Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Projects on Radiotherapy


Projects on Radiotherapy document sample

More Info
									       Country Status Report on
    Radiation Protection in China

For Regional Co-ordination Seminar of the Model Projects
             Beijing, China, June 7-9, 2004

                        Liu Hua

     National Nuclear Safety Administration, SEPA

                       COUNTRY STATUS REPORT ON


1 Introduction
     The development of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology in
industry, agriculture, medicine and scientific research are going to be more and more
widespread in China.
     To meet the energy need, the nuclear industry in China will speed up the development
of nuclear power plants. According to the nuclear program, 26 nuclear units will be built in
the period of 2005 to 2020.
     The Chinese Government has paid great attention to nuclear safety and radiation safety.
To control and regulate the activities related to nuclear energy and nuclear technique, the
licensing system for nuclear installations and the licensing system for radioisotopes and
irradiation apparatus have been established and played very important role in China.

2 Legislation on nuclear safety and radiation safety
2.1 Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution - 2003
     The People’s Republic of China Law on the Prevention and Control of Radioactive
pollution was adopted on 28 June 2003 at the third session of the tenth National People’s
Congress Standing Committee. And it has come into force since 1 October 2003. The Law is
applicable to the prevention and control of radioactive pollution during site selection,
construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear installations, and during
development and utilization of nuclear technology, uranium (thorium) and other radioactive
     “Radioactive pollution” in the Law refers to the presence of radioactive substances or
rays created by mankind’s activities and exceeding State standards on the surfaces of or inside
materials, the human body, places, or the environment.
     The purpose of the Law is to prevent and control radioactive pollution, to protect the
environment and human health, to promote nuclear energy, and to promote the development
and peaceful use of nuclear technology. The main contents of the Law are as follows.


   The basic principle for prevention and control of radioactive pollution are to set
    prevention priorities, integrate prevention and control measures, enforce rigorous
    management, and give priority to safety in the prevention and control of radioactive
   To authorise National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) of State Environmental
    Protection Administration (SEPA) to exercise unified regulation on radioactive pollution
    prevention and control work for the whole country in accordance with this Law.
   To establish licensing system for construction, first fuel loading, operation and
    decommissioning of nuclear installations and operation of radioactive waste disposal
   To establish licensing system for the whole process of radiation sources. The government
    will revise related regulations on licensing system on radiation sources.
   Operating organizations of nuclear installations, units of utilization of nuclear
    technology, uranium (thorium) and other radioactive mines are responsible for prevention
    and control of radioactive pollution, and accept regulation and supervision by the
    regulator, and are responsible under the law for any radioactive pollution caused. They
    shall adopt safety and protective measures to prevent the possible occurrence of all kinds
    of accident causing radioactive pollution and to avoid radioactive pollution damage
   To authorise NNSA/SEPA to draw up and to issue jointly with competent standardization
    department the national standards on radioactive pollution prevention and control in
    accordance with environmental safety requirements and national economy technology
   To establish environment impact assessment system and nuclear accident response
   To establish a radioactive pollution monitoring networks in order to monitor radioactive
   The State shall implement a qualifications management system for specialist staff
    engaged in the prevention and control of radioactive pollution, as well as for
    organizations engaged in radioactive pollution monitoring work.
   To request the government to control radiation sources in manufacture, use, sale, import
    and export, storage, transportation and disposal, and to establish national inventory.


   The operating organizations shall take measures to minimise the radioactive waste. The
    discharge of radioactive gas or liquid into environment shall conform to national
    standards and be approved by NNSA/SEPA.
   Low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste shall be disposed in near surface
    disposal facility and high level solid radioactive waste shall be disposed in centralized
    deep geological disposal facility.
   The NNSA/SEPA and competent department for nuclear installations shall draw up a
    solid radioactive waste disposal siting plan. The plan shall be implemented after being
    reported to and approved by the State Council. The relevant local government, in
    accordance with the solid radioactive waste disposal siting plan, shall provide a site for
    construction of the solid radioactive waste disposal facility and adopt effective measures
    to support solid radioactive waste disposal.
   A provision of collection and management for solid radioactive waste disposal fees shall
    be drawn up by the finance department and the competent pricing department, jointly
    with NNSA/SEPA.

