e s Data C e n t e r , PortZand, Oregon.
      1968.
      J.    K . So Zdat.                                                         C
                                "The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between 1 3 1 ~ o n c e n t r a -
                                                                           ,"
      t i o n s i n V a r i o u s ~ n v i r o n m e n t a z . k a m ~ ~ e sHeaZth P h y s i c s ,
      v o l . 9 , p . 1 1 6 7 . 1963.
      D . H . Denham.           RadioZogicaZ S t a t u s o f t h e Groundwater
      B e n e a t h t h e Hanford P r o j e c t - JuZg-December, 1968,
      BNWL- 104 7 .       B a t t e Z Z e - N o r t h w e s t , RichZand, W a s h i n g t o n .
      " R e p o r t e d NucZear D e t o n a t i o n s , December 1968," RadioZogicaZ
      HeaZth Data and R e p o r t s , voZ. 10, no. 1 , p . 4 5 .                       January
      1969.
      J . K . SoZdat.           Unpub Z i s h e d Fisherman S u r v e y Data. B a t t e ZZe-
      Northwest, Richland, Washington.                              (Report i n preparation. l
      " A E C Opens Hanford A c r e s t o Hunters," Hanford P r o j e c t
                  no. 1 6 , voZ. 5 .            A u g u s t 9 , 1969.
      J . K. SoZdat.            U n p u b l i s h e d Game B i r d Data. B a t t e Z Z e -
      Northwest, Richland, Washington. ( R e p o rt i n p re p a ra t i o n .
      A. H . Seymour and G . B . L e w i s .                    R a d i o n u c Z i d e s o f CoZumbia
      R i v e r O r i g i n i n Marine Organisms, S e d i m e n t s , and Water
      CoZZected from t h e C o a s t a l and O f f - S h o r e W a t e r s o f
      W a s h i n g t o n and Oregon, 1961- 1963, UWFL- 86. U n i v e r s i t y
      o f W a s h i n g t o n , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , December 10, 1964.
35.   NationaZ S h e l l f i s h S a n i t a t i o n Program Manual o f O p e r a t i o n s ,
      PubZ. No. 3 3 .           P u b l i c HeaZth S e r v i c e , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . ,
      1965.
36.   RadioZogicaZ H e a l t h Data and R e p o r t s , u o l . 9 , no. 1 - 1 2 .
      U . S . Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , Pub Z i c
      HeaZth S e r v i c e , W a s h i n g t o n D . C .
37.   EnvironmentaZ R a d i a t i o n S u r v e i Z Z a n c e Q u a r t e r l y Data
      R e p o r t s - 1 9 6 8 . W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e Department o f HeaZth,
      O f f i c e o f A i r Q u a l i t y C o n t r o Z , Olympia, W a s h i n g t o n .
38.   D . H . Denham.           U n p u b l i s h e d S h o r e l i n e Data. B a t t e Z Z e -
      N o r t h w e s t , RichZand, W a s h i n g t o n . 1969.
39.   J . F . Honstead. U n p u b l i s h e d R e c r e a t i o n a l Use Data.
      BatteZZe-Northwest, Richland, Washington.                        1969.
40.   Summarg o f A v a i l a b l e Data on t h e S r - 9 0 C o n t e n t o f Foods
      and o f T o t a l D i e t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , AASL-90. U.S.
      Atomic Energy Commission, HeaZth and S a f e t y L a b o r a t o r y ,
      A u g u s t 1960.
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               C.   P. Straub                                       1     World H e a l t h O r g a n i z a t i o n
                                                                          Geneva, S w i t z e r l a n d
     1      U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a
            D a v i s ' , C a l i f o r n i a 95616                          R . L . Dobson
               L . K . Bustad                                       1     Yakima County H e a l t h D i s t r i c t
                                                                          Citv Hall
            U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington                            ~ a k i m a ,Washington 98901
            Department o f Oceanography
                                                                             Health Officer
               C . A . Barnes
                                                                ONSITE-HANFORD
            L a b o r a t o r y o f R a d i a t i o n Ecology
                                                                    1     AEC C h i c a g o P a t e n t Group
               A . H . Seymour
                                                                             R . K. Sharp (Richland)
            Vanderbilt University
            Department o f S a n i t a r y                         21     AEC R i c h l a n d O p e r a t i o n s O f f i c e
            and Water R e s o u r c e s E n g i n e e r i n g                W. D e v i n e , J r .
