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					Project Clarification                                                                                                                                                                                       15-September-2004




                                                                                         Design Process Overview                                      S o c ie t a l N e e d     Design Process Overview                              S o c ie t a l N e e d




                                          Project Clarification:
                                                                                                                                                      Cla r ify P r o b le m                                                         Cla r ify P r o b le m
                                                                                            What drives design?                                     (Problem Definition)                                                           (Problem Definition)



                                            Objectives Tree                                                                                         D e ve lo p Co n c e p t s
                                                                                                                                                     (Conceptual Design)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   D e ve lo p Co n c e p t s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Conceptual Design)
                                                                                            Design process has
                                                                                             five distinct phases
                                                                                             (Dym & Little, 2003)
                                                                                                                                                     E m b o d y D e s ig n
                                                                                                                                                    (Preliminary Design)                                                     =       E m b o d y D e s ig n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Preliminary Design)


             BE 20–Engineering Design with Computer Applications
                                                                                            The end goal:                                             De t a il De s ig n
                                                                                                                                                       (Detail Design)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      De t a il De s ig n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (Detail Design)
                                         Week 4: 15-September-2004
                                                                                               Product that
                                                                                                customers WANT                                     R e p o rt D e s ig n                                                             R e p o rt D e s ig n
                                                                                                                                                (Design Communication)                                                            (Design Communication)



                                                                                                                                                Product that meets need                                                           Product that meets need




        Original Design Overview                                                         Case Study: Project Clarification                                                       Case Study: Project Clarification (2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             After clarifying the customer‟s
                                                                                        Counting Device for Packaging Bulk Items
                                                                                                                                                                                                              statements, the design team‟s
           Def‟n: Development of a product, process,                                    The users‟ task in this case is to count specified numbers of
                                                                                                                                                                                                              charge was:
            assembly or component not previously in                                      different products and place in one box for shipping. For
                                                                                         instance, 3 packages of product A, 5 packages of product B and                                                          To create an assistive device to aid in
            existence                                                                    2 packages of product C go together in one box for shipping.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  counting and packaging dog food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  sample packets
           Clarification phase is perhaps the most                                      Currently, the users are persons with disabilities and have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Assistive device NOT fully automated
            important phase                                                              difficulty counting the required number of products consistently.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  replacement
                    As a designer, you must understand the problem                                                                                                                                              Increase accuracy and reliability of
                                                                                         The current quality control mechanism is to weigh a completed                                                            packet count
                     your customer wants solved
                                                                                         box to check if the correct number of items is included. The                                                            No reduction of current production rate
                    Structured approaches exist to help guide you                       variance in the weight of each package makes this check not                                                             Create an ergonomically friendly and
                     through this phase                                                  entirely reliable. A device capable of counting each type of                                                             versatile solution
                                                                                         product as it is dispensed into a box is needed.




        Phase 1: Clarify Problem
            S o c ie t a l N e e d                                                       What’s the Objective?                                                                   Objectives Tree Method
           Cla r ify P r o b le m
          (Problem Definition)
                                                                                             Objectives (or goals) are expressions of the desired                                   The objectives tree method is an approach to
                                                                                              attributes and behaviors that the client wants to see                                   transform vague design statements into more specific
         D e ve lo p Co n c e p t s
          (Conceptual Design)
                                                  Clarify the problem                        in the product                                                                          customer requirements
                                                                                                  Objectives are                                                                    Make vague statements more specific by asking:
                                                    Objectives treeformulation                      „Be‟   words
           E m b o d y D e s ig n                                                                                                                                                        What is meant by that statement?
          (Preliminary Design)                      Derivea functional model                        They are   qualities the object should have
                                                                                                                                                                                     Other useful questions to ask when expanding and
                                                    Form engineering requirements                Clients tend to speak in terms of objectives
                                                                                                                                                                                      clarifying design objectives:
            De t a il De s ig n                                                              So, our task today is to uncover the objectives of a
            (Detail Design)                                                                                                                                                              Why? How? What?
                                                                                              design project
           R e p o rt D e s ig n
        (Design Communication)



        P ro d u c t t h a t m e e t s
                    ne e d




BE20 Sec. C-Engineering Design with
Computer Applications                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1
Project Clarification                                                                                                                                                                                 15-September-2004




                                                                             Objectives Tree Method                                                               Objectives Tree Method

