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SESSION NO. 70_ 430 PM Tuesday_ July 29_ 2003 Plenary Session


									SESSION NO. 69
69-10         BTH 10            Jozwik, Diana                                            [55915]
PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS ON SOURCING CLAY SEDIMENTS USED IN POTTERY                                              SESSION NO. 70, 4:30 PM
      JOZWIK, Diana, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Univ of Alaska Fairbanks,                         Tuesday, July 29, 2003
      Fairbanks, AK 99701,
The archaeological site of Kukulik on Saint Lawrence Island was excavated by Otto Geist from
1931-1935 (Geist 1936) and includes pottery, wood, bone and ivory artifacts. Pottery fragments
                                                                                                             Plenary Session
are one of the most abundant artifacts found at the site. The source of the pottery clay remains a
matter of debate. Geist, in his report, stated that the clay source was located on a lagoon, approx-         Reno Hilton Resort and Conference Center,
imately 35 miles northwest of the site. Another source (Silook, 1976) recounts elders telling of a
site 10 miles away. I suggest that the people of Kukulik were utilizing various local sources of clay
                                                                                                             Reno Ballroom
to produce their pottery and that these sources changed over time. Employing geological methods
to characterize the pottery and “fingerprint” the clay, I will test this hypothesis. Currently, trace ele-
ment analysis using X-ray Fluorescence is being used to fingerprint the different clay sediments             70-1          4:30 PM          Broecker, Wallace Smith                                  [53780]
collected from sites around the island and a sampling of pottery shards. Upon completion of this             WHERE DOES THE TRIGGER FOR ABRUPT CLIMATE CHANGE RESIDE, IN THE OCEAN
project, I will be able to produce a chronology of the pottery source over the time period of the            OR IN THE TROPICS?
site. Trends in the mineralogical data related to the depth of the artifacts will indicate whether the            BROECKER, Wallace Smith, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University,
source area for the clay changed over time and where the source was located. Analysis of the                      61 Route 9W, P.O. Box 1000, Palisades, NY 10964-8000,
pottery, including petrographic analysis, will indicate if there were changes in pottery production          Any explanation for the abrupt changes which punctuated the last glacial period must identify:
over the time span of the site, which can indicate outside influences such as trade or the influx of         1) the climate systems alternate states, 2) the trigger which allows the system to jump from one
new peoples from other regions or cultures. Recognition of these trends has implications to the              of these states to another, 3) the flywheel which locks the system into a single state for many
study of other prehistoric sites in the arctic and the movement of prehistoric people within the             centuries and 4) a means to transmit the impetus for change across the entire planet on a time
Bering Sea area.                                                                                             scale of a few decades. Reorganizations of the ocean’s thermohaline circulation can meet the first
                                                                                                             three of these requirements but to date, not the fourth. The more recently proposed tropical trig-
                                                                                                             ger meets the fourth but not the first three. While theory and models are essential to our thinking,
69-11         BTH 11            Karg, Sabine                                             [54423]             the distinction between these two schools of thought must ultimately be based on the geologic
                                                                                                             record in ice, sediment and moraines. Key evidence comes from 1) the relationship between the
                                                                                                             timing of the Agassiz flood and of the Heinrich armadas relative to the far-field Younger Dryas and
                                                                                                             Heinrich impacts and 2) the existence of precursory events.
     KARG, Sabine1, LEMPIÄINEN, Terttu2, HJELLE, Kari3, VIKLUND, Karin4, HIIE, Sirje5,
     SILLASOO, Ülle6, ALSLEBEN, Almuth7, JAROSINSKA, Joanna8, BADURA, Monika8, and
     LATALOWA, Malgorzata8, (1) Research and Exhibitions, National Museum of Denmark, Ny
     Vestergade 11, Copenhagen, 1471, Denmark,, (2) Centre for                         70-2          5:10 PM          Peltier, William Richard                                 [53712]
     Biodiversity, Univ of Turku, Turku, 20014, Finland, (3) Botanical Institute, Univ of Bergen,            GLOBAL GLACIAL ISOSTATIC ADJUSTMENT: HIGHSTANDS AND LOWSTANDS IN
     Bergen, 5007, Norway, (4) Institute for Archaeology, Univ of Umea, Umea, 90187, Sweden,                 POSTGLACIAL VARIATIONS IN THE LEVEL OF THE SEA
     (5) Institute for History, Tallinn, Estonia, (6) Department of Landscape Ecology, Institute of                PELTIER, William Richard, Department of Physics, Univ of Toronto, 60 St. George Street,
     Ecology, Tallinn Pedagogical University, Kevade 2, Tallinn, 10137, Estonia, (7) Institute for                 Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 Canada,
     Archaeology, Univ of Kiel, Kiel, 24098, Germany, (8) Department of Plant Ecology, Univ of               Issues posed by the nature of “extrema” in the variations of relative sea level(RSL) continue to
     Gdansk, Gdansk, 80441, Poland                                                                           elicit comment and to energize debate. For example, the connection between the LGM lowstand
A new network of scientists working with archaeobotanical finds of food remains from the late                of the sea recorded at Barbados and on the Sunda Shelf, and the volume of the ice load that was
medieval and early modern period (13th - 17th century AD) has been established in 2001 at the                then in place upon the continents, has been a recent focal point of discussion. Of similar impor-
Natural Science Unit of the Research Department of the National Museum of Denmark, financially               tance are the so-called mid-Holocene highstands of the sea recorded at both continental coast-
supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. During the last 10 years extensive research on plant           line and island locations in the far field of the LGM ice sheets. Especially significant among the
remains from many different archaeological excavations of the above mentioned time has been                  issues surrounding such extrema, perhaps, is that concerning the geographical origin of the melt-
carried out in the countries around the Baltic Sea (Northern Europe). But most of the research               water pulse that caused the sharp rise of sea level at approximately 14.2 ka.
activity has been performed in isolation in each respective country and the resulting data has rarely            Insight into the nature and ultimate cause of each of these sea level extrema is provided
been compared and never synthesized. The need of a network was therefore obvious. All these                  through application of the formal theory of the global process of glacial isostatic adjustment.
countries were influenced during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern times by the Hanseatic                 Recent advances are especially important in this regard. In particular it has been shown that
League, a confederacy of traders originating from Germany. The huge datasets of archaeobotani-               there are three distinct influences that may contribute importantly to the understanding of such
cal research from each country deliver the basic informations about the nutritional habits of the            features of RSL records. These influences include: (1) the migration of the coastline, (2) the histo-
local inhabitants. Which plants were cultivated, how important was the use of wild species? But              ry of accretion and disintegration of land ice prior to LGM, and (3) the feedback onto sea level his-
also which foodstuffs were already imported from foreign countries. Extensive information about              tory of co-variations in Earth rotation. I will provide examples of the action of each of these subtle
the activities of the Hanseatic traders is available from archaeological and historical research. The        effects. It is easily shown, and is in fact expected, that the impact of migration of the coastline will
main goal of the Hansa-network project is to combine the knowlegde from the different sources                be extremely important in locations such as the Indonesian Archipelago where shelf exposure
and to connect the changes in nutrition revealed via archaeobotanical research with the influences           was pronounced at LGM. The impact of rotational feedback onto sea level history, on the other
of imports by the Hanseatic League. This totally new multidisciplinary approach will also enable to          hand, is well exemplified by observations from the coast of Argentinian Patagonia where the mid-
answer the question whether the imported goods were accepted by the local people and how they                Holocene highstand is found at unusually high elevation. Observations from the Western
were integrated in their daily menu. Acceptance or refusal of innovations reflects the openness of a         Mediterranean Basin, well to the south of the ancient Fennoscandian ice load, provide an excel-
society towards the outside world, but may also reveal the need to satisfy specific requirements             lent example of the errors in the inference of mantle viscosity that one would be forced to make if
and demands. By publishing the newly created knowledge we hope to promote a better and deep-                 one were to neglect all three of these subtle influences. Finally, it proves interesting to enquire as
er understanding of the culture and society of the participating countries.                                  to what constraints may be placed upon the geographical source(s) of meltwater pulse 1a through
                                                                                                             the use of the relative amplitude of this event recorded at Barbados and on the Sunda Shelf.

69-12         BTH 12            Durotoye, Bisi                                           [54053]
      DUROTOYE, Bisi, Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo Univ, Ile-Ife Nigeria,                         SESSION NO. 71, 1:30 PM
Urbanization of small towns in Nigeria has led to anthropogenically engendered irreversible envi-            Tuesday, July 29, 2003
ronmental degradation, creating peculiar problems for its inhabitants. Case studies of new urban
areas in humid southwestern part of Nigeria reveal that rain water harvest is a sustainable option
for water supply. Geoenvironmental evaluation of newly developing towns based on field mapping,
                                                                                                             S2. Observations and Modeling of the Palaeodust
aerial photo studies and grain size charcterization of underlying Quaternatery deposit reveal that           Cycle (Posters)
flood catastrophies experienced are a consequence of the following:
1. Rapid urbanization of small town result from fast population increase, force human occupation
of flood prone areas. 2. Massive destructive alteration of natural ecosystem in the process of
                                                                                                             Reno Hilton Resort and Conference Center, Pavilion
urbanization, altered natural flow systems, surface processes and rainwater infiltration. 3. Bad
planning and indiscriminate erection of walls and housing structures block flow channels to form
big floods. 4. Bad refuse disposal schemes marked by indiscriminate dumping of solid waste and               71-1          BTH 13           Kröhling, Daniela M.                                     [53963]
thrash in drainage and stream channels results in clogging of flow path of rainwater and pollution           A 54 M THICK LOESS PROFILE IN NORTH PAMPA, ARGENTINA
of surface water systems. 5. Absence of sewage proper disposal system cause pollution of sur-                     KRÖHLING, Daniela M. Jr, Facultad de Ing. y Ciencias Hídricas, CONICET - Universidad
face and ground water systems rendering them unfit for human consumption and contributing to                      Nacional del Litoral, Ciudad Universitaria, Santa Fe CC.217(3000) Argentina,
the growing scarcity of fresh water and degeneration of sanitary conditions in urban areas.             
Rainwater harvest by direct collection from rooftops into large surface storage tanks or in encased          First results of a research borehole drilled in San Guillermo locality (30°15´ lat.S and 61°50´
wells will provide essential clean water at least for domestic consumption.                                  long.W), North Pampa, are presented. This work is part of the “FLAGS Project” founded by the
    It is becoming more apparent that the need for water supply policy should include rainwater              National Agency of Science Promotion, Argentina.
harvest for water supply in urban areas in humid tropical countries of the world.                                The borehole (101.50 m depth) comprises the entire Quaternary column of the region and part
                                                                                                             of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. A total of 91 sediment samples were collected continuously at 1 m
                                                                                                             depth intervals. 15 oriented undisturbed tube cores were recovered at intervals of 6 m. Also geo-
                                                                                                             electric and neutron profiles were made. Grain-size, mineralogic, geochemistry, soil micromor-
                                                                                                             phology, paleomagnetic analyses and TL-OSL datings are in progress.
                                                                                                                 According to preliminary results, the Quaternary section is composed of three primary (not
                                                                                                             reworked) loess units, and an underlying plastic clay. The upper loess unit is the well known
                                                                                                             Tezanos Pinto Formation (OIS 2). The other two loessic units are composed of dominant silt with
                                                                                                             scarce fine sand and abundant segregations of CaCO3. Colour varies from 7,5 YR 6/3 (light
                                                                                                             brown) to 7,5 YR 7/3 (pink). X-ray diffractions of total samples indicate a dominance of quartz,
                                                                                                             with scarce feldspars and illite.
                                                                                                                 The section is representative of a flat area of more than 15,000 km2 covering the NW of Santa
                                                                                                             Fe province and the NE of Córdoba province. The borehole revealed 54 m of loess which begins

198       Programs with Abstracts
                                                                                                                                                                                   SESSION NO. 72
at the surface. A Quaternary paludal clayey unit (between 54 and 60.3 m deep) separates the             71-5          BTH 17           Iriondo, Martin                                          [54191]
loess column from a Miocene littoral sedimentary unit (Paraná Formation).
    Such a thick aeolian profile provides detailed information on the Pampean Aeolian System,           NON-CLASSICAL TYPES OF LOESS
mainly considering that outcropping loess-paleosols sequences from North Pampa hardly reach                   IRIONDO, Martin Sr, GEC, CONICET, C.C. 487, Parana 3100 Argentina,
10 m. The study of the sedimentary cores recovered from the borehole will generate new data for     
understanding the complex history of the Pampean System during the Quaternary, focusing on              Transport of silt and clay in suspension by wind is an universal process. It occurs under all cli-
the identification and analysis of the source areas of sediments and ages of deposition. The            mates, mainly in desertic and sub-desertic regions. The accumulation of such materials originate
results will bring advances in the knowledge of Quaternary climatic changes in the Pampa plain.         loess, which is described as a structured loam or loamy silt. Especifically, a sequence of processes
                                                                                                        is necessary for the generation of loess: a) production of particles, b) deflation and transportation
                                                                                                        of dust, c) accumulation, d) formation of a structure. Each of those processes can occur in several
                                                                                                        ways. For example, particles can be originated in periglacial processes, piroclastic eruptions, salt
71-2          BTH 14          Bettis III, E.A.                                       [54959]            cristalization in playas, etc. Deflation occurs in deserts, periglacial areas and other environments.
MASS ACCUMULATION RATES AND COMPETING LOESS SOURCES DURING THE LAST                                     Epigenetic structures can be produced by percolation of carbonates, iron oxides or silica.
GLACIAL PERIOD IN THE MISSOURI RIVER BASIN, NORTH AMERICAN MIDCONTINENT                                     Owing to historical reasons, loess studies have been focused in the type “periglacial origin —
     BETTIS III, E.A., Department of Geoscience, Univ of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, art-                cathabatic wind — steppe — carbonate structuring”. That can be considered as the classical case., MASON, J.A., Dept. of Geosciences and Conservation and Survey                        Other loess types are frequent in different regions, among them 1) The “cangahua” in Ecuador:
     Division, Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, ROBERTS, H.M, Institute of Geography               piroclastic eruptions — valley wind — mountain praire — carbonate structuring. 2) The tropical
     and Earth Sciences, Univ. of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, United Kingdom, and MUHS,               loess in South America: deflation of river and fan splays — savanna — iron sesquioxide structur-
     D.R., U.S. Geol Survey, MS 980, Box 25046, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225                        ing. 3) Gypsum loess in North Spain: destruction of anhidrite/gypsum layers in a dry an cold cli-
Previous geochemical, sedimentological and isotopic studies of last-glacial loess (Peoria Loess)        mate — valley wind — steppe — gypsum structuring. 4) Trade-wind deposits in Venezuela: defla-
in the North American Midcontinent demonstrate that loess was derived from both glacial (valley         tion in tidal flats — trade wind along the Orinoco valley — savanna — iron hydroxide structuring.
train) and nonglacial sources during the last glacial period. A high-resolution chronology for Peoria   All this non-classical types conform the accepted loess definitions and they also share the most
Loess of the Missouri River Basin, constructed by applying optically stimulated luminescence            important field characteristics of loess such as grain size, friability, vertical or sub-vertical slopes
(OSL) dating to 35-50ìm quartz, yields insights into the timing and magnitude of dust flux from         in outcrops, subfussion and others. Other cases can probably appear under a systematic scrutiny.
these two sources. Glacial-source dust from the Missouri River Valley, which drained the south-
western margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, began to accumulate approximately 23,500 yr B.P.
Dust originating from nonglacial sources in the northwestern part of the Missouri River Basin           71-6          BTH 18           Smalley, Ian J.                                          [47873]
began to accumulate at a later date between 20,000 and 19,000 yr B.P., and dominated over gla-
cial-source dust throughout the basin until last-glacial loess accumulation ended shortly after         THE EARLIEST EVENTS IN THE PALAEODUST CYCLE
14,000 yr B.P. Mass accumulation rates (MARs) for Missouri River Basin last-glacial loess calcu-              KUMAR, Raj, JEFFERSON, Ian F., and SMALLEY, Ian J., School of Property &
lated using the OSL ages are extremely high from 18,000 to 14,000 yr B.P. – surpassed world-                  Construction, Nottingham Trent Univ, Newton Building, Burton Street, Nottingham, NG1
wide only by those from localities located to the west that are proximal to the nonglacial loess              4BU,
source areas. This period of extreme MARs coincides with a late-glacial period when paleoenvi-          Before the dust cycle can begin the dust has to be made. There are various types of airborne
ronmental proxies indicate significantly cooler conditions than predicted by paleoclimate simula-       dust and the dust type affects aspects of the dust cycle. Many materials are found in dust but the
tions from atmospheric global circulation models. We suggest that radiative forcing resulting from      commonest dust unit is probably a small quartz particle. We propose that there are basically two
the high atmospheric dust loading implied by these MARs may explain the mismatch between                types of quartz dust particle: large dust (say coarse and very coarse silt size 60-16um) and small
paleoenvironmental proxies and modeled paleoclimate during the late-glacial period in central           dust (of fine and very fine silt sizes 8-2um); between the two size ranges is a ‘Tanner gap’, a
North America.                                                                                          region where there is an observed shortage of particles. A natural control exists which affects the
                                                                                                        formation of these particle populations- the bimodal nature of quartz dust is controlled at the parti-
                                                                                                        cle-making stage. The key events are at the [not dust] to [dust] stage, rather than at the {dust on
                                                                                                        ground} to {dust in air} stage. The control is the presence of ‘Moss defects’ in the proto-quartz par-
71-3          BTH 15          Kohfeld, Karen E                                       [55541]            ticles. The quartz formation in source granitic rocks is affected by a eutectic-type reaction which
OUT OF AFRICA – MARINE RECORDS OF DUST AT THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM                                      controls sand particle size and by the high-low displacive quartz transformation which introduces
      PFUHL, Helen A1, KOHFELD, Karen E1, HARRISON, Sandy P1, and SCHNEIDER,                            defects (usually dislocation clusters) into the quartz structure. The type and distribution of these
      Ralph2, (1) Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Winzerlaer Str. 10, Jena, 07745,            defects affects silt formation- and dust production. Large dust does short range suspension travel
      Germany,, (2) Geoscience Department P.O. 330 440, Bremen                 and forms loess deposits. Small dust does long range suspension travel and crosses oceans. We
      Univ, 28334 Bremen, Germany                                                                       have carried out a series of grinding experiments on Leighton Buzzard sand which appear to indi-
Marine sedimentary records from the southern North Atlantic provide evidence of increased               cate that the internal defects in the quartz do have an effect on the size distribution in the com-
transport of dust from northern Africa at the LGM. Lake and pollen-data indicate increased aridity      minuted product. Energy levels can be identified which control quartz dust production.
in equatorial and southern Africa. However, changes in dust transport from these areas are poorly
constrained. New records from three cores located in the low- to mid-latitude South Atlantic show
low dust accumulation rates and no change in flux since the LGM. This implies that there has
been no change in wind transport patterns over this region since the LGM. Modern wind patterns          SESSION NO. 72, 1:30 PM
off southern Africa confine dust transport and hence deposition to the coastal zone today.
    Comparison of our records with marine records from the DIRTMAP database, suggest three
regimes underlying atmospheric dust transport out of Africa. In southern Africa, despite increased
                                                                                                        Tuesday, July 29, 2003
aridity and decreased vegetation cover, there was no enhanced transport to the Atlantic. In the
Sahelian region, however, enhanced transport to the Atlantic can be linked to expanded sources          S9. Paleoindian Western North America: Climate and
due to increased aridity and concomitant changes in vegetation cover. Increased transport from
the Sahara does not reflect changes in vegetation cover. A shift towards coarser grain size sug-
                                                                                                        Life at the Last Glacial Termination (Posters)
gests a strengthened dust transport reflecting stronger winds.                                          (Commission on Human Evolution and Paleoecology)
                                                                                                        Reno Hilton Resort and Conference Center, Pavilion
71-4          BTH 16          McConnell, Joseph R.                                   [55704]
CENTRAL GREENLAND                                                                                       72-1          BTH 19           Laukhin, Stanislav                                       [53578]
      MCCONNELL, Joseph R. and BANTA, J. Ryan, Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert                  EARLY PEOPLING OF SIBERIA AND ITS RELATION TO PEOPLING OF NORTH AMERICA
      Rsch Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512,                              VIA BERINGIA
Using a new method for continuous trace element measurements in ice cores, we developed a                    LAUKHIN, Stanislav, Institute of Northern Development, Moscow Russia,

very high-resolution, 1750 to 1998 record of Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, Nd, and Pb concen-    
trations and fluxes from a central Greenland ice core. Previous trace metal measurements in polar       The Southern Mountain Belt of Siberia (SMBS) was the earliest area of Siberia to be colonized by
snow and ice were based on discrete sampling methods. Because of the extensive decontamina-             Paleolithic hominids. This occupation began about 800-900 Ka in the east (Zasukhino site, west-
tion procedures needed to prepare discrete samples and the large sample volumes required,               ern Transbaikal [Rezanov and Lbova 2002]), and about 500-600 Ka in the west (Mokhovo I, the
these studies were limited in depth resolution and in the range of depths sampled (often spanning       Kuznetsk Depression [Foronova 2000]). About 280 Ka in the Altai, the earliest Mousterian
only a few years to decades). In the most exhaustive ice core studies, temporal resolution was          emerged, as suggested by basal dates at Denisova Cave. Mousterian peoples inhabited SMBS
generally no more than two samples per year. With this new analytical method, melt from a con-          from 280 to 30 Ka. The mosaic of environments in the mountains provided many ecological
tinuous ice core melter is input in real time to an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer        opportunities for hominids, so that settlement occurred only in circumscribed, widely separated
for elemental measurements and to a continuous flow analysis system for NH4, NO3, and H2O2              areas, but hindered further settling of Siberia. This situation remained until about 300-250 Ka, dur-
determinations. To minimize potential contamination, only melt from the innermost region of a lon-      ing a major period of glaciation. In rich areas suitable for hominids demographic saturation
gitudinal sample is analyzed, with melt from the potentially contaminated outer region discarded.       occurred, and during the following interglacial, 250-260 Ka, a mass settling of SMBS’ limits
The result is a measurement of total analyte concentrations (soluble and insoluble fraction), thus      began. By the “principle of spring” Paleolithic populations settled penetrated northward. Dates of
providing exactly dated and co-registered elemental fingerprints of continental dust, volcanic parti-   sites along the Angara and Lena (Kirensk, Olekma, Diring-Yuriakh) rivers, and Kusveem and                  PM
cles, pollution aerosols, and sea salt deposited to the ice sheet over recent centuries. Temporal       Kymynanonvaam rivers (Chukchi Peninsula) (Dikov 1993; Waters et al. 1997; Burakov et al. 2001)
resolution for this central Greenland core is approximately 24 samples year-1. While interpretation     provide evidence of this earliest colonization of Beringia. Dikov (1993)linked the most ancient
of these unique records is ongoing, it is clear that continental dust fluxes to central Greenland       sites of the Chukchi Peninsula to Diring and Calico. Other sites near San Diego and Las Vegas
have varied significantly over recent centuries at time scales from months to decades, with unusu-      also have artifacts typologically similar to those from Calico. Thus, the direction of migration was
ally large fluxes during much of the 19th century and the dust bowl years of the 1930s, but rela-       from the upper Angara River to the Chukchi Peninsula and along the west coast of North America
tively small fluxes over recent decades.                                                                to the southwest US.
                                                                                                            About 43-52 Ka, the Late Paleolithic culture originated on the foundation of the local
                                                                                                        Mousterian culture. The earliest Late Paleolithic sites are Kara-Bom in the Altai (Derevianko et al.
                                                                                                        1998) and Khotyk in the western Transbaikal (Lbova 2000). During this period of warming, about
                                                                                                        43-42 Ka, SMBS was settled fully and quite compactly. Sharp Konoshchel’e cooling (about 33-30
                                                                                                        Ka) led to the extinction of Mousterian hominids in SMBS, so that hunting areas increased for
                                                                                                        Late Paleolithic hominids. Demographic over-saturation occurred, and Late Paleolithic populations
                                                                                                        quickly settled east and northeast Asia. By 30 Ka they reached the Chukchi Peninsula
                                                                                                        (Kymyneikei site [Laukhin and Drozdov 1991; Dikov 1993]). After that, migrations from Siberia to
                                                                                                        Alaska took place repeatedly.

