PSC ANNUAL REPORT by liaoqinmei


                      CENTRE INC.

The Prairie Swine Centre is pleased to present our
          1996 Annual Research Report

Highlights of the 1996 Research Report:

•   A factorial approach to predicting lysine and energy requirements of growing-finishing pigs (p.25)

•   Removal of supplemental vitamins and trace minerals in finisher diets could provide savings
    of $1.50 per pig (p.29)

•   Five different varieties of hulled barley are being tested in the Centre (p.33)

•   Dehulled canola meal represents a new alternative to increasing the digestible energy content of this
    popular supplemental protein source (p.35)

•   Feeding plasma diets is more beneficial to pigs in a continuous-flow compared with an all in - all out
    nursery (p.40)

•   Human responses are used as criteria to evaluate the Centre’s oil-sprinkling technology to reduce respirable
    dust (p.44)

•   A negative ionization system reduces respirable and inhalable dust in the short-term (p.49)

•   A balloon-type lagoon cover reduces odour emission at a very low cost (p.54)

•   Different strains of Streptococcus suis share common proteins which could be used to develop a vaccine

•   Wet/dry feeders increase weight gain and feed intake by 5% compared with dry feeders (p.65)

•   Stalls and farrowing crates (narrow and wide) are compared with pens regarding the behavioural response
    of gilts during gestation, farrowing and lactation (p.70)

•   Important concepts in selecting and locating water sources for pigs (p.74)

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.       1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
  “The mission of Prairie
     Swine Centre Inc.
is to provide a centre of
  excellence in research,
 technology transfer and
  education, all directed
  at the enhancement of
   efficient, sustainable
    pork production in


HIGHLIGHTS                                               2         THE EFFECT OF SPRAY-DRIED                      40
                                                                   PLASMA INCLUSION IN PHASE I
MISSION STATEMENT                                        3         DIETS OFFERED TO WEANLING
                                                                   PIGS REARED IN AN ALL IN-ALL
THE PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE                                 5         OUT OR CONTINUOUS-FLOW NURSERY
                                                                   Nichole E. Lesperance, Andrew G. Van Kessel,
BOARD OF DIRECTORS                                       7         Alberto Estrada, and G. Iain Christison

STAFF AND ASSOCIATES                                     8         AIR QUALITY AND RESPIRATORY                    44
                                                                   RESPONSES OF HUMAN SUBJECTS
FINANCIAL SUPPORT                                      13          IN A SWINE BUILDING
                                                                   Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan,
CHAIRMAN’S REPORT                                      14          Yuanhui Zhang, James.A. Dosman,
                                                                   Larry Holfeld, Shelley Kirychuk,
PRESIDENT’S REPORT                                     15          Ernie M. Barber, Tom Hurst
                                                                   and Chuck Rhodes.
INFORMATION MANAGER’S REPORT                           19
                                                                   DUST SETTLING USING A NEGATIVE                 49
OPERATION MANAGER’S REPORT                             21          IONIZATION SYSTEM IN A
                                                                   CONFINEMENT SWINE BUILDING
FIVE YEAR OBJECTIVES                                   22          Akihiro Tanaka, Yuanhui Zhang

RESEARCH REPORTS -                                     23          A LOW COST BALLOON-TYPE LAGOON                 54
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS                                               COVER TO REDUCE ODOUR EMISSION
                                                                   Yuanhui Zhang and Wim Gakeer
BIOLOGICAL VARIABILITY &                               24
CHANCES OF ERROR                                                   STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS                  62
                                                                   WITH A DIVERSITY OF SEROTYPES
ENERGY AND LYSINE REQUIREMENTS BASED                               Shawna D. Peace, Philip J. Willson
Mark L. Lorschy and John F. Patience.                              EVALUATION OF FEEDERS FOR                      65
                                                                   GROWING AND FINISHING PIGS:
OF VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS ON PIG                                      Harold Gonyou and Zhensheng Lou
John F. Patience and Doug Gillis                                   LOCOMOTORY BEHAVIOUR                           70
                                                                   AND MATERNAL RESPONSES IN GILTS,
OF ENERGY VARIABILITY IN                                           AND FARROWING HOUSING.
WESTERN CANADIAN BARLEY                                            Moira Harris and Harold Gonyou
Shawn L. Fairbairn and John F. Patience
                                                                   WATER USE AND DRINKER                          74
THE EVALUATION OF DEHULLED                             35          MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW
CANOLA MEAL IN THE DIETS OF                                        Harold Gonyou
John F. Patience and Doug Gillis                                   PUBLICATIONS                                   81

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
The Prairie Swine Centre focuses on issues of                     Facilities
efficiency and sustainability. While much of the
research program seeks to improve the individual                  The Prairie Swine Centre is the largest swine
pork producer’s net income, through nutrition,                    production research facility in Canada. With more
management and housing, there is also a need to deal              than 77,000 ft2 of barn and office space, it maintains
with issues that have less direct economic impact but             a unique array of research capability on one site.
clearly influence the future success of our industry.
Currently, the issues of animal welfare and human
health are two important focuses of the Centre’s                  Original Facilities
research, technology transfer and teaching programs.
                                                                  The original 250 sow farrow-to-wean unit was built in
                                                                  1980 by the University of Saskatchewan. It consists of
                                                                  two 100-sow and one 50-sow units, each with its
Funding                                                           own gestation, farrowing and weanling areas. A
                                                                  small feeder barn was also built at that time consisting
The Centre must attract funding in order to survive.              of 24 pens capable of holding 10 pigs each.
This is one of the corporation’s strengths.
It ensures that the Centre is responsive to industry
needs and input. This is clearly demonstrated by the              Grower-Finisher Research Unit
make-up of its Board of Directors. In addition, the
Centre was established with a view to attracting funds            In May, 1992, pigs were first introduced into the new
from a wide variety of sources; this reduces                      Grower-Finisher Research Unit. This unique facility
dependency on any one source and at the same time                 was designed by a commercial engineer and
reduces the cost to any one participant in the Centre’s           constructed using the same materials and methods
various programs. About one-third of total revenues               employed by the commercial pig industry. The cost
are derived from sale of stock; this encourages the               of the new unit, at about $35/ft2, is only moderately
Centre to be a good pork producer, which many                     higher than the $20 to $25/ft2 experienced by
producers tell us is critical to our being a good                 commercial units. Yet, this includes a wide array of
research facility. The subject of funding is covered in           specialized research equipment and facilities; this cost
greater detail in the President’s Report.                         also includes office facilities for the expanded
                                                                  research staff. The unit can be divided into 5
                                                                  functional areas: basic, intensive, semi-intensive,
Staffing                                                          commercial and proprietary.

The strength of any organization is its staff. While the
Centre is proud of its modern, practical research                 Basic
facilities, its greatest resource is its people. There are
a total of 38 people currently employed by the Centre             The basic research area includes a fully-equipped
in a variety of professional and support positions.               surgery, related prep areas, two small experimental
                                                                  rooms designed for flexible research use, and a very
                                                                  sizable metabolism room that can accommodate up to
Graduate Studies                                                  20 metabolism crates for large-scale digestibility
Graduate students bring a new perspective to the
Centre. Their intense interest often leads to new
questions being asked and traditional ideas being
challenged. The Centre currently has three graduate
students - two in ethology and one in engineering.
Further expansion of graduate training is expected in
the future.

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Intensive                                                        Proprietary

The intensive research area includes two rooms of 76             The proprietary area includes 4 semi-intensive rooms
individual pens each. These rooms are designed for               and one metabolism room, similar to that in the
use in experiments where individual animals are the              basic area. This provides Prairie Swine Centre with
focus of research or where only small quantities of              unique facilities to serve the commercial sector;
test materials are available for nutrition experiments.          indeed, companies from across the United States and
The pens are designed to be modified, to convert                 from as far away as Europe have contracted with the
from one pig in a pen up to 5 pigs in a pen,                     Centre to conduct research on their behalf. This not
depending on the needs of the experiment.                        only helps the financial situation of the Centre, but
                                                                 places it firmly in the “big leagues” of swine research

Oftentimes, research requires facilities that are mid-           Other Facilities
way between commercial scale and intensive. The
semi-intensive rooms were designed to fulfill this               In addition to the above, the Centre maintains an
need. Four rooms each contain 20 pens designed for               office building complete with offices for the research
5 pigs each. Again, the penning is flexible, allowing            and administrative staff as well as graduate students.
groupings larger than 5 pigs when desired.                       It also has a simple laboratory and reading room. By
                                                                 employing modern communication technology, the
                                                                 Centre is linked through computer networks to
Commercial                                                       researchers on campus and around the world. Prairie
                                                                 Swine Centre Inc. employs research and support staff
The commercial area actually includes two types of               to ensure that all research and technology transfer
facilities. In one area, there are three rooms of                objectives are met. Each member of the Executive
partially-slatted floor pens; each room consists of 12           Management Team brings a wealth of research and
pens housing 12 pigs each. Although somewhat                     practical pork production experience.
smaller than the typical commercial group size of 20
to 30, the commercial rooms allow research to be
conducted in facilities that in most respects resemble
recently constructed commercial barns.

A second area of the commercial wing includes two
engineering rooms. These consist of 12 pens of 12
pigs each, housed in fully-slatted floor pens.
However, the rooms are designed for maximum
flexibility so that they can be converted to partially-
slatted or even totally-solid floors. The ventilation
system can be completely changed to incorporate a
wide array of options in both inlet and exhaust

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

                   Left to right seated: Terry Scott, John Patience, Weldon Newton, Jim Smith
       Left to right standing: Wayne Vermette, Florian Possberg, Mac Sheppard, Cam Henry, George Lee
                                              (Missing: John Stewart)

Board of Directors:

The Centre’s Board of Directors has 10 members as of            Dr. George Lee, Agricultural Research
June 30, 1996. They represent the diverse interests of          Coordinator, U of S,
the western Canadian swine industry, including:
                                                                Dr. John Patience, President Prairie Swine Centre,

Mr. Weldon Newton, Chairman, Prairie Swine Centre               Mr. Cam Henry, Manitoba grain producer,
Board of Directors, Manitoba pork producer,
                                                                Mr. Terry Scott, Assistant Deputy Minster of
Mr. Jim Smith, Alberta pork producer,                           Agriculture, Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food

Mr. Wayne Vermette, Saskatchewan pork producer,                 Mr. Mac Sheppard, controller (recently retired),
                                                                U of S,
Mr. Florian Possberg, Saskatchewan pork producer,
                                                                Dr. John Stewart, Dean of Agriculture, U of S.

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

                                          Executive Management Team
  Left to right seated; Dr. John Patience, President/CEO, Mr. Lee Whittington, Manager-Information Services
    Left to right standing; Dr. Harold Gonyou, Research Scientist-Ethology, Mr. Brian Andries, Operations
                         Manager, Dr. Yuanhui Zhang, Research Scientist - Engineering.


Dr. John Patience is President and Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation. He brings 13 years of experience in
extension, the feed industry and research to the Centre. Raised on a hog and beef farm in southern Ontario, he
obtained both his Bachelor and Master degrees from the University of Guelph and his Ph.D. from Cornell
University, the latter in 1985.

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.       1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Research Scientist - Engineering                                     Manager - Information Services

Dr. Yuanhui Zhang is Research Scientist -                            Mr. Lee Whittington is Manager - Information
Engineering. Dr. Zhang obtained his Ph.D. in                         Services. Originally from Ontario, he obtained his
Agricultural Engineering at the University of                        Bachelors degree from the University of Guelph
Saskatchewan before joining the College of                           before joining Shur Gain where he remained for 13
Engineering at the University of Illinois to work on                 years. In addition to his animal science background,
NASA-funded projects on space travel. Dr. Zhang has                  Mr. Whittington has extensive training and
particular expertise in air quality and environmental                experience in marketing and communication, making
control and chairs the sub-committee Environmental                   him ideally suited to his current responsibilities at the
Control for Plants and Animals, American Society of                  Centre.
Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
                                                                     Manager - Operations

Research Scientist - Ethology                                        Mr. Brian Andries is Manager - Operations. He hails
                                                                     from southern Saskatchewan and obtained his
Dr. Harold Gonyou is Research Scientist - Ethology                   Bachelors degree from the University of
(Behaviour). Raised on a farm in southern Ontario,                   Saskatchewan. Mr. Andries has over 10 years
Dr.Gonyou obtained his Bachelors degree from the                     experience in swine production and has risen through
University of Guelph, his Masters degree from the                    the ranks of the Centre to his current position.
University of Alberta and his Ph.D. from the
University of Saskatchewan. He joined the faculty of                 In addition to the staff noted above, the Centre is very
the University of Illinois and rose to the position of               well served by support staff in a variety of accounting,
Professor before leaving to join the Centre. Currently,              clerical, production and technical positions. Their
Dr. Gonyou is President of the International Society                 combination of training and experience in pork
of Applied Ethology, the first North American to hold                production as well as research methodologies
this position. He has also been invited to participate               provides the essential support needed in any
in an international committee focusing on swine                      successful research program.
equipment design.

Post Doctoral

                 Dr. Mark Lorschy                         Dr. Aki Tanaka                            Dr. Zhensheng Lou
              Citizenship - Australia                   Citizenship - Japan                       Citizenship - Canadian
             Degree - PhD Nutrition                 Degree - PhD Engineering                     Degree - PhD Behaviour
   Last appointment - University of Minnesota     Last appointment - Ichinoseki          Last appointment - University of Guelph
      Area of research - Amino acid/energy          Agricultural High School               Area of research - animal/equipment
       interaction in growing-finishing pigs     Area of research - dust control                        interaction

Graduate Students

 Renée Bergeron                      Guangzhi Zhao                           Moira Harris                       Shawn Fairbairn
 Degree earned:                      Degree earned:                         Degree sought:                       Degree sought:
Ph.D. in Ethology                  M.Sc. in Engineering                    M.Sc. in Ethology                    M.Sc. in Nutrition
                                  Continuing PhD studies

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.          1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                        Proprietary Research Group
                                                               left to right; Ms. Alison Bzowey, research
                                                             technician, Dr. Eduardo Beltranena, Manager-
                                                           External Research, Ms. Raelene Petracek, research

           Administration Staff
              Left to right:
Christine Wakabayashi (Financial Manager),
       Audrey McFarlane (Secretary).

                                                                                Kelly Sauder,
                                                                                Farm worker

        Standing (L-R) John Meier, Darryl Wurtz, T. J. Hanson, Doug Gillis, Garth McDonald,
                                   Karen Wurtz, Marnie Korchinski
       Seated (L-R) Joe Jobin, Colin Peterson, Troy Donauer, Alison Bzowey, Raelene Petracek

                          PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

      Dr. Ernie Barber                                      Dr. Milt Bell                                      Dr. Bernard Laarveld
          Professor                                      Professor Emeritus                                          Professor
 Dept. Agricultural and Bioresource                     Dept. Animal & Poultry Science                        Dept. Animal & Poultry Science
            Engineering                                Research Emphasis: evaluation of                        Animal Biotechnology Group
  Research Emphasis: ventilation                     canola meal, peas, barley and wheat                   Research Emphasis; endrocine control
       control and air quality                                                                             of metabolism, growth and lactation;
                                                                                                               immune castration, immune
                                                                                                           enhancement, neonatal management.

    Dr. Iain Christison                                    Dr. Al McCurdy                                        Dr. Chuck Rhodes
         Professor                                            Professor                                              Professor
 Dept. Animal & Poultry Science                     Dept. Appl. Micro. and Food Science                     Dept. Herd Med. & Theriogenology
Research Emphasis; sow and litter                   Research Emphasis; meat processing;                    Research Emphasis; swine production
mngt; piglet and weaning behavior;                   extended shelf-life; lipid chemistry                               medicine
  flooring, crate and pen design

     Dr. Phyllis Shand                                   Dr. Joseph Stookey                                      Dr. Phil Thacker
    Research Associate                                   Associate Professor                                         Professor
Dept. Appl. Micro. and Food Science                  Dept. Herd Med. & Theriogenology                         Dept. Animal & Poultry Science
Research Emphasis; meat processing;                 Research Emphasis; animal behaviour                     Research Emphasis; improving sow
   product development; sensory                                 and welfare                                fertility; evaluation of new feeds; gilt
         properties of meat                                                                                              management

                                      PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.              1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Research Technicians U of S                                    Cooperating Scientists

Bing Li                                                        Dr. K. Rajkumar, Reproductive Biology Unit, Obstetrics and
Carmen Engele                                                  Gynecology, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon,
Anita Lemke                                                    Saskatchewan
Wayne Morley, Ag. Eng.                                         Dr. Shin-ichi Urano, Hokkaido University, Japan
Lewis Roth, Ag. Eng.                                           Dr. John Feddes, University of Alberta, Edmonton
Charlotte Hampton                                              Dr. Laurie Conner, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg
Joyce Nordick                                                  Dr. Jim Dosman, Centre for Agricultural Medicine, U of S.
Blair Goldade                                                  Dr. A. Senthilselvan, Centre for Agricultural
Susan Francis                                                  Medicine, U of S.
Ron Korchinski                                                 Mr. J. Strom, National Institute for Agricultural
                                                               Engineering, Denmark
                                                               Dr. P. Willson, VIDO
Graduate Students U of S                                       Prof. W.T. Martin, Royal University Hospital, Saskatoon,
Colleen Christensen                                            Dr. M. Sheridan, Steinbach, Manitoba
Wenyin Li

Farrowing crate at Prairie Swine Centre showing movable creep hoover

                              PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Pork production research is entering a new phase in             In addition to industry and government funding, the
Canada, with increasing emphasis on producer driven             University of Saskatchewan contracts the facilities and
and funded programs. Prairie Swine Centre Inc. wants            services of PSCI for research and teaching. This
to acknowledge the many individuals and agencies                ongoing agreement provides income for the Centre in
that supported the dynamic research and technology              return for the use of modern production and research
transfer programs this past year. This support is               facilities.
essential to the ongoing developments that will keep
Canadian pork producers at the forefront of applied

  The following organizations have provided funding or donations in kind to support public
    research at the Centre for the 1995/1996 year. Their support is greatly appreciated.

Pork Producers of Saskatchewan                                  Many corporations provide funding in support of
SPI Marketing Group                                             technology transfer programs conducted by the
Swine Improvement Services Co-op                                Centre. We wish to acknowledge their contribution
                                                                for assisting the Centre in encouraging the adoption of
Pork Producers of Alberta                                       new technologies by Canadian pork producers.
Alberta Pork Producers Development Corporation
                                                                Agricultural Credit Corporation, Swift Current, SK
Pork Producers of Manitoba                                      Alberta Swine Genetics, Leduc, AB
Manitoba Pork Est.                                              Betker Livestock Equipment Sales, Saskatoon, SK
                                                                B.C. Hog Marketing Commission, Abbotsford, BC
Government                                                      Can-Win Specialty Products, Winnipeg, MB
Alberta Agricultural Research Institute                         Coop Feeds, division of CFL, Saskatoon, SK
Agricultural Development Fund                                   Cotswold Western, Winnipeg, MB
Canada-Saskatchewan Green Plan Agreement                        DGH Engineering, Winnipeg, MB
Western Economic Diversification Program                        Elanco Animal Health, Guelph, ON
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of            Hillcrest Farms Ltd., Bruno, SK
Canada (NSERC)                                                  Merick AgVet, Mississauga, ON
Industrial Research Assistance Program (IRAP)                   National Pig (Canada) Co. Ltd., Regina, SK
                                                                Nutrena Feeds, Lethbridge, AB
                                                                Phason, Winnipeg, MB
Institutions outside Canada
                                                                Pig Improvement (Canada) Ltd., Acme, AB
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
                                                                Prairie Pride Enterprises, Winnipeg, MB
University of Maryland
                                                                Pro-Ag Products, Winnipeg, MB
                                                                Sheridan and Heuser, Steinbach, MB
Industry Donations
Feed Flavors Incorporated                                       SPI Marketing Group, Saskatoon, SK
Canola Council of Canada                                        Unipork Genetics, division of UGG, Okotoks, AB
Pig Improvement (Canada) Ltd.
Saskatchewan Canola Development Commission
ADM Bioproducts
Del Air Systems Ltd.
Canodev Research
Degussa Corporation
TDK Corporation of America
Hillcrest Farms, Ltd.
Master Feeds
Shamrock Feed Ltd.
Kenpal Farm Products, Inc.
                               PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

                   Weldon Newton
                 Chairman of the Board

This is my first report as Chairman of the Board of                   The support of producers must continue to be earned
Directors of the Prairie Swine Centre. As the first                   and can never be taken for granted. This can only be
Chairman from outside of Saskatchewan it is very                      achieved by continuing to provide sound new
gratifying to see the continued financial support from                research results to producers on relevant issues for our
producers across the prairie provinces for the research               industry. Economics and paybacks are two important
program at the Centre. It is with this substantial base               considerations in the business of swine research.
of support that new, aggressive research talent can be
attracted and maintained.                                             We must continue our efforts to keep the Centre on a
                                                                      sound financial structure to ensure the strength of the
Indeed the Centre has gained a very positive profile                  research program can be maintained into the future.
amongst producers throughout Canada for developing                    With that in mind the management will continue to
and delivering relevant information. The findings                     seek out new partners who share the philosophy of
from the last four years are particularly relevant this               progress through co-operation and are willing to
year as we search for ways to stretch our feed dollar                 contribute financially to working toward improved
further in the barn. The research community                           production technologies.
throughout other parts of the world has also
recognized the abilities of our Centre and the                        As we look toward the 21st century, the research and
technical expertise of researchers and support staff.                 technology transfer programs will continue with its
This support is critical to continued progress and                    emphasis on the reduction in production costs. This
membership in the world community of pork                             will encompass the nutrition, animal behaviour,
production. Knowledge is a critical component of                      engineering and air quality programs. Our challenge
progress.                                                             as pork producers is to use these developments with
                                                                      an enthusiasm for progressive change.
The swine industry continues to change at a rapid
pace. This challenge will continue to keep leading
edge research a key ingredient in the development of
the Prairie swine industry.

                                     PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                         environment. In turn, we have a responsibility to use
                                                                         our resources as effectively as possible to provide
                                                                         information which can be utilized by the industry.

                                                                         Research and technology transfer partners are critical
                                                                         to the success of Prairie Swine Centre Inc. For
                                                                         example, our relationship with the University of
                                                                         Saskatchewan is an important one; we are able to
                                                                         share resources and enhance each other’s teaching
                                                                         and research programs. During the past year, the
                                                                         Prairie Swine Centre has been involved in collabo-
                                                                         rative activity with 7 of the University’s 14 Colleges.

                                                                         However, our partnerships go well beyond the local
                                                                         community, with formal arrangements with
                    Dr. John Patience
                                                                         universities and federal research stations in other parts
                                                                         of Canada, the U.S., Europe and Australia. In every
This is the fourth Annual Research Report published                      case, each institution brings to the collaboration its
by Prairie Swine Centre Inc. since its restructuring in                  own strengths and capabilities. The concept of
1992. On behalf of all of the staff and students at the                  working together reminds me of the old saying
Centre, I am pleased to present this summary of                          “None of us is as smart as all of us!”
experiments completed during the past year. We hope
that the information is useful and practical, helping
the industry to address issues of economic efficiency                    Funding
and sustainability as defined in our mission statement.
                                                                         Because the Centre receives no “core” government
As in previous years, we are pleased to welcome
                                                                         funding, it is dependent on the grants received from
contributions from faculty and students at the
                                                                         various sources. The most critical to our success is
University of Saskatchewan, who report on research
                                                                         that obtained from the pork producers. While
they carried out at the Centre during the previous
                                                                         government grants represent a substantial portion of
year. This year, the Annual Report covers topics in
                                                                         our total funding, their support is often founded,
nutrition, engineering, ethology and ethology.
                                                                         directly or indirectly, on the demonstrated support of
                                                                         the pork industry.

Collaboration                                                            The Saskatchewan pork producers, in particular, had
                                                                         the vision to support the renewal of the Prairie Swine
In a world where capital is in short supply, no one                      Centre in the late 1980’s; their ongoing support has
organization can operate as an island. In the business                   allowed us to grow with support from pork producers
world, companies respond by forming strategic                            in Alberta and Manitoba and from various government
alliances. In research, we call them collaborations.                     agencies. Almost one in four research dollars earned
Whatever the name, joining forces and working in                         by the Centre now accrues from outside Canada.
concert to achieve a common goal makes sense in
every way. With the global pig industry advancing at                     New sponsors of our research and technology transfer
an incredible rate, maximizing the industry’s benefit                    efforts this year included the Alberta Agriculture
from research is essential if we are to maintain our                     Research Institute, the B.C. Hog Marketing
dominant position in the export market. As a research                    Commission, Hillcrest Farms, Masterfeeds, Shamrock
organization, we are very fortunate to be part of an                     Feeds, Kenpal Farm Products and the TDK
industry that values technology and has an almost                        Corporation from Japan.
insatiable thirst for new information to increase
profitability, improve product quality and safety and                    All of the staff at the Centre thank you for your
address such issues as animal welfare and the                            support.