2.2 The Chinese Basic Safety Standard for Radiation Protection
      The Chinese Basic Safety Standard for Radiation Protection and safety of radiation
sources (CBSS) was issued in October 2002 and will be valid from April 1 2003. It is a
mandatory national technical standard and should be followed by all related government
agencies and operating organisations in nuclear industry and radiation sources utilisation.
       The main contents of CBSS are based on ICRP 60 recommendation and IAEA BSS
for radiation protection and for the safety of radiation sources. According to CBSS, China
adopts three principles of radiation protection, e.g. justification of practice, optimisation of
radiation protection and dose limits. The basic dose limit for occupational radiation workers
and the public is exactly same as IAEA BSS. And the regulatory body also asks utilities to use
ALARA principle to make assessment to the radiation workers and public.
      There are lots of technical standards and safety guides on nuclear safety and radiation
protection in China. These guides and technical standards describe the detailed technical
requirements and methods on nuclear safety and radiation safety in siting, construction,
operation and decommissioning of the nuclear installations, radiation sources and radioactive


waste management. These documents are being reviewed by related institutions for revise
based on the CBSS.

3 Current status of the regulatory authorities on radiation sources
    The Chinese government has paid great attention to radiation protection. Recently, the
Chinese government has made political commitment on fully implementation of IAEA Code
of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. To compliance with the Law on
Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution, the Chinese government decided in
December, 2003 to adjust the responsibilities on radioactive sources as follows.
    NNSA/SEPA is authorized to exercise unified regulation on safety of radioactive sources
in manufacture, import and export, sale, use, transportation, storage and disposal.
NNSA/SEPA is responsible for making safety requirements and technical standards, licensing
radioactive sources, establishing identification system and national inventory. NNSA/SEPA is
also responsible for response, investigation and scaling of accidents or events of radioactive
sources, and assisting local department of public security to find lost sources.
    Ministry of Public Security is responsible for security of radioactive sources and road
transportation, responsible for investigation of lost sources, and participating emergency
response of accidents of radioactive sources.
    Ministry of Public Health is responsible for occupational disease assessment on
radioactive sources, responsible for admission of use of radioactive sources or irradiation
apparatus in hospitals, and participating emergency response of accidents of radioactive
sources and responsible for medical treatment in accidents of radioactive sources.
    According to the Law on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution and the
government decision on responsibilities for different departments on safety of radioactive
sources, NNSA/SEPA is only independent regulatory body in China to responsible for safety
regulation on nuclear installations and radioactive sources. Now, based on the Law on
Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution, the IAEA Code of Conduct on Safety and
Security of Radioactive Sources and above responsibilities for different government
departments, the government is revising the Regulations of Radiological Protection on
Radioisotope and Irradiation Apparatus, which was issued in 1989. The main points in
drafting regulations include:
   To classify radioactive sources into five categories.


   To strict control radioactive sources from manufacture and import, an identification
    system will be established based on registration data base.
   All organizations to manufacture, use, sale, import and export, store and dispose
    radioactive sources shall apply for license from NNSA/SEPA or its provincial agencies,
    and shall satisfy the safety requirements for radiation sources.
   The transfer of the radiation sources is allowed only between licensee and shall be
    registered. Without registration, the safety responsibility will not changed.
   The import sources will be licensed by NNSA/SEPA with the co-operation of the
   Chinese Customer.
   The spent sources shall be arranged before use. The return of radiation sources is
    encouraged in the regulations.

4   Joint enforcement on safety of radioactive sources
    In 2002, the NNSA/SEPA, MPH and Ministry of Public Security jointly conducted an
examination and enforcement on safety of significant radioactive sources in China. By this
examination and enforcement, we checked the registration status, examined the safety use of
the sources, and collected spent sources. We found that about 20%-30% users in some
provinces did not registrar. We estimated that there were about 70,000 – 80,000 sources in
China. The central government and provincial governments input manpower and financial
support, such as the government collected about 1000 spent sources or disused sources
without any charges from the organisations that have financial problems.
    To strengthen the safety of radioactive sources and transfer the responsibility from
Ministry of Public Health to NNSA/SEPA, the NNSA/SEPA, Ministry of Public Security and
Ministry of Public Health organized a joint enforcement on safety of radioactive sources in
China from April         to November, 2004. The purposes of the joint enforcement are to
investigate all radioactive sources in China and to prepare reissue safety licenses next year, to
find safety deficient by inspection and request improvement within limited time, to require all
users that did not have licenses to apply licenses in NNSA/SEPA or its provincial agencies, to
registrar all radioactive sources with identification number and establish national inventory, to
collect spent sources.
    Up to now, the provincial agencies are conducting inspection and enforcement in each
province. We plan to use new version of RAIS system to register the sources.