                                                                                                                                     XVI INQUA Congress • Reno, Nevada                                   199
72-2          BTH 20           Hetherington, Renee                                     [53222]            72-6          BTH 24          Rhode, David                                           [53804]
ISLANDS ARCHIPELAGO, WESTERN CANADA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY HUMANS                                           RHODE, David, Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Desert Rsch Institute, 2215 Raggio
      HETHERINGTON, Renee1, BARRIE, J. Vaughn1, REID, Robert G.B.2, and MACLEOD,                                Parkway, Reno, NV 89512,, MADSEN, David B., Division of Earth and
      Roger1, (1) Geological Survey of Canada, Nat Rscs Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road,                         Ecosystem Sciences, Desert Research Institute, and Texas Archeological Research
      P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2, Canada,,                                  Laboratory, Univ of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, Austin, JONES, Kevin T., Division of State
      (2) Department of Biology, Univ of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3N5, Canada                                 History, State of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, and GOEBEL, Ted, Department of Anthropology,
Paleogeographical and paleoenvironmental reconstructions identify a complex glacio-isostatic and                Univ of Nevada, Reno, NV
sea level history along Canada’s northeast Pacific margin during and subsequent to the last gla-          Danger Cave is located at the western edge of the Great Salt Lake Desert on the Utah/Nevada
cial maximum (LGM). An estimated 690 m of glacial ice began retreating from Dixon Entrance                line, western USA. This large cave site, at an altitude of 1314 m (at the surface of lake deposits
after 14.5 and before 12.6 ka BP. Prior to this time navigation along northern Queen Charlotte            on the floor), is situated approximately 140 m below Pleistocene Lake Bonneville highstand and
Islands (QCI) and Dixon Entrance was precluded due to the presence of ice; early migrants would           ~12 m above the Gilbert Shoreline, the level of Lake Bonneville during the Younger Dryas.
have skirted outer QCI or traveled over land (ice). Lowered eustatic sea level combined with              Besides its extraordinarily rich middle and late Holocene archaeological record, Danger Cave is
crustal uplift permitted terrestrial conditions to develop on two emergent coastal plains. The north-     notable for containing one of the earliest known well-dated human occupations in the Great
ern plain was present from ~14.0 to at least 9.1 ka BP. The southern plain remained until as late         Basin. A series of small firehearths and associated artifacts lie on a bed of lacustrine sand (Sand
as 7.8 ka BP. Northern Hecate Strait closed by ~11.7 ka BP creating a landbridge that connected           I), and date to ~10,300 RCYBP, making them coeval with the Gilbert Shoreline. Danger Cave also
the British Columbia (BC) mainland and the QCI, facilitating faunal, floral, and potential land-          provides evidence of the earliest use and processing of small seeds and other low-quality foods in
based human migration.                                                                                    the diets by Great Basin inhabitants. This early record of small seed use by paleoindians at
    By at least 13.2 ka BP productive estuaries, quiet water bays, and deltas were home to many           Danger Cave stands out as anomalous in relation to other parts of the Great Basin, but is ham-
edible intertidal molluscs, indicating the region had a suitable climate not only for them, but for       pered somewhat by a lack of detail in stratigraphic context, dating, and associated artifact con-
early human inhabitants as well. Numerous resource-rich coastal zones and estuaries in Hecate             tent. New excavations at Danger Cave, coupled with re-analyses of earlier investigations, help to
Strait and QC Sound have been cored and dated and although these would make excellent                     clarify the nature and timing of small seed processing and use at Danger Cave during the early
potential early archaeological site locations, they are now drowned and difficult to access.              Holocene ~10,000-7000 RCYBP.
Paleocoastlines obtained by overlaying paleogeographic reconstructions over present-day subaer-
ial topography outline the location of potential early archaeological sites. Paleocoastlines of partic-
ular archaeological interest lie along the west coast of QCI, where early migrators likely first trav-    72-7          BTH 25          Madsen, David                                          [53852]
eled and westernmost sites along the BC mainland.
    Reduced coastal zone productivity during a cooler “Younger Dryas” interval between ~10.9 and          LATE PALEOARCHAIC OCCUPATION OF THE OLD RIVER BED DELTA, BONNEVILLE
10.2 ka BP potentially altered migration and habitat conditions, forcing early peoples to migrate         BASIN, WESTERN NORTH AMERICA
greater distances to collect coastal resources and/or increase their reliance on land-based                     MADSEN, David1, OVIATT, Charles2, SCHMITT, Dave N.3, CALLISTER, Kathleen4, QUIST,
resources. By at least 9.0 ka BP the currently turbulent outer coast region was highly productive               Rachel4, JONES, George T.5, and BECK, Charlotte5, (1) ,,
and by ~8.9 ka BP edible molluscan biomass densities were within viable commercial harvest lev-                 (2) Geology, Kansas State Univ, 108 Thompson Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506,
els in southern Moresby Island.                                                                                 (3) Department of Anthropology, Washington State Univesity, Pullman, WA 99164,
                                                                                                                (4) Environmental Directorate, U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Dugway, UT 84022,
                                                                                                                (5) Department of Anthropology, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323
                                                                                                          During the regressive phase of Lake Bonneville, the two major sub-basins of the Bonneville basin
72-3          BTH 21           Mathewes, Rolf W.                                       [55737]            were connected by a river that channeled overflow from the Sevier Basin northward into the Great
PALEOECOLOGY OF LATE-GLACIAL TERRESTRIAL DEPOSITS WITH IN SITU CONIFERS                                   Salt Lake Basin in what is now the Great Salt Lake Desert of western Utah. Beginning about
FROM THE SUBMERGED CONTINENTAL SHELF OF WESTERN CANADA AND ITS                                            12,500 14C yr BP, the river in the Old River Bed (ORB) was a relatively large, high-energy river
ARCHAEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS                                                                               composed essentially of enlarged versions of all the rivers and streams that now flow into the
     LACOURSE, Terri, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A              Sevier Basin. Until about 11,000 14C yr BP, this river formed “gravel channels” that are straight to
     1S6, Canada, and MATHEWES, Rolf W., Dept of Biological Sciences,                     curved, digitate features with abrupt bulbous ends, composed of fine gravel and coarse sand. In
     Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada,                              the area of the ORB delta these channels are topographically inverted (i.e., stand higher than the
Extensive portions of the continental shelf off the coast of British Columbia were subaerially            surrounding mudflats). From about 11,000-8800 14C yr BP flow in the ORB was reduced, forming
exposed during Late Wisconsinan deglaciation due to lowering of relative sea level by as much as          “sand channels” with well-developed meander-scroll morphology that is truncated by deflation of
150 m. It is likely that these ice-free lowlands served as a migration corridor for plants, animals       the mudflat surfaces. These meandering channels flowed through an extensive marsh/wetland
and possibly humans. Paleoecological studies that reconstruct the nature and extent of the plant          ecosystem, up to 600 km2 in size.
cover during this critical time are important for several reasons. In addition to determining local          During the “sand channel” period, the ORB delta was occupied by Paleoarchaic foragers who
and regional vegetation dynamics, these studies describe potential sources of food, medicines, or         used the topographically inverted “gravel channels” to reach and utilize the marsh resources in
fibres for early human migrants, and also provide proxy records of past climates. Until now, our          the delta wetlands. Surveys of 52 km of more than 200 linear km of gravel and sand channels on
understanding of the paleovegetation that grew on the emergent shelf during the late Pleistocene          Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have identified 51 Paleoarchaic sites. Together with work north of
was based on only a few isolated samples from allochthonous plant fossils. We present the                 DPG, these surveys suggest the ORB delta may contain as many as 500 or more Paleoarch Late
results of paleoecological analyses conducted at two sites on the submerged continental shelf             Paleoarchaic Occupation of the Old River Bed Delta, Bonneville Basin, Western North America
where terrestrial surfaces with in situ conifers are preserved. The woody plant remains confirm           aic sites. The sites are characterized by Great Basin Stemmed points and crescents, many of
that, during the latest period of subaerial exposure, terrestrial vegetation was well-established on      which are extensively reworked. Basalt tools are also common. These are composed primarily of
the continental shelf. Microscopic identification of fossil wood, and analyses of pollen and plant        large cores and bifaces from which flakes were struck, apparently for use in processing marsh
macrofossils from the associated paleosols and overlying shallow pond sediments indicate that             resources. Toolstone sources are limited in comparison to other Great Basin Paleoarchaic sites
productive Pinus contorta-dominated communities with abundant Alnus crispa and ferns grew on              and mobility patterns also appear to have been much different. Whereas movement within the
the shelf adjacent to and on the Queen Charlotte Islands around 12,200 14C yr B.P. Dwarf shrubs           ORB wetlands may have been frequent, movement away from the delta was probably infrequent
including Salix and Empetrum, and herbaceous plants such as Heracleum lanatum and Hippuris                relative to the mobility characteristic of Paleoarchaic foragers elsewhere.
vulgaris were also important components of the shelf vegetation. Near northern Vancouver Island,
mixed coniferous forests dominated by Pinus contorta with Picea, Tsuga spp., Alnus spp., and
ferns occupied the shelf at 10,500 14C yr B.P. Fossil pollen of Abronia latifolia indicates that beach    72-8          BTH 26          Wriston, Teresa A.                                     [53238]
vegetation grew along the ancient shoreline. Our analyses demonstrate that pollen analysis alone
may be insufficient for paleoenvironmental reconstruction and should be accompanied by plant              GEOARCHAEOLOGY AT THE WEED LAKE DITCH SITE: AN EARLY HOLOCENE
macrofossil analysis and fossil wood identification when possible, since both provide valuable and        OCCUPATION IN THE NORTHERN GREAT BASIN
complementary paleoecological information.                                                                      WRISTON, Teresa A., Department of Anthropology, Univ of Nevada, Reno, PO Box 8846,
                                                                                                                Reno, NV 89507,
                                                                                                          Geomorphological context of archaeological sites is important in establishing temporal and spatial
                                                                                                          relationships as well as environmental and landscape reconstructions. However, in the Great
72-5          BTH 23           Carter, James A.                                        [55922]            Basin of western North America, subaerial sites from the early Holocene and late Pleistocene are
HUMAN OCCUPATION OF LATE PLEISTOCENE/EARLY HOLOCENE MARSHES AT WILD                                       rarely found in buried contexts with good stratigraphic integrity. The Weed Lake Ditch site, a
ISLE, WESTERN UTAH, U.S.A                                                                                 Haskett-Tradition archaeological site located in the Northern Great Basin, has provided a rare
      CARTER, James A., Historical Research Associates, Inc, 119 Pine Street, Suite 301,                  opportunity for geoarchaeological study of an early Holocene site and its relationship to pluvial
      Seattle, WA 98101,, DUKE, Daron, Geo-Marine, Inc, 2255-A                        Lake Malheur’s last highstand and subsequent regression. In addition, radiocarbon dates
      Renaissance Dr, Las Vegas, NV 89119, YOUNG, D. Craig, Far Western Anthropological                   obtained during the project provide a revised chronology for the pluvial lake sequence, and peo-
      Rsch Group, Inc, 1051 Washington St, Reno, NV 89503, and HIRSCHI, Jaynie, ML                        ples’ use of its shoreline environment.
      Technologies, Inc, Hill Air Force Base OO-ALC/EM, 7274 Wardleigh Rd., Bldg. 5, Hill AFB,
      UT 84056-5137
Five years of archaeological and geomorphological studies in the southern Great Salt Lake                 72-9          BTH 27          Robertson, Elizabeth C.                                [53475]
Desert indicate extensive use of a Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene marsh system by
Paleoarchaic people over 9,000 rcy B.P. Low-relief irregularities of the remnant sloughs, channels        HOLOCENE LANDSCAPE CHANGE AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE FORMATION IN THE
and levees anchored Middle Holocene dunes deposited after desiccation of the marshes; these               CYPRESS HILLS, SOUTHEASTERN ALBERTA
dunes capped and preserved the last position of paleo-distributary features. The modern dunes of                ROBERTSON, Elizabeth C., Department of Archaeology, Univ of Calgary, Department of
Wild Isle mark the distal location where the Old River entered the shrinking Great Salt Lake.                   Archaeology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4
Human occupation may both predate and postdate the last regression of Lake Bonneville (Gilbert                  Canada,
phase) that dates to 10,300 rcy B.P. Recent research clarifies the timing of the regression, the          The Cypress Hills of southern Alberta and Saskatchewan display an array of ecological, geomor-
location of the lake margin, and the nature of Old River flow.                                            phic and climatic characteristics that differ markedly from those in the surrounding prairies. As a
   The braided network of low-energy streams and marshes provided a subsistence focal region,             result, they contain a range of resources that are largely unavailable in the adjacent areas, a fea-
with rich resources that attracted a range of social and economic activities. Archaeological site         ture that may have encouraged heavy utilization by precontact human groups. Furthermore, the
distribution and lithic technology provide details of human behavior particular to the Paleoarchaic       landscape history of the region suggests that, over the Holocene, the meltwater channels running
period and exploitation of paleomarshes. The distribution of archaeological sites in and around           around and through the Cypress Hills have experienced an ongoing cycle of intermittent deposi-
Wild Isle indicates a wide area of use, and specific landscape points apparently did not exist.           tion from upslope areas, alternating with periods of landscape stability characterized by the devel-
Rather, human resource exploitation shifted in concert with frequent changes in the meandering            opment of vegetation and soils. This pattern provides an optimal scenario for the formation and
network of channels and levees. Lithic technology suggests substantial logistical planning for eco-       preservation of archaeological sites, since this type of periodic deposition would have ensured the
nomic activities. No native rock exists in the Wild Isle vicinity. Basalt and obsidian—procured from      burial of cultural material left by precontact groups. Moreover, in instances where a locality was
locations 30 km and 200 km away—dominate the stone tool assemblage. Ongoing technological                 used on multiple occasions, this pattern is likely to have resulted in the formation of valuable mul-
analyses are aimed at determining the season and duration of Paleoarchaic activities.                     ticomponent archaeological sites.

200       Programs with Abstracts
                                                                                                                                                                                   SESSION NO. 73
    A program of subsurface testing, involving auger tests, shovel tests and coring, was conducted       (1842-1845), Daedongjiji (1864), Zungbo Munheonbigo (1907), and Chosunilram (1931). Though
in the Alberta portion of the Cypress Hills to determine if the meltwater channels have experi-          huge data set on 1,251 individual plant species from 335 counties of the Korea Peninsula since
enced this kind of geomorphic history. The testing program has shown that the channels contain           1454 are available from the eight historical records, only thirteen warmth-tolerant tree species and
extended sequences of buried soils that are consistent with a pattern of episodic deposition sepa-       one herbaceous species, herein, are employed here for the present analysis. Fourteen species
rated by periods of landscape stability. Furthermore, these sequences frequently yield archaeo-          include large bamboo (Phyllostachys reticulata), small bamboo (Pseudosasa japonica), tea plant
logical material. These findings suggest that the diverse resources of the Cypress Hills were very       tree (Camellia sinensis), persimmon tree (Diospyros kaki), hardy orange tree (Poncirus trifoliata),
attractive to precontact groups, generating a high density of archaeological material. Also, the         ramie (Boehmeria frutescens), pomegrante tree (Punica grantum), citron tree (Citrus junos), tor-
dynamic geomorphic history of the meltwater channels has permitted the preservation of this              reya tree (Torreya nucifera), yellow dye tree (Textoria morbifera), tangerine (Citrus sinensis), silver
material in stratified buried contexts. The combination of relatively intense human use and a histo-     magnolia tree (Machilus thunbergii), and plum tree (Prunus mume). Nine types of distributional
ry of landscape change that favors archaeological site formation suggests that the Cypress Hills         pattern and four types of temporal change are, respectively, recognized from fourteen warmth-tol-
are a potentially rich focus for deep multicomponent sites, an important finding given the paucity       erant plants. The most widely distributed species which occurs at more than 100 counties was a
of such interpretively valuable sites in the Canadian Plains.                                            persimmon. Species occurred more than 50 counties include a large bamboo, small bamboo and
                                                                                                         pomegranate. Tea plant and ramie are also commonly found more than 30 counties. Past geo-
                                                                                                         graphical distribution of warmth-tolerant plants seems to be the result of both natural and anthro-
72-10         BTH 28           Fawcett, Peter J                                       [55188]            pogenic environments.

     FAWCETT, Peter J, Earth & Planetary Sciences, Univ of New Mexico, 220 Northrop Hall,
     Albuquerque, NM 87131,, MEYER, Grant A, Earth & Planetary
                                                                                                         73-2          BTH 31           An, Chengbang                                           [53440]
     Sciences, Univ of New Mexico, 214 Northrop Hall, Albuquerque, NM 87131, CASTIGLIA,                  EVIDENCE OF MEGAHUMID CLIMATE OF THE MID-HOLOCENE IN THE WESTERN PART
     Peter J, Earth & Planetary Sciences, Univ of New Mexico, Northrop Hall, Albuquerque, NM             OF CHINESE LOESS PLATEAU
     87131, and ARMOUR, Jake, 805 Jefferson St NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110-6205                                  AN, Chengbang, National Laboratory of Western China¡¯s Environmental Systems, MOE,
We compare several high-resolution paleoclimatic records from western North America that indi-                 Lanzhou Univ, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China,, FENG,
cate near-synchronous millennial-scale climate variability through much of the Holocene. A                     Zhaodong, Department of Earth and Environment Studies, Montclair State Univ, Upper
Holocene pluvial lake system in northern Chihuahua, Mexico alternates between lake highstands                  Montclair, NJ 07043, TANG, Lingyu, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, CAS,
representing cooler and wetter conditions and dry playa conditions representing warmer, drier cli-             Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, CAS, Nanjing, Nanjing, 210008, China, and
mates. Alpine lakes and bogs from the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico                        JULL, Timothy A.J., NSF Arizona AMS Lab, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721
record a series of glacial and periglacial events (colder, effectively wetter climates) that alternate   Mid-Holocene climate in the arid-semiarid China was interpreted to be megathermal (Shi et al.,
with warmer, drier climates over the late Pleistocene and the Holocene. Forest fire-related sedi-        1993). But, an increased wetness was speculated to be responsible for producing the “megather-
mentation and alluvial activity from northeast Yellowstone National Park also shows a clear              mal” signals (Wu et al., 1994). Here, we are presenting the stratigraphic evidence of a ubiquitously
response to millennial-scale climate change during the Holocene. Pulses of fire-related debris           distributed sandwich layer of swamp/wetland deposits exposed in the first terrace cliffs in the
flow activity occur during warmer, drier periods that are more prone to droughts. These alternate        western part of the Chinese Loess Plateau. The evidence shows that the mid-Holocene climate
with cooler, effectively wetter conditions that produce more river discharge and form broad flood        was megahumid rather than megathermal at least in the western part of the Chinese Loess
plains later preserved as terraces.                                                                      Plateau. Fourteen radiocarbon dates (including two earlier dates) from different sites show that
   Pluvial lake highstands in northern Mexico are centered at the following calendar ages: 230 ka,       the swamp/wetland layer was formed between ~10,000 and 4,000 cal. yr. B.P. The field-observed
4,250 ka, 7,400 ka, and 9,300 ka. The northern New Mexico chronology shows cold, effectively             stratigraphic characteristics and laboratory-obtained proxy data show that an unequivocal wet
wetter climates at the following calendar age midpoints: 200 ka, 3,000 ka, 3,900 ka and 5,700 ka.        period occurred between ~8,000 and 6,000 cal. yr B.P. Four possible mechanisms are proposed
The Yellowstone chronology shows cold, effectively wetter climates during the following age              here to account for the mid-Holocene Megahumid climate. Firstly, the insolation peak at 65 oN
ranges: 300 to 600 ka, 1,400 to 1,600 ka, 2,800 to 3,100 ka, 3,900 to 4,300 ka, and 5,500 to             occurred around ~9,000-8,000 cal. yr B.P. might have warmed up the oceans to set up the stage
6,000 ka. In the Rocky Mountain records, the millennial-scale events are more prominent during           for the mid-Holocene Megahumid climate. Secondly, the increased late summer insolation about
the late Holocene Neoglacial interval than during the early to middle Holocene. These climate            6,000 cal. yr B.P. in the Northern Hemisphere might have enhanced the summer precipitation.
events in western North America reflect widespread temperature anomalies and to a lesser                 Thirdly, the shift of the long-term El Nino-like system towards the Asian side of the Pacific might
extent, precipitation anomalies. The cold phases of these events correlate with a North Atlantic         have further enhanced the precipitation. Finally, the warm and wet mid-Holocene climate must
record of ice-rafting and cool events (Bond et al., 2001) and suggest that millennial-scale climate      have resulted in better vegetation coverage, which might have in turn induced more precipitation.
changes are at least hemispheric in extent during much of the Holocene.