                                        PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Staff changes                                                     Netherlands, was instrumental in the design and
                                                                  testing of our new balloon-type manure lagoon cover.
The past year has seen some important changes in
our staff. Dr. Yuanhui Zhang, Research Scientist -
Engineering, left the Centre to join the College of
Engineering at the University of Illinois. As one of the          Research
top engineering colleges in the U.S., this was a
tremendous opportunity for Yuanhui. Yuanhui brought               The Centre’s research program maintains its focus on
to the Centre a strong work ethic, enthusiasm and                 issues of economic efficiency and industry sustain-
humour; we wish him well in his new endeavours.                   ability. A five year plan, developed by the original
                                                                  advisory board, has been the framework within which
Dr. Stéphane Lemay, a graduate of Laval University,               we work. Industry input into our research program is
will join our staff as Research Scientist -Engineering,           an important aspect of the management of the Centre.
starting July 1, 1996. With a strong background in
ventilation technology, particularly in expert systems            Over the past year, research at the Centre has
design, Stéphane will bring new vision and ideas to               included nutrition studies aimed at reducing the cost
our research program in engineering. One of his first             of production, defining amino acid requirements more
functions will be to consult with the industry on the             precisely and in a more globally-applied manner and
direction of our research program in engineering over             in defining the true feeding value - and thus economic
the next 5-10 years.                                              value - of local feed ingredients. Studies in ethology
                                                                  looked at feeder design and management, effective
In other movements, graduate students Allan Zhao                  floor space utilization and the behaviour of gilts at the
and Xinlei Wang moved with Yuanhui to the                         time of farrowing. Engineering research continued its
University of Illinois to continue their graduate work            focus on dust control management and the impact of
there. Dr. Aki Tanaka, Post Doctoral Fellow                       such strategies on human health. The study of an
completed his term at the Centre and accepted a post              inflatable slurry storage cover was also completed.
doctoral fellowship at Iowa State University.

Technicians Darryl Wurtz, Dave Junor and Heather
Hockley also left the Centre during the past year. We
wish them all well in their new positions. Term
                                                                  One of the recommendations of the Advisory Board
employees Tonia Ballantyne (secretary) and Yvonne
                                                                  was that the Centre must be an efficient producer of
Cranna and T.J. Hanson (technicians) filled important
                                                                  pigs if it is to be a successful research organization.
rolls at the Centre, helping to cover temporary
                                                                  Brian Andries, Manager - Operations, and his staff
demands in our work load. Each summer, the Centre
                                                                  have responded to this challenge by recording
recruits university students to assist with specific
                                                                  consecutive record increases in herd output. This year
experiments or cover for our regular staff who take
                                                                  was no different, as more than 6,800 pigs were
holidays. Last summer, Ryan Sullivan and Bryce
                                                                  produced during the year. The fact that PSC used to
Coutts helped out in many areas. At this time, I
                                                                  produce less than 5,000 pigs per year during the late
would like to recognize the important roll these staff
                                                                  1980’s is testimony to the success of our production
members played in the success of the Centre over the
                                                                  staff. The rapid advancement of the pig industry in
past year.
                                                                  Canada demands that the Centre keep pace in order
                                                                  to sustain its relevance.
During the past year, we welcomed four new
employees to the Centre. Marney Korchinski and
                                                                  The affect of the TGE outbreak in late March, 1995
Scott Neis accepted positions as technicians, while
                                                                  worked its way through the Centre well into the
Dr. Mark Lorschy joined the Centre as a post doctoral
                                                                  current fiscal year. This was all carefully recorded and
fellow, working on our amino acid project. Richard
                                                                  documented in a 12 page monograph published in
Scmidt was hired as a weekend casual.
                                                                  the Spring, 1996. Copies of this report are available
                                                                  on request.
Wim Gakeer, an engineering visiting student from the

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Technology transfer                                              to a more relevant, dynamic research program. While
                                                                 there are only so many hours in a day, increased
Technology transfer is a very important component of             contact between the Centre and the industry benefits
the Centre’s overall activities. Lead by Lee                     everyone.
Whittington, Manager - Information Services, two
new events initiated in 1995 were expanded in 1996.              Strategic plan
The highly successful Satellite Conference went                  As reported last year, the Centre embarked on a
national and the charter trip to the World Pork Expo             review of its Strategic Plan. The original plan,
was expanded, from 3 days to 4 and from one plane                developed by the Advisory Board in 1989, was due
to two. The second edition of the Swine Nutrition                for review, to determine its current relevance and to
Guide was also released. It was another busy year in             identify necessary changes in the operation of the
technology transfer.                                             Centre. Following consultation with the industry, a
                                                                 revised plan has now been adopted by our Board of
The central role of technology transfer projects at the          Directors.
Centre is not a coincidence. Not only does it ensure
that research results are communicated to the farming            No major changes were identified, but the new
community, but it also fills a second, equally                   Strategic Plan places renewed or increased emphasis
important roll; Ongoing contact with the pork                    on the depth and breadth of our research program
industry provides feed-back on our existing research             and on maintaining the kind of research herd and
program and on future needs. Thus, technology                    facilities needed to achieve our research objectives.
transfer, as practiced at PSCI, is a form of two-way             Technology transfer will remain a key part of the
communication that seeks to keep information moving              Centre, but more emphasis will be placed on the
from the Centre to the industry, as well as from the             adoption of new technology as opposed to simply
industry to the Centre.                                          communicating research results. Participation in the
                                                                 development of human resources for the pig industry
                                                                 is maintained, as is our internationally active and
                                                                 contract research program. The Plan directs us to
Consulting                                                       ensure a strong and healthy financial position for the
                                                                 Centre. Last but certainly not least, the Strategic Plan
Following a study on fee-for-service consulting                  directs us to maintain a strong team approach to our
completed last year, the Centre initiated consulting             organization, to ensure that we maximize the contri-
services to the pork industry. It was done in a                  bution of all of our staff to the achievement of our
relatively simple manner with little fanfare. However,           goals and objectives in research, education and
it was clear that on occasion, pork producers,                   technology transfer.
agribusiness or government would like to access the
Centre’s expertise to address very specific issues of
direct importance to their particular situation.
Whereas our technology transfer program is                       Board of Directors
responsible for communicating the results of our
research to the industry, consulting focuses on more             The Board of Directors represents a key link between
situation-specific questions.                                    the Centre and the people and organizations we
                                                                 serve. Their role can never be under-estimated, so it
Fees earned from consulting are used by the Centre to            is only appropriate that we recognize their volunteer
enhance its research and technology transfer efforts.            contribution to the Prairie Swine Centre.
For example, the funds may be used to purchase or
lease research equipment, hire temporary staff or fund           During the past year, we welcomed three new
graduate students. Thus, consulting will hopefully               Directors. Mr. Wayne Vermette replaced Dr. Harold
benefit our research program. It helps in other ways             Fast as one of the 4 producers on our Board. Wayne
as well. Such one-on-one consulting provides our                 has been associated with the Saskatchewan pork
scientists with the opportunity to become more                   industry for more than 20 years and most recently is a
familiar with the industry, which in turn contributes            partner in Quadra Management, Outlook, SK.

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Mr. Jim Smith replaced Mr. Bill Devereux. Jim also               Mr. Weldon Newton was elected to Chair the Board
has a long and distinguished career in the Alberta and           of Directors, replacing Harold Fast who had been
Canadian pig industry, having served as Chairman of              Chair since the Board’s inception.
the Alberta Pork Producers Development Corporation
and is currently Chairman of the Canadian Pork                   Because the Directors all serve as volunteers, and are
Council. Jim farms near Innisfail, AB.                           very busy people in their own right, I would like to
                                                                 recognize their contribution to the Centre and thank
The third new Director is Mr. Cam Henry, a certified             them for their input.
seed grower from Oak River, MB. He replaces Mr.
Roy Piper of Elrose, SK. Cam is active in many farm
organizations, including the Western Grains Research
Foundation. As such, he brings to our Board a strong
background in the grains industry and its research

                     Market hogs in one of the ‘engineering’ rooms at Prairie Swine Centre

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                       Personal contact is still the preferred method of
                                                                       technology transfer in the industry. This is
                                                                       accomplished through daily phone contact between
                                                                       myself or the research scientist and pork producers.
                                                                       This year electronic mail via the Internet has become
                                                                       a more important method of communication within
                                                                       the industry. The Centre launched its first home page
                                                                       on the world wide web in January 1996. This has
                                                                       spawned a number of inquiries from within Canada
                                                                       and beyond. We receive about one e-mail a day as a
                                                                       direct result of the home page. Come and visit us at

                                                                       In February 1996 the second annual Satellite
                                                                       Conference went national. With over forty
                      Lee Whittington                                  conveniently located sights across Canada the
                 Manager-Information Services
                                                                       conference became the largest one day swine
                                                                       conference in Canada with over 800 participants.
The past year has seen an expansion of technology                      The conference has become our flagship event,
transfer activities across western Canada and beyond.                  introducing the newest research available to
This year marks the third year of publication of the                   commercial pork producers. The satellite conference
quarterly newsletter Centred on Swine. This 6 page                     has also become an effective forum for discussing
newsletter goes out free to pork producers in western                  issues relevant to the industry that are shared in all
Canada as an on-going reminder of how research can                     areas of the country. This year three farm
be applied on the farm. Many supplier businesses                       manager/owners shared their views on personnel
and extension personnel also get the newsletter to use                 management. Following the presentations the phone
as part of their efforts to improve the profitability and              lines were opened and participant views were added
sustainability of commercial pork producers. The                       to the mix.
newsletter is also available on a subscription basis
and is read by producers and the industry across                       The coming year will see all of these activities
Canada and in many other parts of the world. Since                     continued. The continual evolution of the industry is
the newsletter’s inception it has grown to a                           being addressed with an increased emphasis on the
circulation of nearly 5000.                                            application and not just the transfer of technology.
                                                                       By working closely with the various agencies and
This fourth Annual Research Report focuses on the                      corporations in the industry the Centre attempts to
details of various research programs carried out at the                have new technologies adopted by the largest possible
Centre during the past year. The easy reading style                    number of producers. Through the development of
combined with the author’s ideas for present and                       written materials and the sponsorship of special
future applications provides producers with an insight                 events such as the World Pork Expo Tour, the Centre
on how to transfer this new technology to their farm.                  hopes to increase the speed of adoption of new
                                                                       technologies that improve the profitability and
                                                                       sustainability of the industry.

                                      PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
      Thanks to the Following Cooperators and Volunteers

               British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
                              British Columbia Hog Commission
                     Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development
                                      University of Alberta
                      Alberta Pork Producers Development Corporation
                     Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture and Food
                                   Pork Implementation Team
                             SPI Marketing Group (Saskatchewan
                                       Manitoba Pork Est.
                            Manitoba Department of Agriculture
                          Ontario Pork Producers Marketing Board
                  Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
                                   Universite Laval, Quebec
                    Centre de Developpement du Porc du Quebec Inc.
                               P.E.I. Department of Agriculture
                          P.E.I. Hog Commodity Marketing Board
                           Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture
               Newfoundland Department of Fisheries, Food and Agriculture

We would also like to thank all the individuals and businesses that helped to organize a local site.

                          PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                    updated weekly, so that at a glance, we are able to
                                                                    look at any farrowing group (sows to farrow in a
                                                                    weekly period and their progeny), and know exactly
                                                                    to whom, and what project animals should be
                                                                    assigned. Room schedules are handled similarly. Each
                                                                    room is assigned to a particular researcher and
                                                                    experiment for a period of time according to the type
                                                                    of trial (sows, nursery, growing - finishing).

                                                                    Daily time summaries are used to determine the exact
                                                                    amount of time staff spend on any particular research
                                                                    project or on a production activity. With this
                                                                    information, we can more properly estimate the length
                                                                    of time it will take to complete any activity for a
                                                                    particular type of research project. Thus, this helps in
                      Brian Andries                                 estimating costs of future experiments.
                    Operation Manager

Production is an important part of my responsibility as             As technical support staff and production personnel
Manager -Operations at the Prairie Swine Centre. The                assist each other on certain projects, time summaries
Centre’s production, however, is viewed by myself                   also assist the Researcher in determining how much
and all staff as a means to an end. It is there to                  labor each one of the projects is taking to complete.
ensure that an abundance of quality animals are on
hand at all times for research purposes.                            Regarding animal production, in the new fiscal year,
                                                                    we will focus on improving certain production
To gain the respect of the industry, however, we have               parameters such as conception and farrowing rates.
to strive for productivity that is comparable to the top            Production staff will be trained, with the help of staff
herds in Western Canada. Good production assists in                 at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, to
demonstrating that ongoing research carried out at the              evaluate boar semen. Every six months, we will be
Centre is relevant to our industry.                                 looking at concentration rates, motility, and
                                                                    morphology, on semen samples taken from all boars
The scheduling of animals and rooms in preparing                    at the Centre. As we dual mate, it is hard to evaluate
start up procedures for Internal, External, and Contract            boar performance from observed matings, so this will
Research is an important part of my daily activities.               assist in boar evaluations.
This maximizes the utilization of animals and physical
facilities and the amount of quality research that can              Finally, the table below summarizes the production
be carried out at the Centre. Animal schedules are                  averages for this fiscal year and the previous:

                                                                     95/96                         94/95

  Number of sows farrowed                                             712                          634
  Farrowing rate %                                                    89.7                         86.7
  Average pigs born alive/litter                                      11.0                         11.1
  Number of litters weaned                                             702                          648
  Total pigs weaned                                                   7060                         6310
  Pigs weaned/female inventory                                         24                          22.9

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
The five year research program of Prairie Swine                   Objective 3:
Centre Inc. has five main objectives, and broadly
covers the areas of nutrition, engineering and                    To develop animal care guidelines through
behaviour. In detail the objectives are as follows:               consideration of animal behaviour. The evolving
                                                                  science of animal behaviour will be used to determine
                                                                  how the physical and social environment affects the
Objective 1:                                                      productivity and well-being of the pig. The underlying
                                                                  objective is to define management procedures that are
To define optimum feeding and management                          good for both pigs and people.
procedures to reduce the cost of feeding out
grower-finisher pigs (20 kg to market) by at least
$2.00 per head. Feed is the single largest expense in             Objective 4:
commercial pork production; there is tremendous
opportunity to significantly reduce the cost of                   To improve the air quality of hog barns for both
production by defining cost-effective feeding strategies          pigs and people. Air quality within swine building
that focus on the biology of the pig. Optimum                     airspaces is important in establishing the productivity,
nutrition at the least cost occurs when we are neither            health and well-being of animals and the health and
overformulating nor underformulating diets. Projects              well-being of operators. The contaminant concen-
in this area include investigation into phase feeding,            tration within the barn will be measured, the rates of
split sex feeding and defining requirements based on              generation and spatial distribution of contaminants
lean tissue growth rates (genetics).                              will be modeled, and control strategies to improve the
                                                                  air quality will be developed.
The underlying objective here is the development of
feeding programs that focus on maximizing net profit
as opposed to maximizing average daily gain or                    Objective 5:
achieving the best index.
                                                                  To reduce the costs of production by optimizing the
                                                                  physical environment in commercial barns.
Objective 2:                                                      Currently, pork producers spend large amounts of
                                                                  money to build and operate facilities in order to
To increase the value and use of opportunity feeds                achieve a certain interior barn environment.
in swine diets. In order to increase the use of locally           Optimizing this physical environment will avoid the
grown commodities as ingredients in practical swine               cost of over-building while at the same time
diets, the feeding value or the levels of available               identifying weaknesses in our current designs. These
nutrients in these opportunity ingredients will be                studies will help to bring together the true needs of
determined in digestibility studies. The maximum                  the pig (e.g. temperature, humidity, space, etc.) and
inclusion rate of opportunity ingredients in swine                the construction and operating specifications of the
diets will also be determined using feed intake and               barn.
animal performance studies. Again, the objective is to
maximize net income. The central question will be
“how can these ingredients be used effectively to
reduce the overall cost of production?” rather than
“how much can be added to the diet without affecting

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Dr. A. (Aki) Tanaka                     Dr. P. J. (Phil) Willson                   Dr. A.G. (Andrew) Van Kessel
Prairie Swine Centre Inc.               Veterinary Infectious Disease              Animal Biotechnology Centre
P.O. Box 21057                          Organization (VIDO)                        Dept. of Animal and Poultry
2105 - 8th Street east,                 Saskatoon, SK                              Science
Saskatoon, SK.                                                                     University of Saskatchewan
S7H 5N9                                 Dr. E.M. (Ernie) Barber                    Saskatoon, SK
                                        Dept. of Agricultural and                  S7N 0W0
Dr. G.I. (Ian) Christison               Bioresource Engineering
Dept. of Animal and Poultry             University of Saskatchewan                 Dr. Alberto Estrada
Science                                 Saskatoon, SK                              Animal Biotechnology Centre
University of Saskatchewan              S7N 0W0                                    Dept. of Animal and Poultry
Saskatoon, SK                                                                      Science
S7N 0W0                                 Mr. S.L. (Shawn) Fairbairn                 University of Saskatchewan
                                        Prairie Swine Centre Inc.                  Saskatoon, SK
Dr. Y. (Yuanhui) Zhang                  P.O. Box 21057                             S7N 0W0
Prairie Swine Centre Inc.               2105 - 8th Street east,
P.O. Box 21057                          Saskatoon, SK.                             Dr. Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan
2105 - 8th Street east,                 S7H 5N9                                    Centre for Agricultural Medicine
Saskatoon, SK.                                                                     University of Saskatchewan
S7H 5N9                                 Dr. Zhensheng Lou                          Saskatoon, SK
                                        Prairie Swine Centre Inc.                  S7N 0W0
Dr. H.W. (Harold) Gonyou                P.O. Box 21057
Prairie Swine Centre Inc.               2105 - 8th Street east,                    Dr. J.A. (James) Dosman
P.O. Box 21057                          Saskatoon, SK.                             Centre for Agricultural Medicine
2105 - 8th Street east,                 S7H 5N9                                    University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK.                                                                     Saskatoon, SK
S7H 5N9                                 Ms. M.J. (Moira) Harris                    S7N 0W0
                                        Prairie Swine Centre Inc.
Dr. J.F. (John) Patience                P.O. Box 21057                             Ms. S.P. (Shelley) Kirychuk
Prairie Swine Centre Inc.               2105 - 8th Street east,                    Centre for Agricultural Medicine
P.O. Box 21057                          Saskatoon, SK.                             University of Saskatchewan
2105 - 8th Street east,                 S7H 5N9                                    Saskatoon, SK
Saskatoon, SK.                                                                     S7N 0W0
S7H 5N9                                 Dr. M.L. (Mark) Lorschy
                                        Prairie Swine Centre Inc.                  Mr. L.E. (Leslie) Holfeld
Mr. D.A. (Doug) Gillis                  P.O. Box 21057                             Centre for Agricultural Medicine
Prairie Swine Centre Inc.               2105 - 8th Street east,                    University of Saskatchewan
P.O. Box 21057                          Saskatoon, SK.                             Saskatoon, SK
2105 - 8th Street east,                 S7H 5N9                                    S7N 0W0
Saskatoon, SK.
S7H 5N9                                 Ms. N.E (Nicole) Lesperance                Dr. T.S. (Tom) Hurst
                                        Dept. of Animal and Poultry                Respiratory Medicine
Mr. W. (Wim) Gakeer                     Science                                    Royal University Hospital
Prairie Swine Centre Inc.               University of Saskatchewan                 103 Hospital Drive
P.O. Box 21057                          Saskatoon, SK                              Saskatoon, SK
2105 - 8th Street east,                 S7N 0W0                                    S7N 0W8
Saskatoon, SK.
S7H 5N9                                                                            Dr. C.S. (Chuck) Rhodes
                                                                                   Western College of Veterinary
                                                                                   University of Saskatchewan
                                                                                   Saskatoon, SK
                                                                                   S7N 0W0
                              PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Variability among animals in an experiment leads to                 together) or negative (as one trait gets larger the other
problems in interpreting the results. Animals on                    gets smaller). A perfect correlation is one (+1 or -1).
treatment X may have higher average daily gains than                If there is no correlation the relationship is zero.
those on treatment Y, but variability within treatments
may indicate that the differences in production                     In other papers you may see an average given as
between X and Y were not the result of the treatment                2.5+- .1. The 2.5 is the average; .1 is the “standard
alone. Statistical analysis allows us to calculate the              error”. The standard error is calculated to be 68%
probability that such differences are from treatment                certain that the real average (with unlimited number
rather than chance.                                                 of animals) would fall within one standard error from
                                                                    the average, in this case between 2.4 and 2.6.
In some of the articles herein, you will see the
notation “P,.05.” That means the probability of the                 Many animals per treatment, replicating treatments
differences resulting from chance is less than “1                   several times, and using uniform animals increase the
chance in 20” or 5%. If two averages are said to be                 probability of finding real differences when they exist.
“significantly different”, the probability is less than “1          Statistical analysis allows more valid interpretation of
chance in 20” (5%) that the difference is from                      the results, regardless of the number of animals. In all
chance, or the probability exceeds 95% that the                     the research reported herein, statistical analyses are
difference resulted from the treatments applied.                    included to increase the confidence you can place in
                                                                    the results.
Some papers contain correlations or measures of the
relationship between traits. The relationship may be
                                                                    Reprinted with permission from Kansas State University Annual Research Report
positive (both traits tend to get larger or smaller

Technician Colin Petersen weighs feed into feeder in one of the ‘engineering’ rooms

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

A FACTORIAL APPROACH TO PREDICTING                                 how nutrients are used by the pig, breaking it down
ENERGY AND LYSINE REQUIREMENTS BASED ON                            into individual components.
                                                                   For example, we know that energy is used by the
                                                                   growing pig to maintain basic body functions
Mark L. Lorschy and John F. Patience.                              (maintenance) as well as support growth. By summing
                                                                   the energy required for maintenance with that
                                                                   required for growth, one can estimate to total quantity
                                                                   of energy required by the pig.
                                                                   The factorial approach has been around for many
                                                                   years and is gaining greater acceptance for a number
By partitioning the pig’s requirements for energy and              of reasons. For example, the empirical approach may
amino acids into meaningful components, for                        only provide information useful under conditions used
example, into those associated with the digestion of               in the experiments. If conditions on the farm differ
food and the deposition of carcass protein, it is                  from the experimental conditions, the results may not
possible to make accurate predictions about whole                  hold. If sufficient information is available, the factorial
body energy and amino acid requirements.                           approach generates information that can be adapted
                                                                   to a wide range of conditions, including different
This simple approach enables quick calculations of                 genetics. Also, the factorial approach is comple-
requirements on a computer spreadsheet which will                  mentary to growth simulation models, which will
reduce over-formulation, thus reducing feed costs and              become more common in the future. Thus the
reducing nitrogen wastage.                                         factorial approach is more adaptable, but will only be
                                                                   as accurate as the data used to generate the final
To employ this useful technique on individual farms,               requirements.
it is necessary to gain information about the potential
carcass protein deposition rates and the degree to                 In this paper, we will give an example of how lysine
which a minimal amount of fat is inevitably deposited              and energy requirements can be estimated for growing
in the carcass. Current research both at the PSCI and              and finishing pigs. Five weight categories (24 to 56
at other research stations is addressing these issues for          kg, 56 to 72 kg, 72 to 88 kg, 88 to 104 kg and 104 to
genotypes used in Canada.                                          120 kg) will be included, to provide examples of how
                                                                   phase feeding programs are developed. These factorial
In this paper, an example is given which details the               estimates of the energy and lysine requirements of
calculations involved in estimating requirements for               growing and finishing pigs are derived through a
lysine and energy for barrows and for gilts grown                  knowledge of protein and lipid deposition rates.
from 24 to 120 kg liveweight. In this example, it is
shown that differences in protein deposition between
barrows and gilts change the requirements for lysine               Lysine Requirements
and energy. For a given feed intake, it is important to
adjust the concentration of lysine and energy to meet              Dietary lysine is used for both maintenance and for
the requirements for this growth.                                  growth. Maintenance refers to the lysine used for
                                                                   normal daily protein turnover plus inevitable losses
                                                                   from the intestinal tract due to normal digestive
INTRODUCTION                                                       processes. The lysine required for maintenance is
                                                                   generally expressed on the basis of the body weight of
There are two methods used to defining nutrient                    the pig.
requirements. The traditional method, often called the
“empirical” method, involves the use of many                       The lysine required for growth will be dependent on
experiments to identify the level of nutrient which                the rate of protein deposition, and is based on the
maximizes performance. The “factorial” approach, on                portion of body protein deposited which is lysine,
the other hand, employs a deeper understanding of                  adjusted for the efficiency with which lysine is used

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
for this purpose. Accordingly, the digestible lysine                Parameters:
(Lysi) requirements can be expressed using the                      MEi    - The level of metabolizable energy (ME)
following                                                                  required per day, expressed in kilocalories
function:                                                                  (kcal/d)
                                                                    MEm - The maintenance energy requirement,
                                                                           calculated as 109 kcal ME/kg LW0.75 and
                                                                           expressed in kilocalories per day (kcal /d)
                                                                    kp     -         The efficiency with which energy is
                                                                           used to deposit body protein. Estimated to be
                                                                           54% (0.54)
Parameters:                                                         kf     - The efficiency with which energy is used to
                                                                           deposit body fat. Estimated to be 74% (0.74)
Lys   m
          - The quantity of lysine used for daily                   GEPD -The gross energy contained in body protein,
          maintenance, calculated as 0.036 g/kg LW0.75                     estimated to be 5.67 kcal/g
PD        - The rate of protein deposition, expressed in            GELD -The gross energy contained in body lipid,
           grams per day (g/d)                                             estimated to be 9.46 kcal/g
Lysp      - The lysine content of body protein,
           calculated as 6.6% (0.066 g/g)
e         - The efficiency with which lysine is used to
          produce body protein, estimated to be 58%                 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
                                                                    Predicted Requirements for Lysine and Energy in a
Notice that body weight is expressed as a fraction of
                                                                    Case Study
metabolic body weight (LW0.75) rather than simple
body weight (LW). This is quite common in such
                                                                    The energy and lysine requirements were calculated
calculations, because many studies have shown that it
                                                                    according to the above equations for each of the five
provides a better estimate of metabolic function of the
                                                                    different weight classes (Table 1). The lysine
                                                                    requirement closely resembled the rate of protein
                                                                    deposition, reflecting the fact that most of the amino
                                                                    acids in the diet are used for growth as opposed to
                                                                    maintenance. It therefore is no surprise that the
Energy requirements                                                 differences in lysine requirement between genders
                                                                    was predominately due to differences in protein
Energy is used for maintenance needs, such as activity              deposition rate. As the animals became heavier, the
and respiration, and to drive the many metabolic                    maintenance requirement became larger.
functions that keep the pig alive. Maintenance energy
requirements are typically calculated as being 109                  The barrows had higher energy requirement due to
kilocalories divided by the metabolic bodyweight (i.e.              their higher rates of protein and lipid deposition.
liveweight to the power 0.75).
                                                                    For pigs below 50 to 60 kg live weight, the
Production energy needs are based on the quantities                 Lysine:Energy ratio is often used as a basis for diet
of protein and lipid deposited and the respective                   formulation, because energy intake is limiting the rate
efficiencies with which energy is used for each.                    of protein deposition. This ratio was estimated to be
Accordingly, the metabolizable energy (ME)                          2.60 and 2.87 g/kcal for barrows and gilts, at 24 kg
requirements of the growing pig can be expressed                    liveweight, respectively.
using the following function:
                                                                    Above 50 to 60 kg, it is generally understood that the
                                                                    pig can adjust feed intake enough to meet its energy
                                                                    requirements. The digestible lysine requirement
                                                                    changed from 15.9 to 11.2 g/d for barrows and 15.7

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
to 12.4 g/d for gilts, when grown from 56 to 120 kg                   IMPLICATIONS
liveweight. At the liveweight range where the pigs
deposited their highest levels of protein (56 to 72 kg),              Lysine and energy requirements may, and indeed,
the digestible lysine requirement was estimated to be                 should be estimated based on protein deposition
15.9 g/d for barrows and 15.7 g/d for gilts.                          rates. While such information is not yet readily
                                                                      available, the trends in the pig industry suggest that it
These estimated lysine requirements were compared                     will become more common in the future. As progress
to those determined following a detailed literature                   in this area is achieved, diet formulation will become
review by Dr. Brian Kerr (Biokyowa). As illustrated in                more precise and net income maximized.
Figure 1, both approaches revealed very similar

Variation in feed intake has a profound impact on the                 Acknowledgments
percentage of digestible lysine required in the diet in
order to meet the pig’s daily requirement (Table 2).                  This authors wish to acknowledge that funding for this
For example, for barrows at 56 kg liveweight, when                    project was provided by the Archer Daniels Midland
feed intake varies from 80 to 110% of that predicted                  Company who also kindly provided crystalline amino
by the NRC (1988), lysine (%) changes from 0.79 to                    acids and amino acid analysis for this project.
0.57%! The difference in the cost of these two diets is
enormous, in the range of 10% or $20 per tonne at
current feed prices. A difference of $20 per tonne is
equivalent to about $5 per pig sold. It is therefore
emphasized that an actuate estimate of feed intake is
needed to ascertain the inclusion level of lysine (and
other amino acids) in the diet.

