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					Cross-Cultural Training

Sharon Glazer, Ph.D.
San Jose State University
Definition

‘an educative process to improve &
 promote intercultural learning by
 developing affective, behavioral,
 and cognitive competencies that
 are desirable for successful
 intercultural interactions’
   (Littrell et al., 2006; Morris & Robie, 2001)
   Why is CCT important?
High cost of Expatriate Failure
  ~16-40% early return
  $220million to send expat.
  Costs U.S. businesses $2billion
CCT Effectiveness is inconclusive
  30-60% of MNC offer CCT, fewer offer to families
  Early return often due to family
Little Empirical Evidence
  Anecdotal evidence; Theoretical explanations
  From 1980-2005, only 6 studies had an experimental
  group and control group (Littrell et al.)
  Only 6 studies btwn 1998-2007 included non-student
  populations (Mendenhall et al., 2008)
    Why CCT is important cont’d
Lack of Unifying Theoretical Framework
  Social Learning: Bandura –observe & experience
  Dynamics of Adjustment – U Curve (over time),
  from optimistic to confused to adjustment
  Expertise Development
  Culture Shock: combines anthropological,
  psychoanalytic, behavioral, and phenomenological
  perspectives
  Role: relationships and expectations
  Culture: values, history, beliefs
  Sequential Model: training is a process
  corresponding to cycle of adjustment
 Why CCT is important cont’d
Inconsistent Measures of Performance
  What is effective performance?
  Transfer of learning
  Adjustment, Early return
  Leaving organization upon return
  Professional effectiveness
  Interpersonal Adjustment
Workplace Diversity Increasing
  Changes in cohesion and trust
  Communication challenges
  Process loss
   Sample Topics Covered in CCT Papers

Language Training        Experiential Methods
Leadership Training      Culture Assimilators
Organizational support   Individualism/Collectivism
systems                  International Adjustment
Intercultural training   Selection Criteria
models                   Work roles
Program                  Importance of CCT
components/content
                         Goals of CCT
Training limitations
                         Types of Training
Trends in expat.
employments              Success criteria
History of CCT           Types Preparation
Expatriate Failure       Personality
  Moderators (Constraints) of CCT


Individual             Organizational Culture
Family/Spouse          Destination Country
Job-level              Assignment Length
Organizational level   Cultural toughness
Timing                 Quantity of training
Previous experience    Trainer Attributes
abroad                 Organizational Support
Nonwork factors        Laboratory/Field
                       Predeparture/postarrival
   Purpose of CCT
To increase likelihood of success on foreign
assignment
To change attitudes vs. acquiring and
applying mechanical/structured information
To adjust personally, professionally, &
interpersonally
To raise participants’ awareness of culture’s
possible influence on our behaviors,
thoughts, and feelings.
 Goals of CCT
Learning how to learn
Overcoming difficulties overseas
Developing relationships with host nat’ls
Helping expats to accomplish work tasks
Enabling expat to cope with stressors
while abroad by
  Understanding underlying values that
  influence affect, behavior, cognition
  helping people recognize their own cultural
  filters and how it affects others’ reactions or
  responses to the participants.
Communication Competence
  Unconscious Incompetence

  Conscious Incompetence

  Conscious Competence

  Unconscious Competence
Preparing for CCT

Program Components
 Needs Assessment (for company and
 Expatriate & family)

 Customization of content and design

 Program quality: experts deliver training and
 evaluate the effectiveness of the program;
 performance & opinion about preparation
                   Content and Type of CCT
                                                 Culture
                                             Specific      General
Mode of Learning



                                Didactic
                            (factual info:
                        briefings, formal
                       learning; cultural
                            assimilators)

                           Experiential
                       (Learning how to
                   learn: look-see visits,
                               role plays,
                             intercultural
                              workshops,
                             simulations)
 Content and Type of CCT

Attribution Training: expat learns to
attribute/explain host culture behavior from
host culture perspective
Cultural Awareness Training: learn about
own culture
Interaction Training: OTJ; overlap with
current expat
Language Training
     Cultural Assimilator
 You are riding a car driven by a close friend. He
 hits a pedestrian. You know he was going at
 least 35 miles per hour in an area of the city
 where the maximum speed is 20 miles per hour.
 There are no witnesses. His lawyer says that if
 you testify under oath that he was only driving
 20 miles per hour it may save him from serious
 consequences. What right has your friend to
 expect you to protect him?
a.   My friend has a definite right as a friend to expect me
     to testify to the lower figure (20).
b.   He has some right as a friend to expect me to testify
     to the lower figure.
c.   He has no right as a friend to expect me to testify to
     the lower figure.
 Mode of Delivery


On-line, web-based
F2F
Hybrid
 Effectiveness of CCT

Self-maintenance skills: Self-
development

Interpersonal skills: building
relationships with host

Cognitive skills: developing appropriate
perceptions of the host culture
  Performance as Criteria

CCT yields 26-39% variance in performance

What is performance?
   What is performance? How is it measured?
Completion of assignment/early return*
Perceived cultural competence/CC skill dev.*
Supervisor job performance ratings*
Academic achievement
Contribution to organizational goals
Building relationships with others
Demonstrable understanding others’ behaviors
(conscious competence; isomorphic attributions)
Awareness of cultural differences/Sensitivity
Ratings of intercultural behavior
Decision-Making/Problem-Solving ability
Technical knowledge of host culture
 When is it delivered? Timing
Pre-Departure: Theory of met
expectations (6 studies since 1988)
  Expat has realistic expectations of host
  culture and work environment that will likely
  be met; less anxiety; greater confidence
Post-Arrival: Addresses real-time issues as
experienced in the actual culture; social
support (12 studies since 1988)
Combination
Nearly half the studies were of student
populations or non-sojourning employees
 Rigor of Training

Low: lectures, films, books (4-20 hours)

Moderate: role plays, case studies,
assimilators, survival language courses
(20-60 hours)

High: assessment centers, simulations,
field trips, in-depth language courses
(60-180 hours)
  Other considerations
Family situation
Job situation
Personality of expat (cognitive
flexibility, social skills, self-confidence,
desire)
Organizational attributes & support
Cultural toughness: difficulty of
adjusting to certain countries
CCT cannot be stand-alone***
Global mindset (CCT for all)
 CCT designed to fit personality
Self-Orientation: engages in activities
that represent concern for self-
preservation, self-enjoyment, mental
hygiene
Others-Orientation: expresses concern
for host nationals and desire to interact
with them
Perceptual Orientation: understands
nature and reasoning behind host
national behavior
                        Mendenhall & Oddou, 1986

				
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posted:7/27/2011
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