                                                                                                         73-3          BTH 32           Feng, Zhaodong                                          [54041]
72-11         BTH 29           Roskowski, Laura A.                                    [54100]            MODERN POLLEN-BASED INTERPRETATIONS OF THE HOLOCENE PALEOCLIMATE IN
PALEOENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY                                                                                   MA, Yuzhen1, ZHANG, Hucai1, and FENG, Zhaodong2, (1) National Laboratory of Western
      ROSKOWSKI, Laura A., Archaeology, Univ of Calgary, 806, Earth Sciences Building, 844                     China’s Environmental Systems and Department of Geographical Sciences, Lanzhou Univ,
      Campus Place N.W, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 Canada,                                    Department of Geographical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China,
The Forks locality is situated around the confluence of the North and South Saskatchewan Rivers      , (2) Department of Earth and Environment Studies, Montclair State Univ,
in central Saskatchewan and is one of four ecologically complex, archaeologically rich localities              Upper Montclair, NJ 07043,
under investigation by SCAPE (Study of Cultural Adaptations within the Prairies Ecozone). The            The focus of is on the reconstruction of the middle Holocene climatic changes based on the
Forks locality is comprised of five archaeological sites: the St. Louis Bridge, Intake, Harper Valley,   pollen records contained in a 6.2 m thick section in the southern part of the Tengger Desert,
Fenton Ferry, and Below Forks sites. Each of these sites is positioned locally along river terraces,     northwestern China. To understand the modern analogues of the middle Holocene changes, mod-
and regionally within a transitional zone between the boreal forest and parkland ecotone. As a           ern pollen spectra across different vegetation zones from the Qilian Mountains to the low land
result, the Forks locality is covered by diverse vegetation groups represented by aspen, conifer,        Tengger Desert were studied first. Identified were four pollen combinations corresponding to four
poplar, birch, and a wide variety of shrubs particularly saskatoon berry. Each of the sites within       different modern ecological environments: (1) a Picea - Artemisia combination in a spruce forest
the Forks locality contains Mid-Holocene archaeological materials dated from the historic period         and its vicinity; (2) an Artemisia - Chenopodiaceae- Gramineae- Salix combination in a mixture
to as early as 7900 RCYBP. They are associated with up to 23 thin (>10cm) buried soil profiles           belt of montane grassland and poplar woodland; (3) a Chenopodiaceae - Artemisia -Nitraria com-
with black, 1-2 cm thick buried A-horizons. These horizons lack well-developed pedologic struc-          bination in a desert steppe belt; and (4) an Elaeagnus - Artemisia - Chenopodiaceae - Nitraria
ture and are separated by a series of overbank deposits. The purpose of this paper is to present         combination in a desert riparian forest. Our study also shows that a relatively low percentage of
preliminary results of research including particle size analysis, loss on ignition, percent organic      Picea pollen (30 -10%) seems to be associated with water transportation (alluvial deposits) and a
carbonate, pollen counts, and mollusc data conducted at the Harper Valley and Below Forks sites          very low percentage of Picea pollen (10-5%) appears to be related to long-distance air trans-
to determine the geoarchaeological and paleoenvironmental significance of these buried soil pro-         portation. With references to the modern relationships between pollen assemblages and associat-
files. These data suggest that the buried soil profiles represent soil formation under conditions        ed bioclimates, the pollen sequence covering the period between 8500 and 3000 yr cal. BP was
similar to those currently present throughout the Forks locality, particularly length of landscape       used to infer the climate change history. The results show that a warmer and drier climate domi-

stability and vegetation. It appears that the buried soils developed in association with vegetation      nated between 8500 and 7950 yr cal. BP. Subsequent decreases in Artemisia and warm desert
comparable to the present and represent periods of short soil development covered by rapid sedi-         forbs/shrubs taxa and contemporaneous fluctuating increases in montane coniferous and aquat-
mentation. Therefore, while regional climate fluctuated through the Holocene, local environmental        ics elements from 7950 to 7400 yr cal. BP reflect a fluctuating increase in humidity or/and a fluc-
conditions within the Forks riparian/parkland zone were little affected, arguably allowing diverse       tuating decrease in temperature. The following period (7400 - 5670 yr cal. BP) was generally
resources to remain available, even during drought periods, from the late-Paleo-Indian period to         warm with the Holocene Climate Optimum occurred between 7400 and 6490 yr cal. BP. Followed
European contact.                                                                                        was a remarkably cool spell (6490 - 6290 yr cal. BP) that was then succeeded by a warmer and
                                                                                                         more humid period (6290 - 5670 yr cal. BP). The period (5670- 4470 yr cal. BP) was character-
                                                                                                         ized by drastic oscillations in climatic conditions with three humid and probably cold spells inter-
                                                                                                         vened by three relatively dry and warm spells. The period (4470 -3510 yr cal. BP) was cold and
SESSION NO. 73, 1:30 PM                                                                                  humid, followed by a wet spell as indicated by a very high percentage of Typha pollen.

Tuesday, July 29, 2003                                                                                                                                                                                             PM
                                                                                                         73-4          BTH 33           Huang, Fei                                              [54817]
S21. Fire, Climate, and Vegetation Change in the                                                         POLLEN AND PHYTOLITH RECORDS FROM A HOLOCENE PALEOSOL PROFILE AT THE
                                                                                                         SOUTHERN MARGIN OF HUNSHANDEKE SANDY LAND, INNER MONGOLIA, NORTHERN
Holocene (Posters)                                                                                       CHINA
                                                                                                             HUANG, Fei and HUANG, Fengbao, Paleobotany and palynology department, Nanjing
Reno Hilton Resort and Conference Center, Pavilion                                                           Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 39 East Beijing
                                                                                                             Road, Nanjing, 210008, China,
                                                                                                         The loess and desert-marginal regions of northern China, situated at the northwestern edge of
73-1          BTH 30           Kong, Woo-seok                                         [53682]            East Asian summer monsoon, has long been considered as sensitive to Quaternary climatic
                                                                                                         change. Holocene paleosol layers are widely distributed in this area (42¨¬- 44¨¬N, 114¨¬-124¨¬E).
SPATIO-TEMPORAL VEGETATION CHANGES SINCE AD 1454 USING HISTORICAL RECORDS                                Current vegetation and climate reconstruction during the Holocene in the studied area are mainly
     KONG, Woo-seok and KONG, Woo-seok, Department of Geography, Kyunghee Univ, 1                        based on the pollen records. However, pollen records often represent the vegetation of a large
     Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-701, South Korea,                            area, it is difficult to reconstruct local vegetation because of over-representation of Artemisia and
The vegetational and environmental history of the Korean Peninsula has been reconstructed by             Chenopodiaceae pollen in the semi-arid and arid area. Phytolith analysis provides a more
the use of historical records, which dates back to 1454, 1531, 1660’s, 1760, 1842-1845, 1864,            detailed vegetation and climate history in grassland ecosystem. Taipusi profile (41¨¬58°Ç30°ÈN,
1907 and 1931. Studied historical documents contain Sejongsillok Jiriji (1454), Shinzung                 115¨¬10°Ç32°ÈE, 1340m asl), located at the southern margin of Huishandake sandy land in
Donggukyeojiseungram (1531), Donggukyeojiji (1660’s), Yeojidoseo (1760), Yimwonsipyukji                  Inner Mongolia, is about 1.4m thick mainly consisting of sandy soil. Three 14C age are measured

                                                                                                                                      XVI INQUA Congress • Reno, Nevada                                   201
at the depth of 30-40cm, 70-80cm and 130-140cm, dated to 2300°?95, 4830°?130 and 9495°?50                reconstruction for southernmost Patagonia based on this high resolution multi-proxy study. Lag.
calBP respectively. 28 pollen and phytolith samples are collected from the profile, with an internal     Azul lies 60 m below the crater rim and is protected from strong winds due to steep crater walls.
of 5cm. Pollen and phytolith records from the Taipusi profile demonstrate the grassland compo-           The water body is stratified and has sub-oxic conditions at the sediment/water interface.
nent variations during the Holocene. From 10000 to 7330 cal BP, grassland was dominated by               Sediments are made of biogenic ooze. Lag. Potrok Aike is a maar lake probably originated from a
Aneurolepidium chinese - Pennisetum centrasiaticum (Setaria viridis) - Koeleria cristata, with a         phreatomagmatic explosion. It is fully exposed to strong westerly winds and therefore not strati-
mesic condition. Between 7330 and 5320 cal BP, pollen and phytolith assemblages suggest                  fied. Sediments are laminated clastic silts. The C/N ratio in Lag. Potrok Aike indicates that sedi-
Aneurolepidium chinese - Cleistogenes squarrosa - Koeleria cristata grassland, weeds (such as            ment organic matter is mainly of planktonic origin. Pollen spectra reflect the actual situation of
Compositae, Leguminosae, etc.) flourished, some tree (Pinus, Betula, Juglans et al.) was present         Patagonian steppe vegetation since c. 2000 yr BP. Abundant charcoal particles in the sediments
at or near the site, corresponding to Holocene thermal maximum. From 5320 cal BP,                        of both lakes indicate a major fire event around 335/350 yr BP. Different proxies show changes in
Aneurolepidium chinese-dominated grassland was replaced by Stipa-dominated grassland, mesic              the upper part of the records probably related to the start of human impact with sheep and cattle
weeds reduced because of xeric condition. Between 2500- 0 cal BP, pollen and phytolith records           raising settlers since the end of the last century. In February 2003 field work is concentrated to
support Stipa grandis,Stipa krylovii, Koeleria cristata-dominated grassland with Artemisia,              recover long sediment records from both lakes. Those will be analyzed in order to obtain high-res-
Caragana shrub, salty plants (such as Chenopodiaceae, Tamarix, Niatraria) developed gradually            olution information about the Holocene/Pleistocene paleoclimate. A regional paleoclimate model
in the grassland, indicating the degradation process of grassland ecosystem.                             will be developed which can provide input for modelling on broader scale.

73-5          BTH 34           Parker, Adrian G.                                       [55499]           73-8          BTH 37           Bianchi, Maria Martha                                   [53892]
THE INDIAN OCEAN SUMMER MONSOON                                                                          POLLEN AND CHARCOAL RECORDS OF PEAT AND LAKE SEDIMENTS
     PARKER, Adrian G.1, GOUDIE, Andrew S.2, STOKES, Stephen2, WHITE, Kevin3, and                              BIANCHI, Maria Martha, CONICET-CRUB, 1CONICET – CRUB, Universidad Nacional del
     SMITH, Matthew1, (1) Department of Geography, Oxford Brookes Univ, School of Social                       Comahue, Quintral 1250 (8400), S.C. de Bariloche, Argentina,,
     Sciences and Law, Headington, Oxford, OX3 0BP, United Kingdom,                                            MARKGRAF, Vera, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, Univ of Colorado, Campus Box, (2) School of Geography and the Environment, Univ of Oxford,                      450, Boulder, CO 80309, and WHITLOCK, Cathy, Geography, Univ of Oregon, Eugene,
     Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TB, United Kingdom, (3) Department of Geography, Univ of                     OR 97403-1251
     Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AB                                                             In the last 15 years major international cooperative research programs in Northern Patagonia
The Indian Ocean summer monsoon represents one of the Earth’s most dynamic interactions                  east of the Andes have lead to a detailed late Quaternary paleoclimatic history based on multi-
between atmosphere, oceans, and continents affecting climate on a seasonal basis from eastern            proxy analyses of lake and bog sediments. Here we report on the fire-climate-vegetation linkages
Africa, through southern Arabia and into central Asia. The climate of the Arabian sub-continent          reconstructed from charcoal and pollen analysis of four sites in the Sub-Antarctic Nothofagus
has been strongly influenced by the past changes in the Indian Ocean summer monsoon winds.               Forest. The close relationship between changes in fire frequency and vegetation composition on
The position of the Indian Ocean monsoon is governed by the location of the inter-tropical conver-       millennial and sub-millennial time scales reveals the importance of improving our understanding
gence zone (ITCZ). During periods of increased wetness over Arabia there is a shift in the posi-         of the role of climate variations in the development of these cool temperate forests. The pollen
tion of the ITCZ to north of its present location forcing the monsoon to bring rainfall into central     and charcoal data of Mallín Aguado (40° S, 71° 29’W) record the vegetation history of the forest –
and northern Arabia. Likewise the reverse occurs during dry phases with the position of the mon-         steppe ecotone during the last ca. 17 14C kyr. A sparse herb-shrub steppe surrounding a shallow
soon inversion lying further south than at present with aridity over Arabia being enhanced by the        lake characterized the full-glacial environments suggesting that the climate was markedly drier
incursion of enhanced north westerlies                                                                   and probably colder than today. After 16 14C ka, wetland taxa replaced open-water taxa, indicat-
    Lacustrine sediments from Awafi, Ras al-Khaimah, United Arab Emirates in the northern                ing development of a peat bog, and grasses and a diverse steppe-herb assemblage replaced
Arabian peninsula reveal a series of abrupt Holocene climate events related to changes in the            open ground and shrub taxa suggesting warmer, but still relatively dry conditions. Nothofagus
position and forcing of the SW Indian Ocean monsoon system. The early Holocene was charac-               dombeyi-type pollen increased at 14 14C ka and was most abundant after 12.5 14C ka, suggest-
terised by a permanent water body, followed by a shallow lake with fluctuations in depth. The            ing establishment of a relatively open forest and increased precipitation. During the late-glacial
Holocene sequence was punctuated by at least three major desiccation events when the lake                interval and especially after 11 14C ka charcoal increased, indicating the onset of fires and peri-
became dry. The combination of dune evidence and lacustrine deposits indicate that northern              ods of pronounced drought. Pollen records from Lake Mascardi (41° 20´S, 71°30´W), Lake El
Arabia is sensitive to changes in climate between the SW monsoon and the northwesterlies and             Trébol (41°S, 71° W) and Lake Escondido (41°05’ S, 72°34’W) show replacement of an open
provide a crucial archive for the reconstruction of high-resolution environmental changes during         Nothofagus dombeyi-type forest by a mesic and denser forest at ca. 14 14C ka. The forest was
the Late Quaternary.                                                                                     best developed between 12 and 5 14C ka and high levels of charcoal confirm that this was a time
                                                                                                         of frequent fires. In the last 5 kyr, a mixed Nothofagus – Austrocedrus forest has replaced the
                                                                                                         mesic forest and charcoal values have decreased, indicating descreasing fire activity and wetter
73-6          BTH 35           Deng, Yanbin                                            [47323]           conditions than before. The shift may be related to increased summer precipitation and the onset
                                                                                                         of ENSO-related precipitation variability.
      DENG, Yanbin1, OGDEN, John2, HORROCKS, Mark3, and ANDERSON, Sandra1,
      (1) School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019,
                                                                                                         73-9          BTH 38           Cordeiro, R.C.                                          [56108]
      Auckland, 1007, New Zealand,, (2) School of Geography and                    CHARCOAL DEPOSITION RELATED TO PAEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES AND LAND
      Environmental Science, The University of Auckland, Tamaki Campus, Private Bag 92019,               USE CHANGES EVENTS
      Auckland, 1007, New Zealand, (3) Anthropology, The University of Auckland, Centre for                    CORDEIRO, R.C.1, ALBUQUERQUE, A.L.S.1, SIMõES FILHO, F.F.2, TURCQ, B.3, and
      Archaeological Research, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, 1007, New Zealand                                  SIFEDDINE, A.3, (1) Departamento de Geoquímica, Universidade Federal Fluminense,
Pollen and sediment in cores taken from Whangapoua indicate a sequence of vegetation                           Outeiro S.João Batista, Niterói, R.J, Brazil,, (2) Instituto de
changes and environmental disturbance since c. 3500 cal. yr B.P. Three major zones can be dis-                 Radiometria e Proteção, Conselho Nacional de Energia Nuclear, (3) IRD, Bondy, France
tinguished in eleven cores. The lower zone (pre-human impact, 3500-800 cal. yr B.P) is charac-           Fires records were obtained through the charcoal particles flux analyses in lacustrine sediments
terised by a phase of marine sedimentation. The local environment at 3500 cal. yr B.P. was a tidal       (Lagoa da Pata, São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM); Carajás N4, (PA); Dom Helvecio Lake (MG) and
flat surrounded by conifer-hardwood forest (Dacrydium, Libocedrus, and Prumnopitys) including            Caracarana (RO); resevoir sediment (Alta Floresta, MT), and an annual cicle of atmospheric dep-
Cyathea, which indicates a moist warm climate. After 1700 cal. yr B.P., Agathis and Phyllocladus         osition (Porto Velho, RO). The charcoal analyses could have also a great importance in evaluating
became more common, and more shrubs such as Myrsine appeared in the sub-canopy, suggest-                 the impact of dry climates in different tropical ecosystems. Determination of fire frequencies and
ing the climate was becoming drier. Around 1500 cal. yr B.P., the appearance of Avicennia pollen         dimensions in key areas of South America, during the Holocene, is a first step to understand the
marks the start of a successional vegetation sequence, and coincides with charcoal fragments,            global carbon transference between terrestrial and atmospheric systems. The deposition of char-
which may have been a result of natural fires. The subsequent, intermediate zone (Polynesian,            coals in the sediments results from local or regional burns, caused by dry climates, associated or
800 cal. yr B.P. to 1840 AD) encompasses large-scale human impact in the region and the transi-          not to anthropogenic action. The highest charcoal fluxes values were obtained in the period of
tion of the core sites from marine to freshwater. The associated decline in tree pollen, a result of     intense land use change in Alta Floresta and in sediments that represent the medium Holocene in
deforestation by fire, coincides with a sharp and sustained increase in charcoal and Pteridium           Serra Sul Carajás region. The lowest values were found in Lagoa da Pata in São Gabriel da
spores. Higher sedimentation rates at the same time indicate increased erosion of surrounding            Cachoeira, a humid region in Amazon and in Porto Velho region from atmospheric deposition in a
hills. Around 350 cal. yr B.P., a sharp decrease in Leptocarpus and an increase in Baumea pollen         humid season. We observed from the D. Helvécio record, which is located in a region covered
indicate the change from salt marsh to freshwater swamp. The uppermost zone (European, 1840              with semi-decidual forests, fire occurrences from 8,400 to 6,400 cal years BP. For Carajás record,
AD to present) is marked by the appearance of Pinus and an increase in Poaceae pollen. A local           surrounded by tropical rain forest, we had identified fires during the period between 8,000 and
change from Baumea to Leptospermum/Gleichenia to Typha swamp is coincident with continued                5,300 cal years BP. Finally, the Caracaranã record, which is surrounded by grass savanna,
deforestation during this period and a further increase in the rate of erosion. The driving factor for   showed a main fire occurrence phase at 9,750 cal yrs BP and a second phase marked by char-
plant succession in the Whangapoua during the late Holocene thus appears to have been silta-             coal peaks at 7,680, 6,990 and 6,460 cal yrs BP. In the Lagoa da Pata record an increase in char-
tion caused by human impact.                                                                             coal fluxes were observed at Last Glacial maximum. The synchronism among the fires occur-
                                                                                                         rences showed a good relation with the middle Holocene dry climate phase in Brazil. Discrepancy
                                                                                                         in the flux values could be attributed to differences in biomass availability provided by these
73-7          BTH 36           Wille, Michael                                          [53083]           ecoystems and paleofire intensity.

     WILLE, Michael1, HABERZETTL, Torsten1, LÜCKE, Andreas2, MAYR, Christoph2,
                                                                                                         73-10         BTH 39           Long, Colin J.                                          [55187]
     Bernd1, (1) GEOPOLAR, Institute of Geography, Univ of Bremen, Celsiusstraße FVG-M,                  FORESTS OF WESTERN OREGON USA
     Bremen, 28359, Germany,, (2) ICG V, Sedimentary Systems, Isotope                    LONG, Colin J., WHITLOCK, Cathy, and BARTLEIN, Patrick, Geography, Univ of Oregon,
     Geochemistry and Palaeoclimate, Rsch Ctr Jülich, Jülich, D-52425, Germany                                Eugene, OR 97403-1251,
Southern hemisphere paleoclimatic reconstructions from terrestrial archives are rare. There is a         The role of fire in seasonal rain forests of northwestern North America is poorly known, because
need for such data, since climate models show that the southern hemisphere might play a key              such disturbances are infrequent, the dominant species are long-lived, and wood decomposition
role in the global climate system. The interdisciplinary project SALSA aims to extract paleoclimatic     rates are high. High-resolution charcoal and pollen analyses of lake sediments in western Oregon
information from crater lakes in the Pali Aike Volcanic Field (PAVF, 50° - 52° S). Between 3,78 -        were used to reconstruct the fire and vegetation history of the past 9000 years. Sites were located
0,01 Ma several maars were formed, some of which are permanent lakes. The last glaciation did            along a latitudinal precipitation gradient in order to examine the nature of this gradient during peri-
not reach the area. Therefore, the PAVF has an excellent potential to obtain long sediment               ods when climate was different than today. The comparison of sites allowed us to consider the link-
records. During the first field trip (2002) many temporary lakes of the PAVF were surveyed and           ages between fire, vegetation, and climate on millennial and shorter time scales in different loca-
Lag. Potrok Aike (diam.: 4 km, 100 m deep) and Lag. Azul (diam.: 700 m, 52 m deep) were stud-            tions. Fire episodes were more frequent than present at the driest site and similar to present at a
ied. Five out of 16 short sediment cores from latter lakes were analyzed for sedimentology, micro-       more mesic site during the early Holocene (10,000 to 6500 cal yr BP), when summer climate con-
fossils and stable isotops. Sixteen radiocarbon dates provide a time control spanning the last           ditions were warmer and drier than present. Forest composition was dominated by fire-adapted
2000 years. For the first time it was possible to obtain a late Holocene palaeoenvironmental             taxa such as Pseudotsuga menziesii and Alnus rubra. The frequency of fire episodes decreased as

202       Programs with Abstracts
                                                                                                                                                                                     SESSION NO. 74
climate conditions became cooler and wetter in the late Holocene (ca. 6500 cal yr BP to present).         standing of soil forming processes would suggest that if there are significantly different climates
As a result, fire-sensitive taxa, such as Tsuga heterophylla, Thuja plicata, and Picea sitchensis,        on the opposing hillslopes then eventually different soils will also form.. Significant variation in the
increased in abundance. The records also indicate periods of heightened fire activity between 8200        amount and depth of calcium carbonate was found in the soils throughout the drainage basin. On
and 6900 cal yr BP and 4500 and 3000 cal yr BP, likely in response to centennial-scale drought.           the shady north facing slope, soils have higher moisture retention and a more active vegetation
During these periods, the fire regimes were apparently synchronized at all sites, overcoming the          community resulting in higher PCO2 and ultimately higher levels of CaCO3 than the soils on the
environmental differences between sites. These records are consistent with other seasonal rain for-       drier south facing slope. At the head of the basin however, a sequence of soils downslope shows
est locations in northwestern North America and suggest that fire occurrence responded to varia-          a progressive increase in depth to CaCO3 to the point where the lowest soil in the sequence has
tions in climate at millennial and centennial time scales throughout the ecoregion.                       no calcium carbonate at all. Thus regional precipitation is a poor estimate of pedogenic calcium
                                                                                                          carbonate characteristics in sloping terrain. The pattern of calcium carbonate precipitation in the
                                                                                                          drainage basin shows complex relationships to soil moisture regime. Greater moisture availability
73-11         BTH 40           Beck, Abigail P.                                        [53779]            on shady north facing slopes causes increased biological activity, higher PCO2 and more soil car-
                                                                                                          bonate. In the convergent head slope of the drainage basin the moisture flux enhanced by topog-
POST-MAZAMA CLIMATE, VEGETATION, AND FIRE: BLUE MOUNTAINS, OREGON                                         raphy causes complete leaching of pedogenic CaCO3 from the soil profile.
     BECK, Abigail P., 4455 Smokeridge Dr, Reno, NV 89503, and
     MEHRINGER, Peter J. Jr, Anthropology, Washington State Univ, Pullman, WA 99164
Analyses of fossil pollen, spores, algae, and charcoal from Lost Lake, Umatilla National Forest and
from Twin Lakes, Wallowa-Whitman National Forest suggest changes in forest fire frequency and
                                                                                                          74-3          BTH 44           Kleber, Arno                                             [53899]
intensity during the period since the eruption of Mt. Mazama (6850 B.P At Lost Lake, layers of            RE-INTERPRETATION OF NORTHERN GREAT BASIN PALEOSOLS
charcoal-rich sediment and microscopic charcoal deposited between 3400 and 2000 B.P attest to                   KLEBER, Arno, Chair of Physical Geography/Regional Geography of Central Europe, Institute
frequent intense fires. At Twin Lakes charcoal-rich layers occurred between 6800-4800 B.P whereas               of Geography, TU Dresden, Dresden 01062 Germany,
microscopic charcoal remained abundant until about 4000 B.P At both sites declining charcoal and          Fossil soils between lake deposits of the last two deep-lake cycles in the northern Great Basin
pollen from introduced or weedy species attest to effects of historical fire suppression and distur-      have multiple carbonate-engulfed horizons, and compound calcic and argillic properties at depth.
bance. These variations in charcoal abundance correspond to climate shifts reflected in variable          They are difficult to explain pedogenetically because they bifurcate in places, especially in basin
water depths and forest composition. The most important of these occurs at about 4000 B.P      .          centres where they appear separated by sediments of a minor lake expansion of probable early
                                                                                                          Wisconsinan age.
                                                                                                              A sequence of processes may account for all observed phenomena: two cycles of colluviation
73-12         BTH 41           Wathen, Steve                                           [55825]            and synchronous admixture of carbonate-bearing loess particles were each succeeded by the for-
                                                                                                          mation of an argillic over a calcic horizon. The first of these cycles started at the end of oxygen
THE APPLICATION OF PALEOECOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES TO THE STUDY OF FIRE AND                                    isotope stage 6, the second one around the transition between stages 4 and 3. Carbonate enrich-
VEGETATIVE HISTORY IN RED FIR FORESTS                                                                     ment resulting from the later soil formation often affected the older, buried soil. This led to welding
     WATHEN, Steve, Ecology Graduate Group, Univ of California, ENH Dept, One Shields                     of the two soils and the formation of a compound horizon carrying the argillic properties of the
     Ave, Davis, CA 95616,                                                           first and the calcic properties of the second pedogenic phase. Steady eolian influx to the same,
Charcoal particles and pollen from sediments from a lake in the northern Sierra Nevada were               former soil surface, a commonly invoked mechanism, cannot explain the bifurcated palaeosols
studied to determine the frequency of fires and the dominant vegetation within the adjoining              and is not needed to explain the welded ones. One important implication of these findings is that
watershed over the last 7,000 years. Fire scars from within the watershed have been sampled to            paleosols in this area may bear information on paleoclimate to a greater extent than, or even in
determine the frequency of fires within the watershed over the last several hundred years. A pale-        contrast to, previous interpretations.
omagnetic record of secular variation was constructed and compared to similar chronologies from               On surfaces, which were not covered by lakes at 13ka B.P., a relict soil of intermediate maturi-
other studies in the region.                                                                              ty has developed in another loess-mixed colluvial layer. At paleolake margins the three different
                                                                                                          deposits and soils merge into one multilayered soil profile with disconformities still representing
                                                                                                          the stratigraphic borders. These may be traced into mountains surrounding the Great Basin.