Table 1. Factorial approach to estimating daily digestible lysine (g/d) and energy requirements (Mcal ME/d) to
meet the observed liveweight (kg), protein (g/d) and lipid (g/d) deposition for barrows and gilts grown between
24 and 120 kg liveweight (kg).
 Liveweight           Lysine for    Protein       Lysine for         Total    Maintenance       Lipid      Energy    Ratio of
                     maintenance   deposition      protein          lysine    energy need     deposition   needs    lysine and
                                      rate        deposition         need                        rate                 energy

             24-56      0.57          138           15.70           16.28        1.74            225        6.27       2.60
             56-72      0.81          140           15.93           16.75        2.48            341        8.61       1.95
             72-88      0.96          128           14.57           15.53        2.93            398        9.71       1.60
            88-104      1.10          115           13.09           14.19        3.36            405       10.11       1.40
           104-120      1.24           98           11.15           12.39        3.77            382       10.06       1.23
             24-56      0.57          128           14.57           15.14        1.74            158        5.27       2.87
             56-72      0.81          138           15.70           16.52        2.48            262        7.53       2.19
             72-88      0.96          133           15.13           16.10        2.93            317        8.68       1.85
            88-104      1.10          119           13.54           14.65        3.36            368        9.66       1.52
           104-120      1.24          109           12.40           13.64        3.77            411       10.56       1.29

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.           1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Table 2. Percentage of digestible lysine required in the diet to meet the requirements for protein deposition and
maintenance as observed for pigs grown between 24 and 120 kg liveweight (kg) when feed intake is between
80 and 110% of that predicted by National Research Council (1998)

 Liveweight (kg)                       Feed intake (% NRC, 1988)
                                      80               90                           100         110

                     24-56           1.05                   .93                     .84         .76
                     56-72            .79                   .70                     .63         .57
                     72-88            .65                   .58                     .52         .48
                    88-104            .55                   .49                     .44         .40
                   104-120            .46                   .41                     .37         .39
                     24-56            .97                   .87                     .78         .71
                     56-72            .78                   .69                     .62         .56
                     72-88            .68                   .60                     .54         .49
                    88-104            .57                   .51                     .46         .42
                   104-120            .50                   .45                     .40         .37

Energy content of diet fed is 3421 kcal DE/kg.

Figure 4 Comparison of information for a literature survey (B.J. Kerr, 1992, Optimizing lean tissue deposition in
swine. Biokyowa Technical Reviews - 6) and estimated relationships between digestible lysine requirements (g/d)
and whole body protein deposition. Relationship for barrows (l) and gilts (m) for the case study in this paper are

Regression line given by:
Protein deposition = 7.905 (s.d. 2.547) x lysine needs above maintenance + 10.499 (s.d. 16.331)

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
IMPACT OF PRE-SLAUGHTER WITHDRAWAL OF                             Situation-dependent feed formulation, wherein feeding
VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS ON PIG PERFORMANCE                            programs are designed to achieve success under
AND MEAT QUALITY                                                  specific environmental, genetic, health and economic
                                                                  conditions, represents one approach to maximizing
John F. Patience and Doug Gillis                                  net income. In this scenario, nutrients are supplied to
                                                                  the pig in quantities that, as much as possible, meet,
SUMMARY                                                           but do not exceed, its requirements. Adding
                                                                  additional quantities as a “safety margin” represents
Research reported in last year’s Annual Report                    an additional cost that may not be necessary, at least
indicated that withdrawal of vitamin and trace                    not in the size and scale that has often been practiced
mineral supplements 35 days before marketing had                  in the past.
no impact on animal performance or carcass merit.
The present experiment was conducted to further                   The pig’s requirement for vitamin and trace mineral
investigate the opportunity of increasing net income              supplementation has received less attention in recent
through revised diet supplementation strategies.                  years, following a flurry of activity in the four decades
                                                                  following the second World War. It is now time to
Three pens of barrows and three of gilts were                     reconsider supplementation strategies, in light of a
assigned to one of three treatments: a control diet               rapidly changing pig industry and a more sophis-
with “normal” levels of vitamin supplements, the                  ticated approach to diet formulation. The current
same diet with vitamin supplements removed or the                 experiment had three objectives: 1) to further
same diet with vitamin supplements tripled. Pigs                  investigate the impact on pig performance and
received these diets for 35 days prior to marketing,              production economics of the removal of supplemental
during which time, performance was monitored, and                 vitamins and trace minerals during the late growout
after which, carcass merit was recorded and muscle                period, 2) to determine the impact of withdrawing
vitamin levels determined.                                        supplemental vitamins during the late growout period
                                                                  on carcass and meat quality, and 3) to determine if
Withdrawing vitamins had no impact on animal                      increased vitamin supplementation will result in
performance or carcass merit. However, muscle                     improved performance or pork quality.
thiamine content was reduced and intramuscular lipid
content was increased. Tripling vitamin supplemen-
                                                                  EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
tation had no impact on performance or carcass
merit, but increased muscle riboflavin content.
                                                                  The three dietary treatments are summarized in
                                                                  Table 1. The estimated vitamin supplementation
The withdrawal of vitamins and trace minerals
                                                                  levels are summarized in Table 2. The control
appears to be a viable commercial practice, at least
                                                                  treatment provided a basic level of vitamin and trace
in some circumstances. Savings in the range of $0.80
                                                                  mineral supplementation. In Treatment 2, all vitamin
to $1.80 per pig may be achieved, depending on the
                                                                  supplements were removed for the final 35 days
current cost of supplementation. However, caution is
                                                                  before marketing; trace mineral supplementation was
advised when replacement breeding stock are
                                                                  maintained as per the control treatment. In Treatment
involved. Withdrawal of vitamins and trace minerals
                                                                  3, vitamin supplementation levels were tripled,
under these conditions was not addressed in the
                                                                  relative to the control treatment for the final 35 days
present study.
                                                                  prior to marketing; trace mineral supplementation was
                                                                  maintained as per the control treatment.

INTRODUCTION                                                      There were three pens of five barrows and three pens
                                                                  of five gilts on each diet, for a total of 30 pigs per
Financial success in pork production requires                     treatment.
attention to all aspects of the production budget, with
feed being by far the largest single component.                   All pigs were housed in a confinement-type barn with
                                                                  fully-slatted concrete floors and PVC planking pen

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
dividers. Pigs were maintained in groups of five in                Based on these results, as well as those reported
pens providing 0.8 m2 floor space per pig. The pigs                previously, the removal of supplemental vitamins and
had ad libitum access to feed from a single-space dry              trace minerals has no impact on performance or on
feeder; water was continuously available via a nipple              the standard indices of carcass merit.
drinker. Individual body weights and pen feed intake
were recorded weekly for the full 35-day test period,              The impact of vitamin supplementation on such
at which time all pigs were marketed. Federal grading              quality traits as drip loss and shelf life was not
carcass measurements were recorded by sex and by                   evaluated. While there is considerable interest in
treatment for all pigs marketed.                                   extending shelf life of pork through vitamin E supple-
                                                                   mentation, the levels generally employed to achieve
A subsample of 15 pigs (five per treatment) were                   success are much higher than those used in the
processed at a smaller abattoir to facilitate collection           commercial pig industry. We would consider the use
of longissimus dorsi muscle samples, which were                    of vitamin E supplements to achieve increased shelf
subsequently assayed for moisture, fat, pantothenic                life to be a separate and specific topic which should
acid, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin content.                     be addressed on its own merit.

                                                                   With respect to the implementation of this strategy
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                             into commercial practice, there is one note of
                                                                   caution. If animals are being kept for breeding
The removal of vitamin supplements from the diet of                purposes, the removal of vitamins and trace minerals
market hogs for the last five weeks before marketing               is not recommended presently.
had no adverse effect on performance (Table 3) or on
carcass merit (Table 4). Tripling the levels of vitamin
supplements had no effect on animal performance or
on carcass merit. As expected, gilts grew at the same              IMPLICATIONS
rate as barrows, but had a lower feed intake and
better feed conversion (Table 5). Compared with                    The exact savings achieved by implementing the
barrows, gilts also had less fat and a higher percent              results of this experiment, will, of course, depend on
lean yield (Table 6).                                              the current level and cost of supplementation. We
                                                                   estimate that vitamin and trace mineral supplemen-
Altering vitamin supplementation rates did affect                  tation typically costs $8 to $15 per tonne of finished
selected muscle vitamin levels (Table 7). The removal              feed; therefore, assuming pigs consume 100 to 120 kg
of supplemental vitamins lowered L. dorsi muscle                   of feed during the final five weeks before marketing,
thiamine content (P < 0.05); conversely, increasing                savings in the order of $0.80 to $1.80 can be
vitamin supplementation rates did not elevate muscle               expected.
thiamine (P > 0.05), but did cause muscle riboflavin
to rise. Lowering vitamin supplementation rates
resulted in an increase in intramuscular lipid
(P < 0.05); elevating vitamin levels, however,
did not reduce muscle lipid content.

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
    Table 1. Experimental diets
                                                                  No vitamin                3 x vitamin
                                          Control               supplementation           supplementation
     Ingredients, % as fed
       Wheat                              38.00                      38.00                        38.00
       Barley                             45.70                      46.00                        45.10
       Soybean meal - 47%                  8.00                       8.00                         8.00
       Canola meal                         5.00                      5.00                         5.00
       Limestone                           1.00                       1.00                         1.00
       Dicalcium phosphate                 0.70                       0.70                         0.70
       Salt                               0.40                       0.40                         0.40
       Lysine HCl                          0.08                       0.08                         0.08
       Vitamin premix                      0.30                         -                         0.90
       Mineral premix1                    0.30                       0.30                         0.30
       Pellet binding agent                0.02                       0.02                         0.02
       Oil                                0.50                       0.50                         0.50

     Nutrients, estimated
      D.E., kcal/kg                        3210                      3210                         3210
      Lysine - total, %                    0.76                      0.76                         0.76
      Lysine - digestible, %               0.59                      0.59                         0.59
      Threonine - digestible, %            0.38                      0.38                         0.38
      Tryptophan - digestible, %           0.15                      0.15                         0.15
      TSAA - digestible, %                 0.50                      0.50                         0.50
      Calcium, %                           0.60                      0.60                         0.60
      Phosphorus - total, %                0.52                      0.52                         0.52
      Phosphorus - available, %            0.27                      0.27                         0.27
      Sodium, %                            0.18                      0.18                         0.18
      Chloride, %                          0.32                      0.32                         0.32

    Provided per kg of diet: copper, 30 mg; iron, 48 mg; manganese, 15 mg; zinc, 60 mg; iodine, 0.3 mg; selenium,
     60 µg.

Table 2. Estimated vitamin supplementation levels employed

                                                                  No vitamin               3 x vitamin
                                          Control               supplementation      supplementation Control

      Vitamin A, IU/kg                     4950                        0                          14,850
      Vitamin D3, IU/kg                     495                        0                           1,485
      Vitamin E, IU/kg                      24                         0                            72
      Menadione, mg/kg                      2.4                        0                            7.2
      Thiamine, mg/kg                       0.6                        0                            1.8
      Riboflavin, mg/kg                      3                         0                             9
      Niacin, mg/kg                         21                         0                            63
      Panthothenic acid, mg/kg               9                         0                            27
      Vitamin B12, µg /kg                   15                         0                            45
      Biotin, µg /k g                       120                        0                            360
      Folic acid, mg/kg                     1.2                        0                            3.6

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Table 3. Impact of vitamin supplementation level on pig performance

                                                     TREATMENT                                      SEM           P value
                                  Control            No vitamin             3 x vitamin
                                                   supplementation        supplementation

      Initial weight, kg           79.9                   80.1                  79.4
      Days on test                  35                     35                    35
      Ave. daily gain, kg         0.897                  0.915                  0.880           0.023               0.96
      Ave. daily feed, kg         3.220                  3.203                  3.157           0.053               0.71
      Feed conversion             0.282                  0.303                  0.275           0.008               0.09

Table 4. Impact of vitamin supplementation level on carcass merit

                                                     TREATMENT                                      SEM           P value
                                  Control            No vitamin             3 x vitamin
                                                   supplementation        supplementation

      Dressed wt., kg              90.8                   89.1                   88.0               1.6             0.48
      Estimated yield, %           58.8                   60.0                   59.2               0.5             0.18
      Fat thickness, mm            23.4                   21.0                   21.9               1.1             0.30
      Loin thickness, mm           59.4                   62.2                   58.9               1.2             0.13

Table 5. Impact of gender on pig performance
                                      Barrows                     Gilts                 SEM               P value

      Ave. daily gain, kg              0.899                      0.895                 0.023              0.89
      Ave. daily feed, kg              3.356                      3.030                 0.043              0.01
      Feed conversion                  0.283                      0.330                 0.009              0.02

Table 6. Impact of gender on carcass merit
                                      Barrows                     Gilts                 SEM               P value

      Dressed wt., kg                     89.5                    89.1                   1.4               0.82
      Estimated yield,%                   58.6                    60.1                   0.4              0.008
      Fat thickness, mm                   24.2                    20.0                   0.9              0.002
      Loin thickness, mm                  59.2                    61.0                   1.0               0.19

Table 7. Effect of vitamin supplementation on the levels of selected vitamins

                                                     TREATMENT                                  SEM               P value
                                 Control             No vitamin             3 x vitamin
                                                   supplementation        supplementation
      Water, %                    73.49                 73.34                  73.76            0.32                0.66
      Lipid, %1                   2.03a                 3.27b                  2.47ab           0.34                0.04
      Fresh weight
      basis, mg/100g
      Thiamine1                    1.90a                  1.52b                 2.05a           0.10                0.01
      - Riboflavin1                0.14a                  0.13a                 0.16b           0.01                0.02
      - Niacin                     9.57                   8.52                  10.16           0.67                0.27
      - Pantothenic acid           0.86                   0.80                  0.89            0.06                0.59
    Means within a row with different superscripts differ, P < 0.05.

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.          1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
IMPROVING THE CHARACTERIZATION OF                                 varieties are hulled and found throughout the Prairies
ENERGY VARIABILITY IN WESTERN CANADIAN                            except Bedford. This six-row variety is only grown in
BARLEY                                                            Manitoba, but is still used extensively in swine
                                                                  feeding and was therefore included in this project.
Shawn L. Fairbairn and John F. Patience
                                                                  A total of 60 barrows were selected at an average live
                                                                  weight of 35 kg for use in the digestibility trial. The
SUMMARY                                                           pigs were housed in metabolism crates to allow for
                                                                  sample collection. All twenty varieties were fed five
Barley is the main cereal grain used by the pork                  times to different pigs to provide a total of 5
industry in western Canada and thus is a primary                  observations per treatment. Feed intake was
source of energy in the pig’s diet. However, the level            maintained at a constant level for all pigs to achieve
of digestible energy (DE) in barley can vary by as                an energy intake equal to 2.5 x maintenance. Feed,
much as 8 - 12%, due to genetic, nutritional and                  faecal, and urine samples were collected over five
environmental factors. This degree of variation                   day periods.
complicates feed formulation, particularly when one
considers that most commercial diets are formulated,              Feed, faecal and urine samples were collected in
theoretically, to within 50 kcal DE, or about 1.5%!               order to determine gross, digestible, and metabo-
A better understanding of this variability will improve           lizable energy contained in each barley sample. Feed
the accuracy of feed formulation.                                 and faecal samples will also be used to determine the
                                                                  digestibility of certain nutrients contained in the
                                                                  barley grain, such as protein, lipids, starch, sugars
A digestibility study is underway to determine the                and several different types of fibre.
levels of DE provided by 20 different barley samples;
five varieties were chosen for this project. We                   Statistical analysis will be required to derive
conducted an industry survey to determine which                   prediction equations which will relate energy content
varieties should be represented. Differences in feed              to other more easily measured quality characteristics.
vs. malt, two- vs. six-row and importance in the                  These prediction equations can then be utilized by the
swine industry across the Prairies were all considered.           pig industry to achieve value-based pricing systems for
Four samples of each variety were obtained from                   the trading of feed barley.
Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba in an effort to
obtain a cross-section of the selected cultivars.                 IMPLICATIONS
Factors which influence nutritional quality, such as
soil zone, climate and test weight were also used as
                                                                  An improved understanding of, and ability to
criteria to select individual barley samples.
                                                                  estimate, the energy variability in barley will make it
                                                                  possible to more precisely formulate pig diets,
Extensive chemical and statistical analyses will be
                                                                  avoiding costly over-formulation while at the same
employed to develop a method to accurately estimate
                                                                  time ensuring minimum requirements are met. This
the DE of a particular barley sample. This knowledge
                                                                  increased accuracy in feed formulation will result in a
will enhance the most effective utilization of barley in
                                                                  reduction in feed costs, improved carcass uniformity
swine diets and facilitate the marketing of barley on a
                                                                  and decreased amounts of wasted nutrients in the
more value-based system instead of bushell weight


This study is currently in progress. The following is a
summary of the procedures which have or will be
utilized to achieve our objective. Table 1 shows the
five barley varieties chosen for this experiment. All

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Table 1. Sample location, soil zone, and official grading results of the barley varieties selected for analysis.

    Barley                Location of          Soil Zone         Official Dockage Test Weight      Official Bushel Unclean Bushel
    Variety               Sample                                 Gradea    (%)a     (Kg/hl) a      Weight (lb/bu) a Weight (lb/bu) b

    AC   Lacombe     #1   Lacombe, AB          black              1 CW        0.3       61.3            49.2             49.7
    AC   Lacombe     #2   Melfort, SK          black saline       2 CW        1.0       55.7            44.7             39.6
    AC   Lacombe     #3   Melfort, SK          black           Extra 1 CW     0.4       65.1            52.2             51.6
    AC   Lacombe     #4   Binscarth, MB        black              1 CW        0.3       60.0            48.0             48.0

    B   1602   #1         Lacombe, AB          black           Extra 1 CW     0.3       65.5            52.5             51.2
    B   1602   #2         Milden, SK           dark brown      Extra 1 CW     0.3       63.8            51.2             50.9
    B   1602   #3         Medstead, SK         grey black      Extra 1 CW     1.1       65.1            52.2             49.0
    B   1602   #4         Morden, MB           black              2 CW        1.4       57.4            46.0             44.4

    Bedford    #1         Durban, MB           black           Extra 1 CW     0.3       63.6            51.0             51.0
    Bedford    #2         Dauphin, MB          black              1 CW        0.4       60.7            48.7             48.5
    Bedford    #3         Altona, MB           black           Extra 1 CW     2.6       63.2            50.7             50.9
    Bedford    #4         Crystal City, MB     black              2 CW        0.4       56.3            45.2             44.7

    Harrington      #1    Lacombe, AB          black           Extra 1 CW     0.4       67.4            54.0             53.5
    Harrington      #2    Carrot River, SK     grey            Extra 1 CW     0.8       67.0            53.7             51.6
    Harrington      #3    Pennant, SK          brown              2 CW        5.4       54.2            43.5             39.6
    Harrington      #4    Binscarth, MB        black              1 CW        4.7       60.0            48.0             47.4

    Manley     #1         Lacombe, AB          black           Extra 1 CW     0.5       69.7            55.9             54.9
    Manley     #2         Milden, SK           dark brown      Extra 1 CW     1.4       65.7            52.7             50.4
    Manley     #3         Kindersley, SK       brown              2 CW        3.3       57.8            46.3             41.6
    Manley     #4         Binscarth, MB        black           Extra 1 CW     0.6       64.2            51.5             50.9

    Official grading of the barley samples was completed by the Canadian Grains Commission
    Uncleaned bushel weights were completed on farm

                                             PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
THE EVALUATION OF DEHULLED CANOLA MEAL                             export. However, canola meal has not yet achieved
IN THE DIETS OF GROWING AND FINISHING                              the stature of soybean meal in swine diets, due in
PIGS                                                               large part to its relatively low concentration of
                                                                   digestible energy. Its low energy content is related in
John F. Patience and Doug Gillis                                   large part to the presence of the hull which
                                                                   constitutes about 16% of the seed and about 25% of
SUMMARY                                                            the meal; the hull fraction has a very low digestibility.

                                                                   Dehulling is one option available to improve the
The major restriction to the expanded use of canola                digestibility of energy in canola meal. Indeed, most of
meal in swine diets is its low level of energy                     the soybean meal used in Canada has been dehulled,
digestibility. There are many approaches that one                  and the primary reason is to enhance its nutritive
might take to address this problem, but in this                    value. However, dehulling soybean meal is much
experiment, mechanical dehulling was considered as                 easier than dehulling canola seed, in part due to the
one possible alternative. This experiment was                      size of the kernel. Therefore, while dehulling of
conducted to evaluate the performance of growing                   canola seed has been considered for more than a
and finishing pigs using dehulled canola meal to                   decade, it has not yet achieved commercial practice.
replace at least half of the soybean meal in their diet.
                                                                   Research was requested by the canola industry to
In this two-phase experiment (growing phase, 24 - 56               determine if newer approaches to dehulling could
kg; finishing phase, 71 - 100 kg), the diets were                  overcome this issue and provide an opportunity to
formulated to contain 15% (growing phase) or 10%                   increase canola meal utilization in swine. Therefore,
(finishing phase) dehulled canola meal. In all cases,              the objective of this study was to determine the
the diets were formulated to be of theoretical equal               performance of pigs fed dehulled canola meal as a
value to canola meal and soybean meal controls, at                 replacement for soybean meal, when the diets are
least in terms of digestible energy, digestible essential          formulated to be equal in estimated nutrient
amino acids and macro minerals.                                    composition.