5   Occupational exposure control
5.1 Occupational exposure control for nuclear installations
      The occupational exposure of nuclear industry in China reduced continuously with
ALARA principle. Table 1 shows person-average annul dose of occupational workers by
external exposure from 1991 to 2000. The doses do not include that of uranium mining and
metallurgy. Ratio of internal dose to external dose is less than 6% in the table.

      Table 1 Average annul dose of occupational workers by external exposure (mSv/a) *
    Year      1991         1992   1993   1994       1995   1996   1997    1998      1999   2000
    Dose      2.13         2.77   2.47   2.06       1.58   1.56   1.71    1.67      2.34   2.44
* the trend for 2001 – 2003 is same as that in 1999 and 2000, but no exact data are collected.

    From Table 1, the average annul dose of occupational workers by person for external
exposure in the nuclear facilities is less than 3 mSv/a for 1990s. The investigation result of
epidemiology shown that there was no cancer occurred from the exposure except geological
prospecting and mining workers of uranium, and meanwhile there were no deterministic
effects happened, such as early deaths and radiation sickness, but several skin damage
incidents were reported.
    The management improvement on occupational exposure includes inspection and audit,
including routine and special field inspection; performance review; examination of radiation
protection personnel; collection, review and extending of good practices on ALARA,
facilitating cooperation and experience feedback between facilities; establishing target of dose
     Dose monitoring includes individual external dose monitoring, individual internal dose
monitoring, working area monitoring, practising quality control program for monitoring,
improving entrance facilities in control area to get higher capability of data treatment and
contamination control, monitoring and controlling weak penetrating radiation.

5.2 Occupational exposure control for radiation sources
     The total number of units using radiation sources has got up to 57000 by the end of 2001,
which include the units in medical and industrial uses of radiation such as nuclear medicine,


radiotherapy, industrial radiography, X-ray diagnosis, sealed sources application, unsealed
sources application, and so on.
    The total number of radiation workers in medical and industrial uses of radiation is
190,000 persons in 2001. The number of trainee is 69000 persons. The rate of trainee
accounts for 36 % of all radiation workers.
    Regarding the individual dose monitoring, the number of radiation workers who should
be monitored is up to 160,000 persons by the end of 2001. But actually the monitored number
is 96,000 persons. The monitoring rate has got up to 62%. So we can say the situation of
individual dose monitoring is better and better year by year.
      The annual average effective dose of monitored workers is 1.3mSv and the average
annual collective effective dose is 126 man Sv.

6   Medical exposure control
    Like other countries in the world, ionising radiation has been increasingly applied in
medicine and is now firmly established as an essential tool for diagnosis and therapy in China.
According to statistics by the end of 2001, the basic situations of nuclear technology applied
in medicine are as follows. By implementation of the Law of Prevention and Control of
Occupational Disease, the Ministry of Public Health is beginning more strict control on
medical exposure. However for this report, the data for year 2002 and 2003 has not been

6.1 Diagnostic radiology
      There are 43,000 departments of diagnostic radiology in hospitals in China. The whole
country is equipped with 67,000 X-ray diagnostic facilities, including over 4,000 CT, 2,500
dental X-ray unit and 800 mammography unit. The annual frequencies of diagnostic medical
X-ray examinations are 196.22 per 1,000 populations, 245 million for the annual total
numbers of X-ray examinations. The patient ESD dose for PA from diagnostic X-rays chest
examinations is 0.36mGy every time and 1.53mGy for LAT.

6.2 Radiotherapy
      There are about 1,000 hospitals for performing radiotherapy work in China. The whole
country is equipped with about 2,000 radiotherapy facilities, including 600 teletherapy, 400


brachtherapy and 500 linear accelerators. The annual frequencies of radiotherapy are 0.4 per
1,000 populations, 500,000 for the annual total numbers of radiography.

6.3 Clinical nuclear medicine
    There are over 1,500 departments of nuclear medicine in hospitals in China. The whole
country is equipped with about 2300 nuclear medicine facilities. The annual frequencies of
diagnostic nuclear medicine are 0.58 per 1,000 populations, 720,000 for the annual total
numbers of diagnostic nuclear medicine; the annual frequencies of therapeutic nuclear
medicine are 0.06 per 1,000 populations, 75,000 for the annual total numbers of therapeutic
nuclear medicine.