SESSION NO. 74, 1:30 PM
                                                                                                          74-4          BTH 45           Burns, Scott F.                                          [54392]
Tuesday, July 29, 2003                                                                                    QUATERNARY HISTORY OF MISSOULA FLOODS IN OREGON BASED ON SOILS
                                                                                                               BURNS, Scott F., JAMES, David, CORDERO, David, and LAWES, John, Geology
S23. The Soil Record of Quaternary Climate Change                                                              Department, Portland State Univ, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207,
                                                                                                          The Missoula Floods have a record found in the soils of the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Soils are
(Posters)                                                                                                 mainly Inceptisols and some are Alfisols in the flood deposits of the Willamette Silts. A chronose-
                                                                                                          quence has been established with Bw horizons developing in 5000 years and Bt horizons in
Reno Hilton Resort and Conference Center, Pavilion                                                        12,000 years. Five older paleosols have been found near The Dalles, Oregon that have stage 4
                                                                                                          carbonate horizons in the lower two. A tephra identified as 600,000 years old is found in the third
                                                                                                          paleosol. This sequence of paleosols ranges from the late to the early Pleistocene. Loesses of the
74-1          BTH 42           Scuderi, Louis A.                                       [55252]            Portland Hills also show paleosols that range back to the middle of the Pleistocene. Rhythmites
                                                                                                          found in Portland and near Dayton, Oregon also show changes in the chemistry of the fine-
DROUGHT PERIODICITY OVER THE PAST 2000 YEARS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTHWEST                                    grained phases of the deposits. From the earlier floods to the latest floods there is an increase of
     SCUDERI, Louis A., Earth and Planetary Sciences, Univ of New Mexico, Northrop Hall,                  iron and scandium with corresponding decreases in chromium. These values can be used to
     Albuquerque, NM 87131,                                                                  identify where rhythmites might be in the overall sequence of the 12,700 - 15,300 BP floods of the
Tree ring records from 117 precipitation sensitive sites in the Four Corners area of northeastern         Missoula Floods.
Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southern Utah and Colorado were used to reconstruct
annual precipitation variability over the region for the last 2000 years. Response functions for indi-
vidual chronologies suggest that total precipitation for a 12-month period from the prior
September to August of the growing season can be usefully reconstructed at these individual               74-5          BTH 46           Geiss, Christoph E.                                      [54692]
sites. Because of general similarities in the precipitation response for all 117 chronologies they        SEDIMENT MAGNETIC SIGNATURE OF CLIMATE IN MODERN LOESSIC SOILS FROM THE
were combined to produce a master regional chronology with greatly enhanced chronology depth.             GREAT PLAINS
    The reconstructed series shows that precipitation has varied in a regular manner with alternat-             GEISS, Christoph E., Physics, Trinity College, McCook Hall 105, 300 Summit St, Hartford,
ing wet and dry periods over the last 2000 years. The reconstruction for individual years ranges                CT 06106,, ZANNER, C. William, School of Natural Resource
from a minimum of 19.2cm (AD 980) to a maximum of 56.8cm (AD 636). The wettest 20-year                          Sciences, Univ of Nebraska, 133 Keim Hall, Lincoln, NE 68583-0915, and BISBEE,
interval occurs from AD 1905-1924 (mean 43.4 cm/yr) while the driest occurs from AD 1573-1592                   James H., Trinity College, 300 Summit St, Hartford, CT 06106
(mean 30.7 cm/yr). This reconstruction confirms that some earlier droughts were multidecadal              We sampled 17 modern soils along a SW-NE trending transect through Nebraska and western

with several (centered on AD 615, 710, 1090, 1280, 1450 and 1580) exceeding drought magni-                Iowa for pedologic and sediment magnetic analyses. Selecting soils developed in loess on stable
tudes experienced in the 20th century.                                                                    upland summits allowed us to isolate modern climate as the main influence on soil properties.
    Long-term trends in the reconstruction are indicative of an ~70-year periodicity in precipitation     These sites were complemented by four soils developed in sandy material and seven soils devel-
totals. Documented wet and dry periods over the instrumental record and drought periods prior to          oped in strongly dissected terrain in order to test the sensitivity of our approach to non-climatic
1895 reconstructed from other proxy data sources appear to be closely linked to this variability.         influences. All loessic sites contain magnetically enhanced A-horizons, characterized by higher
Superimposed on this longer periodicity is an interval from 800 to 1200 AD during which shorter           values of magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and isothermal
period precipitation variability dominates the record. A change to higher magnitude events and            remanent magnetization (IRM) as compared to the unaltered parent material. For sites developed
rapid transitions from wet to dry conditions may be indicative of a climatic shifts in the 13th and       in stable upland positions the correlation between magnetic enhancement and modern precipita-
20th centuries.                                                                                           tion is best when using grain-size dependent parameters such as ARM (r2=0.7) or ARM/IRM
                                                                                                          (r2=0.8) to describe changes in magnetic properties. Enhancement in magnetic susceptibility,
                                                                                                          which has been used successfully in Chinese loess-paleosol sequences to reconstruct changes
74-2          BTH 43           Harrison, J.B.J.                                        [55929]            in paleoprecipitation, follows the modern precipitation gradient to a lesser degree (r2=0.3). The
                                                                                                          better performance of ARM or ARM/IRM as a predictor of modern precipitation is due to the high             PM
BIOLOGICAL AND CLIMATE CONTROLS ON CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION IN A                                   sensitivity of these parameters to small (d=0.01 - 0.1 ìm), single domain (SD) grains of pedogenic
SMALL FIRST ORDER DRAINAGE BASIN, SEVILLETA LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL                                          origin. Soils from erosion prone locations show a lower degree of magnetic enhancement due to
RESEARCH SITE, NEW MEXICO. USA                                                                            the continuous loss of magnetically enhanced A-horizon material, while sandy soils show general-
     HARRISON, J.B.J.1, HENDRICKX, J.M.H.1, MULDAVIN, E.2, MCMAHON, D1, and                               ly very little enhancement regardless of landscape position.
     WARDELL, J1, (1) Dept. of Earth and Environmental Science, New Mexico Tech, Socorro,
     NM 87801,, (2) New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, Univ of New
     Mexico, Biology Dept, Albuquerque, NM 87131
The precipitation of calcium carbonate is a diagnostic feature of soils developing in semi-arid envi-     74-6          BTH 47           Johnson, William C.                                      [55729]
ronments. Empirical data show a relationship between the depth to calcium carbonate precipita-            SOM- AND BONE-DERIVED ISOTOPIC SIGNALS AS PROXIES OF LATE PLEISTOCENE
tion and average annual rainfall. Other studies have also shown that micro- biological organisms          AND HOLOCENE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS, U.S.A
play a role in determining the location of calcium carbonate precipitation within a soil profile, prin-        JOHNSON, William C., WILLEY, Karen L., CAMPBELL, Joshua S., and ROBINSON,
cipally through their influence on PCO2 which controls the concentration of HCO- ions in the soil.             Julie R., Geography, Univ of Kansas, 1475 Jayhawk Blvd Rm 213, Lawrence, KS 66045-
On the Sevilleta LTER a small first order drainage basin displays a dramatic change in vegetation              7613,
with an arid Chihuahuan Desert grassland (creosote/black gramma grassland ) on the south fac-             In recent years, a record of climatic prehistory for the central Great Plains (Kansas, Nebraska,
ing slope and a mesic Great Plains grassland (Juniper/black gramma grassland) on the north fac-           eastern Colorado) has begun to emerge. Stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA) of carbon has
ing slope. Conventional wisdom attributes these changes to differences in solar radiation experi-         proven to be particularly useful in determining the flora and fauna, and hence climate for the Late
enced by the different slope orientations resulting in variation in soil moisture regime. An under-       Pleistocene and Holocene. SIRA was conducted on (1) soil organic matter (SOM) of modern and

                                                                                                                                        XVI INQUA Congress • Reno, Nevada                                   203
buried soils, and (2) bone of modern and prehistoric prairie dogs (Cynomys sp.) and ground               from exundated carbonate platforms during low sea stands. For sites in upland Karnataka (calcic
squirrel (Spermophilus sp.). SIRA of carbon on modern soil and bone material provides the nec-           soil horizon and colluvial lag, respectively) Sr ratios of 0.711237 were obtained. Such a value is
essary baseline data for contemporary climatic patterns and reflects the regional westward               closer to those observed for silicate bedrock, and suggests near-field Ca transfer by water
decrease in moisture and attendant change in grass carbon pathways (C3-C4 shift). To appreciate          through slope wash processes. We therefore reveal three categories of calcrete deposit: (1) where
the local/topographic variability inherent in isotopic values from modern soils, a 0.6km grid was        no local commanding relief exists (Palghat Gap), outcropping groundwater paleocalcrete is shown
sampled in near-pristine prairie at the Konza Prairie, a Long Term Ecological Research Area. The         to also incorporate far-field aeolian Ca. (2) Near-field Ca provenance dominates in the upland
prehistoric record was extracted from two major soils developed and preserved throughout the             sites that are more remote from India’s shorelines and where a commanding bedrock landform
region, the Gilman Canyon Formation soil (c. 35-20 ka) and the Brady soil (c. 11-9 ka), as well as       has supplied solutes with no detectable aeolian input. (3) In situ Ca accumulation by primary
from the associated Peoria and Bignell loesses. The prehistoric isotopic sequences reveal periods        pedogenesis is variable and difficult to quantify at any given site exhibiting pedogenic carbonates.
of both gradual and abrupt environmental change, and highlight the nature of the Pleistocene-            Based on the diversity of (1) formative hydrological settings, (2) provenances of calcium, and (3)
Holocene boundary.                                                                                       fabric transformations, most calcrete occurrences thus appear to be hybrid, polygenetic and partly
                                                                                                         relict, but indicative of fairly stable semi-arid climatic conditions in the rainshadow of the Western
                                                                                                         Ghats at the 100 ky time scale.
74-7          BTH 48           Leavitt, Steven W.                                     [55284]
14C-DATED PROFILES IN THE U.S. GREAT PLAINS                                                              74-10         BTH 51            Achyuthan, Hema                                          [54337]
     Elizabeth G.1, (1) Soil Plant Nutrient Research, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture - ARS, 301 S.            MARGIN OF THE THAR DESERT, RAJASTHAN, INDIA
     Howes, Room 407, Ft. Collins, CO 80522,, (2) Lab. of Tree-                  ACHYUTHAN, Hema1, QUADE, Jay2, ROE, Lois2, and PLACZEK, Christa2, (1) Centre for
     Ring Research, Univ of Arizona, 105 W. Stadium, Bldg. #58, Tucson, AZ 85721,                             Geoscience and Engineering, Anna University, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai, 600 025,, (3) NSSC Survey Center, USDA/NRCS, Federal Building, Room                     India,, (2) Department of Geosciences, Univ of Arizona,
     152 - Mail Stop 34, 100 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508-3866                                    Tucson, AZ 85721
The historic grasslands of North America stretch from Texas to North Dakota within the United            Pedogenic carbonates in a 19m-thick dune section (16R) at Didwana, and several shorter profiles
States, and are a principal agricultural small grain-producing region over the last Century, i.e.,       from the eastern margin of the Thar Desert, Rajasthan, were studied for their stable isotope com-
America’s “breadbasket”. Across this region, areas of original grassland still exist, undisturbed by     position. Carbon isotope results show the C4 biomass (grasses?) has dominated local vegetation
plowing and cultivation, which offer us profiles developed in response to the plant cover and climate    for most of the 250,000 years represented by the 16R section. Our results display a decrease in δ
of the past several thousand years. We sampled 14 of these native grassland sites over a wide area       18O and δ 13C values during the last interglacial and early glacial periods. The higher δ 13C values
extending over 13° of latitude and 10° of longitude. After removal of soil carbonates, we obtained       in our dune records correlate to episodes in the strong upwelling and decreased sedimentation
radiocarbon ages on soil organic carbon (SOC) by soil profile horizon (ranging from 5 to 40 cm in        rates in Indian Ocean cores, probably the result of a strong Asian Monsoon. The high δ 13C val-
thickness) to an average depth of 1.9± 0.3 m and analyzed the stable-carbon isotope composition          ues may therefore denote the expansion of C4 vegetation in response to warm, wetter monsoon
(δ13C) of each of these samples. In most cases, SOC in surface soils is modern or post-bomb with         circulation. Conversely, low δ 18O and δ 13C values mark the expansion of C3 vegetation, proba-
respect to radiocarbon content, and the corresponding δ13C is highly correlated to the δ13C signa-       bly caused by stronger winter rains and lower temperatures.
ture of live vegetation at the site. Usually radiocarbon age of SOC increased with depth, in some
cases with ages below 1.5 m in excess of 10,000 years, although occasionally a reversal occurred
perhaps related to erosion-deposition effects and paleodrainage. The SOC δ13C generally became           74-11         BTH 52            Trombino, Luca                                           [54049]
more negative with depth. We have examined the patterns of δ13C variation with depth (age) to infer
changes in proportions of past C3 and C4 vegetation, which can shift in response to past climate         PALEOSOLS IN ARID LANDS. POLYCYCLIC PEDOGENESIS ON THE MESSAK PLATEAU
conditions. A warming climate is probably indicated from ~12,000 yBP to ~2000 yBP       .                (FEZZAN - LIBYAN SAHARA)
                                                                                                               TROMBINO, Luca, CREMASCHI, Mauro, and ZERBONI, Andrea, Earth Sciences Department,
                                                                                                               Univ of Milano, Via Mangiagalli 34, Milano, I 20133, Italy,
                                                                                                         The Messak Sattafet is a wide plateau cut in Cretaceous sandstone, interpreted as relict of a
74-8          BTH 49           Olson, Carolyn G.                                      [55755]            Tertiary peneplain, heavily affected by fluvial dissection and aeolian deflation. Notwithstanding
PLEISTOCENE LAKE LOMAX: FACT OR FICTION                                                                  this, discontinuous soil bodies are locally persevered below the stony desert pavement. The pale-
      OLSON, Carolyn G., National Soil Survey Center, USDA-NRCS, Room 152                                osols represented by these pedological remains were generated by soil forming processes as
      Federal Building, 100 Centennial Mall North, Lincoln, NE 68508-3866,                               clay illuviation, rubification, gilgai microrelief formation, which acted during different periods of the, CASBY-HORTON, Susan M., USDA-NRCS,                        Quaternary and were interrupted by several erosional phases and episodes of aeolian input.
      Temple, TX, CANO-GARCIA, Miguel A., INIFAP, Oaxaca, Mexico, and ALLEN, B.L., Plant                 Radiocarbon and U/Th datings and archaeological material content allow to date the soil forming
      and Soil Science Department, Texas Tech Univ, Lubbock, TX                                          phases (in a wet environment) and alternating desertification periods since the Middle
The southern High Plains of Texas are well-known for the thousands of generally < 10-ha playas           Pleistocene up to the Holocene. Relationships between paleopedogenesis and climatic changes
and saline lake basins. The Lake Lomax basin is one of the largest depressional areas encom-             is assessed on the base of field evidence, routine analyses and micromorphology.
passing approximately 140,000 ha. Many origins for this basin have been proposed. Five deep
cores and 2 surface transects were sampled to examine this basin.
    Surface soils on the west side of the basin exhibit properties relating to the adjacent escarp-      74-12         BTH 53            Bestland, Erick A.                                       [54373]
ment and are colluvial soils formed from backwearing of the escarpment, subsequent erosion and
redeposition, and soil formation. The gravels in the soils include both Ogallala and Cretaceous          SOURCES OF SILICATE DUST IN TERRA ROSSA SOILS AND SURFICIAL DEPOSITS,
lithologies. Soils in the eastern half of the basin have fewer petrocalcic horizons in the near sur-     SOUTHEAST SOUTH AUSTRALIA
face and less well-developed calcic profiles. Source material is most likely down valley redeposi-             BESTLAND, Erick A., Earth Sciences (SoCPES), Flinders University, GPO Box 2100,
tion of finer materials rather than the coarse colluvial gravels and sediments from the escarpment             Adelaide, 5001, Australia, and FORBES, Matthew S.
fans. Several sand sheets and dunes blanket the center and eastern margins of the basin. An age          Strontium isotopes (Sr87/86) combined with mineralogy and mass balance geochemistry are
of 8620±50 (Beta 133060) from a buried soil at 1.4 m in the dunes indicates Holocene landscape           used to trace silicate material from possible regional sources through local playa-lunette systems
stability occurred around 8500 YBP followed by a period of aridity and eolian activity.                  and ultimately into Terra Rossa soils in the Southeast of South Australia. Results show good cor-
    An escarpment site represents a nearly complete Cenozoic rock-stratigraphic section for the          respondence between the clayey Terra Rossa soil horizons and nearby lunette deposits, indicat-
High Plains escarpment. Rock fragments from these units are found in the gravels of the colluvial        ing that the soil is largely derived from silt and clay blown-off this extensive playa system. The sili-
soils represented by several transect sites. The other 4 cored sites are within the basin and repre-     cate material in the underlying limestone is easily discounted as a source for the Terra Rossa soil
sent unconsolidated sections resting unconformably on Triassic shale. A series of paleosols,             through a combination of mass balance geochemistry and comparisons of strontium isotopes. A
some welded, with alternating argillic and calcic horizons are present throughout the section. In        variety of potential local to regional sources for the fine-grained material in the lunette-playa sys-
many of the paleosols, carbonate coats argillic clay. There is some evidence for ponded water in 1       tem are possible. These include Quaternary basaltic volcanics, early Paleozoic granitic rocks,
core, however its relative elevation and extent is suspect for a large Pleistocene-age lake. Sand        early Paleozoic syn-tectonic shale-sandstone sequences, late Precambrian shale-sandstone
and gravel sequences suggest alluvial fan debouchment into streams rather than large lake bod-           sequences, Murray River mud, and far-travelled dust. The strontium isotopes and XRD mineralogy
ies. The presence of multiple stacked paleosols in sequences of eolian and reworked alluvial/col-        strongly indicate the fine-grained material that is widespread in the lagoons and soils of this dis-
luvial deposits in the basin indicate that the basin has been a low-relief area for an extended time.    trict have a source dominated by the early Palaeozoic shale-sandstone units. Thus, the deposition
Climatic change and periods of relative landscape stability occurred throughout the Quaternary           in this district over the last million years, just south from the Murray River mouth, shows local
and Tertiary as represented by the multiple paleosol sequences in this basin.                            provenance dominating over inputs from the Murray River. Reasons for this include the abun-
                                                                                                         dance and durability of mica and illite from these syn-tectonic shale-sandstone units as well as
                                                                                                         their extensive exposure and ease of weathering. The local volcanic rocks are of limited aerial
                                                                                                         extent. The granitic rocks are proximal to the soils in question but have restricted outcrop distribu-
74-9          BTH 50           Gunnell, Yanni                                         [53895]            tion. An unexpected finding is that Murray River mud is not a significant contributor to the fine-
ORIGINS OF CALCRETE DEVELOPED ON PRECAMBRIAN SILICATE ROCKS USING SR                                     grained material. It is possible that Murray River mud is largely trapped in up-stream floodplains,
ISOTOPIC TRACING AND MICROMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS: IMPLICATIONS FOR                                       playas, and yazoo-like streams where a significant portion is deflated and blown to the east.
      DURAND, Nicolas L.1, GUNNELL, Yanni2, CURMI, Pierre1, HAMELIN, Bruno3, and
      AHMAD, Masood S.4, (1) Ecology, French Institute of Pondicherry, 11, Saint Louis Street,           74-13         BTH 54            Alloway, Brent V.                                        [54386]
      Pondicherry, 605001, India,, (2) Department of Geography,
      Université Denis-Diderot (Paris 7), and Laboratoire de Géographie Physique, CNRS-UMR               OFFSHORE-ONSHORE CORRELATION OF PLEISTOCENE RHYOLITIC ERUPTIONS FROM
      8591, 1 Place A. Briand, Meudon, 92120, France,, (3) CEREGE,             NEW ZEALAND: IMPLICATIONS FOR TVZ ERUPTIVE HISTORY AND PALEOENVIRONMENTAL
      Europôle Méditerranéen de l’Arbois, B.P. 80, Aix-en-Provence, 13545, France, (4) National          CONSTRUCTION
      Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, 500 007, India                                   ALLOWAY, Brent V., Institute of Geol & Nuclear Sciences, Wairakei Research Centre,
This study associates micromorphological analysis and isotopic tracing of the various calcrete                Private Bag 2000, Taupo, New Zealand,, CARTER, Lionel, National
occurrences on basement rock outcrops in South India, in order to understand their formation and              Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, PO Box 14 901, Wellington, New Zealand,
evolution, and assess their value as indicators of paleoclimatic change. The two main settings are            WESTGATE, John, Department of Geology, Univ of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Toronto,
upland Karnataka (ca. 900 m) and lowland Tamil Nadu (ca. 400 m), respectively.                                M5S 3B1, Canada, PILLANS, Brad, Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian
    Toposequences and vertical profiles were described and sampled for measuring the isotopic                 National Univ, Canberra, ACT, 0200, Australia, and NAISH, Tim, Institute of Geol & Nuclear
composition of specific phases of carbonates, including susceptible bedrock sources of calcium.               Sciences, Gracefield Research Centre, P.O. Box 30-368, Lower Hutt, New Zealand
87Sr/86Sr ratios are specific to different marine and terrestrial reservoirs and materials and are not   Deep-sea cores retrieved from Ocean Drilling Program sites 1123 and 1124, located east of New
modified by dissolution and precipitation processes. Sr concentrations and isotopic compositions         Zealand, have provided an unpreceded 12 m.y. record of major rhyolitic eruptions from the
were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Results on carefully targeted            Coromandel (CVZ) and Taupo Volcanic Zones (TVZ). A total of 197 macroscopic tephras have
fabric sub-units identified in thin section have given Sr isotopic ratios of 0.709218 and 0.709383       been dated by a combination of magnetostratigraphy, orbitally tuned stable-isotope data and
for laminar calcrete capping elevated parts of the lowland landscape in Tamil Nadu. These values         isothermal plateau fission track ages. The widespread occurrence of ash offshore to the east of
are close to ratios known for Quaternary sea water (0.7092), implying advection of Ca-rich dust