During the growing phase, growth rate, averaged
                                                                   EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
0.82 kg/day and feed conversion averaged 2.33:1
across all treatments. During the finishing phase,
                                                                   This experiment consisted of two phases, the first, to
growth rate averaged 0.97 kg/day and feed
                                                                   evaluate pigs in the growing phase and the second to
conversion averaged 3.01:1. Carcass index averaged
                                                                   evaluate pigs in the finishing phase. Four experimental
109.4. None of the production parameters were
                                                                   diets were used for the study with growing pigs (Table
affected by diet.
                                                                   1) and four different diets were used for the study with
                                                                   finishing pigs (Table 2). In each instance, the control
It was concluded that substantial quantities of
                                                                   diet contained soybean meal as the sole protein
dehulled canola meal could be successfully used in
                                                                   supplement. In the second test diet, canola meal was
swine diets, provided the diets were carefully
                                                                   used to replace 95% of the soybean meal (growing
formulated according to digestible energy and
                                                                   phase) or 50% of the soybean meal (finishing phase).
digestible amino acid composition. Ultimately, the
                                                                   Dehulled canola meal was incorporated into the final
success of dehulled canola meal will be determined
                                                                   two test diets at the rate of 15% (growing phase) or
by consistency of supply and price, both of which are
                                                                   10% (finishing phase). The second dehulled canola
closely linked to the practicality of the dehulling
                                                                   meal diet contained supplemental energy (100
                                                                   kcal/kg) and amino acids, to determine if energy
                                                                   and(or) amino acids were possibly limiting animal
INTRODUCTION                                                       performance. The first three diets were formulated to
                                                                   contain equal quantities of digestible energy,
Canola has achieved enormous success in Canadian                   digestible amino acids and macrominerals.
agriculture, now ranking as the number 2 agricultural

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
There were two blocks of males and three blocks of              Similarly, there was no effect of dietary treatment on
females in the each of the growing and finishing                carcass traits, such as leanness, fatness or predicted
phases. In the growing phase, each weight block                 yield (Table 5). Based on overall index, animals on
started on test when the block average weight was 25            all treatments produced high quality carcasses. Fat
Ò 3 kg; pigs were then weighed biweekly until the               thickness averaged 20.2 mm, yield averaged 59.8%
pen average weight was 60 kg at which time the pen              and index averaged 109.4 across all treatments.
was removed from the experiment. In the finishing
phase, each weight block started on test when the
block average weight was 70 Ò 3 kg; pigs were then              IMPLICATIONS
weighed biweekly until the heaviest pen within the
block reached a minimum average weight of 105 kg,               On the basis of this experiment, it appears that
at which time the block was considered to be “off               dehulled canola meal offers some potential to
test” for the performance portion of the study.                 enhance the nutritional value of canola meal.
However, the pigs remained on the experimental                  Excellent performance can be achieved with this
diets until they were marketed at a body weight of              product. However, certain antinutritional factors, such
approximately 106 kg.                                           as sinapine and glucosinolates, appear to concentrate
                                                                in the low fibre fraction, so care must be taken to
The dehulled canola meal was analyzed by Dr. Sandy              minimize this effect if the dehulled product is to be
McCurdy, POS Pilot Plant, Saskatoon for phytate,                successfully used by the pig industry. Ultimately, the
sinapine and glucosinolate content (Table 3).                   success of dehulled canola meal will be determined
                                                                by consistency of supply and price, both of which are
                                                                closely linked to the practicality of the dehulling


The pigs responded very well to the dehulled canola
meal, with no reduction in average daily gain,                  Funding for this project was provided by the Canola
average daily feed or feed efficiency during the                Council of Canada, under its Canola Utilization
finishing period (P > 0.05) and only a trend                    Assistance Program.
(P < 0.10) towards reduced average daily gain in the
growing period (Table 4).

It is also interesting to note that pigs fed the diet
based on canola meal grew at the same rate as those
pigs fed the soybean meal control. Feed conversion
was somewhat poorer than on the soybean meal diet,
suggesting that the energy content of the canola meal
had been overestimated. In any case, it demonstrated
once again that canola meal can be used in total
replacement of soybean meal, when the diets are
properly formulated.

There was no suggestion that energy or protein
quality had been underestimated in the dehulled
canola meal, as the performance on the two diets
based on the dehulled canola meal were similar,
whether DE was boosted or not.

                               PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Table 1. Formulation of diets offered in the performance trial with growing pigs
    Ingredient                            Diet 1                     Diet 2              Diet 3    Diet 4

      Barley                               57.35                     44.68                57.33    52.21
      Wheat                                22.60                     22.60                22.60    22.60
      Soybean meal - 47%                   15.54                      0.85                 0.85     4.55
      Canola meal                             -                      26.93                   -        -
      Dehulled canola meal                    -                         -                 15.00    15.00
      L-lysine HCl                            -                         -                  0.14     0.14
      DL-methionine                           -                         -                  0.04     0.08
      L-threonine                           0.03                        -                  0.06     0.09
      Mono - dicalcium phosphate            1.15                      0.45                 0.45     0.43
      Limestone                             1.04                      1.07                 1.21     1.20
      Salt                                  0.42                      0.44                 0.45     0.43
      PSCI vitamin premixa                  0.50                      0.50                 0.50     0.50
      PSCI mineral premixb                  0.50                      0.50                 0.50     0.50
      Canola oil                            0.88                      1.99                 0.88     2.28

    Nutrients, calculated
     DE, Kcal/kg                           3,200                     3,200                3,200    3,300
     Protein, %                            16.54                     18.34                15.44    16.73
     Lysine, %                              0.81                      0.87                 0.82     0.91
     dlysine, %                             0.64                      0.64                 0.64     0.73
     dT.S.A.A., %                           0.48                      0.65                 0.45     0.52
     dthreonine, %                          0.45                      0.48                 0.45     0.52
     dtryptophan, %                         0.16                      0.16                   -        -
     dTSAA:dLYS                            0.76                      1.00                  0.70     0.52
     dTHR:dLYS                              0.70                      0.75                 0.70     0.72
     dTRP:dLYS                              0.26                      0.24                   -        -
     Calcium, %                             0.70                      0.70                 0.70     0.70
     Phosphorus, %                          0.60                      0.60                 0.60     0.60
     Sodium, %                              0.19                      0.19                 0.20     0.19
     Chloride                              0.34                      0.33                  0.35     0.34

    Provided per kg of diet: Vitamin A, 8,250 IU; Vitamin D3, 825 IU; Vitamin E, 40 IU; menadione, 4 mg;
     thiamine, 1 mg; riboflavin, 5 mg; niacin, 35 mg; d-panthothenic acid, 15 mg; Vitamin B12, 25 µg; d-biotin, 200
     µg; folic acid, 2 mg.
    Provided per kg of diet: copper, 50 mg; iron, 80 mg; manganese, 25 mg; zinc, 100 mg; iodine, 0.5 mg;
     selenium, 100 µg.

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
    Table 2. Formulation of diets offered in the performance trial with finishing pigs

    Ingredient                           Diet 13                      Diet 14              Diet 15          Diet 16
      Barley                              53.58                        47.68                51.43            49.53
      Wheat                               22.60                        22.60                22.60            22.60
      Soybean meal - 47%                  18.89                         9.42                11.45            11.45
      Canola meal                            -                         15.00                   -                -
      Dehulled canola meal                   -                            -                 10.00            10.00
      L-lysine HCl                           -                            -                    -             0.12
      DL-methionine                          -                            -                    -             0.09
      L-threonine                         0.04                            -                 0.02             0.10
      Mono - dicalcium phosphate           1.61                         1.24                 1.11             1.15
      Limestone                            1.05                         1.07                 1.17             1.16
      Salt                                0.43                         0.43                 0.43             0.43
      PSCI mineral premix                  0.50                         0.50                 0.50             0.50
      PSCI vitamin premix                  0.50                         0.50                 0.50             0.50
      Canola oil                           0.81                         1.55                 0.80             2.39

      Nutrients, calculated
      DE, Kcal/kg                         3,200                        3,200                3,200            3,300
      Protein, %                           17.7                        18.24                17.76            17.82
      Lysine, %                            0.90                        0.90                 0.90             0.99
      dlysine, %                           0.72                        0.69                 0.71             0.80
      dT.S.A.A., %                         0.51                        0.59                 0.48             0.70
      dthreonine, %                        0.49                        0.48                 0.48             0.56
      dtryptophan, %                       0.18                        0.48                   -                -
      dTSAA:dLYS                          0.71                         0.86                 0.68             0.70
      dTHR:dLYS                           0.69                         0.69                 0.69             0.70
      dTRP:dLYS                            0.25                         0.24                  -                -
      Calcium, %                           0.80                        0.80                 0.80             0.80
      Phosphorus, %                       0.70                         0.70                 0.70             0.80
      Sodium, %                            0.19                        0.19                 0.19             0.19
      Chloride                            0.34                         0.33                 0.34             0.33
  Provided per kg of diet: Vitamin A, 8,250 IU; Vitamin D3, 825 IU; Vitamin E, 40 IU; menadione, 4 mg; thiamine,
   1 mg; riboflavin, 5 mg; niacin, 35 mg; d-panthothenic acid, 15 mg; Vitamin B12, 25 µg; d-biotin, 200 µg; folic
   acid, 2 mg.
  Provided per kg of diet: copper, 50 mg; iron, 80 mg; manganese, 25 mg; zinc, 100 mg; iodine, 0.5 mg; selenium,
   100 µg.

Table 3. Phytate, sinapine and glucosinolate content of canola meal and meal fractions with various fiber
contents (POS pilot)

    Fraction                  Yield, %                        Phytate, %           Sinapine, %       Glucosinolate
    Canola meal                 100                              3.82                  2.38              14.6
    Fibre reduced material       39                              4.70                  2.75              16.9
    Fibre enriched material      61                              3.19                  2.22              13.3

Data provided by Dr. McCurdy, POS Pilot Plant

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.           1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Table 4. Effect of dehulled canola meal on pen average daily weight gain, feed disappearance and feed
conversion of pigs for the growing and finishing phases

                                                             Treatmenta                                 S.E.M.   Significant
         Item                         1                 2                 3               4                        Effectb

         Growing phase
         Initial weight, kg         23.8              24.0             23.9             24.1
         Final weight, kg           56.6              56.0             55.1             58.1

         Daily weight gain, kg      0.82              0.82             0.79             0.84            0.01        NSc
         Daily feed, kg             1.98              1.84             1.89             1.90            0.05        NS
         Gain:feed                  0.41              0.45             0.42             0.44            0.01        NS

         Finishing phase
         Initial weight, kg         71.1              70.9              70.6             71.3
         Final weight, kg           96.8             101.4             104.0            102.5

         Daily weight gain, kg      0.89              0.89             0.97             0.91            0.04        NS

         Daily feed, kg             2.61              2.78             2.86             2.78            0.13        NS
         Gain:feed                  0.34              0.32             0.34             0.32            0.01        NS
        Treatment 1:control diet based on soybean meal; Treatment 2: negative control based on standard canola meal
         replacing 95% (growing phase) or 50% (finishing phase) of soybean meal; Treatment 3: dehulled canola meal at
         15% (growing phase) or 10% (finishing phase) of the total diet; Treatment 4: the same as Treatment 3 except
         energy and amino acids were elevated relative to treatments 1 - 3.
         Treatment effect significant, P < 0.05
        Treatment effect significant, P < 0.10

Table 5. Effect of dehulled canola meal on the carcass traits of finishing pigs

                                                             Treatment1                                 S.E.M.   Significant
          Item                        1                 2                 3                4                       Effect2

         Market wt., kg             106.5             105.7            105.6            106.4
         Dressed wt., kg            85.8              82.0             83.1             83.4             0.6        0.05
         Lean, mm                   59.3              56.5             58.7             57.9             1.4         NS
         Fat, mm                    19.0              19.8             20.9             21.1             1.0         NS
         Yield, %                   60.3              59.8             59.6             59.6             0.4         NS
         Index                      109.8             110.1            109.1            108.6            0.9         NS
        Treatment 1:control diet based on soybean meal; Treatment 2: negative control based on standard canola meal
         replacing 95% (growing phase) or 50% (finishing phase) of soybean meal; Treatment 3: dehulled canola meal at
         15% (growing phase) or 10% (finishing phase) of the total diet; Treatment 4: the same as Treatment 3 except
         energy and amino acids were elevated relative to treatments 1 - 3.
         Treatment effect significant, P < 0.05
        Treatment effect significant, P < 0.10

                                      PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.           1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
THE EFFECT OF SPRAY-DRIED PLASMA                                  The results of this experiment showed that feeding
INCLUSION IN PHASE I DIETS OFFERED TO                             spray dried plasma improved growth performance in
WEANLING PIGS REARED IN AN ALL IN-ALL OUT                         pigs reared in a slow growing, continuos-flow
OR CONTINUOUS-FLOW NURSERY                                        environment and also in faster growing pigs in an all
                                                                  in-all out environment.
Nichole E. Lesperance, Andrew G. Van Kessel,
Alberto Estrada, and G. Iain Christison

                                                                  Increasingly complex starter diets are required as the
SUMMARY                                                           trend in the swine industry is toward reduced weaning
                                                                  age. Spray-dried porcine plasma has shown to be a
                                                                  superior protein source for piglets during the first two
A 28-day trial investigated the effects of feeding diets          weeks post-weaning. Nursery pigs offered spray-dried
containing spray-dried porcine plasma to 60 weanling              porcine plasma diets show superior weight gain,
pigs (21±3 days of age) in two environments designed              higher feed disappearance and sometimes improved
to compare disease challenge. Environments were                   feed to gain compared with traditional protein
characterized by all in-all out or continuous-flow, on-           sources.
site nurseries. From day 0 to 14 (Phase I) pigs were
offered diets containing either 6% spray-dried porcine            Antibodies present in spray-dried porcine plasma are
plasma and 2.3% blood cells or 10% dried skim milk                believed to protect newly weaned pigs against
and 7% fish meal followed by appropriate Phase II                 intestinal infections. Previous studies have shown that
diets containing either 2.27% blood cells or 5% dried             spray-dried porcine plasma improved weanling pig
skim milk and 2.5% fish meal, respectively.                       performance in a continuous flow (pen housed)
                                                                  environment but not in an all in-all out (individually
From days 0 to 14, pigs offered the spray dried                   housed) environment. The degree of improvement in
plasma diets showed improved average daily weight                 growth performance when feeding spray-dried porcine
gain in both environments. The improvements were                  plasma, however, has not been a consistent finding.
greater as a percentage in the continuous flow nursery
vs. the all in-all out nursery. As expected, average              Thus it was the objective of this study to compare the
daily weight gain was greater in the all in-all out than          effects of offering a complex diet containing spray-
in the continuous-flow nursery from days 0 to 21.                 dried porcine plasma and blood cells with a conven-
                                                                  tional diet containing skim milk and fish meal to
Average daily feed disappearance was higher in pigs               weanling pigs housed in two different environments
offered spray dried plasma from days 3 to 7. Average              designed to compare disease challenge.
daily feed disappearance was also higher in the all in-
all out vs. the continuous-flow nursery up to day 21.
                                                                  EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
There was no effect of diet in gain:feed ratios for any
period. However, gain to feed ratios were higher in               Pigs were offered a Phase I diet containing either 6%
the continuous-flow nursery from days 3 to 28.                    spray-dried plasma and 2.3% blood cells or 10%
                                                                  dried skim milk and 7% fish meal followed by a
Insulin-like growth factor 1 levels were higher in the            Phase II diet containing either 2.27% blood cells or
all in-all out nursery on days 3 and 14. Mean body                5% dried skim milk and 2.5% fish meal, respectively
temperatures of pigs offered spray dried plasma                   (Table 1).
tended to be lower 3 days post-weaning, however,
this trend did not continue. Neither environment nor              Pigs were housed at the same site in either an all in-
diet affected health score, fecal score, total serum              all out or continuous flow nursery. The all in-all out
immunoglobulin or the humoral response to                         nursery was power washed twice prior to piglet
vaccination against KLH at weaning.                               exposure. In contrast, pens were not washed between
                                                                  weanling groups in the continuous-flow nursery.
                                                                  Sixty commercial crossbred pigs were weaned at

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Table 1. Experimental diets
                                        Phase I                                             Phase II
                              Conventional      Complex                      Conventional           Complex
                                Plasma          Control                        Plasma                Control

      Ingredients, %
      Wheat                       43.93                46.01                     52.26               54.23
      Soybean meal                15.00                15.00                     23.00               23.00
      Spray-dried whey            15.00                15.00                     10.00               10.00
      Dried skim milk             10.00                                           5.00
      Prolac                                            5.00                                         2.50
      Spray-dried plasma                                6.00
      Spray-dried blood cells                           2.27                                         2.27
      Fish meal                   7.00                                           2.50
      Limestone / glass rock      1.00                  1.70                     1.20                1.50
      Mono-dicalcium phosphate    0.60                  1.50                     1.10                1.50
      Salt                        0.25                  0.25                     0.35                0.35
      Vitamin premixa             0.50                  0.50                     0.50                0.50
      Mineral premixb             0.50                  0.50                     0.50                0.50
      Tallow                      2.50                  2.50                     2.50                2.50
      Canola oil                  2.50                  2.50                     2.50                2.50
      Aureo SP250G                0.70                  0.70
      Terramycin 50                                                              0.30                0.30
      Pellet binder               0.20                  0.20                     0.10                0.10
      L-lysine HCl                0.15                  0.10                     0.10                0.10
      L-threonine                 0.08                  0.08                     0.05                0.05
      DL-methionine               0.04                  0.15                     0.02                0.08
      Choline chloride 60%        0.05                  0.05                     0.03                0.03
      Calculated analysis
      DE Kcal/kg                  3513                 3487                      3371                3365
      Crude protein, %            22.19                22.50                     21.69               20.94
      Lysine, %                   1.30                 1.25                      1.26                1.12
      Methionine, %               0.48                 0.43                      0.43                0.40

     Provided the following per kg of premix: vitamin A 1,650,000 IU, vitamin D 165,000 IU, vitamin E 8,000,
     menadione 800 mg, thiamin 200 mg, riboflavin 1,000 mg, niacin 7,000 mg, d-pantothenic acid 3,000 mg,
     vitamin B12 5 mg, biotin 40 mg and folic acid 400 mg
    Provided the following per kg of premix: copper10 g, iron16 g, manganese 5 g, zinc 20 g, iodine 100 mg,
     selenium 20 mg

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.          1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
approximately three weeks of age. The pigs were then              RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
stratified by weight and randomly assigned to
treatments. Treatment groups were balanced for litter             Table 2 summarizes the performance results. From
of origin, but not sex. Thirty pigs were placed in each           days 0 to 14 pigs offered the spray dried plasma diets
room, three pens per treatment, five pigs per pen.                showed improved average daily weight gain in both
                                                                  environments. The improvements were greater as a
The pigs had ad libitum access to the diet from self-             percentage in the continuous flow nursery vs. the all
feeders. Pigs also had ad libitum access to water from            in-all out nursery (24% vs. 16%, respectively).
nipple drinkers.                                                  However, there was no significant diet x environment
                                                                  interaction (P < 0.05).
Room temperature was maintained at 28oC until day
15 when it was reduced to 26oC.                                   As expected, average daily weight gain was greater in
                                                                  the all in-all out than in the continuous-flow nursery
Pig weights and feed disappearance (consumed plus                 from days 0 to 21. Unexpectedly, this higher rate of
unknown spill) were recorded on days 3, 7, 14, 21,                gain reversed on days 21 to 28. A possible
28. Average daily weight gain, average daily feed                 explanation for this may lie in the fact that both
disappearance and gain to feed ratios were calculated             nurseries were housed on the same site. The all in-all
for periods 0 - 3, 3 - 7, 7 - 14, 14 - 21 and 21 - 28.            out nursery would have a reduced pathogen exposure
                                                                  at first, resulting in improved performance in the early
Rectal temperatures were taken on days -1, 3, 7, 14,              post-weaning period. Because the nurseries were on
21, and 28. To measure specific antibody responses                the same site, there was opportunity for disease
to a new antigen, all pigs were vaccinated with                   transmission through personnel and equipment. As the
keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) on days 0 and 14.                 pigs reared in the all in-all out nursery were exposed
                                                                  to disease challenge their growth performance
Serum samples were taken on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and                 decreased. These results differ from those in the
28 by jugular venipuncture. Serum samples were                    continuous-flow nursery where there was a reduction
analyzed by ELISA for total immunoglobulin levels                 in growth immediately post-weaning. Once the pigs
and anti-KLH antibody levels, and by radioim-                     (housed in the continuous-flow nursery) had
munoassay for Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)                overcome the disease challenge (developed specific
levels.                                                           immunity) they were protected resulting in uninhibited
Figure 1. Mean serum IGF-1 levels in a subsample of the           growth.
piglets on trial
                                                                  Average daily feed disappearance was not available
                                                                  for days 0 to 3. Average daily feed disappearance was
                                                                  higher in pigs offered spray dried plasma from days 3
                                                                  to 7.

                                                                  Average daily feed disappearance was also higher in
                                                                  the all in-all out vs. the continuous-flow nursery up to
                                                                  day 21. However, there were no differences between
                                                                  nurseries from days 21 to 28. The lack of superior
                                                                  performance of the all in-all out pigs during this
                                                                  period agrees with the growth data. Previous research
                                                                  has shown that activation of the immune system
                                                                  reduced feed intake. This along with re-partitioning of
                                                                  nutrients towards fighting disease would decrease

                                                                  There was no effect of diet in gain:feed ratios for any
                                                                  period. However, gain to feed ratios were higher in
                                                                  the continuous-flow nursery from days 3 to 28.

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Figure 1 shows serum insulin-like growth factor-1                        IMPLICATIONS
(IGF-1) levels. IGF-1 is involved in increasing
postnatal growth. IGF-1 levels were higher in the all                    The inclusion of spray dried plasma in the nursery
in-all out nursery on days 3 and 14. There was a                         diet improved piglet performance immediately post-
trend towards lower IGF-1 levels in the all in-all out                   weaning, however, this effect declined with time.
nursery on day 28 (P < 0.08). This is consistent with
lower weight gain of these pigs at the end of the trial.                 The inclusion of spray dried plasma improved
                                                                         performance to a greater extent in the continuous-flow
Mean body temperatures of pigs offered spray dried                       nursery.
plasma tended to be lower 3 days post-weaning,
however, this trend did not continue.                                    Piglets had greater weight gain in the all in-all out
                                                                         nursery for the first three weeks post-weaning. In the
Neither environment nor diet affected health score,                      last week of the trial piglets in the continuous-flow
fecal score, total serum immunoglobulin or the                           nursery grew better, possibly due to disease challenge
humoral response to vaccination against KLH at                           in the all in-all out nursery.

Table 2. The effects of nursery environment and diet on daily weight gain,
daily feed disappearance and gain to feed ratios of weanling pigs
                                  Continuous-flow                         All in-all out        SEM           P value
                           Conventional      Complex              Conventional        Complex           Nursery    Diet
                             Control          Plasma                Control            Plasma
    Weight gain, kg
        3 -7d                 0.169              0.161               0.150            0.194     0.024    0.77      0.45
       7 - 14 d               0.270              0.350               0.362            0.383     0.025    0.02      0.05
      14 - 21 d               0.469              0.451               0.517            0.496     0.025    0.07      0.46
      21 - 28 d               0.647              0.675               0.568            0.626     0.029    0.03      0.14

Feed disappearance, kg
        3-7d                  0.167              0.204               0.210            0.284     0.011    0.00      0.00
        7 - 14 d              0.297              0.373               0.365            0.396     0.028    0.14      0.09
       14 - 21 d              0.588              0.604               0.721            0.715     0.030    0.00      0.88
       21 - 28 d              0.920              0.892               0.864            0.910     0.031    0.55      0.78

 Gain:feed ratios, kg:kg
         3-7d                 0.985              0.792               0.715            0.676     0.088    0.06      0.22
         7 - 14 d             0.910              0.937               0.995            0.958     0.041    0.23      0.90
        14 - 21 d             0.798              0.747               0.716            0.694     0.020    0.01      0.11
        21 - 28 d             0.704              0.757               0.657            0.689     0.024    0.04      0.12

                                      PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.           1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
HUMAN SUBJECTS IN A SWINE BUILDING                                 The results of this experiment indicate that human
                                                                   responses can be used to evaluate air quality
Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Yuanhui Zhang,                         conditions within animal housing environments.
James.A. Dosman, Larry Holfeld , Shelley Kirychuk,
Ernie M. Barber, Tom Hurst and Chuck Rhodes.
                                                                   EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

SUMMARY                                                            The study was conducted at the research facilities of
                                                                   Prairie Swine Centre Inc. over 11 days in the winter
The advent of environmentally controlled animal                    month of December, 1995. The study as well as the
housing has had many helpful repercussions in                      consent form was approved by the University of
improving livestock yields. However, this system also              Saskatchewan Advisory Committee on Ethics in
has drawbacks, particularly regarding the indoor air               Human Experimentation.
environment of the housing area. Confinement
livestock buildings have shown potential for dramat-
                                                                   Animal Facilities and Management
ically increased concentrations of dust particles,
odours, and gases. Furthermore, worker satisfaction
                                                                   The study utilized two identical swine grower/finisher
and performance are affected by dusty and odorous
                                                                   rooms located at the Prairie Swine Centre Inc. A total
work environments.
                                                                   of 288 pigs were housed in two rooms, 144 pigs for
                                                                   each. The average body weight of the animals was 25
Although the characterization of dust and the
                                                                   ± 5 kg per pig. Pellet feed was filled daily to a single
pathology of the health problems caused by air
                                                                   space dry feeder in each of 12 pens. Management for
quality in swine building airspaces are unclear, there
                                                                   the two rooms was similar to commercial conditions
is little argument that dust, at typical concentrations,
                                                                   and kept constant and equal for both rooms during
has an adverse effect on the health and comfort of
                                                                   the study period.
animals and humans. Different dust control method-
ologies have been researched world-wide. In this
                                                                   The control room attempted to duplicate a typical
study a canola sprinkling program was implemented
                                                                   swine confinement environment. The treatment room
in an attempt to reduce airborne particles and
                                                                   implemented the dust control technology of canola oil
determine the effect this reduction in airborne
particles would have on human subjects.

