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TAKS Warm Up

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					   TAKS Warm Up


 Remember to write this on the first
  free left page of your notebook.
Write the answer and your reasoning
        for your choice only!!!
TAKS Question #1
Part of a DNA molecule is
   represented by the model to the
   right. In order for DNA to
   replicate, the strand must
   separate at which of the
   following locations?
A. Between every phosphate sugar
   pair.
B. Between the eight sugar base
   pairs.
C. Between the four nitrogenous
   base pairs.
D. Between any two chemical
   bonds.
    TAKS Question #2
The model shows a demonstration a
   student prepared using black
   and white marbles to show how
   populations of organisms can
   change. Which of the following
   concepts is best illustrated by
   this demonstration?
A. Evolution of a predatory species.
B. Genetic drift accompanying
   natural selection.
C. Environmentally induced genetic
   mutations.
D. Immunity from virulent
   microorganisms.
Nailing Evolution
Nailing Evolution
   Purpose: Students will examine hardware
    devices to simulate how common ancestry and
    biochemical evidence are used to determine
    evolutionary decent.
   Materials: Wooden peg, brass tack, 2” nail, 3”
    nail, bolt, screw, Molly screw, metric ruler.
   Safety: The tacks, nails, bolt, and screws
    should not be used in an inappropriate
    manner.
Types of Screws
                     Bolt
   Wooden peg
                     Screw
   Brass tack



   2” nail
                     Molly screw

   3” nail
 Procedures
1.    Record the names of the hardware pieces and your
      observations for each in Data Table.
     1.   Observe as many anatomical (physical structure) characteristics
          as possible.
          •   Composition: the way in which something is made, especially in terms
              of its different parts.
          •   Length: distance from end to end.
          •   Number of threads present: the number of helical ridges on a screw.
          •   Thread diameter: What is the diameter (width) of the thread?
          •   Head type:

          •   Head size: what is the diameter of the head of the screw?
          •   Other: Color? Pointy or flat? And anything else you can think of.
Data Table 1
 Characteristics     WP   Brass   2” nail   3” nail   Bolt   Screw   Molly Screw
                           tack

   Composition


      Length


 # Threads present


 Thread diameter


    Head type


    Head size


      Other
Procedures continued…
   Use the information from Data Table 1 to complete the
    cladogram below.
   Begin by listing the wooden peg as the most closely
    related hardware device to the Common Ancestor.
   Then add the next hardware device that is the most
    closely related to the wooden peg according to the
    information in Data Table 1.
   Continue this process for numbers 3 to 7.
   Remember: according to cladistics, the greater the
    number of characteristics shared by two organisms
    (screws), the more closely related they are with regard to
    their evolution.
Common Ancestry
Procedures continued…
   The following DNA sequences were obtained
    for each of the hardware devices.
   Compare pairs of hardware devices, count
    any differences, and record that number in
    Data Table 2.
   Be sure to compare the DNA sequences by
    triplets, or codons.
   For example, CTT to GCT which would count
    only as one difference.
Wooden peg vs. Brass tack
   Wooden peg

    • AGG CAT AAA CCA ACC GAT TAC

   Brass tack

    • AGG CAT ATT CCA ACC GAT TAC
             Wooden   Brass tack   2” nail   3” nail   Bolt   Screw   Molly
              peg                                                     screw

 Wooden        0          1
  peg

Brass tack     1          0

  2” nail                            0

  3” nail                                      0

   Bolt                                                 0

  Screw                                                        0

  Molly                                                                0
  screw
Procedures continued…
4. Use the information recorded in Data Table 2
  to infer the evolutionary relationships among
  the various hardware devices. For example,
  the DNA sequence of the wooden peg and
  brass tack indicate they are closely related. To
  what extent do the DNA sequences above
  support the information in your cladogram? Do
  you need to revise your cladogram? Why or
  why not?
On the backside of your
handout…
   Create a vocabulary card for each of the
    following words:
    •    Cladogram: a tree-shaped diagram showing
        evolutionary relationships and the points where
        species appear to have diverged from common
        ancestors.
    •   Natural selection: the process, according to Darwin, by
        which organisms are best suited to survival in their
        environment achieve greater reproductive success
        and thereby passing advantageous genetic traits to
        future generations.
         Definition.                Definition in your
                                    own words.
         Draw a picture to         Draw a picture to represent the
         represent the word.       opposite.

				
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posted:7/27/2011
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