204       Programs with Abstracts
                                                                                                                                                                                  SESSION NO. 74
New Zealand is favoured by the small size of New Zealand, the explosivity of the mainly plinian         paleosols were both microsampled and analyzed in bulk. Carbon isotope values of pedogenic car-
and ignimbritic eruptions and vigorous prevailing westerly winds.                                       bonate nodules vary between -4 and -7 ‰ VPDB and suggest that the nodules formed in the
    In cores 1124 and 1123, c. 100 tephra beds are recognised post-dating the Plio-Pleistocene          presence of an elevated percentage of C4 vegetation. Oxygen isotope values of microsamples
boundary at 1.81 Ma. Though some tephras can be directly attributed to known TVZ eruptions,             vary between -8.5 and -10.5 ‰ VPDB and correlate negatively to the corresponding carbon iso-
there are many more tephras represented with the ODP-cores that have yet to be recognised in            tope values suggesting that peak C4 vegetation occurred during periods of intensified precipita-
near-source sequences. This can be attributed to proximal source area erosion and/or deep burial        tion (peak interglacials). Bulk nodule isotope compositions (δ13C=-5.1 to -6.5 , δ18O=-8.9 to -10.0
as well as the adverse effect of vapour phase alteration and devitrification within near-source         ‰ VPDB) do record long-term conditions at the site, but they mask smaller-scale temporal envi-
welded ignimbrites. Despite these difficulties, a number of key deep-sea tephras can be reliably        ronmental variations.
correlated to equivalent-aged tephra exposed in uplifted marine back arc successions of
Wanganui Basin where an excellent chronology also exists based on magnetostratigraphy, orbital-
ly tuned stable-isotope data and isothermal plateau fission track ages. Significant Pleistocene         74-17         BTH 58           Dlussky, Konstantin G.                                  [54230]
tephra markers include: Kawakawa, Rangitawa, Onepuhi, Kupe, Kaukatea, Potaka, Ridge,
Pakihikura, Birdgrove, Ototoka, Table Flat and Vinegar Hill Tephras.                                    LIKHVIN (HOLSTEINIAN) INTERGLACIAL SOIL COVER RECONSTRUCTION BY
    The identification of these Pleistocene TVZ-sourced tephras within the ODP-cores, and their         PALEOPEDOLOGICAL DATA FOR THE EAST EUROPEAN PLAIN, RUSSIA
correlation to Wanganui Basin is a significant advance for two reasons. Firstly, it provides an even          DLUSSKY, Konstantin G., Earth & Atmospheric Sciences, Univ of Alberta, 126, Earth
higher-resolution history of the TVZ than can be currently achieved from the near-source record               Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3, Canada, and
and secondly, it yields a detailed and reliable tephrochronologic framework essential for future              MOROZOVA, Tatiana D., Laboratory of Evolutionary Geography, Institute of Geography,
paleoenvironmental reconstructions.                                                                           Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetny line, 29, Moscow, 109017, Russia
                                                                                                        The aim of this study is to elucidate long-term climatic change over the East European Plain dur-
                                                                                                        ing the Middle Pleistocene. For this purpose, we investigated about 40 loess/paleosol sections.
                                                                                                        We reconstruct the genesis and secondary transformations of the oldest Middle Pleistocene inter-
74-14         BTH 55          Endo, Kunihiko                                         [55339]            glacial paleosol (the Inzhavino paleosol) in the Oka, Don and Dnieper River basins (48-56° N, 32-
AEOLIAN LOESS AND PALEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES                                                            44° E). The Inzhavino paleosol corresponds locally to the Likhvin interglacial and regionally to the
     ZHENG, Xiangmin, Department of Geography, East China Normal Univ, Shanghai, 200062,                Holsteinian interglacial of Western Europe.
     China, and ENDO, Kunihiko, Department of geosystem Sciences,                     Micromorphology indicates that the Inzhavino paleosol is polygenetic and implies that boreal to
     Nihon Univ, Tokyo, 156, Japan,                                              sub-boreal conditions prevailed during the stage of most pronounced soil formation, correspon-
A typical aeolian loess stratum is found on the Shengshan islandsin East China Sea at first. This       ding to the thermal optimum of the Likhvin Interglacial. There are clear indications of distinct pre-
island is located at about 122∞‹40’ E,30∞‹55’N in East China Sea. The loess strata of 3-8 M in          optimal and post-optimal stages of soil formation. The soil of the optimal stage has a zonal struc-
thickness distribute on the top and slop of the rock mountain of this island with the elevation about   ture. In the northern part of the region, it is distinguished by a conspicuous textural differentiation
from 80 to 100 meters. The similar loess strata have also been found in the other small islands of      through the profile (Ah-Ae-Btf-Bg). South of 52° N, the eluvial horizon is usually not pronounced
the Zhoushan archipelago. Being continuous deposition of the loess strata, it contains a lot of         morphologically, instead in situ weathering signs are more evident (Ah-(Aej)-Btgj). South of 51° N
information of the paleoenvironmental change and studying on the loess in the islands have              in the Don River basin and south of 50° N in the Dnieper River basin, the Inzhavino paleosol has
important geological significance in recognizing the Quaternary loess distribution in China and         a chernozem-like profile with a thick Ah horizon, carbonate accumulations and numerous krotov-
East Asia, depositing process and the evolution of paleoenvironment of the East China Sea .             inas. The boundaries of the soil zones are aligned from WSW to ENE, probably because of the
Through a series of analysis on the loess strata in the Island and comparing to the Xiashu loess        influence of the Atlantic Ocean. In some sections, for the pre-optimal stage of soil formation, there
strata in the western hilly of the Yangtze River Delta, the following conclusions can be made:          is micromorphological evidence of an earlier generation of lessivage and humus illuviation. These
1.The analysis results on the loess (e.g. grain size, heavy mineral, phytolith analysis, pollens and    features are more pronounced in the NE part of the region where they are accompanied by iron
spores, magnetic susceptibility, geochemical composition , surfical features of quartz grains, IRSL     illuviation. There, we identify two Bt sub-horizons. South of 52° N, especially in the middle Dnieper
dating and so on) show that the loess in the Shengshan Island is aeolian in origin deposited            River basin, we observe a Btj horizon at the bottom of the optimal stage chernozem-like solum.
under the cold-dry climatic condition. The sediment features are similar to the Xiashu loess in the         Humus accumulation is the most pronounced process for the post-optimal stage. It is also dis-
western hilly of the Yangtze River Delta. 2.In according to the IRSL dating and strata comparison       tinguished by two Ah sub-horizons and a very low position of the Ae horizon. Finally, there are
with the loess strata in the western hilly of the Yangtze River Delta, the loess in the Shengshan       two generations of small-polygon cryogenic deformations at the top of the Inzhavino paleosol.
Island is mainly deposited during the last glacial period. 3. The material resources of the loess in
the islands came from the Northwest China and Central China transported by west-wind during
the late Glacial Period. 4.During the last glacial period, the aeolian dust may have been widely        74-18         BTH 59           Gracheva, Raisa G.                                      [55888]
deposited in the East China plain, the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and even on the Korea
Peninsula, Japanses Islands and the neighboring sea areas. Therefore, the eastern limit of the          EVOLUTION OF SOILS AND LANDSCAPES OF WETLANDS IN THE UPPER VOLGA
loess deposits in late Pleistocene in China is farther eastward than that had been recognized. 5.       LOWLAND IN THE HOLOCENE: MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY
The diagram of curve of grain size, and magnetic susceptibility show that there areseveral climatic           GRACHEVA, Raisa G.1, VANDERBERGHE, Jozef2, SOROKIN, Aleksey N.3,
fluctuations with several different dust materials during the aeolian deposition period.                      SULERDJITSKIY, Leopold D.4, and CHICHAGOVA, Olga A.1, (1) Russian Academy of
                                                                                                              Sciences, Institute of Geography, Staromonetny per.29, Moscow, 109117, Russia,
                                                                                                    , (2) Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085, Amsterdam, 1081 HV,
                                                                                                              Netherlands, (3) Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Archaeology, Moscow, Russia,
74-15         BTH 56          Han, Jiamao                                            [53516]                  (4) Russian Academy of Sciences, Geol Institute, Moscow, Russia
CARBON ISOTOPES OF C3 AND C4 PLANTS IN NORTH CHINA                                                      An integrative study of fluviolacustrine and bog deposits of wetlands of Upper Volga Lowland
     HAN, Jiamao, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,                     including series of buried soils and evidences of Early Man activity was made to reconstruct the
     DeWai QiJiaHuoZi, Beijing 100029 China,                                            climate and palaeohydrological change in the Central Russia during the last 11,000 14C years.
Carbon is an important ring in ecosystems and geosystems. It exists in different forms, such as             Study sites are located within Zabolotskoe peatland developed in place of the former bottom of
CO2 in the atmosphere and soil, organisms in plant and animal tissues in the biosphere, HCO3-           a periglacial palaeolake Tverskoye. It is shown that the regional time-space dynamic of soils and
and CO32- in the hydrosphere, organic relics and carbonates in soils and deposits in the super-         landscapes was tightly related to initial topography of dried palaeolake bottom.
gene zone, and carbonate rocks and fossil fuels in the lithosphere. It plays an important role in           Soil formation began not later than 10330 14C BP on the forest-free plain with inherited topog-
the interaction of the Earth’s system. Appearance of C4 photosynthesis in the terrestrial plants is     raphy of palaeolake bed. The carbonated organic rich well-structured soils were widely developed.
one of the most important biological events during the Cenozoic. It is noted that the virtual           According to the interpretation of palynological spectra from key sections and the oxygen isotope
absence of overlap in the ranges of the carbon isotope composition of C3 and C4 plants. It              composition of bone phosphate the annual temperature was 5° and 10° lower than at present,
reminds us of carbon isotope might be a useful tool in understanding global biogeochemical              respectively.
cycles in the climate system. For that purpose, several kinds of materials were used in carbon              During the Preboreal up to the beginning of the Atlantic, birch and pine forests developed suc-
isotopic studies, such as soil organic materials and carbonates, fossil teeth and present-day           cessively leading to soil leaching. Acid humic-illuvial soils were formed. Impact of Mesolithic set-
plants. It is common accepted that carbon isotopic composition of soil organic materials and soil       tlements resulted in soil disturbance.
carbonates is closely related to the relative amount of C3 and C4 plants grew on it. It should be           In the Atlantic forests are widespread, while Luvisols on loams and Podzols on sands, and
useful to study the carbon isotopic changes during biological cycles in different environments. Our     raw-humus soils in the depressions under alder forests were formed. Frequent forest fires are

main interest focuses, therefore, mainly on the carbon isotope of modern plants and soil organic        assumed to have occurred around 7500 BP.
materials, their response to environment changes and the possibility to use them in quantitative            Around 6000 BP bogging in depressions began; on the high sites (0.5 m above) Luvisols and
paleoenvironmental studies during the Quaternary. Some measurements of carbon isotope com-              Podzols development was continued, and human used this plots actively. At the Atlantic/Subboreal
position of herbs taken from temperate northern China were carried out. The results show that           transition complex soil cover from peaty boggy soils, Luvisols and Podzols was formed.
δ13C values shift to more positive in a westward direction. The same tendency was seen for indi-            Around 2600 BP total flooding interrupted soil development through lowland area bordering
vidual representative samples of both C3 and C4 plants taken from different geographical posi-          the Klin-Dmitrov Heights and lower than 130 m a.s.l. Shallow flow-through cold lake was formed.
tions indicating its humidity dependence. Negative correlation was seen between carbon isotopic             Not later than 1900 14C BP a wet plain with temporary water channels, free and cut-off mean-
value and local annual precipitation for some widespread species. There seems a gap of about 2          ders and local bog areas were formed.
per mil between the carbon isotope composition of soil organic matter and that calculated from              Around 730 - 640 BP alder and birch forests spread widely. Relief intensity decreased due to
the isotopic composition of all kinds of plants and their real measured biomass. It implies that        ongoing peat accumulation.
there is a fractionation when plant relics decomposed into organic matter in the soil.                      The present time is characterized by ground water-level rise and secondary soil carbonatiza-
                                                                                                        tion and gypsum formation.
                                                                                                            Supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). Project                      PM
74-16         BTH 57          Vidic, Natasa J.                                       [55945]            047.009.002.

     VIDIC, Natasa J., Biotechnical Faculty, Agronomy Department, Univ of Ljubljana,
                                                                                                        74-19         BTH 60           van Huissteden, J.                                      [53502]
     Jamnikarjeva 101, Ljubljana, 1111, Slovenia, and MONTANEZ,                     PEATLAND: A PROCES-BASED MODEL OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND METHANE FLUXES
     Isabel P., Dept. of Geology, Univ of California, Davis, CA 95616                                   FROM PEAT SOILS
We employ isotope compositions of organic matter and pedogenic carbonate nodules preserved                   VAN HUISSTEDEN, J. and VAN DEN BOS, R.M., Environmental Geosciences, Vrije
in several loess/palaeosol couplets (S0, S1, S5, S15-S19) from the Jiaodao section, Shaanxi                  Universiteit, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, De Boelelaan 1085, Amsterdam, 1081 HV,
Province, to reconstruct past variations in floral composition at the site. Carbon isotope values of         Netherlands,
soil organic matter (SOM) consistently increase from minimum values in loess (-24 to -22 ‰              The management of peatlands has a large effect on the carbon balance of these areas. Since
VPDB) to maximum values in paleosols (-19 to -21 ‰ VPDB). These data are interpreted to                 medieval times the coastal peat areas in the Netherlands have been drained for agriculture.
record repeated shifts in the ratio of C3 to C4 vegetation at the site during glacial/interglacial      However, plans exist to convert parts of these peatlands back into wetland nature reserves by
cycles. The proportion of C4 vegetation was consistently higher (up to 60%) during warm and wet         raising water levels again. Since drainage began, the Dutch coastal peat areas became a source
interglacial periods than during dry and cold glacial periods (30% or less). Carbon isotope values      of CO2. On the other hand, raising of the groundwater level may turn these areas in a source of
of SOM correlate well with magnetic susceptibility values suggesting that the two proxies               CH4, which is more effective as a greenhouse gas than CO2.
responded to the same climatic forcing. Pedogenic carbonate nodules at the bases of the studied

                                                                                                                                     XVI INQUA Congress • Reno, Nevada                                  205
    PEATLAND is a process-based model of CO2 and CH4 emission from peat soils at various                   74-23         BTH 64          Costantini, Edoardo A.C.                               [54166]
management scenarios. PEATLAND includes CO2 and CH4 production from different soil organic
matter reservoirs, including the peat substrate of the soil. CO2 production is modelled using first        USING EXISTING SOIL DATABASES TO CONSIDER PALEOSOLS IN LAND PLANNING
order decomposition rates. The decomposition constants are influenced by the environmental fac-                  COSTANTINI, Edoardo A.C. Sr1, MALUCELLI, Francesco2, and BRENNA, Stefano2,
tors temperature, soil aeration, soil moisture and pH. The CH4 emission includes production from                 (1) Soil Genesis, Classification and Cartography, Ist. Sper. Studio e Difesa Suolo,
fresh organic matter, methane oxidation in the soil, and transport by diffusion, through plant roots             Piazza M. D’Azegio 30, Florence, 50121, Italy,, (2) ERSAF-Lombardia
and bubbles. Both submodels are linked to a primary production model. The model is validated                     Region Agency for Agriculture and Forest, via Ponchielli, 2/4, Milano, 20124, Italy
using closed chamber flux measurements at three sites in the Netherlands.                                  Land Planning at the regional scale makes use of soil information in a great deal of evaluations,
    The model results indicate interesting links between CO2 and CH4 production in cases of a              most of them related to the economical productive sectors, in particular agriculture and environ-
seasonally fluctuating water table. The CH4 production during high water table periods is sup-             ment. Soil in this ambit is considered as a resource for which the characteristics and properties
pressed by aerobic decomposition of fresh organic matter reservoirs during low water table peri-           are measured, and its qualities and suitability for a variety of purposes are assessed. However,
ods. In case of a winter-high, summer-low water table regime CH4 flux peaks occur in spring and            there is a growing interest in applying Land Planning to preserve the cultural heritage of the terri-
autumn. High CH4 emission only occurs after a considerable raise of the water table. In some               tory, and the role that soil can play in such evaluation is often underestimated. Paleosols are par-
cases this may cause a net increase of the greenhouse gas flux (expressed in CO2 equivalents)              ticularly worthwhile in this role of “containers of information”, and Land Planning aimed at preserv-
in spite of a decreased CO2 flux.                                                                          ing the cultural heritage of the landscape should take into account the presence of Paleosols. This
                                                                                                           study was conducted to set up a methodology which could be applied on existing soil database to
                                                                                                           implement Land Planning for soil information related to Paleosols. The methodology considered
                                                                                                           all the Po river Plain area and moraine hills of the Lombardia region and utilized a soil database
74-20         BTH 61           Trombino, Luca                                           [55584]            built at the 1:50,000 scale. Other informative layers used were the pedolandscape units, parks
(PALEO)PEDOLOGICAL SURVEY ON OLD TERRACES IN NORTH-WEST ITALY (VAL SESIA)                                  and urban area, all at 1:250,000 scale. The area is constituted by glacial Late Pleistocene
     TROMBINO, Luca1, PETRELLA, Fabio2, IARICCI, Marcella1, and PONTI, Ilaria1, (1) Earth                  deposits and Holocene alluvial sediments. The rating considered some selected soil characteris-
     Sciences Department, Univ of Milano, Via Mangiagalli 34, Milano, I 20133, Italy,                      tics and gave them a different weight. The scored characteristics were: i) presence of buried hori-, (2) Soil Branch, IPLA s.p.a, Corso Casale 476, Torino, I 10132, Italy         zons, ii) presence of some diagnostic horizons such as fragipan, plinthite, iii) Soil Taxonomy clas-
A double transect in the low Sesia valley, from the river bed to the upper oldest terraces (named          sification at the great groups level, iv) redness rating of the B horizons. The evaluation started
“Baragge”), towards east and west, has been recognized on the geological maps: the crono-topo-             from the selection of the pedolandscape units of geological interest and then took into account
sequence could be attributed to a fluvioglacial terraces chain, dated since the Middle Pleistocene.        soils and cartographic mapping units. The overlay with the parks thematic map allowed to esti-
In order to verify this attribution and increase knowledge to a greater detail, a geopedological sur-      mate the extension of the not already protected paleosols. The presence in polygons with pale-
vey has been undertaken by means of soil profiles excavation, on the different morphological sur-          osols of urban areas for more than 20% gave an appraisal of the risk of loss of the cultural value
faces, additionally supported by frequent auger controls. Description, sampling and analysis of            of the landscape.
soil horizons allowed to produce a broad data set for a complete characterization of the geopedo-
logical aspects of the studied area. Field and laboratory work has brought two levels of results: 1°
Level: Land survey concluded by a soil map (1:50.000 scale) 2° Level: Analytic investigation for a         74-24         BTH 65          Costantini, Edoardo A.C.                               [54868]
better characterization of the chrono-topo-sequence. The analytical protocol was constituted by:
grain size and routine pedological analyses, heavy minerals determination, X-ray fluorescence              ADDING INFORMATION ABOUT SOILS AND PALEOSOLS TO GEOLOGICAL MAPPING. A
and X-ray diffraction, micromorphology of soil thin sections, in order to use the most significant         GIS APPLICATION IN CENTRAL ITALY
(paleo)pedological indexes (i.e. soil development index, percentage of original content of elements              COSTANTINI, Edoardo A.C., Soil Genesis, Classification and Cartography, Ist. Sper. Studio
remaining, parent material uniformity index…). The final results can be summarised as follows: 1.                e Difesa Suolo, Piazza M. D’Azegio 30, Florence, 50121, Italy,,
The quantitative characterization of the chrono-topo-sequence; 2. An improved focus on pedogen-                  NAPOLI, Rosario, and D’EGIDIO, Giorgio
esis factors in the Quaternary paleoenvironment of Northern Italy; 3. A tentative methodological           Soil survey and study of paleosols can add a great deal of information useful to the comprehen-
contribution to define and classify paleosols; 4. An unusual data set as support of a soil map,            sion of Quaternary geological and geomorphological processes, but they are rarely reported in
which can be utilized to derive, with high precision, suitability maps, useful for land planning           geological maps, perhaps due to the difficulty in individuating and mapping pedostratigraphic
according to agricultural and environmental targets; 5. A strict interaction between quaternary            units. This study was conducted to qualify Quaternary formations in terms of pedostratigraphic
geologist and pedologist with exchange of information and methodological confrontation.                    units and to test the possibilities offered by the use of GIS and 3D tools in implementing existing
                                                                                                           geological maps with soil survey and information about paleosols. The territory studied, measur-
                                                                                                           ing around 35 km2 and situated in Central Italy, is part of a broad ridge emerging from the sea
                                                                                                           during the Miocene age and undergoing intense geomorphological evolution during the Pliocene
74-21         BTH 62           Favier-Dubois, Cristian M.                               [54538]            and Quaternary Periods. Many rock types and sediments outcrop in the area. They are metamor-
SOIL GENESIS RELATED TO MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD’S CLIMATIC FLUCTUATIONS IN                                    phic rocks, mainly free of carbonates, calcareous rocks, and slope and alluvial deposits derived
SOUTHERN PATAGONIA AND TIERRA DEL FUEGO (ARGENTINA). CHRONOLOGICAL AND                                     from the local bedrock. We used as geological reference the recent map published by the
PALEOCLIMATIC CONSIDERATIONS                                                                               Department of Earth Science of the University of Siena, at 1:25,000 scale, where the Quaternary
     FAVIER-DUBOIS, Cristian M., CONICET-INCUAPA, Arqueología, Facultad de Ciencias                        sediments are described as alluvial or eluvial-colluvial deposits. The GIS was built on ArcGIS8®
     Sociales (UNCPBA), Avenida del Valle 5737, Olavarría B7400JWI Argentina,                              and ArcScene® was used to provide a tri-dimensional view of spatial distribution of pedostrati-                                                                              graphic units as well as to obtain cross sections of the area. Three pedotratigraphic units were
Geoarchaeological work carried out in five localities in Southern Patagonia and Northern Tierra            proposed, according to the presence of different diagnostic horizon assemblages and selected
del Fuego has demonstrated the presence of a pedogenesis interval represented by a mollisol, in            chemical and physical characteristics of horizons and parts of them. Following former paleopedo-
the upper section of widespread late Holocene aeolian and colluvial deposits. This soil is buried at       logical studies, they were attributed to Early, Middle and Late Pleistocene, and Holocene. Three
the archaeological sites under study but remains exposed in other areas of the same landscape.             soil maps at 1:10,000 and 1:25,000 scales were combined and harmonized, 27 benchmark pro-
The mollisol’s origin and development may indicate an important change in environmental condi-             files were analyzed, and each soil map unit was classified in terms of occurrence and thickness
tions due to the stabilization of regional aeolian and colluvial systems at that time. Furthermore,        of the three pedostratigraphic units. The pedostratigraphy map obtained was then combined with
there are changes in the distribution of the archaeological record that are linked to this develop-        the geological map, resulting in a more detailed subdivision of Quaternary surface deposits. The
ment. Radiocarbon dates on materials found beneath this soil (maximum ages) and those by                   tri-dimensional view of the geology-pedostratigraphy map, as well as the cross sections, permitted
OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio) in the AC horizon (minimum ages) indicate the beginning of its               appraisal of the geographical and chronological relationships between rocks and overlaying soils.
development around the year 1000 BP. Chronologically, there appears to be a correspondence
between the beginning of the mollisol and the presence of climatic anomalies in southern
Patagonia that coincided with the so-called Medieval Warm Period. These climatic fluctuations are
present in Patagonia according to dendroclimatic studies.                                                  SESSION NO. 75, 1:30 PM
                                                                                                           Tuesday, July 29, 2003
74-22         BTH 63           Leopold, Matthias                                        [52822]
IS THERE A CHANCE TO RECONSTRUCT HOLOCENE PALAEOCLIMATE DATA USING                                         S27. Quaternary Environments of the Eurasian North
      LEOPOLD, Matthias and VOELKEL, Joerg, Dep. Physical Geography & Soil Science, Univ
      Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse, Regensburg, 93040, Germany,                                                        Reno Hilton Resort and Conference Center, Pavilion
In the German literature colluvials are seen as correlated sediments of men induced processes
like clearing, farming, settlement or mining etc. Due to the long settlement and especially farming
history in Southern Germany (back to the Meso-/Neolithic era 6.000 to 8.000 a BP) they repre-              75-1          BTH 66          Bauch, Henning A.                                      [54840]
sent a widely spread geo-archive mainly beeing used for the reconstruction of the land use histo-
ry. But futhermore colluvial soils store also the typology data of the eroded soils and of the             QUEEN – A 7-YEAR PROGRAMME OF THE EUROPEAN SCIENCE FOUNDATION (ESF)
processes of their formation as well as indications of pedogenetic processes which took place                   THIEDE, Joern, Alfred Wegener Institute, Columbusstrasse, Bremerhaven, 27568, Germany,
after the deposition. All of these processes are closely related to the climatic parameters and here   and BAUCH, Henning A., Academy of Sci, Humanity and
especially to the precipitation. So it seems to be obvious to test these soils on their capability for a        Literature, Geschwister-Scholl-Str. 2, Mainz, 55131, Germany,
Palaeoclimate reconstruction also because colluvial soils originated in Central Europe in different        QUEEN (Quaternary Environment of the Eurasian North) aims at deciphering the Late
settlement eras and therefor probably a time series could be established. Nevertheless the recon-          Quaternary history of a part of our world which is of eminent importance for an understanding of
struction of precipitation proxidata is difficult, because colluvials must be seen as a syngenetical       mid- to long-term climatic variations over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. The ambiguities of
product of different parameters like relief, erodibility, field size, farming techniques, pressure of      reconstructions of the extent of the Eurasian ice sheets and the poor understanding of the
population, time of usage and climate. During historic time slices written documents can help to           palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean, have attracted research groups to conduct field studies in
correlate sediment- and soil data with described weather phenomena. But during prehistoric time            northern Eurasia and marine expeditions to the adjacent shelf and the Arctic Ocean. Such a sub-
slices, which is by far the longest part of the farming period in Central Europe, it is shown u.o.         stantial number of studies were conducted in bilateral cooperations between scientific institutions
through own examples, that the reconstruction of all of the parameters which control colluvial ero-        in Russia and in western Europe that the ESF decided to bring them together under the QUEEN
sion and sedimentation, is not possible at present. It would be the precondition for a reconstruc-         umbrella. The QUEEN Programme started in January 1996 and will be completed by the end of
tion of climate data or for the correlation with already existing Holocene climate archives. Also          the year 2002. It has provided a pan-European focus for both terrestrial and marine investigations
based upon our own investigations, colluvials which doubtlessly include climatic information, can          of the glacial and climate history of the entire Eurasian Arctic. The research activities have been
not be used for the reconstruction of palaeoclimate data at present.                                       stimulated by the annual workshops organised by QUEEN and publication of their results in inter-
                                                                                                           national scientific journals.
                                                                                                               An important step for QUEEN was the publication of a first volume of scientific papers (Late
                                                                                                           Quaternary History of Northwestern Russia and Adjacent Shelves, Boreas, 28 (1), 1-242). It
                                                                                                           included a comprehensive reconstruction of the extent of Weichselian ice sheets - especially of
                                                                                                           those at the Last Glacial maximum (LGM). The results of QUEEN field work demonstrated that