It was the objectives of this study to determine if (1)            Oil Sprinkling
air quality control strategies can be directly evaluated
measuring responses of human subjects, and if (2)                  The following sprinkling schedule was maintained: 40
improved air quality can alter the human response in               mL/m2 per day for the first two days, 20 mL/m2 per
swine building environments.                                       day for the second two days, and 5 mL/m2 per day for
                                                                   the following days. Subsequently, on every fifteenth
In this study 20 human subjects naive to hog barn                  day each room was treated with an oil surge of 20
confinement facilities, were exposed to two different              mL/m2 per day. During the days when human subjects
hog confinement building air environments. The                     were in the rooms, the oil sprinkling rate was 5 mL/m2
control group experienced a typical animal housing                 per day.
air environment, whereas the treatment group
experienced an animal housing environment sprinkled                A backpack sprayer designed for chemical spraying
with canola oil. Measurements were taken on the                    was used in this study. Sprinkling was conducted at
environment in each room for each study day and the                07:00, one-half hour before the human subjects
human response attributes measured were Forced                     entered the room. When sprinkling, the nozzle was
Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), Forced Vital               maintained at approximately 0.8 m above the floor
Capacity (FVC), white blood count (WBC),                           (pen partition level). The entire floor area was
methacholine challenge (MC) and nasal cell counts                  sprinkled including the pen (both sleeping and

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
dunging areas), pig body and operator walkways.                   Cross-over Design for Barn Exposure
Spray was administered such that the amount of oil
settling on the walls and the pen partitions was                  There were two subjects per day per room. Subjects
minimal.                                                          were randomly assigned to one of the rooms then
                                                                  following a minimum seven days break, they were
                                                                  placed in the alternate room. A randomization list
Recruitment and Screening                                         was prepared for assigning the subjects to the
                                                                  traditional or oil control rooms.
Twenty lifetime non-smoking male subjects aged 23.9
± 4.6 years met the screening protocol and were
chosen for further study.                                         Barn Day 1

Screening consisted of a questionnaire inquiring about            Subjects arrived at the swine barn at 07:00. Pre-
any previous swine barn exposure, medical history                 exposure pulmonary function test measurements were
and allergy history. Subjects were also administered a            taken, personal air samplers were attached to each
skin prick tests of reaction against 28 common aeroal-            subject and they were randomly assigned to the
lergens including ragweed, mixed grasses, trees (box              traditional or oil control room. The subjects spent a
elder, birch, poplar, willow, mixed) and mixed                    total of five hours in the room. In order to simulate
weeds; foods (milk, eggs, peanut, shell fish), dust               the usual work load encountered in a typical swine
mites; dusts from house, grain and wheat; and                     barn, the subjects were asked to ride a stationary bike
animals (feathers, cat, dog, cattle, horse, hog hair).            for 3 km at 18 km/hour each hour during their stay in
                                                                  the barn. In addition to taking an oral temperature,
Subjects with previous smoking history, history of                subjects recorded the severity of cough, phlegm,
asthma or allergies, positive reaction (>3mm) to any              shortness of breath, chest tightness, nasal irritation,
of the aeroallergens in skin prick testing, history of            eye irritation, chills and headache (done hourly until
previous hog barn exposure or any adverse medical                 10:00 PM) using a Likert scale. The scale ranged from
history were excluded from further study.                         0 to 5, zero being representative of no symptoms and
                                                                  5 indicative of severe symptoms. Subjects left the barn
                                                                  room every two hours for a ten minute period to
Training Day                                                      perform pulmonary function tests, which were
                                                                  conducted in a common room adjacent to the barn
The twenty subjects chosen for the study attended a               rooms. At the end of the exposure (approximately
training session. In addition to a consent form, they             12:30), pulmonary function was measured, blood was
completed a questionnaire on previous occupational                drawn and nasal lavage was conducted. Subjects then
exposures, current respiratory symptoms and past                  returned to the hospital at 16:00 for methacholine
illnesses. In an attempt to minimize a learning curve,            challenge studies.
the subjects practiced pulmonary function tests and
nasal lavage procedures. The subjects were also
instructed on proper barn entry procedures at the                 Barn Day 2
Prairie Swine Centre Inc.
                                                                  After a minimum period of seven days, subjects
                                                                  were assigned to the opposite room from that of
Baseline                                                          Barn Day 1. The procedures on Barn day 2 were
                                                                  the same as on Barn day 1.
The duration between baseline (laboratory) day and
training day was at least seven days. Baseline
measurements were taken at the Royal University                   Lung Function
Hospital. The subjects arrived at the hospital at 07:00
for pulmonary function tests. Subjects returned to the            A Sensormedics volume displacement spirometer was
hospital at 11:00 for pulmonary function tests, a                 used for lung function measurement and tests were
blood sample and nasal lavage. At 16:00                           performed according to American Thoracic Society
methacholine challenge tests were performed at the
                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
recommendations. Subjects performed the lung                     Measurements of Air Quality and Environment
function tests in the sitting position. The pulmonary            Dust mass concentration (mg/m3) was measured daily
test variables, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced              using a personal aerosol sampler carried with each
expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1),                    subject. Means of dust particle counts taken at 08:00
FEV1 /FVC ratio, and maximum mid-expiratory flow                 and 12:30 during the study period were used as
(FEF25-75) were measured. The percentage changes in              indicators of dust in the control and treatment rooms.
pulmonary function from the first measurement and                Hydrogen sulphide concentrations were continuously
last measurement on laboratory day (baseline) and on             measured using a gas monitor.
barn exposure days were calculated and defined as
shift change in lung function. See figure 1 for                  Room temperatures and pressures across the exhaust
description of shift change calculation.                         fans and air inlets were measured and recorded
                                                                 continuously. Relative humidity was measured using a
                                                                 psychrometer at the center of the operator alley. Air
Methacholine Challenge                                           velocity was measured using an anemometer at
                                                                 animal levels in three pens located at the center and
Methacholine challenge tests were performed using a              both ends of the room. Ventilation rates were
Medical Graphic Spirometer and the method of                     calculated from room temperature, fan schedule,
Juniper, Cockroft and Hargreave to determine changes             pressure and fan curves. As an additional indicator of
in lung reactivity. The test was performed with                  ventilation rate, carbon dioxide concentration was
inhalation of the diluent followed by inhalation of              also measured in the two experimental rooms.
increasing doses of methacholine starting at 1 mg/mL
with each increment representing doubling of the
                                                                 RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
dose to a maximum final concentration of 256
mg/mL. The FEV1 was measured at 30 and 90
                                                                 Demographic Characteristics
seconds following the 2 minute inhalation of
methacholine. Results are presented as the last dose
                                                                 Twenty non-smoking male subjects participated in the
of methacholine to produce a PC20, or the amount of
                                                                 study. Their mean ± standard deviation (range) age,
methacholine required to reduce the FEV1 by 20%
                                                                 weight and height were 23.9 ± 4.6 (18 to 34) years,
from the control.                                                83.5 ± 18.4 (60 to 129) kg and 177.2 ± 7.0 (165 to
                                                                 194) cm respectively.
Nasal Lavage Procedure and Analysis:
                                                                 Thermal Environmental Conditions
                                                                 Since the experiment was conducted between
Nasal lavage was used as an indicator of the airway
                                                                 December 06 - 21, the mean outside temperature was
inflammatory response to the indoor environment. A
                                                                 -17.6 ± 7.6oC at which the room temperatures were
cell count was performed on a 10ml sample of
                                                                 maintained near the lower critical temperatures (LCT)
expelled nasal washings. The cell count was
                                                                 of 14oC. At the LCT, the ventilation was consistently
calculated on hemocytometer with cells divided by
                                                                 maintained near the minimum rate of 350 L/s. Thus,
original fluid volume to give number of cells/ml.
                                                                 the thermal environments for both rooms were similar.

                                                                 Air Quality
White Blood Count Methodology
                                                                 Table 1 shows the mean dust concentration in the
White blood count was measured to determine the
                                                                 treated and control rooms over the five hour exposure
inflammatory response of the body to the differing
                                                                 period for 11 days of the experiment. Two personal
environmental conditions. Blood samples were drawn
                                                                 samplers were carried daily by two subjects during
using a vacutainer and 201⁄4 gauge needle. Cell counts
                                                                 the experimental period. As shown in Table 1, means
are given in cells x 10-9/mL.
                                                                 of respirable and inhalable dust, ammonia, hydrogen
                                                                 sulphide and carbon dioxide concentrations in the

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
treated room were significantly lower than that in the           IMPLICATIONS
control room. Dust mass concentration was reduced                It was confirmed that sprinkling a small quantity (6
by 93.5 ± 2.3%. The small standard error indicates               mL/m2 daily on average) of canola oil substantially
that the reduction was very consistent. Dust particle            reduced dust concentrations, producing an improved
count concentrations were reduced by 81.0 ± 11.0%                change in lung function measurements, white blood
and 84.9 ± 9.1% for modified respirable and                      count and nasal cell count, when compared to a
modified inhalable dust respectively. The differences            traditional barn environment. This suggests that
in mean values and variations of the mass and the                implementing an air quality control strategy (oil
count concentrations were due to the sampling                    sprinkling) will reduce the health effects on naive
methods and the sampling efficiencies. Mass concen-              subjects produced from hog barn confinement
tration measured by personal samplers were operated              housing work.
continuously for five hours during the in-barn experi-
mental period. Because oil was sprinkled right before
the sampling, the dust reduction was higher than the
daily average. The count concentration were                      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
measured twice a day at 09:00 and 16:00, which
were during and after the in-barn experiment and                 The authors acknowledge funding for this project from
each measurement lasted 100 seconds.                             Inspiraplex, Saskatchewan Agricultural Development
                                                                 Fund, and National Science and Engineering Research
Hydrogen sulphide and ammonia concentrations in                  Council of Canada. Thanks are extended to the
the treatment room were reduced by 26.7% and                     technical staff at the Prairie Swine Centre and The
29.6%, respectively. It was assumed that the oil film            Centre for Agricultural Medicine for their valuable
prevented the emission rates of gases into the                   assistance on the project.
airspace, but the mechanical and chemical reasons
for the gas reduction need to be investigated. Carbon
dioxide was reduced by 12.5%, which is much less
                                                                 Figure 1
than the reductions of hydrogen sulphide and                     Shift Change in FVC= FVC at the End of Exposure X 100
ammonia. This was because that carbon dioxide was                                     FVC at Beginning of Exposer
primarily produced by animal respiration on which
oil sprinkling had little effect.
                                                                 Graph: 1

Responses of Human Subjects

As shown in Table 2, mean percent shift change in
FEV1 for the 20 subjects was -9.9% in the treated
barn room in comparison to the smaller mean percent
shift change of -1.94% in the control room and a
mean shift change of +1.1% on the laboratory day
(baseline). The differences in mean shift change in
FEV1 were statistically significant. A graphic
illustration of the loss in FEV1 is found in Graph 1.

Shift changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) of the
subjects were monitored as were white blood count
(WBC), methacoline challenge (MC), and nasal lavage
(NL). The FEV1, FVC, WBC, MC and NL are
summarized in Table 2. There were significant levels
of differences in responses among the baseline,
treatment and controls and are stated at the bottom of
the table.

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Table 1. Dust and gaseous concentrations in the treatment and control rooms

                                                    Control                Treatment              % Change

  Dust concentration (mg/m3)                      2.41 ± 0.38               0.15 ± 0.04            -93.5 ± 2.3

  Modified respirable dust concentration
  (particles/ml)                                  50.5 ± 12.1                9.9 ± 8.1             -81.0 ± 11.0

  Modified inhalable dust concentration
  (particles/ml)                                  69.5 ± 14.9               10.7 ± 8.8             -84.9 ± 9.1

  Hydrogen Sulfide (ppm)                          0.38 ± 0.06               0.27 ± 0.04            -26.7 ± 18.5

  Ammonia (ppm)                                   26.0 ± 2.0                18.3 ± 1.7             -29.6 ± 5.3

  Carbon Dioxide (ppm)                            3736 ± 610               3300 ± 727              -12.5 ± 7.9

Table 2. Respiratory responses of human subjects

                                                    Baseline                Treatment              % Change

                                                     (n=20)                   (n=20)                 (n=20)

   FEV percent shift change                     1.09 ± 2.82H n            -1.94 ± 2.80u           -9.93 ± 5.01

   FVC percent shift change                    -0.26 ± 3.34< n            -2.25 ± 3.03S           -4.35 ± 3.77

   Methacholine last dose (mg)                    256 ± 0W G                181 ± 108              140 ± 113

   White blood count
   (cells X 10-9)                                6.18 ± 1.36G             6.35 ± 1.39u             8.75 ± 3.02

   Nasal cell count
   (cells X 10-3)                               15.63 ±28.84J            10.17± 15.26_            42.90 ± 36.37

* Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation

Baseline vs. treatment: H p=0.001, < p=0.01, W p=0.006
Baseline vs. control: np=0.001, Gp<0.001, Jp<0.0001
Treatment vs. control: up<0.001, Sp=0.03, _p<0.0001

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.          1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Dust Settling using a Negative Ionization System in                INTRODUCTION
a Confinement Swine Building
                                                                   A predominate problem within swine building
Akihiro Tanaka, Yuanhui Zhang                                      environment is the high dust concentration. Airborne
                                                                   contaminants can make environmental conditions
                                                                   unpleasant and unhealthy for workers. Lung functions
                                                                   of workers in swine confinement buildings can be
SUMMARY                                                            decreased by the polluted environment. Airborne
                                                                   contaminants may also increase disease and reduce
Dust is one of the main contaminants in barn air.                  the performance of pigs. Swine building dust also
Dust not only reduces pig performance and                          contributes to the rapid deterioration of buildings and
contributes to the deterioration of building and barn              equipment.
equipment, but more importantly, affects the health
status of people working in confined buildings.                    The objectives of this study were to examine the effect
Negative ionization constitutes a new technology                   of ionization on dust removal in a swine house and to
promising to aid in controlling respirable dust levels             evaluate the potential side effects of the electrostatic
in swine barn. A negative ionization system was                    charge on building and equipment surfaces.
installed and tested at Prairie Swine Centre Inc. The
objectives of this study were to examine the effect of
ionization on dust removal in a swine house and to                 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
evaluate the potential side effects of the electrostatic
charge on building and equipment surfaces.                         Two identical swine growing - finishing rooms were
                                                                   used in this study: an experimental room fitted with
Two identical semi-intensive (20 pens, 5 pigs per pen)             the negative ionization system (Figure 1), and a
growing - finishing rooms were compared. One was                   control room (without ionization system). Each room
fitted with the negative ionization system while the               measured 19.8 m ( 7.0 m ( 3.0 m and housed 100
other served as control room.                                      pigs in 20 pens located in two adjacent rows along
                                                                   the centre of the room, leaving walkways along the
It was confirmed that ionization reduced the modified              side walls. Each pen measured 2.5 m ( 1.7 m and
respirable and inhalable dust counts by as much as                 housed 5 pigs on a fully slatted floor. Single-space
46%. The efficiency of the modified respirable and                 aluminum feeders in each pen were filled manually
inhalable dust reduction decreased as the ventilation              with dry-pelleted feed. Water was available ad libitum
increased, and decreased with time, due to the                     from water nipples located at the back of the pens.
accumulation of dust on surfaces. The mean electro-                Body weight and number of pigs in each room were
static voltage of walls, ceiling and floor in the experi-          approximately the same. Pigs were admitted into each
mental room was 319 V compared with 137 V in the                   room at an average body weight of 25 kg and went to
control room. The high voltage in the experimental                 market at approximately 105 kg. The management for
room did not present a hazard to operators, but had                the two rooms was similar.
an adverse effect on the dust settling.
                                                                   A negative ionization system (Model 300, Bionaire)
It is concluded that the negative ionization is an                 was installed. The system consisted of an ion
effective technology for reducing dust levels in swine             generator and ten sets of ion emitters (Figure 1).
barns in the short-term and with low ventilation rates.
                                                                   Room temperature, relative humidity and pressure
                                                                   difference between the rooms and outside were
                                                                   measured every 10 minutes. Dust particles were
                                                                   categorized into two groups: modified respirable dust
                                                                   (0.5 to 5.0 (m in aerodynamic diameter) and modified
                                                                   inhalable dust (greater than 0.5 µm in aerodynamic
                                                                   diameter and usually smaller than 50 µm ). Dust
                                                                   counts were measured at 0.2 m, 1.6 m and 2.8 m

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
above the floor at the centre of one alley at 9:00 and             act as a magnet to positive ions. When the electro-
15:30 daily using a laser particle counter (Model                  static voltage difference increased, the modified
227B, Met-One). The reduction of dust counts was                   respirable and inhalable dust reductions were
compared between the two rooms. The electrostatic                  gradually decreased because the particles were
voltage on the surface of walls, ceilings, floors,                 charged with negative ions. When the negative
feeders and feed was measured using a static sensor                charged dust particles settled onto surfaces due to the
(Model 709, 3M).                                                   Coulomb force, they lost their negative charge by
                                                                   electrostatic induction. The electrostatic voltage is
A statistical analysis was used to establish the                   related to the thickness of the accumulated dust on
difference between the environmental conditions in                 the surface and the electrical resistance of dust. It is
one room compare with the other.                                   suspected that the high electrostatic voltage
                                                                   difference, i. e., accumulated dust on the surfaces
                                                                   insulate the grounded walls from the charged dust
                                                                   particles which in turn reduce the attraction of the
                                                                   aerial dust to building surfaces.
                                                                   The settling efficiency of the modified respirable and
                                                                   inhalable dust could be reduced by the high electro-
Environmental Conditions of Rooms                                  static voltage. The overall mean value of electrostatic
There were no significant differences between two                  voltage in the experimental room was 182 V higher
rooms in room temperature, relative humidity and                   than the control room. A peak value of 859 V was
ventilation rate (P > 0.05).                                       observed on day 33. This high electrostatic voltage
                                                                   did not present uncomfortable sparks or hazard to
                                                                   operators. Due to the low values of correlations, it
                                                                   appears that the high electrostatic voltage had an
Dust reduction
                                                                   adverse effect on dust reduction but this is not
The weekly mean dust count and reductions are
summarized in Table 1. Dust reduction during the first
two weeks was almost constant, 44.5% for modified
respirable dust and 46.4% for modified inhalable                   Effect of Ventilation Rate
dust. The reduction of modified respirable and
inhalable dust decreased after the third week, which               The weekly dust count reduction versus weekly
was assumed to be due to: (1) the ionization system                average ventilation rate of two rooms is plotted in
did not have enough capacity to balance the high                   Figure 3. The reductions of modified respirable and
ventilation; (2) the dust accumulation on building                 inhalable dust counts decreased with the increase of
surfaces reduced the efficiency of the ionization                  ventilation rate. When the ventilation rate increased,
system.                                                            the efficiency of the ionization system was reduced
                                                                   because the numbers of ions and their time standing
                                                                   in the room were reduced. Thus, the dust reduction,
                                                                   which is related to the dust counts in both rooms,
Effect of Electrostatic Voltage
                                                                   was reduced.

The modified inhalable dust count reduction versus                 It is concluded that the negative ionization is an
the electrostatic voltage difference between the two               effective technology for reducing dust levels in swine
rooms and the regression lines are shown in Figure 2.              barns in the short-term and with low ventilation rates.
The electrostatic voltage in the control room was
caused by dust particles which charged by the
contact charging and ions from the atmosphere. In
the surface of the earth, there are usually more
positive ions because the earth itself is negatively
charged and it tends to repel the negative ions and

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
IMPLICATIONS                                                        dust counts were effective (as much as 46%) when
                                                                    the ventilation rate was low and not effective (as
1. It was confirmed that ionization can reduced dust                low as 3%) when the ventilation rate was high.
   counts. Dust reduction efficiency decreased with
   the time due to the accumulation of dust on                   3. Electrostatic voltage in the experimental room was
   surfaces.                                                        319 V compared with 137 V in the control room.
                                                                    This high voltage did not present a hazard to
2. Dust reduction using this ionization system was                  operators but likely had an adverse effect on dust
   largely affected by the ventilation rate. The                    concentration.
   reductions for modified respirable and inhalable

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
 Table 1. Weekly mean values of dust counts per unit pig body mass and electrostatic voltage

                                                               Diminished dust                 Modified respirable dust            Modified inhalable dust         Electrostatic voltage
 Treat Week                                       Control        Experiment Reduction     Control    Experiment Reduction     Control    Experiment Reduction   Control      Experiment
                                                (count/L/kg)     (count/L/kg)  (%)      (count/L/kg) (count/L/kg)    (%)    (count/L/kg) (count/L/kg)   (%)       (V)            (V)

                                   1     Mean       0.5             0.4       24.5         9.6         5.1        46.0         13.2        6.8        47.7        72            129
                                         S.D.       0.6             0.4       17.5         1.6         0.7         9.2         2.2         0.8        9.1         68            150
                                   2     Mean       0.4             0.3       21.4         9.8         5.5        43.0         13.9        7.5        45.1       198            381

                                         S.D.       0.4             0.3       19.3         2.0         1.3        13.9         3.1         1.8        14.5        73            157
                              1          S.D.       0.4             0.3        7.7         2.1         1.5         5.5         3.1         2.1        5.6         85            416

                                   4     Mean       0.3             0.2       19.2         5.4         3.7        28.3         7.9         5.4        29.1        54            179
                                         S.D.       0.3             0.2       12.2         0.9         0.5        15.1         1.4         0.8        15.7        51            176
                                   5     Mean       0.2             0.2       18.6         3.8         2.8        24.6         5.4         4.1        25.2       134            134
                                         S.D.       0.2             0.2       11.8         0.6         0.8        11.9         0.8         1.1        13.1        67            404
                                   6     Mean       0.2             0.2       14.7         2.5         2.4         1.7         3.4         3.3        1.9        226            246
                                         S.D.       0.2             0.2       14.5         0.6         0.5        20.8         0.9         0.8        22.4       196            431
                              2    7     Mean       0.2             0.2       11.8         2.5         2.4         3.0         3.7         3.4        4.5        149            202
                                         S.D.       0.2             0.2        8.9         0.7         0.7        27.3         1.1         1.0        28.1       132            295
                                  Mean              0.3             0.2       18.5         5.7         3.7        25.6         8.1         5.2        26.9       137            319

                                  S.D.              0.3             0.2       13.1         1.2         0.9        14.8         1.8         1.2        15.5        96            188
    Figure 2 Modified inhalable dust count reduction versus the electrostatic voltage difference between the two
    rooms (Exp - Ctrl)

                                                                                  Y= -0.0168X + 12.7
                   Dust Count Reduction (Y,%)

                                                        Electrostatic voltage difference (X,V)

    Figure 3 Weekly mean dust count reduction versus average ventilation rate in two rooms.
                    Dust Count Reduction (n,%)

                                                           Average ventilation rate (Q, m3/s)

o Measured modified respirable      Predicted modified respirable n=-19.8Q + 28.7 r2 = 0.86 .n=28.7 - 19.8Q
l Measured modified inhalable ----- Predicted modified inhalable n=-20.4Q + 30.9 r = 0.86 .same pattern, R = 0.86
                                                                                  2                       2

                                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
A LOW COST BALLOON-TYPE LAGOON COVER                              Methods to reduce odour emission to atmosphere
TO REDUCE ODOUR EMISSION                                          from manure lagoons can be two folds: Firstly,
                                                                  sources of odour production can be controlled by
Yuanhui Zhang and Wim Gakeer                                      various methods. These methods may be one or a
                                                                  combination of the following: chemical (e.g., adding
                                                                  deodourants), biological (e.g., anaerobic digestors),
SUMMARY                                                           metabolic (e.g., alternative feed rations), mechanical
                                                                  (e.g., ventilating the lagoon to keep manure aerobic)
Existing odour control methods for manure lagoons                 and electrical (e.g., oligolysis). Secondly, odour
are cost intensive. Economical and effective covering             emission from a lagoon can be reduced by using a
methods for manure lagoons need to be studied and                 cover and making the lagoon airtight. There are
developed.                                                        several ways to cover a manure lagoon, each has
                                                                  limitations and advantages. Covers in solid structure
This study demonstrated that a balloon-type manure                such as steel, concrete or wood, are reliable but
lagoon cover could be an economical and effective                 capital intensive. For example, for a 200 sow farrow-
method in reducing odour emission to the                          to-finish swine facility, a concrete cover for a lagoon
atmosphere. In this balloon type cover, a plastic tarp            may cost as much as $50,000. Additionally,
was tightened around perimeter, and inflated on the               difficulties may arise in construction of such covers for
top, of a lagoon using a low pressure blower. The                 already existing lagoons. Less expensive covers such
perimeter of the tarp was airtight. That way, odour               as polystyrene foam plate or barley straw floating on
was confined within the lagoon and the emission of                top of the manure were investigated. Applying these
odour into the atmosphere was minimized. Technical                technologies, special machines are required to spread
aspects such as proper installation and sealing of                the covering materials. The lagoon needs to be
perimeters for the cover were tested. Critical pressures          agitated to prevent the sunk cover materials from
(minimum operating pressures to prevent flapping of               forming slums and blocking the pumping system.
the tarp) versus wind were determined. The cover                  Floating covers, made of one piece of tarp, was
effectively eliminated the odour emission to                      difficult to use because of the fluctuation of the
atmosphere and improved the landscape.                            manure level during the year. When the level of the
                                                                  covered liquid is constant, such a floating cover could
The cover cost was approximately $6,000 which is                  be viable.
considered to be much less expensive compered to
solid structure covers such as steel and wood. It is              Inflatable covers was invented in 1917 but the
expected that the cover to be used for earthen                    technology was only adapted in industry until after
lagoons if a concrete foundation around the lagoon                the second world war. The first inflatable cover in the
perimeter is constructed.                                         United States was build in 1959 to cover a water
                                                                  reservoir. This was intended to prevent water from
                                                                  pollution and evaporation. The advantages of these
INTRODUCTION                                                      covers were obvious as they were less capital
                                                                  intensive and light in structure compared to solid
Total odour emission from an animal facility to                   covers. To date, inflatable covers have also been
atmosphere is approximately composed of 50%                       used in many buildings.
through indoor exhaust air, 25% through manure
storage and 25% through manure transport and                      It is possible to apply the inflatable cover technology
spreading. In Canada and United States, manure is                 to manure lagoons economically and effectively. The
stored in either earthen or concrete lagoons.                     objectives of this project were:
Generally these lagoons are not covered and odour
emission is not controlled. Odour emission from open              1. To develop and install a low-cost balloon-type
manure lagoons has become an increasing concern of                    manure cover for a swine facility. The cover is
environment and general public.                                       expected to be inflated using a low pressure
                                                                      blower, and the cover should be airtight.