        Objectives Tree Method (2)                                               Step 1: Listing the Objectives                                                     Step 1 (cont.): Culling the Objectives
                                                                                                                                                                        After the initial list is compiled, some things other than
                 Three step procedure:                                                This can be done by:                                                             objectives may have slipped in
               1.   Prepare a list of design objectives                                    Talking with (interviewing) your
                                                                                                                           customer                                         Constraints - restrictions or limitations on a behavior or some
                                                                                                                                                                             aspect of a design
               2.   Order the list into sets of higher-level and lower-                    Thoroughly reading any written design statements
                    level objectives                                                                                                                                        Functions - operations the design is supposed to do
                                                                                            and requirements                                                                Implementations - ways to execute the functions
               3.   Draw a tree of objectives, showing hierarchical
                                                                                           Brainstorming within your team                                              Check if each statement is an objective
                    relationships and interconnections
                                                                                                                                                                            Objectives are normally “being” statements
                                                                                       Take vague statements and make them                                                    Try saying    “an objective is to be [statement] ”
                                                                                        clearer by asking “what is meant by this                                               If   it makes sense, then it‟s most likely an objective
                                                                                        statement”                                                                          Objectives can also be written as “more (or less) of [the
                                                                                                                                                                             statement] is better than less (or more) of [the statement]”




      Objectives Tree Method                                                 Objectives Tree Method                                                               Objectives Tree Method

        Step 1 Active Experimentation                                            Step 2: Ordering the List                                                          Step 2 (cont.): Affinity Diagram
                                                                                                                                                                        Copy design objectives to post-it® notes
                                                                                       Group the statements into related topics                                        Place one on a board
                                                                                        using an affinity diagram                                                       Compare next objective card to the first
                                                                                                                                                                            If different, begin a new column
                                                                                      Design                                                                                If similar intent, place under the first column
                                                                                      Objective                                Major objective 1                        Repeat for all design objective cards
                                                                                                                                 Second level objective 1.1
            As a team, generate a list of objectives for the                                                                       Third level objective 1.1.1
                                                                                                                                                                        Result: Objectives sorted by similar statement
             bumble ball toy                                                                                                        Third level objective 1.1.2             Within each column there may be levels of objectives
                                                                                                                                 Second level objective 1.2                    Lower-level    objectives answer the question “How?”
                 “Experience” the bumble ball                                                                                 Major objective 2
                 Ask each other questions about what they want the bumble                                                       Second level objective 2.1                    Higher-level   objectives answer the question “Why?”
                  ball to do                                                                                                     …                                          Transform to a hierarchical list of objectives
                 Write down the statements and check if they are really
                  objectives




      Objectives Tree Method                                                 Objectives Tree Method                                                               Objectives Tree Method

        Step 3: Draw the Tree                                                    Step 3: Draw the Tree (2)                                                          Step 3: Draw the Tree (3)
            From Step 2, you have a clustered set of                                Consider the example objectives list and resulting                                The Objectives Tree diagram looks like an
             objectives                                                               tree for the design of a safe ladder:                                              “upside-down” tree
               Notice thatsome of the objectives within a cluster           The ladder should be safe
                                                                                                                                                                          The overall objective of the tree is at the top
                may be more specific than others                               The ladder should be stable                                                                Underneath it, branches break the objective into
                                                                                  Stable on floors and smooth surfaces
               This implies a hierarchical nature to the objectives              Stable on relatively level ground                                                        more detailed objectives
                                                                               The ladder should be reasonably stiff
            The hierarchy (general to more specific) can                    The ladder should be marketable
                                                                                                                                                                          Can have many levels and interconnections
             be represented in a graphical structure known                     The ladder should be useful
                                                                                  Useful indoors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          As you move deeper into the
             as an objectives tree                                                   Useful for electrical work                                                                                                           hierarchy, the objectives answer
                                                                                     Useful for maintenance work                                                                                                          the question “how is the above
                                                                                  Useful outdoors                                                                                                                         objective met?”
                                                                                  Be useful at the right height
                                                                               The ladder should be relatively inexpensive                                                                                                As you move higher up in the
                                                                               The ladder should be portable                                                                                                              hierarchy, the objectives answer
                                                                                  Be light weight                                                                                                                         the question “why are the below
                                                                                  Be small when ready for transport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          objectives important?”
                                                                               The ladder should be durable




BE20 Sec. C-Engineering Design with
Computer Applications                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2
Project Clarification                                                                                                                           15-September-2004




      Objectives Tree Method                                 Objectives Tree Method                                    Objectives Tree Method

        Step 3: Draw the Tree (4)                              Step 3: Draw the Tree (5)                                 Step 3 Active Experimentation
          The objectives                                          What‟s wrong with this tree?
           tree diagram
           may alternatively
           be drawn on its
           side
          Example: Car
           door                                                                                                              Draw an objectives tree for the bumble ball

                                                                                                   Objectives are
                                                                                                   not distinct from
                                                                                                   higher level
                                                                                                   (only one sub-
                                                                                                   objective)




        Objectives Tree Summary
           Determining a design‟s objectives is part of
            clarifying the design problem
           An objectives tree is a graphical way to show:
               Your   design‟s objectives
               The   hierarchy of your objectives
             Objectives are “being” words and express the
              attributes and behaviors expected by your
              client




BE20 Sec. C-Engineering Design with
Computer Applications                                                                                                                                                       3

				
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