206       Programs with Abstracts
                                                                                                                                                                                   SESSION NO. 75
the LGM ice sheet was substantially smaller than had previously been anticipated. More recently,          key for understanding the intimate relationship between the Barents Sea and Kara Sea Ice
QUEEN has presented its second volume of scientific papers to an international community                  Sheets in northern Russia. Actually, other sections along the coast of Kanin Peninsula and
(Eurasia and adjacent Arctic seas during the late Quaternary, Global and Planetary Change, 31             Chyorskaya Bay into the Pechora Lowland might display the same glacio-tectonic architecture
(1-4)). The themes of this latest volume address two major issues: (1) the Late Quaternary pale-          within the same well-constrained time interval reflecting a major glaciodynamic event.
oenvironmental history of the Arctic Ocean and its shelf seas, and (2) the terrestrial and limnic
stratigraphy and palaeonvironmental history of the Late Quaternary in northernmost Eurasia.
Further information is available from the QUEEN website                                                   75-5          BTH 70           Jakobsson, Martin                                      [53953]
                                                                                                          HUGE ICE-DAMMED LAKES IN RUSSIA DURING THE LAST GLACIATION
                                                                                                                JAKOBSSON, Martin1, MANGERUD, Jan2, ALEXANDERSON, Helena3, ASTAKHOV,
                                                                                                                Valery4, CLARKE, Garry K.C.5, HJORT, Christian3, KRINNER, Gerhard6, LUNKKA, Juha-
75-2          BTH 67           van Huissteden, J                                       [53709]                  Pekka7, MURRAY, Andrew8, and SVENDSEN, John Inge9, (1) Center for Coastal and
THE PERIGLACIAL ZONE IN EUROPE DURING OXYGEN ISOTOPE STAGE 3 - COMPARISON                                       Ocean Mapping/ Joint Hydrographic Center, Univ of New Hampshire, Chase Ocean
OF CLIMATE MODEL RESULTS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF PERIGLACIAL FEATURES                                           Engineering Lab, 24 Colovos Road, Durham, NH 03824,,
      VAN HUISSTEDEN, J, Geo-environmental sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Faculty of Earth                       (2) Dept of Geology, Univ Bergen, Allégt 41, Bergen, N-5007, Norway, (3) Quaternary
      and Life Sciences, De Boelelaan 1085, Amsterdam, 1081 HV, Netherlands,                                    Geology, Lund Univ, Lund, (4) Geological Faculty, St. Petersburg State Univ, St., VANDENBERGHE, J, Quaternary Geology and                                 Petersburg, Russia, (5) Earth and Ocean Sciences, Univ of British Columbia, 6339 Stores
      Geomorphology, Vrije Universiteit, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, De Boelelaan 1085,                 Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada, (6) LGGE / CNRS, Saint Martin d’Heres Cedex,
      Amsterdam, 1081 HC, Netherlands, and POLLARD, D., Earth System Science Center,                            France, (7) Institute of Geosciences, Univ of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 University of
      Pennsylvania State Univ, University Park, PA PA16802                                                      Oulu, Oulu, Finland, (8) Nordic Laboratory for Luminescence Dating, Riso, (9) Department
Ice wedge casts and periglacial involutions occur abundantly in deposits of Oxygen Isotope Stage                of Earth Science, Univ of Bergen, Allegt. 41, N-5007 Bergen, Bergen, N-5007, Norway
3 age in Europe north of approximately 50o North latitude. Ice wedge casts are evidence of the            The north-flowing Russian rivers, between the White Sea and Taymyr Peninsula, were blocked sev-
existence of continuous permafrost. However, climate model results from the “Stage 3 project” are         eral times during the last glaciation by ice sheet advances from the Barents and Kara seas
in conflict with the distribution of the periglacial features.                                            (Svendsen et al., 1999). This resulted in huge ice-dammed lakes that formed in front of the ice sheet
    Based on conventional interpretation of paleotemperatures from ice wedge casts, the climate           margins with outflows and drainage towards the south instead of towards the Arctic Ocean as today
model results show mismatches up to 11o C for the mean annual air temperature and up to 15o C             (Mangerud et al., 2001a). Here we present reconstructions of these lakes during the Early (about 90
for the winter temperature. This mismatch is considerably reduced when locally favourable condi-          ka) and Middle Weichselian (60-50 ka). During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Barents-Kara
tions and the time scale of ice wedge development are taken into account.Most likely the Stage 3          Ice Sheet was too small to block these rivers. Lake Komi in the Pechora lowland (Mangerud et al.,
ice wedges represent very short (decadal) periods of intense cold.                                        2001b) is reconstructed from mapped shorelines and dated lacustrine sediments; others mainly
    It is difficult to discern the influence of climatic oscillations on the extension of Stage 3 per-    hypothetically from mapped ice-sheet configurations. We have estimated each lake’s surface area
mafrost zone. Thermokarst phenomena suggest widespread permafrost degradation during the                  and water volume using today’s topography. The results reveal ice-dammed lakes, considerably larg-
Hengelo Interstadial. If episodical shifts of the permafrost zone did occur during Stage 3, this          er than any lake on Earth today. Climatic modelling experiments shows that these aerially huge
should have had consequences for drainage basin slope stability and fluvial processes. Fluvial            lakes caused lower summer temperatures on the continent and lower parts of the ice sheet. The
data indeed indicate a widespread increase in fluvial sedimentation rate after establishment of           final outburst of the best-mapped lake, Lake Komi, has been modelled. The result indicates that it
permafrost conditions.                                                                                    could have been emptied within a few months through an outburst into the Arctic Ocean. We specu-
                                                                                                          late that such outburst had considerable impact on sea-ice formation in the Arctic Ocean and on the
                                                                                                          climate of a much larger area. If the total volume (34,400 km3) of the Early Weichselian lakes were
75-3          BTH 68           Hättestrand, Clas                                       [55320]            distributed across the Arctic Ocean with continental shelves, it would produce a nearly 4 m thick
                                                                                                          fresh water layer; restricted to an area approximately corresponding to the Transpolar Drift the layer
LATE GLACIAL ICE MARGINAL FLUCTUATIONS ON CENTRAL KOLA PENINSULA, NW RUSSIA                               would be more than 22 m. This further emphasizes the size of these lakes and their possible impact
     HÄTTESTRAND, Clas1, CLARK, Chris D2, JOHANSEN, Nina1, and KOLKA, Vasili3,                            on the Arctic Ocean freshwater budget.
     (1) Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University,                       Mangerud, J. et al., (2001a). Huge Ice-Age lakes in Russia. Journal of Quaternary Science 16,
     Stockholm, SE-106 91, Sweden,, (2) Department of Geography,                      773-777.
     University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, United Kingdom, (3) Institute of Geology, Kola              Mangerud, J., et al., (2001b). The chronology of a large ice-dammed lake and the Barents-
     Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, 14 Fersman Str, Apatity, 184200, Russia                 Kara Ice Sheet advances, Northern Russia. Global and Planetary Change 31, 319-334.
During the last glaciation, Kola Peninsula was covered by the northeastern sector of the                      Svendsen, et al., (1999). Maximum extent of the Eurasian ice sheets in the Barents and Kara
Fennoscandian ice sheet. Based on the morphology and position of the Keiva moraines, along                Sea region during the Weichselian. Boreas 28, 234-242.
the southern margin of the peninsula, it has been suggested that a separate ice cap, the Ponoy
ice cap, existed on eastern Kola Peninsula in late glacial time. In this study, where we have looked
particularly at the distribution of end moraines and meltwater features related to the deglaciation,
we cannot find evidence for such an ice cap. Rather, it appears that there was a steady retreat
                                                                                                          75-6          BTH 71           Jakobsson, Martin                                      [54831]
across the Kola Peninsula from east to west, with the highest parts of the landscape being                IMPACT OF ICE-DAMMED LAKES ON THE EARLY WEICHSELIAN CLIMATE OF NORTHERN
deglaciated first. Extensive moraine systems and lateral meltwater channel series in the central          EURASIA
part of the Kola Peninsula mountains, the Khibiny and Lovozero mountains, reveal a complicated                 KRINNER, Gerhard1, MANGERUD, Jan2, JAKOBSSON, Martin3, CRUCIFIX, Michel4, RITZ,
interaction between regional ice sheet dynamics and local cirque glaciation. During the Younger                Catherine1, SVENDSSEN, John Inge2, and GENTHON, Christophe1, (1) LGGE, CNRS, DU
Dryas, the eastern ice margin of the Fennoscandian ice sheet was positioned north-south across                 BP 96, 54 rue Molière, Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex, 38402, France,,
the central Kola Peninsula, depositing end moraines on the lowlands surrounding the mountains,                 (2) Dept of Geology, Univ Bergen, Allégt 41, Bergen, N-5007, Norway, (3) Center for Coastal
particularly on the northern part of the peninsula. Within the central mountains themselves there              and Ocean Mapping/ Joint Hydrographic Center, Univ of New Hampshire, Chase Ocean
is extensive evidence of ice marginal positions both from local mountain glaciation, such as regu-             Engineering Lab, 24 Colovos Road, Durham, NH 03824,,
lar end moraines at the mouths of cirques, and from continental glaciation, with inlet glaciers flow-          (4) Institut d’Astronomie et de Géophysique G. Lemaître, Université Catholique de Louvain,
ing up and into the valleys and cirques, depositing marginal moraines. Some cirque valleys have                2, Chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1348, Belgium
thick morainic deposits filling the floors of their innermost parts. These ‘cirque infills’ appear to     During an early stage of the Last Ice Age (Weichselian) a major ice sheet formed over the conti-
have been deposited at the snout of inlet tongues of continental ice, much in the same manner as          nental shelves in the Barents and Kara seas and expanded southwards onto the Russian and
cirque infills are produced today in nunatak areas in Antarctica. A prerequisite for the formation of     Siberian mainland. The expanding ice sheet blocked the northbound drainage on the Eurasian
the Antarctic cirque infills is the presence of blue ice, and hence, high rates of evaporation directly   continent at around 90-80000 years ago and several huge ice dammed lakes rapidly formed
from the ice. It is possible that blue ice conditions were also present during the formation of the       between the ice front and the continental water divide. We model the climatic impacts of these
Kola cirque infills, as no evidence of proglacial lakes is found in these cirques. This may offer         lakes, which together were more than twice as large as the largest lake on Earth today (the
insights into the Younger Dryas climate in nunatak areas just inside the marginal areas of north-         Caspian Sea). We use a stretched-grid atmospheric general circulation model with high regional
eastern Fennoscandian ice sheet.                                                                          resolution. The results indicate that the proglacial lakes caused a strong cooling of up to 10°C
                                                                                                          across a large area of the continent during the summer season. In particular, the temperature

                                                                                                          depression strongly reduced the melting of the southern flank of the Barents-Kara Ice Sheet.
75-4          BTH 69           Kjaer, Kurt H.                                          [53916]            Through this mechanism the proglacial lakes in Russia created an important positive feedback
                                                                                                          loop for ice sheet growth during the major ice advances. A main conclusion is that the ice-
IS IT GLACIOTECTONISM - INTERACTION BETWEEN EURASIAN ICE SHEETS IN                                        dammed lakes repeatedly have played an important role in the dynamics of the Eurasian climate
NORTHERN RUSSIA?                                                                                          during the Ice Ages.
      KJAER, Kurt H.1, HÅKANSSON, Lena1, LARSEN, Eiliv2, DEMIDOV, Igor N3, JENSEN,
      Maria4, FUNDER, Svend4, and HOUMARK-NIELSEN, Michael5, (1) Department of
      Geology, Quaternary Geology, Sölvegatan 13, Lund, SE 22363, Sweden,, (2) Geol Survey of Norway, Trondheim, N-7451, Norway, (3) Russian
                                                                                                          75-7          BTH 72           Naidina, Olga D.                                       [55441]
      Academy of Sciences, Karelian Rsch Centre, Geology, Pushkinskaya Street, Petrozavodsk,              HOLOCENE CLIMATE OF THE LAPTEV SEA REGION ACCORDING TO THE MODEL AND
      185610, Russia, (4) Geological Museum, Univ of Copenhagen, Oester Voldgade 5-7,                     PALYNOLOGICAL DATA
      Copenhagen, DK1350, Denmark, (5) Geological institute, Univ of Copenhagen,                                NAIDINA, Olga D., Biostratigraphy, Institute of the Lithosphere of Marginal Seas, Russian
      Østervoldgade 10, Copenhagen, DK-1350, Denmark                                                            Academy of Sciences, Staromonetny per., 22, Moscow, 119180, Russia,               PM
Without doubt, the most spectacular section though Quaternary successions in the Arkhangelsk                    and BAUCH, Henning A., Academy of Sci, Humanity and Literature, Geschwister-Scholl-
region, NW Russia is found on the northern shores of the Kanin Peninsula. The section stretches                 Str. 2, Mainz, 55131, Germany
over 35-40 kilometres along the Barents Sea coast and is about 40 metres high, although 80                The good chronological framework of cores IK9373, PM9462, PM9499 and PS51/135 from the
metres occasionally is reached. A combination of tidal coastal activity and permafrozen sediments         Laptev Sea provides a first record of the transfer of pollen grains onto the shelf over the
result in strong erosion and well-exposed sections. Along with on-site studies including detailed         Holocene. Major trends in climatically crucial spectra, such as arboreal and herbaceous pollen,
sedimentary logs from key areas together with sampling for luminescence dating (OSL), a photo-            are in good chronological accordance with pollen records on land (Naidina and Bauch, 2001).
mosaic of a 20 km long exposure between Madakhá and Krinka Rivers document the structural                 However it is impossible to draw the convincing paleoclimatic conclusions on the data based only
architecture of the cliff. Previous work suggested that marine, lacustrine and several till units are     on the empirical data. It is necessary to develope mathematical relationships between fossil
present in the section. However, using a structural approach, it seems that a major part of the           pollen data and climatic variables. The relationship between the pollen assemblages and the envi-
section is build of stacked sediment slabs involving a single till sheet and its sorted substratum.       ronment can be reduced to a numerical function which can be use in detailed climatic reconstruc-
This implies that a glacier from the Barents Sea probably dislocated Eemian sediments and till            tion. The interpretation of pollen stratigraphy in terms of climate based on palynological facts and
deposited by a glacier from a northwestern direction. A second ice advance, probably associated           the use of climatic model of general circulation of the atmosphere should to help in detailed cli-
with the Kara Sea Ice Sheet later re-deformed the sediment package from the northeast. The sec-           matic reconstruction over the Laptev Sea area. In the result of the modelling will be present Arctic
tion is capped by marine and lacustrine basin sediments and discordantly overlain by another till         Siberia and Laptev Sea region maps of Holocene temperature and precipitation for the different
unit. If our preliminary hypothesis proves to be valid, northern Kanin shows an unprecedented             seasons of the year.
scale of glaciotectonic dislocation including low-angle thrust and nappe structures with a lateral
displacement between 20-40 kilometres. We suggest that the section at northern Kanin holds the

                                                                                                                                       XVI INQUA Congress • Reno, Nevada                                  207
75-8          BTH 73           Lembke, Lester                                          [55514]            pollens and diatoms. About twenty samples of wood or peat debris have been radiocarbon dated
                                                                                                          (14C AMS), all between 3050 +/- 50 BP and 340 +/- 50 BP. From the preliminary results of all
PRODUCTIVITY, NUTRIENTS AND RIVER DISCHARGE IN THE OKHOTSK SEA, A                                         these resources, we can infer that two-thirds of the deltaic progradation occurred over the last 500
SUBARCTIC BASIN INTERACTING WITH LOW-LATITUDE CLIMATE DETERMINANTS                                        years, starting in the 15th century, the beginning of the Ottoman period and the beginning of the
      LEMBKE, Lester1, TIEDEMANN, Ralf1, NUERNBERG, Dirk1, BIEBOW, Nicole2,                               Little Ice Age. As a hypothesis we propose that neo-tectonics, climatic fluctuations such as the
      BUBENSHCHIKOVA, Natalja3, GORBARENKO, Sergey4, and ASTAKHOV, A.S.4,                                 Little Ice Age and socioeconomic fluctuations play a major role in the acceleration of the process,
      (1) Department of Paleoceanology, GEOMAR Research Center for Marine Geosciences,                    in spite of an important neo-tectonic subsidence effect.
      Wischhofstr. 1-3, Kiel, 24148, Germany,, (2) Tethys Geoconsulting                     References:
      GmbH, Am Seefischmarkt 1-3, Kiel, 24148, Germany, (3) P.P. Shirshov Institute of                        Dimo, Llazar. The evolution of Seman’s Delta and their influence on the coastline in the Late
      Oceanology, Moscow, 117997, Russia, (4) V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, 43           Quaternary. Unpublished Report. Tirana, 1995.
      Baltiskaya Str, Vladivostok, 690041, Russia                                                             Fouache, Eric et al. Recent Geomorphological Evolution of the Delta of the Seman and the
Today, the paleoceanography and paleoproductivity in the Okhotsk Sea is governed by exception-            Vjosa (Albania). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26, 793-802 (2001)
al climatic boundary conditions. Amongst those are the southernmost extent of sea-ice cover with-
in the Northern Hemisphere’s world ocean and a particularly high, mostly biosiliceous, productivi-
ty. In addition, highly variable discharge by the river Amur transports large amounts of freshwater
and terrestrial organic matter into the basin. Major intention of this study is to reconstruct the        76-3           BTH 76           Akçar, Naki                                               [55300]
impact of this freshwater discharge on the sedimentary and oceanographic settings and the inter-          THE FROZEN IN BOSPHORUS AND ITS PALEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS - A SUMMARY
play with rapid natural climatic changes. We use sediment surface samples along the continental           OF THE HISTORICAL DATA -
margin of Sakhalin, presumably following the main pathway of the freshwater flow. Additional                     YAVUZ, Vural, Engineering Geological Department, Faculty of Mines, ITU Maslak Campus,
samples from selected areas like the Derugin Basin and transects across the central Okhotsk                      Istanbul, 80626, Turkey,, AKÇAR, Naki, Institute for Geol Sciences,
Sea towards the Kamchatka continental margin enlarge our dataset and act as reference stations                   Baltzerstrasse 1-3, Berne, 3012, Switzerland,, and SCHLUECHTER,
for pelagic conditions. Accumulation rates and contents of biogenic opal, TOC/TC, nitrogen as                    Christian, Institut for Geol Sciences, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, Berne, 3012, Switzerland
well as C/N ratios and N-15 isotope ratios serve as proxies for spatial distribution patterns of river-   The first evidence of a frozen Bosphorus has been noted during the times of Herodotus. Analysis
ine freshwater discharge, biogenic productivity and nutrient utilization processes. Large portions        of the historical data about the freezing events in Bosphorus (Istanbul, Turkey) merits the pres-
of terrigenous-siliciclastic and organic matter, predominantly in silt and clay size fractions, enter     ence of four main cold periods since 0 AD.
the investigated area by the freshwater flux out of the Amur estuary. This flux is largely controlled         The first period was around the 1st century. Although the temperature was close to or perhaps
by the amount of precipitation reaching the watershed with the progradation of the East Asian             a little lower than, that of the present, Ovidius indicates 3 successive freezing events between 7-
summer monsoon. We observe a highly variable nutrient utilization and deposition of particulate           17 AD. The second cold period was in the 4th century. At that time Scaliger reports another freez-
organic matter at the different locations. High accumulation rates of biogenic opal and TOC corre-        ing event in 401 AD. Then there was a slight increase in temperature up to the beginning of the
late well with the main flow direction of freshwater along the continental margin of E-Sakhalin.          8th century. The third cold period extending from the middle of the 8th century to the 13th, during
However, especially in deeper parts of the basin, high supply of organic matter from a variety of         which the Bosphorus, and even parts of the Black Sea, were repeatedly frozen, and floating ice
sources plays a crucial role in the buildup of phytodetritus layers and oxygen minimum zones or           masses were present in the Sea of Marmara in 739, 753, 755, 762, 928, 934, 1011 and 1232.
even dysoxic conditions in the past. Finally, intercomparison of our different records permits to         Winters were markedly mild for 400 years from the middle of the 13th century to the middle of the
evaluate the significance and soundness of single datasets and helps to test proxies so far               17th. The fourth colder period starting in the early middle of the 17th century and lasting up to the
unused in this region against well-established records.                                                   present day was characterized by severe winters (with freezing of the Bosphorus, the Golden
                                                                                                          Horn and parts of the Black Sea in 1620, 1669, 1755, 1823, 1849, 1862, 1893, 1929, 1954).
                                                                                                          However, the intensity of the winter cold has gradually diminished during this interval.
                                                                                                              These four episodes are more or less contemporaneous with the phases of glacial advances
SESSION NO. 76, 1:30 PM                                                                                   in the Northern Hemisphere. As the accuracy of the historical data increases with time, evidences
                                                                                                          of events are more condense in the fourth period. During this interlude that coincides with the
Tuesday, July 29, 2003                                                                                    Little Ice Age, freezing events are not all contemporaneous with the central European evidences.
                                                                                                          This can be explained by the low index of North Atlantic Oscillation that resulted in higher precipi-
                                                                                                          tation ratios.
T4. Holocene in Eastern Mediterranean and Black                                                               Currently, the examination of glacial features in Anatolia contributes little to the interpretation of
Sea Regions (Posters)                                                                                     the Quaternary paleogeography and climate, and investigations of glacial features are incomplete
                                                                                                          and a sound chronology is non-existent. Our aim is to evaluate existing historical data on the
                                                                                                          modern cold periods, to analyze instrumental meteorological data and to correlate with the ampli-
Reno Hilton Resort and Conference Center, Pavilion                                                        tude and frequency of paleoglacier advances both in the Alps and in Anatolia.