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
2. To measure the rates of air leakage and odour (e.g.           the concrete perimeter of the lagoon. The diameter of
    hydrogen sulfide, ammonia) emission from the                 the tarp is one meter larger than the diameter of the
    lagoon to the atmosphere and compare with the                lagoon. This allows the cover to be inflated to a
    literature data.                                             height of approximately 2.5 m. The first layer on the
                                                                 perimeter is a sheet of plastic plate to flush with the
3. To evaluate the performance of the cover and                  metal strips. The next three layers were two rubber
    recommend operating conditions for the cover.                strips, and the tarp. An angle steel is bolted down to
    Cover performance include wind resistance,                   the concrete perimeter and the tarp is clamped
    maintenance requirements and cost. Operating                 between the two rubber strips. The maximum distance
    conditions include critical pressure, power-back             between the bolts is 0.6 m. The bolts are anchored in
    up and other emergency measures.                             the concrete.

                                                                 Air Delivery and Pressure Control
The inflated lagoon cover includes a tarp, air delivery
and pressure control systems. As shown in Figure 1,              The air delivery and pressure control systems are
the tarp is fastened to the lagoon perimeter to isolate          shown in Figure 4. The air delivery system consists of
the manure and the atmosphere. The air delivery                  a radial blade blower and an anti-backdraft flap. The
system consists of a low pressure blower and a                   blower is direct driven (0.37 kW, 1750 RPM) and has
variable fan controller. The pressure controller is a            a capacity of 400 L/s at 0 Pa and 90 L/s at 250 Pa
mechanical damper by which a bypass opening can                  pressures. The anti-backdraft is a piece of plastic flap
be adjusted so that the cover is maintained at a                 that only allows the air flowing into the lagoon.
constant operating pressure. Ideally, the pressure               When the blower is deactivated in case of power or
difference across the tarp should be controlled using a          mechanical failure, pressure in the lagoon is higher
weather station because the operating pressure of the            than the pressure at the exit of the blower. The air
suspended cover is affected by weather conditions                inlet of the lagoon will be closed by the flap. That
such as wind speed. Weather station is not included              way, air is sealed somewhat in the lagoon and the
in this report.                                                  cover is maintained inflated for a longer period of
Figure 2 shows an overview of the lagoon cover
system. Ducts in the photo are waste influent tube               The pressure of the lagoon cover is controlled by an
from the barn and the barn manager’s house. The                  automatically weight-balanced damper. The damper is
block at the left hand of Figure 2 is the blower and             located at the exit of a bypass. The openings of the
the pressure control system. The lagoon cover                    damper are controlled by a spring which is in turn
appears to be a partial sphere doom which improves               balanced at a given pressure. The displacement of the
the landscape of the facility cite.                              spring can be adjusted in 12 steps to control the
                                                                 pressure within the range of 40 to 200 Pa. The air
                                                                 inlet for the blower and the air outlet for the damper
                                                                 are constructed in a way that the wind direction has
The Tarp                                                         little influence on the operating pressure. The house
                                                                 for the blower and the duct are installed on steel
The attachment of the tarp to the lagoon is shown in             angles which are bolted to the side wall of the
Figure 3. The cover is a 0.91 mm thick hypalon roof              lagoon. A section of flexible duct is used to connect
covering tarp (Speers Petrochemicals Co., Winnipeg,              the anti-backdraft flap and the air inlet of the covered
MB). Before the tarp is pulled over the manure                   lagoon.
lagoon, a grid (1.2 m ( 1.2 m) of ropes are fastened
across the top of the lagoon to prevent the cover from
falling to the manure in case of the blower deacti-
vation or power off. Each string of rope is attached to

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Performance Evaluation                                            was collected eight hours continuously. The concen-
                                                                  trations of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide were
                                                                  measured using a gas analyzer. The emission rate was
                                                                  calculated using the gas concentration and leakage
Air Leakage                                                       rate. At the operating pressure 100 Pa, concentrations
                                                                  and emission rates of ammonia and hydrogen
Air tightness of the cover is one of the most important           sulphide are listed in Table 1.
characteristics affecting the cover performance. Air
leakage should be minimized to reduce the odour                   Production rates of hydrogen sulphide production rate
emission to the atmosphere. The rate of air leakage               is estimated as 0.00083 mg/s and ammonia is 0.095
(Q) from the covered lagoon is expected to conform                mg/s for a 45 kg pig in a confined house. Compared
the following equation:                                           with the odour production of pigs, the emission rates
                                                                  from this covered lagoon of ammonia and hydrogen
                                                                  sulphide were equivalent to 15 and 88 45 kg pigs,
where C is a coefficient, ∆P is the pressure difference           respectively. Indeed, odour emission from the covered
across the tarp in Pa, and n is an exponential                    lagoon was reduced to such a low level that no odour
coefficient for pressure difference.                              could be detected by a human standing by the lagoon
                                                                  at the downstream of the wind.
Measured air leakage rates at different operating
pressures are plotted in Figure 5. The air leakage rate
equals the air flow rate at the air inlet of the cover            Critical Operating Pressure
because that the lagoon cover is under positive
pressure and therefore only exfiltration occurs. Air
                                                                  Critical pressure (∆Pc)is the minimum pressure
velocities at the cover inlet were measured and used
                                                                  difference across the tarp at which the tarp can be
to calculate the flow rate. For this lagoon cover, the
                                                                  maintained as a stable doom structure. If the
C and n are 0.037 and 1.58, respectively. The
                                                                  operating pressure is lower than the critical pressure,
exponential coefficient, n, would be smaller (e.g.,
                                                                  the tarp will be flapping which may damage the tarp
near 0.5) had the openings of leakage sources have
                                                                  at low temperatures. Factors affecting the critical
been constant. However, the tarp is very flexible and
                                                                  pressure include the dynamic pressure caused by
the openings of leakage sources increase as the
                                                                  wind (Pd ), static pressure caused by the weight of the
pressure difference increases.
                                                                  tarp (Pw), and an extra pressure (Pe) required to keep
It was observed that operating pressures were 40 Pa               the tarp steady. The critical pressure can be written
and above depending on weather conditions. The                    as:
higher the operating pressure, the steadier the cover.
At an operating pressure of 100 Pa, the air leakage
was 60 L/s. This leakage is approximately equivalent
to the rate of a toilet exhausting fan.                           where p is the air density in kg/m3, V is the wind
                                                                  speed in m/s, W is the weight of the tarp in N and A
                                                                  is the tarp surface area. The first term at the right
                                                                  hand is the dynamic pressure caused by wind, second
Odour Emission                                                    term is the pressure caused by the weight of the tarp.
                                                                  Pe is expected to be dependent on the rigidness of
Odour was expected to escape mostly along the                     the tarp material. The less rigid of the tarp, the higher
lagoon perimeters where air leakage sources are                   value of the Pe. Pe can be determined experimentally.
located. In this study, ammonia and hydrogen
sulphide were used as indicators of odour emission.
Concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide
inside the lagoon at the perimeter level were
measured. On each measurement day, air sample

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Critical pressures at different wind speeds were                   along the lagoon perimeter is
measured and plotted in Figure 6. For this tarp, W/A
is 12 Pa and Pe is 12 pa. Thus, from Equation 2, the
critical pressure for the tarp is:

                                                                   Clearly, the maximum load of such a partial sphere
                                                                   occurs when the h equals a, i.e., h = a = D/2. In this
                                                                   project, the height of the balloon cover (h) and the
Measured data agree with Equation 3 very well at low               diameter of the lagoon (2a) was measured as 2.5 m
wind speed. It should be pointed out that the critical             and 23 m, respectively. The maximum operating
pressure at high wind speed should be much lower                   pressure of the blower was approximately 200 Pa.
than that calculated from equation 3. In fact, an                  Using Equations 5, the maximum stress of the tarp
operating pressure of 100 Pa was sufficient to                     was 2770 N/m. Using Equation 6, the load on the
maintain a steady doom for wind speed at 50 km/h                   lagoon tarp was 200,2 KN at pressure difference of
(14 m/s). This is because that the streamline of the               200 Pa.
doom reduced much of the resistance of the wind.
                                                                   By differentiating Equation 5 with respect to h and
                                                                   making the equation equals zero,

Strength Requirement of the Tarp

Selection of the tarp material depends on the stress
applied onto the tarp. Therefore, stress in the tarp               the minimum stress on a suspended tarp will occur
cover must be determined. If an air space enclosed                 when h = a = D/2 which is the only meaningful
with isotropic material is inflated with air at a                  answer to Equation 4 for a given a. Apparently that
pressure P, the enclosure will be in a shape of a                  the height of the inflated cover should be as high as
sphere. The diameter (D) of the sphere can be                      the lagoon radius so that the stress can be minimized.
calculated using the height (h) and the span (2a) of a             A higher doom can also prevent snow accumulation.
partial sphere (Figure 7):                                         However, wind resistance of the cover will increase
                                                                   as the height increases, which may cause difficulty in
                                                                   maintaining a steady doom structure. Within the
                                                                   allowance of the stress, the inflated tarp is
                                                                   recommended to have a low height such as h < a/2.
In an isotropic sphere, the stress is identical for the
entire sphere surface. Further, the stress at any point
will be tangential to the sphere surface at that point.
Thus, the stress at the sphere surface can be                      Cost
calculated. From the free body diagram for a half-
sphere (Figure 7a), the total force exerted on the half-           The total costs of the tarp and the supplies in this
sphere perimeter equals to the resultant of the                    project were approximately $5,000 plus 12 man-day
pressure (P) on the inside surface of that half-sphere.            labour for installation. The cost is expected to be
The stress along the perimeter (Figure 7a) of the half-            reduced if the technology is commercialized.
sphere can be calculated using the following                       Operating cost is very small since the only variable
equation:                                                          cost is the power of the blower. Compared with solid
                                                                   cover structures, this balloon type cover is an
                                                                   inexpensive alternative.

Because the sphere is isotropic and the stress on the
sphere surface is identical (Figure 7b), the total force

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Conclusion                                                       • Stress analysis of the tarp was conducted. For a
                                                                   particular lagoon, tarp materials must be selected
The following conclusions can be drawn from this                   based on the strength requirement.
                                                                 • Further research is needed for design of, and
• A balloon type cover has been designed, installed                installation to lagoons with different shapes and
  and successfully operated at a commercial size                   sizes such as rectangular earthen lagoons.
  concrete manure lagoon. The lagoon size had a
  capacity of a 200 sow farrow-to-finish swine
  production facility.                                           IMPLICATIONS

• The cover reduced the odour emission signifi-                  The approximate cost of the cover was $6,000 for
  cantly. Air leakage rate from the cover was 60L/s              installation. Operating cost was very small because
  at 100 Pa, which is equivalent to a toilet exhaust             the only variable cost was the power of the blower. It
  fan. A human could not detect any odour even                   appears that the inflated balloon type lagoon cover is
  when standing by the lagoon at the downstream                  a viable alternative method to reduce odour emission.
  of the wind. The cover also improved the
  landscape of the cite.
• Critical pressures (the minimum pressure to
                                                                 The authors appreciate the financial support from
  prevent the tarp from flapping) was determined.
                                                                 Canada-Saskatchewan Agricultural Green Plan. A
  The tarp must be operated at a pressure higher
                                                                 special thank you to Mr. G. McDonald for his
  than the critical pressure. The cover in this study
                                                                 excellent technical support for the installation
  was operated at 100 pa and remained steady
                                                                 of the lagoon cover.
  (without flapping) at wind speed of 50 km/h.

Figure 1. Sketch of the lagoon cover and the control systems.

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Figure 2. A balloon- type lagoon cover at the Prairie Swine Centre, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. The cover reduces
odour emissions as well as improves the landscape.

                              PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Figure 3. Attachment of the tarp to the concrete perimeter of the manure lagoon.

Figure 4. Air delivery and pressure control systems.

                               PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Figure 5. Relationship between the operating                    Figure 6. Measured and predicted critical pressures
pressure and the air leakage fromm the cover                    at different wind speeds

Figure 7. Free body diagram of an isotropic sphere and a partial sphere:
(a) half-sphere, and (b) partial sphere - the lagoon cover.

Table 1. Concentration and emission rates of ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from the covered lagoon.

 Date                     Temperature              Relative humidity                     Emission Rate (mg/s)
 (m-d)                       (°C)                         (%)                     NH3                    H2S
 9-22                          *                            *                     1.48                  0.0672
 9-29                        18.4                          59                     1.40                  0.0840
 10-05                        8.7                          75                     1.78                  0.0336
 10-10                       16.0                          38                     1.86                  0.1092
 10-16                       12.0                          70                     2.00                     *
 10-23                        9.5                          56                     0.97                  0.0756
 10-27                        3.7                          70                     .085                     *
 Mean                        11.4                          61                     1.47                  0.0739

* Missing Data

                               PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
STRAINS OF STREPTOCOCCUS SUIS WITH A                              These four S. suis serotype 2 proteins could be future
DIVERSITY OF SEROTYPES SHARE COMMON                               vaccine components and/or diagnostic aids as they
PROTEIN ANTIGENS                                                  are found to be present in many of the dominant
                                                                  pathogenic S. suis serotypes.
Shawna D. Peace, Philip J. Willson

Veterinary Infectious Disease Organization,                       Introduction
University of Saskatchewan, S7N 5E3
                                                                  Streptococcus suis bacteria are harbored in the nasal
                                                                  cavities of the host. Up to 98% of farms studied test
                                                                  positive for this organism, and 94% of the 4 - 8 week
SUMMARY                                                           old clinically healthy piglets tested can be carrying S.
                                                                  suis in their nasal cavities. There are four
Every year a substantial economic loss is incurred by             contributing factors to a high carrier rate in a swine
the swine industry and its producers as a result of               operation. They are: 1) excessive temperature fluctu-
Streptococcus suis infections within herds. Currently,            ations due to drafts, poorly insulated buildings, and
there are reported to be 34 different serotypes of S.             inadequate heaters, 2) a high relative humidity
suis, and the diversity of this organism is an obstacle           because of inadequate ventilation rates, 3) crowding,
which must be overcome if success is to be achieved               and 4) an age spread of greater than two weeks
in the areas of preventative care and diagnostics. The            between pigs in the same area. Infection with S. suis
protein profiles of 18 strains, representing different            results when susceptible piglets, who are under stress
serotypes, were examined to identify similar proteins             from weaning, mixing, and/or fighting, are exposed to
which may be potentially useful for further research              the bacteria shed from clinically healthy carrier pigs.
into these areas. The second objective was to
determine if the site, in an infected pig, from which             Serotypes 1 - 8 are the most prevalent and important
the sample was taken correlated to the presence or                disease causing serotypes of S. suis. Serotype 2
absence of specific proteins.                                     commonly represents approximately 32% of all
                                                                  isolates taken from diseased subjects. Serotypes 9 -
Eighteen strains of S. suis, representing the serotypes           13, 15, 16, and 22, have also been isolated from pigs
1 - 10, 12, and 15 - 18, provided the antigen                     demonstrating signs of disease. The prevalence of a
required for the experiment. The antisera was created             serotype is variable and dependent upon geographical
by injecting rabbits with four S. suis serotype 2                 location. In the U.S. serotype 1 and 2 have the
proteins and a S. suis subunit bacterin preparation.              highest incidence. Here in Western Canada serotypes
Subsequently, the antigens were separated on                      2 followed by 1/2, 3, 8, 9, and 4 are most prevalent.
acrylamide gels and exposed to each of the five
antisera using the procedure referred to as Western               Attempts to control disease through the use of
Blotting. The degree of reactivity observed between               antibiotics and vaccines have been somewhat
antiserum to each of the serotype 2 proteins and the              frustrating and disappointing. Studies have determined
eighteen strains was indicated by dark bands showing              that all S. suis strains are susceptible to enrofloxacin
the level of similarity.                                          and 97% are susceptible to ceftiofur. These antibiotics
                                                                  are used prophylactically in the form of medicated
The antiserum to the 44kDa, 55kDa, 78kDa, and                     early weaning programs but there are problems with
85kDa proteins and the subunit preparation each                   this approach. High carrier rates are still observed
demonstrated a reaction against all strains tested. A             despite the antibiotic therapy. As well, implemen-
127kDa protein also reacted with serotypes 2, 3, 4,               tation is expensive, and there is always the risk of
6, 7, 9ns, 9m, 9v, 10, 12, and 15. The strains from               resistance developing. The current vaccines also are
nasal swab, meningitis and tissue swab samples,                   inadequate. They either fail to confer sufficient
representing serotype 9, reacted in an identical                  protection or they are not effective against all of the
manner against all of the antisera.                               necessary serotypes (1). There are different approaches
                                                                  in the development of an S. suis vaccine. One is to
                                                                  use the polysaccharide capsule of the bacteria, but

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
S.suis polysaccharides are poorly immunogenic. A                 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
second approach is to use a live avirulent strain for
the immunization of swine (6). More recently specific            A high titer of at least 12, 500 was observed for each
protein antigens are being investigated as vaccines.             of the rabbit antisera to the serotype 2 proteins used
Antibodies produced and directed against certain                 for the next step. The Western blots showed reactivity
proteins could confer immunity to the animal and                 in all eighteen S. suis strains against each of the four
prevent future infection. Research has confirmed that            serotype 2 proteins. In blotting with the serum
bacterial protein fractions can generate protection              produced from the subunit bacterin preparation, the
against infection. Many researchers are coming to the            44kDa, 78kDa, and 85kDa proteins demonstrated
conclusion that a vaccine that is useful against S.suis          strong reactions but the 55kDa protein did not (Figure
infections will have to contain either a combination of          1). Interestingly, a protein having the molecular
proteins or a combination of polysaccharides and                 weight of approximately 127kDa appeared and
proteins in order to be successful.                              reacted with serotypes 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9ns, 9m, 9v, 10,
                                                                 12, and 15 (Figure 1).
With this in mind, the objectives of this study were as
follows: 1) to determine the reactivity between
antiserum to the four serotype 2 proteins and eighteen           Conclusions:
different strains of S. suis using the Western Blot
technique, and 2) to compare the production of these             1) The four S. suis serotype 2 proteins, sizes 45kDa,
4 proteins in three strains, all of serotype 9, but              55kDa, 78kDa, and 85kDa, were produced in each
isolated from different regions in an infected pig to            of the eighteen S. suis strains tested. The lightening
determine if location of isolation is related to the             of the 55kDa band in the Western blots using the
presence or absence of these proteins.                           antiserum to the subunit vaccine can be explained in
                                                                 two ways. The 55kDa protein could have a decreased
                                                                 antigenicity in the subunit vaccine. As well, the molar
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE                                           concentration of the 55kDa protein was substantially
                                                                 lower in the multi-antigen vaccine than in the single
Antigen was extracted from S. suis serotypes 1 - 9,              antigen vaccine. 2) It is possible that the 127kDa
10, 12, and 15 - 18. Table 1 shows which strains                 protein appearing on the multiple antigen
were used as representatives for each serotype. For              immunoblots is a 128kDa protein observed by other
capsular type 9, antigen was extracted from three                researchers to provide partial protection. 3) The three
different known samples: a nasal swab, a meningitis              strains, all representing serotype 9, display only subtle
sample, and a swab of internal tissues (spleen, lungs,           differences in the way in which they react with the
heart). Rabbit antisera were used that had been made             serotype 2 proteins. This suggests that location of
against a subunit bacterin preparation and four                  isolation is not related to the presence or absence of
serotype 2 proteins of the sizes 44kDa, 55kDa,                   these proteins.
78kDa and 85kDa. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent
Assays (ELISA) were used in the determination of the
antibody titers for each antisera. SDS-PAGE (Sodium
dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis)
was carried out in order to separate the S. suis
proteins. When separation had occurred, the material
was transferred from the gels to nitrocellulose
membranes. Once on the membranes, the proteins
were revealed using the rabbit antisera, a secondary
antibody, and substrate.

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
IMPLICATIONS                                                          Table 1. A Listing of the S.suis Strains used and the
                                                                      Serotypes each Represents
These protein antigens are commonly shared among
several serotypes of Streptococcus suis that cause                                Strain                 Serotype
disease in pigs. Experience with serotype-specific
vaccines is that they do no cross-protect against other                           SX349                     1
serotypes of S. suis. Hence, protein antigens are likely                          SX350                     2
candidates for development of future effective                                    SX351                     3
vaccines that will protect pigs against multiple                                  SX352                     4
serotypes of S. suis.                                                             SX353                     5
                                                                                  SX354                     6
                                                                                  SX355                     7
                                                                                  SX356                     8
                                                                                  SX357                     9
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                   SX202                    9ns
                                                                                  SX340                    9m
Thanks is extended to Sandy Klashinsky for her                                    SX328                    9v
technical assistance and guidance and to Wayne                                     SX12                    10
Conner for his assistance in the lab. This work was                               SX170                    12
supported, in part, by Alberta Agricultural Research                               SX93                    15
Institute Project 94M664 and Saskatchewan                                         SX102                    16
Agriculture and Food Project 95000300.                                            SX116                    17
                                                                                  SX148                    18

Figure 1. Western Blot of Streptococcus suis proteins from 18 strains that are similar to proteins from serotype
2 strain
                        Panel A                                                                Panel B






 Panel A: Serotypes 1 through 9 (Table !) and size                     Panel B: Strain SX-26 (serotype 2), serotypes 9ns
                  markers (kDa)                                              through 18 (Table 1} and size markers

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.            1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
                                                                  A total of 576 pigs of mixed gender were used in the
                                                                  study. The pigs were housed in one fully slatted room
Harold Gonyou and Zhensheng Lou                                   at the PSCI. The pigs averaged 25 kg when they were
                                                                  randomly allocated to 12 pens for each of four room
SUMMARY                                                           turns. Each pen housed 12 pigs providing an average
                                                                  space allowance of 0.86 m2/pig (9.3 ft2/pig) or approx-
Twelve commercial feeders were evaluated in 4 pens                imately 0.042 m2/kg BW0.667 at the end of the 12 week
of 12 pigs each during the 12-wk growing/finishing                room turn. Females and castrated males were
period. Feeders were classified according to their feed           allocated evenly among pens.
form (dry vs. wet/dry) and space (single vs. multiple
space). In total there were 2 single-space dry (SS-D),            The pigs were fed a mash (5/32” screen) diet based on
3 single space wet/dry (SS-WD), 4 multiple space dry              barley and soybean meal in a two-phase feeding
(MS-D), and 3 multiple space wet/dry (MS-WD).                     program. For the initial six weeks of the trial the diet
Average daily gain and feed disappearance were 5%                 provided 3.26 Mcal DE/kg and contained 16.8 %
greater with wet/dry feeders than with dry. The effect            crude protein; for the final six weeks of the trial the
of wet/dry feeders on growth was only evident during              diet provided 3.21 Mcal/kg and 16.1% crude protein.
the final 8 wk of the trial, while feed disappearance
tended to be higher throughout. Carcasses of pigs fed             Twelve models of commercially available feeders
from dry feeders yielded a higher lean percentage                 (Table 1) were evaluated in the study. Feeders were
than did those of pigs fed from wet/dry feeders.                  classified as wet/dry or dry depending on whether or
Single and multiple space feeders did not differ in               not water was available in the feeder trough. Feeders
gain or feed disappearance at any point during the                were also classified as single or multiple space
trial. Feed efficiency did not differ among feeder                depending on whether an individual or several pigs
classes.                                                          were intended to eat at one time.

                                                                  Feeders were installed as part of or adjacent to the
                                                                  pen division, approximately 1.6 m from the back of
                                                                  the pen. A single nipple drinker was mounted
                                                                  between the feeder and the rear wall for all dry
INTRODUCTION                                                      feeders and the wet/dry feeders whose manufacturers
                                                                  recommended an additional water source (Dyna-Fab
                                                                  and ACO single).

Many innovative hog feeders have appeared on the                  Pigs were weighed at the beginning of each study and
market in recent years. Facing a choice among                     at two-week intervals thereafter. Feed disappearance
dozens of commercial feeders, producers find it                   for each two-week period was also determined. In the
difficult to decide which feeder to choose for their              case of two pens sharing the same feeder, feed
operation. In order to provide information to aid in              disappearance was considered to be proportional to
such decision making, we designed a study to                      gain, resulting in identical efficiencies for both pens.
investigate the main types of growing/finishing feeders
currently available. The present study is one in a                At the end of 12 weeks, pigs were marketed as they
series which included evaluations on productivity,                reached 107 kg. Pigs were identified by tattoo and
wastage, feeding speed, pig preference and pig-feeder             carcass data were obtained from market records.
interaction. The present article summarizes the
productivity data.                                                Four turns of the room were used for a total of 48
                                                                  pens, representing four replicates per feeder. Not all
                                                                  feeders could be assigned to each room turn due to
                                                                  the fact that the two-sided feeders required two pens
                                                                  at once; but as many feeders as possible were
                                                                  included in each turn.