            N a s h v i l l e , T e n n e s s e e 37203                      0. J. Elgert
               F. L . P a r k e r                                            D. R. E l l e
                                                                             J . E . Goodwin
            Walla Walla County- City- Health                                 W. E. Lotz
            Off i c e                                                        H. E. Parker
                                     ,
            m ~ a l l a Washington 99362                                     C . R . Qualheim
               C . E . Sharp                                                 P. G . Rhoades
                                                                             C . L . Robinson
            Washington S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t                         R . B. S t . J o h n
            of F i s h e r i e s                                             M . W . T i e r n a n (10)
            P o i n t Whitnev                                                D. G . Williams
            B r i n n o n , w a s h i n g t o n 98320
                                                                     5    A t l a n t i c R i c h f i e l d Hanford
                C . E . Lindsay                                           Company, I n c .
     1      Washington S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t                         G. E.      Backman
            of F i s h e r i e s                                             D. J.      Brown
            Room 1 1 5 . Gen. Adm. B l d e .                                 B. J .     McMurray
            Olympia, ' w a s h i n g t o n 98501                             H. L .     Maxfield
                D . E . Kauffman                                             ARHCO      File
No. of                                                       No. c f
Copies                                                       Copies
  3      B a t t e l l e biernorial I n s t i t u t e          78      Battelle-Northwest
         Benton-Franklin Health Center                                   D. W.     Alton
         P a s c o , Washington 99301                                    W. J.     Bair
                                                                         C. A.      Bennett
            V . E . Michael                                              P. J.      Blumer
         Douglas U n i t e d N u c l e a r , I n c .                     R. J.      Brouns
              T.  W . Ambrose
                                                                         L. A.     Carter
                                                                         J. P.     Corley
              I). A . Baker                                              C . E . Cushing
              P.  A. Carlson
                                                                         G . M . Dalen
              C.  D. Corbit (2)
                                                                         D . H. Denham
              V.  V . Johnson                                            T. H. E s s i g
              C.  W . Kuhlman
              W.  S . Nechodom                                           W. L . F i s h e r ( 2 0 )
              D.  W . Peacock                                            R . F . F o s t e r (10)
              L.  F. Reilly                                              R . B. H a l l
              0 . C . Schroeder                                          K . R . Heid
              DUN F i l e                                                W . C . Hanson
                                                                         M. M. Hendrickson
         Hanford Environmental Health                                    J . F. Honstead
         Foundation                                                      W. C . Horton
                                                                         R. T. J a s k e
                                                                         J . J. Jech
         ITT F e d e r a l S u p p o r t S e r v i c e s ,               R. L. Junkins
         l n c-
         -.                                                              L . J . Kirby
              R . H . Wilson                                             H. A . Kornberg
                                                                         H. V . L a r s o n
         J . A . J o n e s C o n s t r u c t i o n Co.                   R. E. Nakatani
                                                                         J . M. N i e l s e n
              L . C . Roos                                               T. P. O f F a r r e l l
         Kennewick Water S u p e r i n t e n d e n t                     H. M. P a r k e r
         2 2 0 W . Kennewick Avenue                                      R . W. P e r k i n s
         Kennewick, Washington 99336                                     R . H. S c o t t
                                                                         J . M. Selby
              H . Ray                                                    C . L . Simpson
         P a s c o Water S u p e r i n t e n d e n t                     J. K. Soldat
         412 W . C l a r k S t r e e t                                   W . L. Templeton
         P a s c o , Washington 99301                                     C. J. Touhill
                                                                          C . M . Unruh
             C . F. Whetsler                                              B . E . Vaughan
         RDT A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r                            E. E . Voiland
         f o r P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t Programs                   D. G . Watson
                                                                          C. B . Wilson
         R i c h l a n d Water S u p e r i n t e n d e n t                N . G. Wittenbrock
         505 S w i f t Blvd.                                              F . W . Woodfield
         R i c h l a n d , Washington 99352                               T e c h n i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s (2)
              J . A . McCool                                              Technical Information (5)
         U.     S . T e s t i n g Company, I n c .
              D . B . Wilcox

								
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