76-1          BTH 74           Filipova-Marinova, Mariana Vladimirova [55128]                             76-4           BTH 77           Sperling, Michael                                         [55375]
HOLOCENE                                                                                                  INTENSITY OF THE BLACK SEA OUTFLOW
     FILIPOVA-MARINOVA, Mariana Vladimirova, Museum of Nat History, 41 Maria Louisa Blvd,                       SPERLING, Michael1, SCHMIEDL, Gerhard2, and HEMLEBEN, Christoph1, (1) Geological
     Varna, 9000, Bulgaria, and CHRISTOVA, Rayna, Institute of                        Sciences, Univ of Tuebingen, Sigwartstrasse 10, Tuebingen, 72076, Germany,
     Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 152, Varna, 9000, Bulgaria                    , (2) Inst. of Geophysics and Geology, Univ. Leipzig,
Although investigations have been going on for 20 years, the Holocene history of the Black Sea                  Talstrasse 35, Leipzig, 04103, Germany
shelf is not yet fully understood. This is because much of the evidence has been removed by               The eutrophic Marmara Sea is an unusual exception in the extreme oligotrophic eastern
repeated displacement in the wave-breaking zone. The sediments are characterised by incomplete            Mediterranean, due to the outflow of low saline and nutrient rich Black Sea Water (BSW). It was
cross-sections and frequent lithological transitions, giving evidence for the heterogeneity and com-      suggested that stronger than today outflow of BSW contributed to the deposition of Sapropel S1 in
plexity of the conditions under which they were formed. Black Sea level changes during the                the Eastern Mediterranean. Modern benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the modern Marmara
Holocene are evidenced by biostratigraphical investigations based on spore-pollen, molluscan              Sea are restricted by permanent low-oxygen stress caused by the stable stratification of the water
fauna and dinoflagellate cysts analyses, correlated with geomorphological, geological, archaeologi-       column; thus any change in the BSW outflow must have a significant impact on the assemblages.
cal and historical records. They have been delimited by analyzing the terrace complex along the           Our results based on high-resolution records of foraminifers and oxygen stable isotopes from the
seashore and locating marine phases which denote sea-lake oscillation. On the basis of the exist-         Marmara Sea suggest that the BWS outflow during S1 was absent or weak. Rich and highly diverse
ing radiocarbon dates for the Bulgarian coastline a sea level change curve for the Holocene is sug-       benthic assemblages and the lesser importance of the low oxygen indicator Chilostomella oolina
gested, the details of which can be filled out as new data become available. Sea level has exceed-        indicate well-oxygenated conditions during S1. After the end of S1, the assemblages are more simi-
ed the present level on a few occasions during the last 6000 years as evidenced by the sea ter-           lar to the modern ones, with diminished diversities and stronger dominance of C. oolina, implying
races formed along the coast at an elevation of 2-6 m. The differences which have been observed           that the BSW outflow was established at that time. The second important outcome of our investiga-
while investigating the coastlines and their age is due to their heterogeneous structure, the neotec-     tions are the distinct oscillations of the Bolivina dilatata assemblage with a periodicity of ~ 900 years.
tonic occurrences, and the lithological and physical - geographical characteristics of the individual     This assemblage requires higher oxygen contents than C. oolina. We suggest that waxing and wan-
areas along the coastline. The beginning and the end of the transgressions can be traced in the           ing of the BSW outflow during the last 7000 years allowed temporarily higher oxygenation of the
sediments of the flooded estuaries and the firths formed along the coast. At the present time a           seafloor and thus thriving of B. dilatata. Since recently other authors discovered cycles of similar
general transgression is observed due to the slow sea level rise from 2,5 to 3 mm/yr.                     duration in the North Atlantic, the forcing mechanism of the cycle in the Marmara Sea may be con-
                                                                                                          nected with the intensity of the North Atlantic Oscillation.

76-2          BTH 75           Fouache, Eric                                           [55160]
THE PROGRADATION OF THE ALBANIAN DELTAIC PLAINS (DRIN, MATI, SEMAN AND                                    76-5           BTH 78           Kremenetski, Konstantin V.                                [53065]
      FOUACHE, Eric1, VELLA, Claude2, DIMO, Llazar3, GRUDA, Gjovalin4, DENEFLE,                                KREMENETSKI, Konstantin V., Geography, UCLA, 1255 Bunche Hall, 405 Hilgard Avenue,
      Michelle5, MONNIER, Olivier5, HOTYAT, Micheline6, and HUTH, Eni6, (1) Universite de                      Los Angeles, CA 90095,
      Paris XII Creteil - FRANCE, Paris, France,, (2) geomorphology             Climate and environmental situation in the steppe and forest-steppe belt north of the Black Sea
      and tectonic, CEREGE, Aix-en-Provence, 13145, France, (3) Institut de Geologie, Tirana,             was far to be stable in Holocene. Global warming in early Holocene allowed an expansion of
      Albania, (4) Institut de Geographie, Universite de Tirana, Tirana, Albania, (5) CNRS,               broad-leaved trees in East Europe. 12,000-10500 BP in the forest-steppe belt pine and birch
      Meudon, France, (6) Institut de Geographie, Universite de Paris IV, Paris, France                   dominated in forests, but there was a significant admixture of broad-leaved trees. Ulmus,
Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have carried out a regional geomorphological survey           Quercus, Tilia, Carpinus grew in south-west of forest-steppe in East Europe at 10500-8800 BP. At
along the Albanian shore - to the North, with the deltas of the Mati and the Drin, and to the south,      9000 BP broad-leaved trees reached the forest-steppe belt in Middle Russian Hills. At 10500-
with the deltas of the Seman and the Vjosa - in order to establish the evolution of the shoreline         4800 BP pine forests with birch grew on sandy terraces of Dniepr, Severski Donets and Don. In
over the last 3500 years. This evolution consists of a prograding system led by three independent         the Dniepr valley Pinus, Quercus, Tilia, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus reached the modern shore-line
factors : sediment flux (avulsion, fluvial discharge, sediment load), marine dynamics (currents,          of Black sea at 8800-8300 BP. Period 8300-6800 BP was characterised by warm climate. The
actions of the waves) and the in-between accumulation area depending on the change of base-               area of valley forests in the steppe belt has reduced. Climate became more benign between 6800
level and the pre-Holocene and Holocene in-filling. The geomorphological maps were based on               and 4800 BP. That time evidenced a maximum spread of broad-leaved forests in river valleys and
two satellite images (SPOT 1995) (Fouache et al. 2001). Then, using unpublished geological pro-           in the forest-steppe belt. Human influence of the vegetation cover increased with the expansion of
files carried out by a group of Russian/Albanian geologists in 1960 (Dimo 1995), we have been             farming. Human influence on the vegetation became evident according to pollen investigation of
able to identify a series of concentrations of heavy minerals – rutile, zirconium, chromium,              archaeological sites. There were numerous sharp climate oscillations between 5200 and 1600 BP.
ilmenite - probably corresponding to paleobeaches. Those profiles allowed nine points to be iden-         Climate became more dry and continental after 5200 BP. The peat accumulation rate in mires
tified and samples have been taken from between 15 and 30 feet deep. In order to define the sed-          dropped down for two-four times. Pine forests area decreased. In north Kalmukia forested area in
iment environment of those deposits, we have paid particular attention to the study of sediments,         Ergeni hills was in decline since 5400-5200 BP. The most continental phase of climate is dated

208       Programs with Abstracts
                                                                                                                                                                                      SESSION NO. 77
between 4800 and 4000 BP. Forest area was reduced in Dniepr, Don and Volga basins. New
phase of moist climate is dated 3700-2900 BP. At that time broad-leaved forests expanded in river
valleys and in the forest-steppe belt. After 2600 BP the vegetation cover became similar to the
                                                                                                            SESSION NO. 77, 1:30 PM
modern. After 2100 BP pine was extinct in the lower part of Dniepr valley. Degradation of forests
was caused by combined effect of climate deterioration and human impact. During two last millen-            Tuesday, July 29, 2003
nia pollen indicators of human activities are recorded in pollen diagrams in south of Moldova, in
forest-steppe belt in Ukraine. East from the Dniepr valley human impact on the vegetation cover             T15. Developments in Pollen Calibration and
became evident on pollen data only during last millennium.
                                                                                                            Quantitative Reconstruction of Past Vegetation Cover
                                                                                                            (Posters) (Holocene Commission)
76-6          BTH 79            Cordova, Carlos E.                                       [53835]
THE HOLOCENE OF SOUTHWESTERN CRIMEA IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTAL                                         Reno Hilton Resort and Conference Center, Pavilion
      CORDOVA, Carlos E., Department of Geography, Oklahoma State Univ, Stillwater, OK
      74078, and LEHMAN, Paul H., Department of Geography, Univ of                      77-1          BTH 82           Nielsen, Anne Birgitte                                  [53436]
      Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712
Holocene pollen records and soil development sequences in southwestern Crimea provide infor-                THE USE OF SIMULATION MODELS IN RECONSTRUCTING PAST LANDSCAPES FROM
mation on climatic change and early agricultural disturbance. The data of this study suggest fluc-          FOSSIL POLLEN DATA: EXAMPLES FROM THE POLLANDCAL RESEARCH NETWORK
tuations of ecological boundaries between mesic forests, steppes, and Sub-Mediterranean shrub-                   GAILLARD, Marie-José, Department of Biosciences and Process Technology, Växjö Univ,
lands. This study attempts a correlation of climatic events with dated pollen sequences of the                   Växjö, 35195, Sweden,, NIELSEN, Anne Birgitte,
northern Black Sea coastal region. High frequencies of broadleaf trees suggest an increase of                    Department of Quaternary Geology, GEUS Geol Survey of Denmark and Greenland,
temperatures and moisture between ca. 9500 and 8000 years BP. The dominant trees were                            Copenhagen, 1350 K, Denmark,, SUGITA, Shinya, Univ of Minnesota,
Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus, and Carpinus. In addition, traces of Betula and Acer pollen are found                   BUNTING, Jane, Univ of Hull, United Kingdom, CASELDINE, Christopher, Univ of Exeter,
during this phase, but not in the subsequent phases, suggesting the final withdrawal of boreal                   United Kingdom, and HICKS, Sheila, Univ of Oulu, Finland
trees from Crimea. Between ca. 8000 and 7000 BP, an increase Poaceae, Knautia and other                     There is a great need of quantitative reconstruction of past vegetation and landscapes within the
herbs at the expense of AP marked a period of steppization. The development of a chernozem                  fields of climate change, archaeology, and ecology/landscape management. This poster aims at
soil suggests steppe-like cool and dry continental conditions. Between 7500 and 5000 years BP               demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the modelling and simulation approach in pollen
Pistacia, Jasminum, Cistaceae and other Mediterranean and Sub-Mediterranean plant taxa                      analytical research, and at the same time presents the NorFA (Nordic Academy for Advanced
appear for the first time in the sequences. The complete withdrawal of boreal trees and the reduc-          Study) international research-network POLLANDCAL (POLlen-LANDscape CALibration). The
tion of nemoral trees are two additional characteristics of this phase. Pistacia and Quercus pubes-         major goals of this network are the exchange of ideas and expertise, and the organisation of
cens and a variety of shrubs dominate the arboreal pollen, suggesting higher temperatures and               research training. The network includes scientists from twelve countries (the five nordic countries,
strong moisture seasonality. The formation of a cinnamonic (calfersic) soil suggests higher tem-            Estonia, Britain, Switzerland, France, The Netherlands, Japan, and USA), and the necessary
peratures and a prolonged summer drought. The expansion of Quercus pubescens and Ulmus                      areas of expertise (palaeoecology, plant ecology, modelling, Geographical Information System
takes place around 5000 years BP, characterizing a relatively humid phase. Then, the reduction of           GIS). The long-term aim of the network is to achieve of a robust calibration tool for the quantitative
tree pollen and the formation of calcic horizons in soils suggest a dry phase around 4000 years             reconstruction of past landscapes using fossil pollen assemblages. The POLLANDCAL network
BP. Woodland expansion occurs again around 3000 years BP. The establishment of Greek farms                  has adopted the simulation model POLLSCAPE, as a working framework, aiming to develop the
in the 5th and 4th centuries BC are marked by the reduction of broadleaf tree pollen is coupled             approach and train a group of palynologists in its application. POLLSCAPE enables the calcula-
with the increase in cultivated plants. An increase in arboreal pollen during the first millennium AD       tion of pollen assemblages and source area of pollen using a pollen dispersal and deposition
was the result of climatic amelioration coupled with farm abandonment.                                      function, vegetation data (either hypothetical or actual), and estimates of pollen productivity for the
                                                                                                            taxa involved. The model has been validated for forested landscape. Within the POLLANDCAL
                                                                                                            network, estimates of pollen productivity for northwest European herbs have been produced,
                                                                                                            which enables the application of POLLSCAPE to an open to semi-open mosaic landscape includ-
76-7          BTH 80            Lajczak, Adam                                            [55626]            ing both herbs and trees, and allows the group to tackle questions related to cultural landscape
THE COURSE OF SEDIMENTS DEPOSITION IN THE AZAU VALLEY IN THE CENTRAL                                        history. We illustrate the potentials of the simulation approach with two distinctly different exam-
CAUCASUS OVER THE LAST 1000 YEARS                                                                           ples: (1) testing the effect of differing vegetation composition and species distribution on the
      LAJCZAK, Adam, Earth Sciences Department, Univ of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, Sosnowiec                    pollen assemblages and source area of pollen, and (2) assessing various hypothetical past land-
      41-200 Poland,                                                               scape scenarios in order to identify the most plausible quantitative interpretation(s) of pollen data
The Azau Valley is located in the Central Caucasus Mountains between the strongly glaciated                 in terms of past landscape mosaic.
mountain ridge (4450 m a.s.l.) and the volcanic cone of the Elbrus Mountain (5643 m.a.s.l.) of the
Quaternary age, covered with an ice cap. The length of the valley is 7 km long and its bottom is at
the altitude of 2000-2500 m a.s.l. The valley has been modelled by direct and indirect influence of         77-2          BTH 83           Poska, Anneli                                           [55764]
the volcano activity, as well as by glaciers and very intensive slope processes. The author has
determined the main phases of the valley modelling over the last 1000 years. Particular attention           RECONSTRUCTION OF VEGETATION COVER OF SOUTH-EASTERN ESTONIA DURING
has been given to the periods of intensive deposition at the valley bottom. The deposited material          LAST 1000 YEARS
originated from rapidly degrading lateral moraines, and it was also supplied at the time of large                POSKA, Anneli, Institute of Geology, Tallinn Technical Univ, Estonia pst. 7, Tallinn 10143
floods generated by increased activity of the volcano. The frontal moraine ridges, formed during                 Estonia,
the Little Ice Age, helped to retain the deposits in the valley. The ridges, after their partial destruc-   The vegetation/pollen relationship of patchy cultural landscape of boreo-nemoral forest zone was
tion, have been almost completely covered by fluvioglacial material, which thickness reached at             investigated using fossil pollen data, modern pollen and vegetation data, and a simulation
least several meters. Deposition of material on the slopes of the Azau Valley was most intensive            approach involving models of pollen dispersal and deposition (Sugita et al. 1999). The modern
during the transgression of glaciers, while at the valley bottom it was the most intensive during           data set consists of pollen data from 25 small (up to 500 m diameter) lakes and Corine map veg-
regression of the glaciers and during great floods. The Azau Valley, as other valleys located at the        etation data. Based on modern pollen/vegetation relationship data the relevant pollen source area
foot of Elbrus, has played the role of deposits accumulator. Episodic and catastrophic great floods         was estimated to ca. 1200 m. Palaeoecological dataset was derived from two palynologically
have tended to uniform the valley bottom level, however they have not been able to remove the               investigated annually laminated lake sequences and the vegetation estimates from the historical
accumulated material much farther.                                                                          maps digitised manually within a 2 km radius of the investigated lakes. The available historical,
                                                                                                            archaeological, climate, and edaphic data was used in order to calibrate models and evaluate the
                                                                                                            land-cover reconstructions. Reconstructions are presented as time-slice maps of the forested and
                                                                                                            open areas for the last 1000 years.
76-8          BTH 81            Schwab, Markus J.                                        [54491]                Sugita S., Gaillard M.-J. & Broström A., 1999: Landscape openess and pollen records: a simu-
A LACUSTRINE RECORD OF ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY FROM LAKE BIRKAT RAM,                                          lation approach. The Holocene 9, 4, 409 – 421.

     SCHWAB, Markus J.1, NEUMANN, Frank2, FRANK, Ute1, NEGENDANK, Jörg F. W.1, LITT,
     Thomas2, and STEIN, Mordechai3, (1) GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Sect. 3.3                            77-3          BTH 84           Nielsen, Anne Birgitte                                  [54456]
     Climate Dynamics and Sediments, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, D-14473, Germany,, (2) Inst. of Paleontology, Univ of Bonn, Nussallee 8, Bonn,                    RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LANDCOVER AND POLLEN ASSEMBLAGES FROM SMALL
     D-53115, Germany, (3) Hebrew Univ and Geol Survey of Israel, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel                  DANISH LAKES AROUND AD 1800
In 1999 we raised three short sediment cores from lake Birkat Ram (33°15´N, 35°40´E), located                     NIELSEN, Anne Birgitte, Department of Quaternary Geology, GEUS Geol Survey of
about 940m asl. near the Mt. Hermon (2025 m asl.). The diameter is 900 m N-S and 650 m E-W.                       Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen 1350 K Denmark,
Water depth measurements were only 1.5 m (1999), though described fluctuations are 6 to 12 m                A better understanding of the quantitative relationships between pollen assemblages from lakes
(Ehrlich & Singer 1978). The lake water is fresh and receives most of its water from precipitation,         and the composition and structure of the vegetation in the surrounding landscape will allow a
surface run-off and is secondarily nourished by subaquatic springs (Ehrlich & Singer 1978).                 more detailed interpretation of late Holocene pollen diagrams, and thus hopefully lead to a better
    Based on sedimentological analysis, pollen analysis and high-resolution logs on magnetic sus-           understanding of the history of the cultural landscape. Some studies have used modern pollen
ceptibility, a 543 cm composite profile was created. By means of AMS 14C dates we estimate the              vegetation calibration data sets, but in Denmark extensive plantation, drainage, fertilisation and        PM
age of the core at approx. 6000 yrs. The presented timescale is based on eleven AMS 14C dates               use of pesticides have greatly altered the vegetation during the last century. Historical maps are
on wood and lacustrine plant-macrofossils. Additionally investigations on macro-relicts for 14C             available from around AD 1800 that show areas of different land cover such as arable fields, for-
age determinations and geochemical analysis (TOC, XRF) are currently in progress in order to                est, meadow and heath. The AD 1800 landscape was more comparable to the older ones reflect-
determine the reservoir effect.                                                                             ed by the fossil pollen diagrams, so a method using historical analogues was used.
    The palynological study shows evidence of vegetational changes during the last 6000 years,                 The aim was to improve the quantitative interpretation of fossil pollen diagrams from small
interpreted to be mainly the result of human activities. A mediterranean vegetation is recorded as          lakes by estimating the size of the pollen source area and by testing methods of pollen-landscape
the main component in the pollen flora (woodlands and maquis). Furthermore, the inluence of                 calibration. A dataset of pollen assemblages from ca. AD 1800 from 30 small (3-30 ha.) Danish
Irano-Turanian steppe vegetation and montane vegetation of Mount Hermon is in evidence. Two                 lakes, and landcover data from digitised historical maps surrounding the lakes has been collected
periods with high Olea-, Juglans and Vitis-values, accompanied by low Quercus-values, show                  and analysed using the Extended R-Value model and the Prentice-Sugita model of pollen disper-
intense land use in the Chalcolithic, the Early Bronze Age and the Hellenistic-Roman-Byzantine              sal, which are implemented in the POLLSCAPE simulation model.
Period. The Middle and Late Bronze Age, the Iron Age as well as the Arab-Osman Period feature                  The size of the Relevant Source Area of Pollen (RSAP) for the lakes is estimated. Wind speed
extremely high Quercus-values. Basic cause might be the decrease of the area of cultivation and                                                                                               ,
                                                                                                            and pollen dispersal characteristics are shown to have little effect on the RSAP but there is a differ-
the following forest regeneration as a consequence of nomadism.                                             ence between the RSAP in eastern and western Denmark. Simulations using POLLSCAPE shows
    The recorded paleo- and rock magnetism variations agree with the results of archeomagnetic              that this can be explained by differences in the patch size of the vegetation in the two regions.
investigations in the Near East. Therefore it can be assumed that the paleosecular variation                   Pollen assemblages simulated by the POLLSCAPE model using the historical landcover data
records are characteristic for the Late Holocene in this region.                                            and pollen productivity estimates from neighbouring countries are compared to the observed
    Ehrlich & Singer 1978: Israel J. Earth Sc. 25                                                           pollen assemblages, in an attempt to validate the model. This is complicated by uncertainties