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                              the trial, the differences were not significant during
                                                                    the mid four-week period (P > 0.01) and only tended
Dry vs. Wet/Dry feeders                                             to be different for the final four weeks (P < 0.10).

Average daily gain for the entire 12-week trial, across             The improvement noted with wet/dry feeders over dry
all feeders was 0.895 kg/d. It should be noted that the             feeders occurred during the final eight weeks of the
pens were of mixed gender, so weight gain represents                trial. It has long been recognized that appetite
the average of barrows and gilts. Pen average daily                 generally constrains growth during the growing
feed disappearance was 2.74 kg/d. Pen feed                          period, but not during the finishing period. Thus it is
conversion efficiency expressed as gain:feed or                     not surprising that finishing pigs were capable of
feed:gain averaged 0.338 or 2.96, respectively. The                 growing more as wet/dry feeders facilitated higher
diet used was barley based, so feed conversion                      feed disappearance. The improvement observed in the
efficiencies were poorer than what would be                         present study with wet/dry feeders during the final
expected using corn or wheat based diets.                           eight weeks of the trial suggests that even greater
                                                                    benefits may be achieved with such feeders if pigs are
Average daily gain and feed disappearance were                      marketed at higher weights. The animals in this study
increased by 5% with wet/dry compared to dry                        averaged approximately 100 kg at the end of the
feeders over the entire trial (Table 2; P < 0.05).                  trials. Because of the prevailing market grid, at this
However, feed conversion efficiencies did not differ                point the larger animals were marketed. Nonetheless,
between dry and wet/dry feeders (P > 0.05).                         market weights are higher in other Canadian
                                                                    provinces and in the US, extending the pigs’ finishing
When all feeders were plotted (Figure 1) by class (dry              period for an additional two to four weeks.
or wet/dry; single or multiple space), there was very
little overlap between classes on the average daily
gain and feed disappearance, indicating that one can
be confident that a wet/dry feeder will result in                   Single vs. Multiple space
increased feed disappearance and improved weight
gains if pigs are offered a diet similar to that offered in         Average daily gain was higher (P < 0.05) for single
the present study. In contrast to weight gain and feed              space feeders during the first four weeks of the trial
disappearance, feed efficiency was not very consistent              (Figure 3), but shifted in favour of multiple space
within or between feeder groups. Even within one                    feeders during the mid four-week period of the trial
model of feeder, pens differed considerably in                      (P < 0.10). During the final four weeks, there was no
efficiency. Because of this variation, one can not be               difference between single and multiple space feeders
confident that a feeder from one particular class will              (P > 0.05). Average daily feed disappearance did not
result in improved feed conversion efficiency                       differ between single and multiple space feeders for
compared with one from a different class.                           any of the four-week periods of the present study
                                                                    (P > 0.05).
To determine the effect of feeder type on different
sizes of pigs, the data were divided into three four-               The single space feeders used in the present study
week periods, and each period analyzed separately.                  provided protection to the head and shoulders of the
Average daily gain was not different between dry and                feeding pig. This protection, during the period of the
wet/dry feeders for the first four weeks of the trial               trial when social disputes are most common, may
(Figure 2; P < 0.05). However, pigs feeding from the                have contributed to the slight increase in gain early in
wet/dry feeders had superior weight gain compared                   the trial. However, multiple space feeders tended to
with those feeding from dry feeders for the mid and                 produce more gain thereafter, and overall there were
final four-week periods of the trial (P < 0.01). Feed               no significant differences in gain or feed
disappearance was numerically higher but not                        disappearance.
different (P > 0.05) for wet/dry compared to dry
feeders for the first four weeks of the trial. Although             Feed conversion efficiency did not differ for any of the
feed disappearance appeared to remain higher for                    four-week periods between single and multiple space
wet/dry feeders compared with dry feeders throughout                feeders (P > 0.05).

                                   PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Feed conversion efficiency was quite variable within               Implications
each class of feeder, and among pens for individual                Producers must consider several factors when
feeders. Overall, no one characteristic of feeders, dry            selecting feeders for growing - finishing pigs. If a rapid
or wet/dry, single or multiple space, affected                     turn over of pens is desired, the use of wet/dry feeders
efficiency consistently. Although efficiency is usually            will enable pigs to be marketed 5 - 7 days earlier.
correlated with feed disappearance and rapidly                     This difference may be greater if pigs are marketed at
growing animals, it is also affected by feed wastage.              higher weights than in this study.
Wastage in turn is affected by management and
maintenance of the equipment and the eating style of               The diet offered in this study was mash, which
individual pigs. It would appear that efficiency is a              favours wet/dry feeders. The difference between feeder
critical feature to be considered during design of pig             types would likely be less if pelleted diets were fed.
                                                                   Producers must also consider carcass index. The more
                                                                   rapid growth of pigs fed from wet/dry may not offset
                                                                   the slight reduction in lean percentage.
Carcass characteristics
                                                                   Feed efficiency is also a major factor to be
There were no significant differences in carcass                   considered, but this study was not able to distinguish
characteristics between all feeder types                           any differences among feeders.
(Table 3; P > 0.05) with the exception of lean
percentage of pigs fed from dry and wet/dry feeders.
Dry feeders yielded higher lean percentages than did               Acknowledgements:
wet/dry feeders (P < 0.05). Among the four feeder
classes, dry-multiple-space feeders resulted in 1%                 These trials were funded in part by the manufacturers
more lean than wet-single-space feeders. Such a result             or distributors of the feeders studied, the
has also been reported in a similar study in Australia.            Saskatchewan Agriculture Development Fund, the
                                                                   Alberta Agricultural Research Institute, and Pig
                                                                   Improvement (Canada).
Table 1. Feeders included in production study.

             Manufacturer                      Model or                    Dry or                     Single or
           or Brand Name                      Description                  Wet/Dry                  Multiple Space

       Prairie Swine Centre                   Experimental                   Dry                        Single
                   Domino                        F-H1                        Dry                        Single

             Crystal Spring                  F3050 (12 in)                 Wet/Dry                      Single
                 Dyna-Fab                      Finishing                   Wet/Dry                      Single
                      ACO                   Food & Drinker                 Wet/Dry                      Single

                     Better                 Finisher, 2-hole                 Dry                       Multiple
                      ACO                   ATS 32, 2-hole                   Dry                       Multiple
                  Hog Slat                   4-hole (40 in)                  Dry                       Multiple
                  Koenders                   4-hole (34 in)                  Dry                       Multiple

                      Aqua                        30 in                    Wet/Dry                     Multiple
             Crystal Spring                   F3250 (24 in)                Wet/Dry                     Multiple
                  Egebjerg                     Tube-o-Mat                  Wet/Dry                     Multiple

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.          1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Table 2. The effect of feeder type (dry vs wet/dry and single vs multiple space) on average daily gain, feed
disappearance and feed efficiency of growing-finishing pigs offered a barley-soybean mash diet

                                                        P                                                        P
                                   Dry       Wet/Dry P value                         Single      Multiple     P value

      Daily gain, kg              0.873        0.917        0.02                     0.883         0.904          0.25

         Daily feed
  disappearance, kg                2.66         2.82        0.01                      2.69         2.77           0.54

     Feed efficiency
           gain/feed              0.329        0.326        0.45                     0.329         0.325          0.47
           feed/gain              3.05         3.08         0.45                     3.04          3.08           0.47

Table 3. The effect of feeder type (dry vs wet/dry and single vs multiple space) on carcass characteristics of
growing-finishing pigs

                                 Shipping       Carcass                                   Lean
                                 weights,       weights,         Lean,       Fat,         yield,
  Feeder Type                       kg            kg              mm         mm             %             Index
  Dry                             105.4          83.4            56.9        21.9         57.0a           108.1
  Wet/Dry                         105.4          83.3            55.5        23.0         56.3b           107.1

  Single                           105.4          83.4           56.1        22.5          56.5           107.6
  Multiple                         105.5          83.3           56.4        22.4          56.8           107.6

  Dry-Single                       105.6          83.6           57.4        22.0        56.8ab           108.3
  Dry-Multiple                     105.3          83.2           56.4        21.9        57.2a            107.9
  Wet-Single                       105.2          83.2           54.7        23.1        56.1b            106.5
  Wet-Multiple                     105.6          83.5           56.3        23.0        56.4b            107.3

The critical P value used in comparisons is P = 0.05.

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.          1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Figure 1. Average daily weight gain, daily feed                 Figure 2. Comparisons of average daily weight gain,
disappearance and feed efficiency on four types of              daily feed disappearance between dry and wet/dry
feeders over 12-week period                                     feeders over time

Each column represents one model of feeders.
Models are grouped by type: Single Space Dry/SS-D;
Multiple Space Dry/MS-D;

Single Space Wet-Dry/SS-WD; Multiple Space Wet-

A column does not necessarily represents the same
model in each figure.

For ADG, wet-dry, dry, P<0.05; for ADFD, wet-dry,
dry, P<0.05.

                                                                 Figure 3. Comparisons of average daily weight gain,
                                                                daily feed disappearance between single-and
                                                                multiple-space feeders over time

                               PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

GESTATION AND FARROWING HOUSING.                                   Farrowing crates are intended to increase piglet safety
                                                                   by severely restricting sows’ freedom of movement.
Moira Harris and Harold Gonyou                                     Since the normal pre-farrowing behaviour of a feral
                                                                   sow consists of a period of increased walking
SUMMARY                                                            followed by construction of a farrowing nest,
                                                                   confining the sow to a farrowing crate creates welfare
Farrowing crates are designed to restrict a sow’s
movements in order to reduce crushing; however,                    Confinement in crates and stalls affects sows’
their effectiveness in protecting piglets has been                 behaviour; for example it makes lying down more
questioned. The use of crates alters maternal                      difficult (and it is therefore performed more slowly).
behaviour and may threaten sow welfare. A study                    Transferring sows from a relatively free situation (a
was designed to test the effects of gestation and                  group) to one that is more restrictive (a crate) in late
farrowing housing on locomotory behaviour and                      pregnancy may have additional negative effects on
maternal responses. It was hypothesized that                       behaviour; however, non-stall gestation systems are
increasing available space would allow sows to move                now receiving more attention in an attempt to
more easily, and facilitate comfort and maternal                   increase sow welfare.
                                                                   A minor change in the dimensions of a confinement
Twenty-four gilts were allocated to either a stall or              housing design can markedly affect sows’ behaviour.
small group during gestation, followed by either a                 A relevant question, therefore, is whether dimensions
narrow crate (42.5 cm wide), wide crate (80 cm                     can be altered to facilitate specific changes in
wide) or pen (2.4 m x 2.4 m) for farrowing and                     behaviour. It was hypothesized that increasing the
lactation.                                                         available space in a farrowing crate, without changing
                                                                   any other feature, would facilitate locomotory
Maternal responsiveness (as measured by a simulated                behaviour and appropriate maternal responsiveness.
piglet crushing event) was not affected by housing.
Twenty-four hour time budgets of body postures
                                                                   EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
(lateral lying; sternal lying or lying on the udder,
standing; sitting) were affected by farrowing housing,
particularly prepartum, with gilts housed in wide                  Twenty-four crossbred gilts were allocated to gestate
crates showing greater pre-farrowing restlessness. This            in either individual stalls or small groups.
effect was more pronounced after gestation in groups.              Approximately five days before they were due to
Gilts took longer to lie down, and were less                       farrow, gilts were moved to one of 3 types of
consistent in their use of a support during lying down             farrowing housing: a narrow crate (42.5 cm wide,
in the wide crate than in either the narrow crate or               equivalent in width to crates currently in use at Prairie
pen.                                                               Swine Centre); a wide crate (80 cm wide, designed to
                                                                   accommodate the standing up and lying down
A widened farrowing crate did not facilitate                       movements of a 200 kg gilt without restriction); or a
movement, and appeared less comfortable before                     pen (2.4 m x 2.4 m, the approximate size of a
farrowing than either a narrow crate or pen. The wide              traditional farrowing pen). Farrowing housing
crate provided neither the support and apparent                    incorporated a heated, lit piglet creep area. Flooring
security of a narrow crate, nor the freedom of                     was plastic-coated expanded metal, and no bedding
movement of a pen.                                                 was provided. Gilts and piglets were managed in
                                                                   accordance with usual barn procedure, with farrowing
                                                                   being induced on day 113 of gestation using an
                                                                   intramuscular prostaglandin injection.

                                                                   Behavioural observations were made during gilts’
                                                                   occupancy of farrowing quarters. On days -5 and -1

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
(before farrowing) and days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 after              bouts. Again, this effect depended on the type of
farrowing, 24-hour time-lapse videotapes were used                gestation housing: gilts in the wide crate that had
to calculate a time budget of postural behaviour. The             gestated in groups spent more time lying sternally
four main postures adopted by sows are lying laterally            than those who had previously occupied stalls
(on the side); lying sternally (on the udder); standing;          (Figure 2).
and sitting. The percentage of time spent in each
posture, the number of bouts (episodes of behaviour)
of each posture and the average duration of each                  Standing Up and Lying Down
postural bout were calculated. On the same seven
occasions, standing up and lying down behaviour                   Time taken by gilts to stand up was not affected by
was examined in more detail: a real-time videotape of             gestation or farrowing housing, or by their phase of
standing up and lying down sequences was analyzed.                gestation or lactation. Lying down behaviour,
Lying down has previously been found to comprise                  however, did vary. Gilts lay down more quickly after
five stages: three active stages and two pauses;                  farrowing than before, perhaps because they were
standing up comprises three stages: two active stages             lighter and therefore more agile. Gilts in the wide
and one pause. The average duration of these stages,              farrowing crate took significantly longer to lie down
and the total average time taken to stand up and lie              than those in either the narrow crate or pen (Table 1).
down, was measured. Additionally, it was noted                    Studies done in the U.K. have suggested that slow
whether the sow chose to lie down using the crate                 lying down indicates difficulty in making the posture
side or pen wall as a support. Finally, a test of                 change, whereas quicker lying indicates ease of
maternal responsiveness was conducted on day 2                    movement; quick lying has also been speculated to
after farrowing: a tape-recorded piglet distress squeal           reduce piglets’ likelihood of being crushed, provided
(simulating a piglet being crushed) was played behind             they are outside the sow zone when lying
the sow when she was in the process of lying down.                commences. Table 1 also illustrates gilts’ use of the
Her responses to the sound (stand up or continue to               crate side or pen wall as a support during lying down.
lie down; time taken to complete this action; and                 Occupants of the narrow crate and pen chose to use a
subjective response to the sound, for example ear                 support during lying down on most occasions;
flicking, looking towards the sound) were noted.                  however those in the wide crate used a support less
                                                                  than half the time. Use or non-use of a support,
                                                                  however, by occupants of the wide crate, did not
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                            affect time taken to lie down. Hence, the properties of
                                                                  the wide crate that impeded quick lying (or at least,
Time Budget                                                       did not facilitate it), were unaltered by use of a lying
Prior to farrowing, postural time budget varied
significantly with the type of farrowing housing.
After farrowing, results were not significant. Five days          Maternal Responsiveness
before farrowing (on the day gilts were transferred
from gestation to farrowing housing), gilts in the                Only six out of 24 gilts responded ‘positively’ to the
narrow crate spent significantly more time lying                  piglet squeal stimulus — by standing up after hearing
laterally (side lying is considered a restful posture),           the sound, ear flicking, and looking towards the
and less time standing (considered to indicate                    sound. This response was very variable among gilts,
increased vigilance) than other gilts, regardless of              and was not affected by type of housing during either
their gestation housing. In the wide farrowing crate,             gestation or farrowing.
gilts’ response depended on their gestation housing
(Figure 1). Gilts in the wide crate that had gestated in          First parity sows housed in a widened farrowing crate
groups spent significantly more time lying sternally              displayed more restless behaviour before farrowing,
(again, a less restful posture) than those who had                took longer to lie down and made less use of a
been housed in gestation stalls. On the day before                support during lying than gilts in either a conven-
farrowing, all gilts exhibited restless behaviour and             tional, narrow crate or a farrowing pen. Prepartum
increased posture changing, a normal prepartum                    restlessness was exaggerated when gilts had gestated
behaviour. However, gilts in the widened farrowing                in groups then moved to a wide crate for farrowing,
crate displayed exaggerated restlessness: less time               which involved a change in degree of movement
spent lying laterally, more, shorter bouts of lateral             restriction late in pregnancy. There was no evidence
lying, and more time spent lying sternally in more                from this study that increasing the available space in a

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
farrowing crate, without altering any other feature,                    IMPLICATIONS
facilitated locomotion or maternal responses. In
contrast, the wide crate produced more negative                         It appears that a widened farrowing crate provided
effects on locomotory behaviour than a narrow one.                      neither the apparent support and security of a narrow
However, narrow crates or pens may reduce the                           crate, nor the freedom of movement of a pen. The
welfare of sows or piglets in other ways not assessed                   quality of space, as well as its quantity, is important.
in this study.                                                          Increasing an animal’s freedom of movement by a
                                                                        small amount, in an attempt to increase its welfare,
                                                                        may actually produce detrimental results. In
                                                                        producing “alternative” housing designs, animal-
                                                                        centred testing is necessary to ensure that a new
                                                                        design does not lead to effects which are counter-

Table 1. Lying down behaviour of gilts in 3 farrowing environments.

      Behaviour                      Narrow                     Wide                    Pen                P value

      Total time taken to lie          13.1a                    18.2b                  12.0a                 0.01
      down (sec):

      % of lying down using            71.7a                    34.6b                  88.6a                 0.01
      crate side or pen
      wall for support

      Means in a row with different superscript letters differ at P < 0.05

                                    PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.            1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Figure 1. Percentage of time spent lying sternally in 3 farrowing environments by gilts previously housed in
gestation stalls or groups (five days before farrowing).

       Means without a common superscript (same farrowing accommodation) are different at P < 0.05.
      Gilts in the wide crate that had gestated in groups spent significantly more time lying sternally than those who
      had gestated in stalls.

Figure 2. Percentage of time spent lying sternally in three farrowing environments by gilts previously housed in
gestation stalls or groups (One day before farrowing).

      Means without a common superscript (same farrowing accommodation) are different at P < 0.05
      Means without a common superscript (same farrowing accommodation) are different at P < 0.01.
      Gilts in the wide crate that had gestated in groups spent significantly more time lying sternally than those who
      had gestated in stalls.

                                    PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
WATER USE AND DRINKER MANAGEMENT:                                  Intake vs. Disappearance
                                                                   Most studies measure the amount of water that flows
Harold Gonyou                                                      through the drinker and report it as intake. Although
                                                                   this represents the amount of water used by the pigs,
                                                                   much of it is not consumed but wasted. Newborn
                                                                   pigs are reported to waste more than 25% of the
Importance of Water Intake                                         water which disappears from their drinker bowls
                                                                   (Phillips and Fraser, 1990), and growing/finishing pigs
Water plays a number of important roles in the pig.                may waste up to 60% of the water from a nipple
Thermoregulation, feed intake and metabolism,                      drinker (Brooks, 1994). Spillage by sows varies from
urinary tract health, and behavioural disorders all                23-80% of water use, depending on flow rate (Phillips
interact in some way with water consumption. The                   et al., 1990a). Reducing the amount of spillage from
result of these functions is that productivity on pig              drinkers would lower water and slurry costs signifi-
farms will suffer if adequate water intake is not                  cantly, without affecting water intake.

Water is used in thermoregulation, as a means of
cooling through evaporation during breathing. Water                Water Intake of Pigs
intake by growing pigs doubles as environmental
temperatures rise from 5° to 35° C. Water is also                  Newborn piglets usually drink less than 50 ml per
necessary to accommodate excesses of certain                       day, for the first few days (Fraser et al., 1988;
nutrients. If pigs are fed protein in excess of their lean         Pedersen, 1988). Intake begins earlier, and is greater,
growth potential requirements, water intake increases              if bowls are used. Bubbling air through the water, to
dramatically (Brooks, 1994). In a similar manner, if               attract the piglet, may increase intake to over 100
the salt content of the diet is high, water needs                  ml/day during this period. Intake gradually increases
increase (Brooks et al., 1989). The health of animals              to approximately 150 mL/day by 21 days of age
may be adversely affected if water intake is limited.              (Svebdsen and Andreasson, 1981). Intake increases
Death may occur due to ‘salt poisoning’ if pigs do not             considerably after that age (Bekaert and Daelemans,
consume enough water. This most frequently occurs if               1970), perhaps because of increased intake of dry
water nipples become plugged or animals cannot                     feed (Brooks et al., 1989).
access water because nipples are too high or difficult
to trigger. The incidence of urinary tract infections is           Intake in the nursery is very unpredictable for the first
higher in sows with low water intakes (Madec, 1984).               5 days, and then varies with feed intake (McLeese et
                                                                   al., 1992). Intakes of 4 L/day during the first 2 days
Feed and water intake are closely related. Suckling                post-weaning, and then only 2 L/day have been
pigs will increase water consumption if they are                   reported (Pendersen, 1989). Other studies report from
provided creep feed (Brooks et al., 1989), and                     0.43 to 5.5 L/day (Svendsen and Andreasson, 1981;
conversely, creep feed intake will increase if water is            Lightfoot, 1986b; Brooks and Carpenter, 1989). Intake
provided (Lightfoot, 1986b). Within the nursery, when              is very dependent upon feed intake at this time, and
feed and water are both readily available, water and               excessive water is consumed until the pigs adapt to
feed intake vary proportionally with each other                    solid feed.
(Maenz et al., 1993). If water intake is limited, for
example by low flow rates, feed intake will decrease               During the growing/finishing period, water intake
(Brooks et al., 1989). However, if feed intake is                  increases with feed intake and body weight. Some
limited, water intake may rise as hungry pigs drink if             estimates range from 1.9 to 6.8 L/day (Brooks and
they cannot eat (Yang et al., 1984).                               Carpenter, 1989). Intake, or perhaps disappearance,
                                                                   is greater if drinkers are used compared to wet/dry
                                                                   feeders (Pig International, 1994). When expressed in
                                                                   terms of feed intake, water consumption is approxi-
                                                                   mately 3.5 L/kg of feed (Hepherd, 1981).

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Estimates for water intake by gestating sows vary from             Types of Drinkers
7 to 17 L/day (Brooks and Carpenter, 1989; Lightfoot,
1986a; and Madec et al., 1986). Housing conditions                 The means by which we provide water to pigs may be
affect intake, with group housed sows consuming                    classified into five categories: valve, bowl, trough,
40% less than tethered (Pig International, 1994).                  straw, and feeder.
Intake during lactation remains at prefarrowing levels
for the first day, and then increases dramatically                 Valve drinkers require the pig to open the valve and
(Lightfoot, 1986a). Estimates range from 12 to 18                  drink directly from the device. Valve drinkers may be
L/day (Brooks and Carpenter, 1989; Phillips et al.,                further classified as nipple, bite and button drinkers.
1990; and Pig International, 1994), but vary with                  For nipple drinkers, pigs need only move the
litter size (Lightfoot, 1986a). However, wastage                   activating ‘nipple’ to one side and water will flow.
varies from 33 - 48% of disappearance, reducing                    Bite drinkers require the pig to bite on the mechanism
intake levels to approximately 7 L/day.                            for activation. Button drinkers require the animal to
                                                                   push the activator in to open the valve.

                                                                   Bowl drinkers allow the pig to drink directly from a
Drinking Behaviour                                                 pool of water. Water is added to the pool by a
                                                                   number of means. A float valve may be used to
Few studies have reported the number of drinks pigs                maintain a relatively constant level. Alternatively,
take per day. Growing pigs have been reported to                   nipple and button type valves may be used to allow
drink 36 times/day, with a total duration of 22                    pigs to fill the bowl themselves. Bowl drinkers may be
minutes/day (Xin and deShazer, 1991). In one study,                hooded in order to protect the pig while it is drinking,
nursery pigs spent only 3 to 4 minutes/day drinking                or prevent it from fouling the water with faeces or
when flow rate was low (Brooks, 1994). However,                    urine.
other studies with pigs as young as 10 weeks of age
indicate that pigs will spend 30 minutes/day drinking.             Trough drinkers also allow pigs to drink from a pool
                                                                   of water, but provide sufficient space for several pigs
Drinking is generally associated with meals. For pigs              to drink at once. They are usually mounted at floor
less than 40 kg, 85% of drinking occurs within 10                  level. Troughs are usually filled manually or by means
minutes of a meal. This decreases to 75% for larger                of a float valve. However, valve type drinkers may be
pigs (Bigelow and Houpt, 1988). Pigs fed restrictively             mounted over a trough to give pigs the options of
also drink intensively for the hour after feeding. Very            drinking either way. Trough drinkers are commonly
small meals will induce over-drinking in pigs (Ingram              used for gestating sows, with water being added to
et al., 1981), and hungry nursery pigs consume                     the feed trough following each meal. Eating stimulates
excessive amounts of water (Yang et al., 1981).                    drinking, and water intake may be increased by 4
Drinker- directed stereotypies (compulsive ‘playing’               L/day if sows are fed and watered twice daily (Madec
with the nipple) may account for excessive water                   et al., 1986). Trough drinkers are also commonly used
disappearance by stalled sows (Pig International,                  for suckling and nursery pigs, in which case they are
1994; Bergeron, 1995).                                             likely to facilitate the discovery and early intake of
Newborn pigs learn to drink by imitation of their
littermates (Phillips and Fraser, 1990). Piglets find the          Straw drinkers require the pig to suck on a tube to
water more quickly if it is in a bowl, rather than a               draw water into its mouth from a pool (Vandenheede
nipple, and in as little as 14 hours if air is bubbled             and Nicks, 1991). The pool is covered, to prevent
through the water (Phillips and Fraser, 1991). The                 fouling and spillage. Because water can only be
preference for bowls continues into the                            drawn from the tube if the pig’s mouth is sealed over
growing/finishing stage, but if the bowl becomes                   the straw, spillage is virtually nil. Straw systems are
fouled with feed, pigs will change their preference to             more expensive than troughs, because the pool of
nipples (Brooks et al., 1989). Pigs avoid drinking                 water is enclosed. Some animals have difficulty
water that has been fouled by faeces (Pedersen,                    learning to drink from straws, and it is necessary to
1989). If water has a bad taste, sweet flavouring                  run water through them until they do so. Although
agents may improve consumption (Brooks et al.,
                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
few straw systems are in use, the concept may                     a wall while drinking is believed to accomplish this.
deserve more consideration in situations in which                 A Swedish study reported that mounting the drinker
water conservation is critical.                                   on a short wall protruding from the side of the pen
                                                                  reduced water wastage by 35% (Olsson, 1983). The
The final means of providing water to pigs is in the              position required pigs to stand in the dunging area,
feeding system. Wet feeding, in which water and feed              facing toward the sleeping area while they drank. The
are mixed prior to presentation to the pig, are gaining           preferred orientation of the pig facing the drinker can
popularity. A second feeder based presentation is via             be encouraged by placing flanges or ‘wings’ on either
wet/dry feeders. In this case, the pig may access feed            side of the nipple (Gill and Barber, 1990). A farm
and water independently, and control the proportion               which installed such ‘wings’ on its drinkers reduced
of each that they consume.                                        wastage by 50%.