7   Public exposure control
    The provincial environment protection departments have implemented environmental
monitoring and provided information to Radiological Environment Monitoring Center, SEPA.
Every year, the REMC will publish the report on radiological environment monitoring.
    To strengthen the environment monitoring capabilities, the SEPA began to establish a
national radiological monitoring system in China from last year. The function of the system is
to implement supervision monitoring to radiological effluent of significant nuclear
installations and radiation level in the environment. The total investment of the project is
RMB105 million. The project is expected to complement in the middle of 2005.
    To prevent illegal trade of radiation sources from the other country without authorisation,
the SEPA pushed the Chinese Customs to be equipped with radiation monitoring instruments
in order to measure the radiation level before the goods passing through the Customs. By the
radiation monitoring in Customs, we found a spent source mixed into used steel that would be
exported to China from other country. We also found some radiological contaminated used
steel in Customs.

8   Emergency planning, preparedness and response for radiological accidents and
    The NNSA/SEPA made an emergency plan for dealing with nuclear accidents and
radiological accidents. According to the emergency plan, each environment protection
agencies in province level made its own emergency plan for dealing with nuclear or

                                            – 10 –

radiological accidents based on the conditions in every province. The NNSA/SEPA requires
the nuclear installations to make emergency plan. The nuclear installations should submit the
plan to NNSA/SEPA for review and approval according to related regulations.
    If a radiological accident happened, three provincial departments, e.g. department of
environment protection, public health and public security would be reported. They will send
experts equipped with monitoring instruments and to the accidental site to deal with the
accident. If necessary, the central government will send expert team to assist the emergency
response on site. The SEPA establishes Emergency Center for Nuclear and Radiological
Accidents. The center has the capability to collect on line the safety parameters of the nuclear
installations and information on radiological accidents. The center will assess the reactor
conditions based on the input of safety parameters and will assess the radiological
consequence for nuclear accidents or radiological accidents. The MPH establishes Medical
Emergency Center for Radiological Accidents.
    Some measures have been taken on the safety and security of radiation sources. The
contents on anti terrorist related radiological accidents have been added into the emergency
plan in central government and provincial government levels. Some emergency exercises or
drills have been conducted timely.

9    The progress of RAS/9/029 Project
    The RAS/9/029 Harmonization of Radiation Protection is a regional cooperation project
and mainly focus on training and workshop on radiation protection. In 2003, following seven
training courses on radiation protection were held in East Asia region under RCA RAS/9/029
project with cooperation of RAS/9/026 and RAS/9/027 although SARS happened over the
region in 2003.
   Regional training course on environmental impact and assessment modelling, in
   Regional training course on internal dosimetry, in India.
   Regional training course on radiation protection and safety in diagnostic and intervention
    radiology, in India.
   Regional training course on radiation protection in radiotherapy, in Indonesia.
   Regional training course on authorization and inspection of radiation sources in
    diagnostic radiology, Malaysia.

                                             – 11 –

   One year post-graduate education course on radiation protection, in Malaysia.
   Regional training course on radiation protection of radioactive waste management with
    emphasis on NORM, in China.

    For each training course mentioned above outside China, two Chinese technical trainees
from related areas and organizations were selected and participated the course. The Chinese
participants got a lot of useful information and knowledge from the courses. They have
played and will continue to play important roles on radiation protection in their own technical
    Regional training course on radiation protection of radioactive waste management with
emphasis on NORM was held in Beijing, China, 13 –17 October 2003. The Nuclear Safety
Center of State Environment Protection Administration, was the host organization of this
activity. Three lecturers gave lectures and 30 participants in the region attended the training
course. IAEA technical experts and lecturers introduced the safety requirement on radioactive
waste management based on basic safety standards on radiation protection and international
practice. The in-kind contribution from China for this 5 days training course is about

    China is willing to actively participate the cooperation activities under RCA/IAEA
regional cooperation program.
   We will select competent persons to attend RCA training courses and inter-comparison
    activities of radiation monitoring on environmental sampling and individual internal and
    external exposure.
   Some training courses are planed in China, such as general training courses on safety use
    of radiation sources to the users, radiation protection training courses on occupational
    radiation protection experts in nuclear installations, mining and milling, nuclear
    technique application, medical exposure and radioactive waste management, and training
    courses on radiation protection on regulators and inspectors.
   We plan to invite some lecturers under RCA project and IAEA model projects to give
    model lectures with IAEA recommended teaching material to train trainers in China. We
    also plan to translate IAEA model teaching material into Chinese.

                                             – 12 –

   China should pay more attention to personal dose monitoring not only in nuclear
    installations but also in radiation sources manufacturers, users, storage facilities. Personal
    dose monitoring records should be carefully kept by related operating organizations.
    RCA/IAEA training course on this topic may be helpful.


To top