                                                                                                                                         XVI INQUA Congress • Reno, Nevada                                   209
about the species composition of the different landcover types around AD 1800, which is the main          77-7          BTH 88           Williams, John W                                        [55029]
disadvantage of using historical analogues in stead of a modern dataset. However, the
POLLSCAPE model can reproduce the main trends in the observed data.                                       QUANTITATIVE RECONSTRUCTIONS OF LATE QUATERNARY TREE COVER FROM
                                                                                                          MODERN POLLEN-AVHRR CALIBRATIONS
                                                                                                                WILLIAMS, John W, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Univ of California
                                                                                                                Santa Barbara, 735 State St. Suite 300, Santa Barbara, CA 93101,
77-4          BTH 85           Hall, Valerie A.                                        [55588]                  and JACKSON, Stephen T, Department of Botany, Univ of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071
HIGH-PRECISION TIMESCALES FOE RECENT VEGETATION HISTORY IN IRELAND                                        Until recently, the quantitative reconstruction of historical and late-Quaternary land cover change
     HALL, Valerie A., School of Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen’s Univ, Fitzwilliam                 has been limited primarily by the lack of readily available quantitative information about present-
     Street, University Road, Belfast BT6 9GB United Kingdom,                           day vegetation, rather than by the qualities of the fossil data. Forest-survey data can be difficult to
Tephra-dated pollen analytical investigations of rapidly-accumulating Irish lowland raised bog have       obtain, laborious to process, and their quality and consistency varies among political units.
yielded fresh evidence for human impact in the wake of 6th century monastic settlement and                Vegetation classification maps are readily available, but the assignment of quantitative properties
Norman influence from the 12th century. The studies have international importance as they estab-          to these categorical maps is problematic and incorrectly assumes that vegetation properties only
lish base-lines for palynological investigations of agriculture in the wake of invasion. The occur-       change at ecotones. Without quantitative descriptions of the present-day vegetation, it is unrealis-
rence in the peat profiles of calendrically-dated tephra layers from the eruptions of Icelandic vol-      tic to expect such reconstructions for the past.
canoes in AD 1104, 1362 and 1510 allows late medieval pollen profiles from fifteen sites through-             The maturation of remote sensing technology and algorithms has vastly improved our ability to
out Ireland to be compared so that human impact and the status of agriculture may be evaluated.           describe present-day gradients in vegetation physiognomy. In particular, Advanced Very High
The comparative studies show considerable regional variation in the initiation and expansion of           Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations have provided synoptic descriptions of global veg-
agriculture in the lowlands in the first millennium AD.                                                   etation at a 1 km resolution. Here we 1) compare the distribution of pollen types in surficial sedi-
    The course of agriculture at major monastic sites, such as Clonmacnoise, Clonfert and                 ments in eastern North America to AVHRR-derived estimates of needleleaved and broadleaved
Clonenagh is contrasted with secular activity in the hinterland of urban centres where there is evi-      tree cover and 2) reconstruct late-Quaternary variations in tree cover. The modern distribution of
dence of the Anglo-Norman advance and with sites under Gaelic influence. The new studies dis-             needleleaved and broadleaved pollen types is broadly similar to the AVHRR data. The correlation
prove the theory that agriculture was brought to the central lowlands with the introduction of            between the AVHRR and pollen data varies with spatial grain, and is strongest for search window
monasticism. There is no uniform pattern in the chronology of agricultural advance, neither is            half-widths of 25-75 km. A major source of uncertainty is the intertaxonomic differences in pollen
there any indication that new farming practices came in with the Normans in the 12 century.               representation. To minimize this source of uncertainty, the reconstruction of past tree cover relies
                                                                                                          upon standard modern-analog techniques, with one important twist: if no good modern analog
                                                                                                          can be found for a fossil pollen sample, the pollen types are reclassified into plant functional cate-
                                                                                                          gories and the analog analysis rerun. This allows the assignment of vegetation properties to ‘no-
77-5          BTH 86           Caseldine, Chris                                        [53924]            analog’ fossil pollen samples. Tree-cover reconstructions for the late Quaternary are generally
LANDSCAPE RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE NEOLITHIC IN WESTERN IRELAND –                                           consistent with previous interpretations of the fossil pollen data, but nevertheless are qualitatively
POSSIBLE SCENARIOS                                                                                        and quantitatively different from simple mappings of arboreal pollen sums.
     CASELDINE, Chris and LANGDON, Catherine, Geography, Univ of Exeter, Amory
     Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter, EX44RJ, United Kingdom,
On Achill Island, Western Ireland archaeological survey has revealed evidence for human settlement        77-8          BTH 89           Hicks, Sheila                                           [53466]
throughout prehistory and pollen analysis of a small basin site (30 x 30m) provides pollen assem-
blages covering the same period from which landscape modification may be determined. As a back-           MONITORED POLLEN DEPOSITION, A TOOL FOR CALIBRATING TREE-LINES AND
ground to this approach simulations of modelled landscape structures of the surrounding area have         SUMMER TEMPERATURE
been carried out using the POLLSCAPE programs for a series of time slices. These include a time                 HICKS, Sheila, Institute of Geosciences, Univ of Oulu, P.O.Box 3000, Oulu, 90014,
slice for the Early Neolithic (ca 5000 14C yr B.P prior to the first palynological indications of human
                                                   .)                                                           Finland,, HUUSKO, Antti, Thule Institute, Univ of Oulu, Oulu, Finland,
activity is described, concentrating on possible woodland structures, a time slice covering significant         and SUGITA, Shinya, Univ of Minnesota
landscape change in the later Neolithic around 4000 14C yr B.P and a final example from later pre-
                                                                    .,                                    As part of the INQUA Holocene Commission Work Group ‘Pollen Monitoring Programme’ (PMP)
history with a more open landscape. The site has a number of advantages for testing the approach:         pollen deposition has been recorded by ‘Tauber type’ pollen traps in a standardized manner at 15
the pollen flora is relatively poor with only a few major tree taxa (Pinus, Quercus, Ulmus, Corylus)      sites in northernmost Fennoscandia over the past 20 years (1982 – 2001). Results are shown for
and Poaceae and Calluna dominating the NAP; at least 40% of the area reconstructed, 1x1 km, was           the three major tree species (Betula, Pinus and Picea) for the last six years. These are visualized
known to be peat covered (Calluna – Poaceae) at the time; and pollen input by prevailing winds from       from the programme’s database: PMPdata using the tool PMPtracker. Pollen deposition is seen to
the west may be assumed to be minimal due to the proximity to the Atlantic.                               carry a dual signal, depending upon the temporal scale at which it is analysed. Annual variation is
    Landscape reconstructions were run based on a range of possible landscape/vegetation struc-           related to climate while long term average values are related to the abundance of each tree in the
tures varying from large uniform blocks of woodland and peat arranged around the site, to homo-           vicinity of the traps. A clear correlation is seen between Pinus pollen abundance and July temper-
geneous mixes of species, and also including smaller circular taxa blocks within a background             ature of the year prior to pollen emission. On the basis of the long term average values of the
landscape mosaic. The predicted frequencies for the main taxa for the different reconstructions           three tree species it is possible to delimit a pollen deposition threshold for the presence absence
are then compared to those derived empirically from the pollen core, demonstrating the likelihood         of each tree: 500 grains cm-2 year-1 for Betula, 500 for Pinus and 50 for Picea. This can poten-
of the varying models having existed in the past.                                                         tially be used to locate tree-lines in the past on the basis of pollen accumulation rates. A compari-
    What the preliminary results presented here demonstrate is that POLLSCAPE offers an oppor-            son of pollen deposition in openings (mires) as opposed to within the forest (records for the last 5
tunity not just to try to reconstruct what the past was like but perhaps more importantly to refute       years at another 4 sites) shows that these threshold values only hold good for openings of a cer-
hypothesised past landscape structures. There will always be a problem of equifinality, leading to        tain size. The relationship between pollen deposition and opening size for a regional pine-domi-
a range of landscapes providing the same fossil result, but in collaboration with archaeologists,         nated vegetation belt is demonstrated by using the Prentice model of pollen dispersal. Pinus dep-
palaeoecologists can now test and if necessary, reject ideas of openness, scale of clearance and          osition values from within the forest are used as input to the model and the output is predicted
cultural mosaics, themes that have been the subject of intense debate for many decades.                   deposition for different sizes of opening. These predictions match the values monitored in such
                                                                                                          openings, thus given some validation to the model. Acknowledging these spatial and temporal
                                                                                                          confinements, modern pollen deposition records provide a good tool for more precise interpreta-
                                                                                                          tions of fossil pollen assemblages in terms of tree-lines and climate.
77-6          BTH 87           Lytle, David E                                          [55889]
RECONSTRUCTIONS USING THE MODERN ANALOG TECHNIQUE                                                         77-9          BTH 90           Froyd, Cynthia A.                                       [54424]
     LYTLE, David E, North Central Research Station, U.S. Forest Service, 1831 Hwy 169 E,
     Grand Rapids, MN 55744, and WAHL, Eugene R., Advanced Studies                       PINUS SYLVESTRIS (L.) STOMATAL CONCENTRATIONS AND ASSOCIATED POLLEN
     Program & Environmental and Societal Impacts Group, National Ctr for Atmospheric Rsch,               FREQUENCIES: DETERMINATION OF LOCAL SPECIES PRESENCE
     3450 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301                                                                     FROYD, Cynthia A., Department of Geography, Univ. of Wales Swansea, Swansea SA2
Use of the modern analog technique (MAT) to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions has                      8PP United Kingdom,
become widespread. Two of the basic issues that affect the reconstruction of vegetation when the          The abundant production of wind-dispersed pollen that can be transported over long distances by
MAT is implemented are: 1) how count size affects the quality of vegetation reconstructions; and 2)       Pinus sylvestris means that the species may be considerably over-represented in the palaeoeco-
how analogs identified by the MAT are converted into vegetation reconstructions. We examine               logical record. Accordingly, a minimum pollen frequency threshold of 20% has been commonly
these issues in a Monte Carlo framework using simulated pollen assemblages derived from four              adopted by palynologists for the determination of the local presence of Pinus sylvestris at a site.
fossil pollen assemblages from northern Michigan, U.S.A. For each fossil stratum, 1000 simulated          Recent findings during routine palynological analyses of pine stomata, indicative of local species
assemblages were generated at each of eight count sizes between 75 and 1000 grains. Simulated             presence, within lake sediments containing associated pollen frequencies of less than 5% has
and fossil assemblages were then compared (using the squared chord distance) to a coupled                 brought the validity of the standard 20% threshold into question.
pollen-vegetation data set used to reconstruct forest communities in northern Michigan. We con-              Stomatal and pollen analyses are presented from four Holocene lake sedimentary sequences in
trast the ability of simulated samples to accurately reconstruct forest community composition (as         the Scottish Highlands. Detailed stomatal counts reveal the presence of pine stomata within sedi-
defined by the fossil pollen assemblages) using two quantitative reconstruction schemes. In the           ments with associated pine pollen frequencies as low as 0.4%. These results support the assertion
single-tier scheme, a single critical value is used to define analogs, and each analog is weighted        that Pinus sylvestris may be locally present at a site when pollen frequencies are in very low abun-
equally. In the two-tier scheme, two critical values are used; the first tier defines unambiguous anal-   dance and that the commonly adopted minimum pollen frequency threshold of 20% is too high.
ogy of vegetation, while the second tier defines a somewhat less-close relationship. Second tier          Minimum pine pollen frequencies within sediments containing stomata at the four analysis sites
analogs receive one-half the weight of first tier analogs. The sensitivity of reconstruction accuracy     examined in this study, however, are so low, ranging from 0.4% to 3.8%, that no minimum pollen fre-
to these schemes and to different levels of the minimum number of analogs required (one analog            quency threshold indicative of the local presence of Pinus sylvestris may be proposed.
versus two or more analogs) is examined with count size in a four-way factorial experimental                 Pine stomata were found to precede the initial Holocene increase of Pinus sylvestris pollen at
design. The general result of this research is that the combination of single-tier cutoffs with a         two of the sites examined, Loch an Amair in Glen Affric and Dubh-Lochan in the Great Glen
requirement of two or more analogs to reconstruct represents a worst-case set of selection criteria,      region. Stomatal analyses reveal the local presence of pine at these sites approximately 1600 and
incapable of passing a 95% test for accuracy at any count size <1000 grains. In the best-case             600 years, respectively, prior to the species arrival times that would be determined from the paly-
combination, two-tier cutoffs with a one analog minimum, reduction of accuracy at lower count             nological evidence. These results reveal that Pinus sylvestris may be locally present at a site for
sizes is small for three of the four fossil samples’ simulations. At count sizes °?150 grains, the        hundreds or even thousands of years in low abundance before expansion of the population, and
reconstruction accuracy for these three fossil layers exceeds 90%; for simulated samples derived          that the time lag between initial species arrival and population expansion appears to be variable
from a homogeneous fossil assemblage, this level of accuracy is achieved at 75-grain counts.              amongst sites. These findings have major implications for the determination of the initial Holocene
                                                                                                          spread of pine throughout the British Isles and for some of the inferences about pine population
                                                                                                          dynamics in the Scottish Highlands that have been drawn from the palynological evidence.

210       Programs with Abstracts
                                                                                                                                                                                  SESSION NO. 77
77-10         BTH 91           Noryskiewicz, Agnieszka M.                            [54869]            77-13         BTH 94           Grimm, Eric C.                                          [55801]
(NORTHERN POLAND)                                                                                             GRIMM, Eric C., Illinois State Museum, Research and Collections Center, 1011 East Ash
      NORYSKIEWICZ, Agnieszka M., Institute of Archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ in                       Street, Springfield, IL 62703,, KELTNER, John, NOAA
      Torun, 44/48 Szosa Bydgoska, Torun 87-100 Poland,                               Paleoclimatology Program, 325 Broadway, Code E/CC23, Boulder, CO 80305, CHEDDADI,
Modern pollen deposition and its relationship to the surrounding vegetation have been investigat-             Rachid, European Pollen Database, Centre universitaire Arles, CNRS - UMR 6116, F-
ed in the Yew-trees Reserve. This study area is located in Northern Poland, app. 40km to the                  13200 Arles, France, LEZINE, Anne-Marie, INSU/CNRS, 3 rue Michel Ange, F-75766 Paris
West of the Vistula River in the Tuchola Forest. On the local scale this multispecies forest is a             Cedex 16, France, and BERRIO, Juan Carlos, Palynologie en Paleo/Actuo-ecologie,
peculiarity when compared to the monoculture of pine trees that surround it. The first aim of poly-           Universiteit van Amsterdam, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED),
nolgical research that was carried out in the reserve was to provide an explanation to the history            Postbus 94062, 1090 GB Amsterdam, Netherlands
of yew stand within this area. The research originally focused on the analysis of biogenic sedi-        The Global Pollen Database (GPD) contains Quaternary pollen data from the around the world,
ments from Mukrz Lake. However, the analysis of fossil samples showed a small representation of         including the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Indo-Pacific region. The objective of the
pollen grains of Taxus. Pollen analyses of the forest litter taken from various habitats in the         GPD is to assemble pollen data from Quaternary deposits and modern surface samples into a
reserve and of the surface layer of the bottom sediments of Mukrz Lake were made. The samples           relational database and to make these data freely available to the scientific community. The data-
from the bottom of the Mukrz Lake also showed low percentage of the yew. The comparison of              base contains original pollen counts, radiocarbon dates, site data, bibliographic data, researcher
the surface spectra from different habitats of this reserve reflected big discrepancy in the pres-      information, and other relevant data.
ence of the yew pollen grains. On the one hand, these differences are related to the habitat from           New data are organized, verified, and made available by various regional data cooperatives.
which the material originated, but on the other hand, they are related to the distance between the      The GPD began with the development in 1990 of the independent but compatible North American
site from which the sample was taken and the location of a male species. The biggest percentage         and European Pollen Databases (NAPD and EPD). The GPD was conceived in 1994 with the
of the yew is noted in the samples originating from the Tilio-Carpinetum assemblage and the low-        development of the Latin American Pollen Database, which was integrated with NAPD from the
est percentage in alder forests and meadow, which corresponds to the absence of the yew in              outset. In 2003, the European data were integrated into the GPD. The African Pollen Database is
these plant assemblages. The differences in the yew percentage, which appear within the Tilio-          currently independent, but data from it will be merged with the GPD in the future.
Carpinetum assemblage, depend on the distances from the male species of yew. The big partici-               The database makes an important distinction between archival data and research data. Archival
pation of yew pollen grains appears in the spectra that represent samples taken directly from           tables store the count data, radiocarbon dates as reported by the radiocarbon laboratories, and
under the tree crown and decreases gradually with the increased distance. Since 1997 (5 sea-            other basic data not expected to change, except to add missing information or correct errors.
sons) the examination of annual pollen rain has been conducted in accordance Pollen Monitoring          Research tables store data that are derived by manipulation of the archival tables and are of an
Programme recommendations. Three pollen traps were placed in the different types vegetation             interpretive or subjective nature. Probably the most important of the research tables are those con-
The biggest amount of pollen grains that deposited on 1cm2 surface during one season was in             taining age models and chronologies, including the assignment of an age to each pollen sample.
the forested area trap. Multy-angled research approaches make it possible to compare the rela-              The GPD is available from the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, which is housed at the
tionship between pollen deposition and local vegetation.                                                Paleoclimatology Branch of the National Climatic Data Center in Boulder, Colorado. In addition to
                                                                                                        the database tables themselves, the data are available in several site-file formats via the World Wide
                                                                                                        Web ( The web site features a search engine and map
77-11         BTH 92           Willard, D. A.                                        [55703]            interface (WebMapper) for locating data and links to various pollen database cooperatives.

      WILLARD, D. A.1, BROWN, R.2, DAMON, J.1, HUPP, C.R.3, LANDACRE, B.1, and
                                                                                                        77-14         BTH 95           Strickland, Laura E.                                    [55862]
      TOWNSEND, P.2, (1) U.S. Geol Survey, 926A National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive,            QUATERNARY ENVIRONMENTS IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA: BOTANICAL,
      Reston, VA 20192,, (2) Appalachian Laboratory, Univ of Maryland Ctr             PALEOBOTANICAL, AND PALEOLACUSTRINE DATASETS
      for Environmental Studies, 301 Braddock Rd, Frostburg, MD 21532-2307, (3) U.S. Geol                    STRICKLAND, Laura E.1, THOMPSON, Robert S.1, SCHUMANN, R. Randall1,
      Survey, 430 National Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, Reston, VA 20192                              ANDERSON, Katherine H.2, KERWIN, Michael W.3, and DONER, Lisa A.4, (1) U.S.
We examine the relationship between source vegetation and pollen assemblages in Atlantic                     Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS 980, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225,
Coastal Plain forested wetlands by analyzing pollen deposited in surface sediments, annual accu-   , (2) Institute for Arctic and Alpine Research, Univ of Colorado,
mulation on clay pads, and annual influx in pollen traps in transects along the Roanoke River in             Boulder, CO 80309, (3) Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Denver, Denver, CO 80208-0183,
North Carolina and five rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. These represent several types                (4) Department of Geography, Fatih Univ, Istanbul, Turkey
of forests including: levee or upland forests with short durations of flooding; seasonally flooded      Several datasets for investigating Quaternary environments in western North America have been
forests between levees and backswamps; and swamp forests with seasonal to permanent stand-              compiled by the USGS and collaborators. The “Atlas of Relations Between Climatic Parameters
ing water. Pollen assemblages from levee or upland sites have the highest percentages of Carya,         and Distributions of Important Trees and Shrubs in North America”
Ulmus, Fraxinus, Ilex, and other hardwood pollen, with relatively low abundance (<5%) of                ( provides information on the distributions of nearly 600
Liquidambar. In seasonally flooded forests, Liquidambar and Acer pollen are more abundant, and          species, and the climate space they occupy, for paleoclimatic reconstructions and modeling. The
Taxodium, Nyssa, and hardwood pollen are present. Swamp forests with long hydroperiods have             USGS/NOAA Western North American Packrat Midden Database provides researchers with
the highest proportions of Taxodium and Nyssa pollen.                                                   access to standardized midden data useful for investigating late Quaternary changes in plant
    Pollen assemblages from the surface centimeter of sediment and one year’s accumulation on           species distributions in response to climate and environmental change. The database currently
adjacent clay pads have very similar composition, indicating that surface sediment samples are          contains original data from more than 1300 packrat midden samples collected from over 200
representative of recent pollen accumulation. Comparison of clay pad and pollen trap data will          caves or rock shelters in western North America from southern British Columbia to northern
clarify the relative roles of fluvial and atmospheric pollen transport in these forested wetland com-   Mexico ( A paleolacustrine database is currently
munities. Down-core and surface assemblages were compared statistically to reconstruct past             under construction, and includes the compilation and evaluation of sediment core and shoreline
hydroperiod and vegetational trends throughout the late Holocene; these results document the            data from nearly 500 publications on late Quaternary lakes in western North America. In addition,
impact of Colonial land clearance and subsequent land-use changes on riparian vegetation in the         we are compiling data from pollen studies in this region: these data will be submitted to the
Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States.                                                            NOAA/NGDC North American Pollen Database (

77-12         BTH 93           Noryskiewicz, Agnieszka M.                            [55457]            77-15         BTH 96           Davis, Owen K                                           [55992]
      FILBRANDT-CZAJA, Anna, Institute of Ecology and Environment Protection, Nicolaus                  AMERICA
      Copernicus Univ, 9 Gagarina, Torun, 87-100, Poland,,                          DAVIS, Owen K, Geosciences, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721,
      NORYSKIEWICZ, Agnieszka M., Institute of Archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ in Torun,                and DAVIS, Melinda F, Pediatrics, Univ of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724
      44/48 Szosa Bydgoska, Torun, 87-100, Poland,, NORYSKIEWICZ,                The reconstruction of past environments from palynological assemblages traditionally follows a

      Bozena, Institute of Geography, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ in Torun, 6/8 Fredry, Torun, 87-100,     sequence of the interpretation of past vegetation followed by the estimation of climate change -
      Poland, and PIDEK, Irena A., Institute of Earth Sciences, Maria Curie-Sklodowska Univ, 19         typically annual temperature or precipitation. Numerical techniques may follow the same proce-
      Akademicka, Lublin, 20-033, Poland                                                                dure (the “biome approach”), or they may directly estimate past climate from palynological data
According to the Pollen Monitoring Programme guidelines, deposition of modern pollen was                (the “analog approach”). We have analyzed a dataset of 1367 contemporary pollen samples from
investigated in the years 1998-2002. Pollen traps were placed across vegetation transitions from        western North America (Davis, 1995) using both methods. This database includes metadata of
closed forest to open situations in northern Poland. Some stands of monitoring are located in the       site, latitude, longitude, elevation, and vegetation type, in addition to mean precipitation (mm) and
Tuchola Forest District – the great complex of pine woodlands with the natural stands of yew (The       mean annual temperature (°C). These data were analyzed using multiple regression techniques.
Wierzchlas reserve). The next stands are located in the Las Piwnicki reserve (near Toruñ) and in        In this dataset, pollen values (analog approach) explain more variance in the precipitation and
the Brodnica Lake District with deciduous and mixed forests. And the last traps were placed in the      temperature data than does vegetation type (biome approach). The analog approach accounts for
forests of the southeastern Poland in the Roztocze National Park. This region with its beech and        60% of the variance for temperature and 57% of the variance for precipitation, compared to 39%
fir forests is considered to be a very important climatic boundary where the influences of the          and 35% of the variance for the biome approach. Both estimates are much improved when study
Atlantic climate vanish. Influx values of such tree taxa as Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba, Picea abies    site is included as a predictor. When site is included, the analog approach accounts for 69% of
and Taxus baccata are of special interest because their ranges of distributions occur in the territo-   the variance in temperature and 87% of the variance in precipitation; the biome approach                  PM
ry of Poland. Pollen deposition fluctuates widely from year to year. In 2000 pollination of many        accounts for 70% of the variance in temperature and 91% of the variance in precipitation. We
trees /beech, fir, spruce among them/ was extremely abundant. The influx values for Fagus sylvat-       attribute this dramatic increase to two factors - first the site-specific biotic and physical environ-
ica achieved 8000 grains/cm2/year in beech forests, while those of Abies alba – 2200                    mental factors that are unique to each study region; and second, the unique pollen analytic tech-
grains/cm2/year in fir woodland. Average pollen influx of beech do not exceed 500                       niques used by each author. Standardization of the pollen nomenclature for eurypalynous taxa, as
grains/cm2/year and of fir 1100 grains/cm2/year. Weather parameters are taken into account to           done in this study, likely combines important regional differences in the pollen flora, as well as dif-
explain this phenomenon because factors such as cyclicity in abundant flowering of some trees           ferences in the identified taxa by different investigators.
are not satisfactory explanation. Correlation with mean air summer temperature of the previous
year seems probable. The explanation of factors influencing abundant pollination needs further
studies and longer series of monitoring.

                                                                                                                                     XVI INQUA Congress • Reno, Nevada                                   211

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