Most studies on valve systems use nipple drinkers.                Most nipple drinkers are mounted horizontally or
Water spillage is generally higher with nipple drinkers           pointing downward at a 45° angle from the wall. In
than with bowls (Bekaert and Daelemans, 1970). As a               growing/finishing operations, nipples mounted in this
result, water use is less with bowls or wet/dry feeders           fashion should be raised as pigs grow. If nipples were
than with nipple drinkers (Bokma and Duijf, 1988;                 mounted pointing upward, at a 45° angle from the
Pedersen, 1989, 1994; Plagge and van Leuteren,                    wall, there would be no need to adjust the height as
1989). The difference in water use between bowls                  all sizes of pigs would drink from floor level. Results
and nipple drinkers varies from 15 to over 30%. Use               of this mounting angle are contradictory. A Swedish
of bite drinkers, which require pigs to have their                study reported that such an angle reduced water
mouth properly positioned on the valve to activate it,            waste, but that nipples frequently plugged (Olsson,
reduces water wastage compared to nipple drinkers                 1983). An American study also found nipples plugged
(Gill and Barber, 1990).                                          frequently in this position, but reported a 50%
                                                                  increase in waste (Carlson and Peo, 1982). There
Bowl drinkers not only reduce water wastage, but                  appear to be no differences in water use or waste
also facilitate intake by suckling and nursery pigs               between nipples mounted at 90° or downward at 45°
compared with nipple drinkers (Pedersen, 1994). Pigs              (Pedersen, 1987).
provided with bowls take fewer drinks, and spend less
time drinking, than those using nipple drinkers. Pigs             The height at which the drinker should be mounted
interrupt feeding in order to drink more often with               depends upon its angle and the size of the pig. For
nipples compared with bowl drinkers (Orban et al.,                drinkers pointing straight out from the wall, the pig
1978).                                                            should drink at shoulder height. If nipples are
                                                                  mounted downward, pigs should lift their head
                                                                  slightly (Gill and Barber, 1990). The proper angle is
                                                                  achieved by placing the nipple 5 cm above the back
Management of Nipple Drinkers                                     of the pig, or 20% higher than shoulder height. If the
                                                                  drinker is higher than this level, pigs have difficulty
Management of nipple drinkers is directed to ensuring             drinking, and if it is lower, wastage is increased. The
adequate intake, minimal wastage, and easy                        formula for drinker height (tip of drinker) for nipples
maintenance. Some of the factors involved are:                    installed at 90° angle, in cm, is 15 * BW0.33 (kg),
location, mounting angle, height, number of drinkers,             which is the approximate equivalent to shoulder
and flow rates.                                                   height. The formula for drinker height (tip of drinker)
                                                                  for downward mounted nipples, in cm, is 18 * BW0.33
Standard recommendations are to mount water                       (kg), which is the approximate equivalent to 120% of
nipples over or at the edge of the preferred dunging              shoulder height. Nipples should be set at a height to
area, and in close proximity to the feeder. Because               accommodate the smallest pig in the pen (Table 1).
more water is wasted if pigs grasp the drinker with
the side of their mouth, location should encourage                Water use, and presumably water wastage, increases
the pig to face the drinker (Bokma and Duijf, 1988).              with flow rate (Barber et al., 1989; Nienaber and
Mounting close to a corner, so that pigs stand against            Hahn, 1984). Flow rates higher than the pig’s

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
maximum rate of drinking result in water spillage, but             increases. Pigs should immerse their mouth into the
we know little about maximum intake rates. The                     water to drink. It has been suggested that the height
maximum intake rate for sows seems to be 1,800                     of the lip of the bowl should be 40% of the height of
mL/min (Phillips et al., 1990), but this has not been              the smallest pig.
extrapolated to other age classes. If we assume that
rate of intake is proportional to body weight, then the            The number of pigs per bowl can exceed that
maximum rate for a 25 kg pig would be approxi-                     recommended for nipple drinkers. Danish work
mately 180 mL/min. Even at flow rates below                        suggests up to 30 pigs per bowl, although this may
maximum intake rates, wastage would be positively                  depend on the design of the drinker. Flow rate should
related to flow rate as spillage during accidental                 be adequate to keep up with the drinking rate of the
activation would be higher with fast flowing nipples.              pig, and can exceed it without resulting in wastage. A
It would appear that minimal flow rates should be                  flow rate of 1,000 mL/min seems to be adequate for
used, provided feed intake and gain are not affected               growing/finishing pigs. The shape of the bowl will
(Barber et al., 1988; Leibbrandt, 1991; Shurson,                   affect cleanliness, and should allow pigs to access all
1989; Shurson and Sorrell, 1990). However, the level               parts of the bowl, particularly areas where sediment
at which flow rate affects intake and gain differs                 might accumulate.
among reports. The most common recommendations
for flow rates are 500 mL/min in nurseries, 700 in                 Bowls have a number of advantages over nipple
grow/finish, 1,000 in gestation, and 1,500 for                     drinkers. Pigs learn to drink earlier from bowls than
lactating sows (Brooks and Carpenter, 1989). Flow                  from nipples, and this is particularly important for
rates differ considerably among drinkers, and with                 newborn and newly weaned pigs. Pigs waste less
water pressure within drinkers (Schulte et al., 1990;              water from bowls than from nipples, with estimates of
Table 2).                                                          approximately 30-40% less water use. However,
                                                                   bowls are affected by fouling by faeces or feed and
The general recommendation is that one nipple                      this will limit water intake (Pedersen, 1994). Pigs
drinker should be provided for every 10 pigs in a pen.             prefer clean water from bowls to that from nipples,
An American study reported reduced gain in nursery                 but reverse the preference if the bowls are fouled with
pigs if only one nipple was provided for 16 pigs.                  feed (Brooks, 1994).
However, most recommendations also suggest that at
least two nipples be provided per pen. Although this
appears at first to be a precaution against the plugging
of one drinker, wastage is also reduced if multiple                Wet and Wet/Dry Feeders
nipples are available. This reduction is believed to be
the result of less competition at the drinkers.                    Water may be pre-mixed with the feed before the mix
                                                                   is delivered to the pens (wet feeding) or water is
                                                                   provided by a nipple, bite or button type drinker in
                                                                   the feeder (wet/dry). Water use with wet/dry feeders is
Management of Bowl Drinkers                                        reduced by 10-15% compared with a dry feeder and
                                                                   bowl (van Cuyck, 1991). Wet/dry feeders also increase
Bowl drinkers should be placed over the slatted area               consumption of meal feed approximately 5%
of the pen, but not in a corner, as this results in                compared with dry feeders and a separate nipple
frequent fouling of the bowl with faeces. When more                drinker (Gonyou, 1996).
than one drinker is provided, the bowls should be
kept close together. Otherwise one will become                     One of the more controversial management decisions
fouled and will not be used. Pigs should stand in                  to make regarding the use of wet or wet/dry feeding is
front of the bowl while drinking, and this may be                  whether to provide an additional source of water in
accomplished by hooding the bowl.                                  the pen. If pigs are not able to control their water
                                                                   intake, as with wet feeding, the danger of ‘salt’
Pigs should drink from a bowl with their head slightly             poisoning is increased. Water is necessary to clear
lowered. If the bowl is mounted too high, the pig will             various salts from the body, and if the feed contains
bite the lip of the bowl; if too low, the risk of fouling          high levels of salt, more water must be provided. The

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
provision of an additional drinker when wet/dry                   Conclusions
feeders are used has been reported to increase
average daily gain by 50 g (National Committee,                   Water is an essential need for pigs, and inadequate
1992). However, the effectiveness of additional                   access to it may result in reduced feed intake,
drinkers may depend upon the design of the feeders,               reduced production, and increased health problems.
as other reports show no increase. In general, if                 Water intake is particularly important among newborn
wet/dry feeders require pigs to drink directly from the           pigs and newly weaned pigs. Inadequate intake is
within feeder drinker, the recommendation is to                   common at these times, and limits survival and
provide an additional drinker elsewhere in the pen. If            production. Water wastage contributes to the cost of
the feeder allows pigs to drink from a pool of water,             production through both supply and disposal. These
an additional water source does not appear to be                  costs are likely to increase and the importance of
warranted.                                                        reducing wastage will become more critical in the

Research Needs

Recommendations for drinker height, bowl size and
flow rates should be based on pig weight, according
to formulae rather than weight classes.                           Table 1. Recommended height of nipple drinkers
Recommendations for nipple height seem to be well                 mounted at a downward angle.
established, and have been expressed using an
allometric relationship between weight and shoulder                Weight- Smallest Pig (kg)    Nipple Height (cm)
height. Bowl size for various weight classes of pigs
have not been documented, but appear to be at the                             10                       39
discretion of manufacturers. Flow rate recommen-                              20                       49
dations have been based on empirical studies, and                             30                       56
not related to the body weight of the pigs. It is not                         40                       61
known if maximum intake rate is proportional to body                          50                       66
weight, or to some exponential of body weight.                                60                       70
Maximum intake rate has been determined for sows                              80                       77
(Phillips et al., 1990), but not for smaller pigs.                           100                       83

There have been few studies on the relative location
of drinkers and feeders on feed and water intake.
Several recommendations for drinker position, such as
locating the drinker on a wall protruding from the
side of the pen (Olsson, 1983), have not been widely
adopted by the industry, perhaps because supporting
evidence has been lacking. Other management
                                                                  Table 2. Recommended flow rates for nipple
suggestions, such as hooding of bowls or providing
protective flanges on the sides of nipples, may also
require additional supporting evidence before they are                 Stage of Production      Flow rate (ml/min)
                                                                             Nursery                  500
Comparisons among different types or models of                             Grow/finish                700
drinkers need to continue, as new designs appear                            Gestation                 1000
regularly. It is recommended that such studies include                      Lactation                 1500
variables that will contribute to our understanding of
what contributes to the success of a design. These
should include pig behaviour, water wastage, injuries
to the pigs, damage to the equipment, and the need
for care and maintenance.

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
References                                                         Gill, B. P. and J. Barber. 1990. Water delivery
                                                                     systems for growing pigs. Farm Building Progress
Barber, J., P. H. Brooks and J. L. Carpenter. 1988.                  102:19-22.
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  number on the water use of growing pigs. Anim.                   Gonyou, H.W. 1996. Feeder design - What to look
  Prod. 46:521 (Abstract).                                           for. Proc. 1996 Satellite Conference, Prairie Swine
Barber, J., P. H. Brooks and J. L. Carpenter. 1989.
  The effects of water delivery rate on the voluntary              Hepherd, R. Q. 1981. The pattern of water
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  and Lawrence).
                                                                   Ingram, D. L., D. F. Sharman and D. B. Stephens.
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                                                                   Leibbrandt, V. and NCR-89. 1991. Effect of nipple
Bergeron, R. 1995. Environmental, Genetic and                         drinker water flow rate and season on swine
  Nutritional Factors Involved in the Development of                  lactation performance. J. Anim. Sci. 69(Suppl.
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                                                                   Lightfoot, A. 1986a. Water for sows. Pig
Bigelow, J. A. and T. R. Houpt. 1988. Feeding and                     International, January, pg. 22-23.
   drinking patterns in young pigs. Physiol. Behav.
   43:99-109.                                                      Lightfoot, A. 1986b. Water before and after
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Bokma, S. J. and J. M. Duijf. 1988. Water supply
  systems for weaner piglets. Varkensproefbedrijf                  Madec, F. 1984. Urinary disorders in intensive pig
  “Nord- en Oost-Nederland”, P 1.25, Juni 1988.                      herds. Pig News and Info. 5:91-93.

Brooks, P. H. 1994. Water - Forgotten Nutrient and                 Madec, F., R. Cariolet and R. Dantzer. 1986.
  Novel Delivery System. In: Biotechnology in the                    Relevance of some behavioural criteria concerning
  Feed Industry. Nottingham Press. pg. 211-234.                      the sow (motor activity and water intake) in
                                                                     intensive pig farming and veterinary practice. Ann.
Brooks, P. H. and J. L. Carpenter. 1989. Boost your                  Rech. Vet. 17:177-184.
  liquid assets. Pig Farming Supplement, November,
  pg. 43-45.                                                       Maenz, D. D., J. F. Patience and M. S. Wolynetz.
                                                                     1993. Effect of water sweetner on the performance
Brooks, P. H., J. L. Carpenter, J. Barber and B. P. Gill.            of newly weaned pigs offered medicated and
  1989. Production and welfare problems relating to                  unmedicated feed. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 73:669-672.
  the supply of water to growing-finishing pigs. Pig
  Vet. J. 23:51-66.                                                McLeese, J.M., M. L. Tremblay, J. F. Patience and G.
                                                                     I. Christison. 1992. Water intake patterns in the
Carlson, R. L. and E. R. Peo Jr. 1982. Nipple water                  weanling pig: Effect of water quality, antibiotics
  position - Up or down? Nebraska Swine Report E.                    and probiotics. Anim. Prod. 54:135-142.
  C. 82-219, University of Nebraska. pg. 8-9.
                                                                   National Committee for Pig Breeding, Health and
Fraser, D., P. A. Phillips, B. K. Thompson, and W. B.                Production (Denmark). 1992. Annual Report.
   Peeters Weem. 1988. Use of water by piglets in                    Feeders and water supply.
   the first days after birth. Can. J. Anim. Sci.

                                  PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Nienaber, J. A. and G. L. Hahn. 1984. Effects of                 Schulte, D. D., G. R. Bodman and M. Milanuk.
  water flow restrictions and environmental factors                1990. Nipple drinkers - which is best? Nebraska
  on performance of nursery-age pigs. J. Anim. Sci.                Swine Report. pg. 11-12.
                                                                 Shurson, G. C. 1989. Effect of water flow rate from
Olsson, O. 1983. Evaluation of bite drinkers for                   nipple drinkers on weaned pig performance. Ohio
  fattening pigs. Trans. ASAE 26:1495-1498.                        Swine Reserach and Industry Report. January:37-
Orban, E., I. Kurucz and J. Sarvary. 1978. Drinking
  behavior characteristics of young pigs in case of              Shurson, G. C. and E. R. Sorrell. 1990. Effect of
  different keeping technologies in cages. Proc.                   water flow rate from nipple drinkers on sow and
  Hungarian Res. Instit. Anim. Husbandry.                          litter performance. Ohio Swine Research and
  Herceghalom. 4:279-288.                                          Industry Report. January:44-46.

Pedersen, B. K. 1987. Evaluation of Lund-10 and                  Svendsen, J. and B. Andreasson. 1981.
  Biscoe-A1 bite drinkers for weaners. Meddelelse                  Investigations into the supplying of liquids to
  nr. 123 fra Den rullende Afprovning,                             piglets and to weaned pigs: liquid consumption
  Landsudvalget for Svin. Danske Slagterier.                       and production results. Swedish Univ. of Agric.
                                                                   Sci.; Dept. Farm Buildings. Report 14. Lund.
Pedersen, B. K. 1988. Evaluation of Lund-10 and
  AN-niplen bite drinkers for weaners. Meddelelse                van Cuyck, J. H. M. 1991. Ad libitum feeding of
  nr. 140 fra Den rullende Afprovning,                             fattening pigs by means of a dry-wet feeder of a dry
  Landsudvalget for Svin. Danske Slagterier.                       feeder with a drinkbowl. Varkensproefbedrijf
                                                                   “Zuid- en West-nederland” Proefverslag nummer P
Pedersen, B. K. 1989. Evaluation of Lund-10 bite                   1.71, December 1991.
  drinker and Gorlev B drinking bowl for weaners.
  Meddelelse nr. 158 fra Den rullende Afprovning,                Vandenheede, M. and B. Nicks. 1991.
  Landsudvalget for Svin. Danske Slagterier.                       L’approvisionnement en eau des porcs: un
                                                                   ÇlÇment a ne pas nÇgliger. Ann. MÇd. VÇt.
Pedersen, B. K. 1994. Water intake and pig                         135:123-128.
  performance. Presentation.
                                                                 Xin, H. and J. A. DeShazer. 1991. Swine responses
Phillips, P. A. and D. Fraser. 1990. Water bowl size                to constant and modified diurnal cyclic temper-
  for newborn pigs. Appl. Engineering in Agric.                     atures. Trans. ASAE 34:2533-2540.
                                                                 Yang, T. S., B. Howard and W. V. MacFarlane. 1981.
Phillips, P. A. and D. Fraser. 1991. Discovery of                  Effects of food on drinking behaviour of growing
  selected water dispensers by newborn pigs. Can.                  pigs. Appl. Anim. Ethol. 7:259-270.
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                                                                 Yang, T. S., M. A. Price and F. X. Aherne. 1984.
Phillips, P. A., D. Fraser and B. K. Thompson. 1990.               The effect of level of feeding on water turnover in
  The influence of water nipple flow rate and                      growing pigs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 12:130-
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Pig International. 1994. Pregnant drinkers. Pig
   International, June, pg. 25.

Plagge, J. C., and J. van Leuteren. 1989. Water
   consumption of fattening pigs. Varkensproefbedrijf
   “Noed- en Oost-Nederland” P 1.32. Maart 1989.

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Books and Chapters                                                Ethology

                                                                  Moore, C.M., J.Z. Zhou, W.R. Stricklin and H.W.
                                                                     Gonyou. 1996. The influence of group size and
Nutrition                                                            floor area space on social organization of
                                                                     growing-finishing pigs. Proc. 30th Cong. Intn.
                                                                     Soc. Appl. Ethol., I.J.H. Duncan, T.M. Widowski
Patience, J.F., P.A. Thacker, C.F.M. de Lange, 1995.                 and D.B. Haley (Ed.), Univ. of Guelph. P34.
     Swine Nutrition Guide 2nd Edition. Prairie
     Swine Centre Inc. pp 274.                                    Gonyou, H.W. and Z. Lou. 1996. Feed intake,
                                                                     growth rate and feed efficiency of grower and
                                                                     finisher pigs using different types of feeders. Can.
                                                                     J. Anim. Sci.
                                                                  Gonyou, H.W. and W.R. Stricklin. 1996. Effects of
                                                                     group size and space allowance on productivity
Hemsworth, P.H. and H.W. Gonyou. 1996.                               of growing/finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74(Suppl.
   Solutions: human contact. In: M. Appleby and                      1):32.
   B. Hughes (Eds.), Animal Welfare. CAB
   International, Wallingford, UK.                                Anzaldo, A.J., P.C. Harrison, G.L. Riskowski, L.A.
                                                                     Sebek, R. Maghirang, W.R. Stricklin and H.W.
                                                                     Gonyou. Behavioral evaluation of spatially
                                                                     enhanced caging for laboratory rats at high
Refereed Journals                                                    density.

                                                                  Gonyou, H. W. 1995. Animal behaviour and animal
                                                                     handling. North American Regional ISAE.
Nutrition                                                            Lincoln, Nebraska. July 9, 1995.

Shand, P.J., J.A. Boles, J.F. Patience, A.R. McCurdy              Fulawka, D., M.L. Connor and H.W. Gonyou. 1994.
    and A.L. Schaefer. 1995. Acid/base status of                      Reproductive performance of sows in alternative
    stress susceptible pigs affects cured ham quality.                group housing. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:652.
    J. Food Sci. 60:996-1000.

                                                                  Conference Proceedings

de Lange, C.F.M., J.F. Patience and G. Gillis. 1996.              Nutrition
    The effect of mechanical dehulling on the
    digestible nutrient content in canola meal
    samples fed to growing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci.               Patience, J.F. 1996. Transmissible gastroenteritis:
    (submitted).                                                       Prairie Swine Centre’s experience. Proc. Alberta
                                                                       Pork Congress Seminar. pp. 111 - 118.

                                 PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.         1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Beltranena, E., K. de Lange, J.F. Patience, H.                   Ethology
     Gonyou, L. Whittington, M.L. Lorschy and S.L.
     Fairbairn.1996. An integrated research approach             Gonyou, H.W. 1996. Pig behavior and biomedical
     to feeding the growing-finishing pig. In (G.                   research: Suitable subjects and experimental
     Foxcroft, Ed.) Advances in Pork Production,                    models. In: M. Tumbleson and L. Schook (Eds.),
     University of Alberta, Edmonton. pp. 17 - 28.                  Advances in Swine in Biomedical Research.
                                                                    Plenum Press, New York. Pp485-490.
Whittington, L.W. and J.F. Patience. 1996.
   Integrating research with technology transfer -               Gonyou, H. W. 1995. Animal behaviour and animal
   The Prairie Swine Centre experience. Proc. Nat’l                 handling. In: M. Ivan (Ed.), Animal Science
   Workshop on Research and Tech. Transfer,                         Research and Development: Moving toward a
   Canadian Pork Council, Ottawa, ON.                               new century. Pg. 465-470.

Patience, J.F. 1995. Role of feed intake in the
     nutrition of the growing-finishing pig. In (G.
     Foxcroft, Ed.) Advances in Pork Production.                 Invited Presentations
     University of Alberta, Edmonton. pp. 115-128.
                                                                 Gonyou, H.W. 1996. Swine behavior. Advanced
Patience, J.F. 1995. Measuring feed costs per kg. of                Swine Production Technology. University of
     gain and how to use it, . Proc. The Key to                     Illinois, Urbana. June 3, 1996.
     Profitable Feeding Management, Shakespeare,
     ON., December 6, p. 23-30.                                  Gonyou, H.W. and Z. Lou. 1996. Results of the
                                                                    feeder study at Prairie Swine Centre.
Patience, J.F. 1995. Pig oriented equipment design -                Manufacturers Workshop, Prairie Swine Centre.
     a nutritionist’s perspective. Proc. The Key to                 March 14, 1996.
     Profitable Feeding Management, Shakespeare,
     ON., December 6, p. 15-18.                                  Gonyou, H. W. 1996. Feeder design - what to look
                                                                    for. 1996 Satellite Conference, Prairie Swine
Patience, J.F. 1995. Mineral and vitamin supplemen-                 Centre. February 13, 1996.
     tation of swine diets. Proc. Sask. Pork Industry
     Symp., Saskatoon, SK., November 8-9, p. 71-                 Whittington, L. and H. W. Gonyou. 1996. Off-site
     84.                                                            segregated early weaning. 1996 Satellite
                                                                    Conference, Prairie Swine Centre. February 13,
Patience, J.F., H. W Gonyou and D.L. Whittington.                   1996.
     1995. Marketing heavier hogs: Impact on the
     total farm production system. Proc. Alberta Pork            Gonyou, H.W. 1995. Managing pig space: Feeder
     Congress, Red Deer, AB., June 13 - 15, p. 62-                  position and orientation. Western Nutrition
     71.                                                            Conference, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Sept. 14,

                                PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT
Miscellaneous Publications


Gonyou, H. 1996. SEW - behaviour component.
   Centred on Swine 3(2) Spring, p3.

Gonyou, H., W.R. Stricklin and J.Z. Zhou. 1996.
   Feeder position and orientation. Centred on
   Swine 3(1) Winter, p5-6.

Beltranena, E., R.A. Petracek, A. Bzowey, H. Gonyou
     and J.F. Patience. 1995. Methionine sources for
     weanling pigs. 1995 Annual Research Report,
     Prairie Swine Centre Inc., p32-36.

Gonyou, H.W., W.R. Stricklin and J.Z. Zhou. 1995.
   Managing pig space: feeder position and
   orientation. 1995 Annual Research Report,
   Prairie Swine Centre Inc., p37-41.

Bergeron, R. and H. Gonyou. 1995. Stereotypic
    behaviors in sows. 1995 Annual Research
    Report, Prairie Swine Centre Inc., p42-45.

Gonyou, H.W. 1995. How animal handling
   influences animal behaviour. 1995 Annual
   Research Report, Prairie Swine Centre Inc., p72-

Gonyou, H. 1995. Quality space. Centred on
   Swine 2(3) Summer, p2.

Gonyou, H. 1995. Managing pig drinkers. Centred
   on Swine 2(2) Spring, p1.

                               PRAIRIE SWINE CENTRE INC.        1996 ANNUAL RESEARCH REPORT

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